Science.gov

Sample records for aided design tool

  1. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  2. WASTE REDUCTION USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing environmental concerns have spurred considerable interest in pollution prevention. In most instances, pollution prevention involves introducing radical changes to the design of processes so that waste generation is minimized.
    Process simulators can be effective tools i...

  3. The development of a spreadsheet-aided-engineering design tool for parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Whinery, L.D.

    1997-04-01

    A spreadsheet-aided engineering design tool has been developed to assist in the parachute design process. The new tool was developed during FY96 and utilized in the design of the flight termination parachute system for a 1900 lb. payload. Many modifications were made during the initial utilization of this tool. Work on the tool continues as the authors attempt to create an application tool for the parachute engineer.

  4. Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christian; Priebe, Andreas; Brueck, Rainer; Hahn, Kai

    1999-03-01

    Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design. In contrast to other physical design processes like e.g. in micro electronics, MEMS physical design is characterized by the fact that each product requires a tailored sequence of fabrication steps, usually selected from a variety of processing alternatives. The selection from these alternatives is based on economical constraints. Therefore, the design has a strong influence on the money and time spent to take an MST-product to market.

  5. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  6. Development of Computer Aided Database Design and Maintenance Tools.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    effectively. 13. A user friendly (graphical or voice ) interface to point to attributes when defining functional dependencies. Such a tool could be especially...effectively, freeing the DBA to tend to his/her other duties. The second tool to be worked on is the user friendly (graphical or voice ) interface to specify...consuming task faster, easier, and more effectively. 18. A user friendly (graphical or voice ) interface to point to attributes when defining functional

  7. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  8. Tools to aid the specification and design of flight software, appendix B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, G.

    1980-01-01

    The tasks that are normally performed during the specification and architecture design stages of software development are identified. Ways that tools could perform, or aid the performance, of such tasks are also identified. Much of the verification and analysis that is suggested is currently rarely performed during these early stages, but it is believed that this analysis should be done as early as possible so as to detect errors as early as possible.

  9. Accelerating Design of Batteries Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-11-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  10. Validation of space/ground antenna control algorithms using a computer-aided design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1995-01-01

    The validation of the algorithms for controlling the space-to-ground antenna subsystem for Space Station Alpha is an important step in assuring reliable communications. These algorithms have been developed and tested using a simulation environment based on a computer-aided design tool that can provide a time-based execution framework with variable environmental parameters. Our work this summer has involved the exploration of this environment and the documentation of the procedures used to validate these algorithms. We have installed a variety of tools in a laboratory of the Tracking and Communications division for reproducing the simulation experiments carried out on these algorithms to verify that they do meet their requirements for controlling the antenna systems. In this report, we describe the processes used in these simulations and our work in validating the tests used.

  11. Validation of RetroPath, a computer-aided design tool for metabolic pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Tamás; Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Carbonell, Pablo; Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Grigoras, Ioana; Dariy, Ekaterina; Perret, Alain; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has succeeded in biosynthesis of numerous commodity or high value compounds. However, the choice of pathways and enzymes used for production was many times made ad hoc, or required expert knowledge of the specific biochemical reactions. In order to rationalize the process of engineering producer strains, we developed the computer-aided design (CAD) tool RetroPath that explores and enumerates metabolic pathways connecting the endogenous metabolites of a chassis cell to the target compound. To experimentally validate our tool, we constructed 12 top-ranked enzyme combinations producing the flavonoid pinocembrin, four of which displayed significant yields. Namely, our tool queried the enzymes found in metabolic databases based on their annotated and predicted activities. Next, it ranked pathways based on the predicted efficiency of the available enzymes, the toxicity of the intermediate metabolites and the calculated maximum product flux. To implement the top-ranking pathway, our procedure narrowed down a list of nine million possible enzyme combinations to 12, a number easily assembled and tested. One round of metabolic network optimization based on RetroPath output further increased pinocembrin titers 17-fold. In total, 12 out of the 13 enzymes tested in this work displayed a relative performance that was in accordance with its predicted score. These results validate the ranking function of our CAD tool, and open the way to its utilization in the biosynthesis of novel compounds.

  12. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  13. Development of simulation tools for numerical investigation and computer-aided design (CAD) of gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-10-01

    As the most powerful CW sources of coherent radiation in the sub-terahertz to terahertz frequency range the gyrotrons have demonstrated a remarkable potential for numerous novel and prospective applications in the fundamental physical research and the technologies. Among them are powerful gyrotrons for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasma in various reactors for controlled thermonuclear fusion (e.g., tokamaks and most notably ITER), high-frequency gyrotrons for sub-terahertz spectroscopy (for example NMR-DNP, XDMR, study of the hyperfine structure of positronium, etc.), gyrotrons for thermal processing and so on. Modelling and simulation are indispensable tools for numerical studies, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of such sophisticated vacuum tubes (fast-wave devices) operating on a physical principle known as electron cyclotron resonance maser (ECRM) instability. During the recent years, our research team has been involved in the development of physical models and problem-oriented software packages for numerical analysis and CAD of different gyrotrons in the framework of a broad international collaboration. In this paper we present the current status of our simulation tools (GYROSIM and GYREOSS packages) and illustrate their functionality by results of numerical experiments carried out recently. Finally, we provide an outlook on the envisaged further development of the computer codes and the computational modules belonging to these packages and specialized to different subsystems of the gyrotrons.

  14. An Automated Tool for Developing Experimental Designs: The Computer-Aided Design Reference for Experiments (CADRE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    survey procedures, and cognitive task analysis), system design methods (e.g., focus groups , design guidelines, specifications, and requirements), and...LABORATORY - HRED ATTN AMSRD ARL HR MZ A DAVISON 199 E 4TH ST STE C TECH PARK BLG 2 FT LEONARD WOOD MO 65473-1949 1 ARMY RSCH LABORATORY

  15. Special tool kit aids heavily garmented workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, A. E.

    1966-01-01

    Triangular aluminum tool kit, filled with polyurethane is constructed to receive various tools and hold them in a snug but quick-release fit as an aid to heavily gloved workers. The kit is designed to allow mounting within easily accessable reach and to provide protection of the tools during storage.

  16. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  17. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  18. Rational Catalyst Design of Titanium-Silica Materials Aided by Site-Specific Titration Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Todd Robert

    Silica-supported titanium materials are widely used for thermocatalytic applications such as hydroxylation of alkanes and aromatics, oxidation of alcohols and ethers, ammoximation of carbonyls, and sulfoxidations, while Ti-based materials are widely studied for photocatalytic applications such as photo-oxidation of organic substrates and photo-reduction of CO 2. However, the underlying phenomena of how to synthesize, identify, and control the active structures in these materials is not well understood because of the narrow scope of previous work. Studies of titanium-based catalysts typically focus on materials where the metal is present as either highly-dispersed Ti cations or in bulk crystalline TiO2 form, neglecting the numerous and potentially useful intermediate structures. Furthermore, these works typically focus on a single synthesis technique and rely upon bulk characterization techniques to understand the materials. Here rigorous titanium-silica synthesis-structure-function relationships are established by examining several different synthetic method and utilizing characterization techniques that enable an atomic-level understanding of the materials. The materials studied span the range from isolated Ti cations to clustered TiOx domains, polymeric TiO x domains, anatase-like 2D TiO2 domains, and 3D crystalline TiO2. Tools to quantify accessible TiO x and tetrahedral Ti sites are developed, utilizing the selective titration of titanium with phenylphosphonic acid (PPA). Catalytic properties are probed with the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and the thermocatalytic epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene with H2O2 . PPA titration data indicate that the rate of benzyl alcohol photo-oxidation is independent of titanium coordination, while the rate of alkene epoxidation with H2O2 is proportional to the number of tetrahedral titanium sites on the catalyst. PPA titration data also enables the estimation of TiO2 particle size and reveals an important distinction

  19. Infusion of a Gaming Paradigm into Computer-Aided Engineering Design Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    iterdisciplinary system design/simularbn environment several gaming concepts such as network-centric multiplayer interactions, detection dfiterferences...into the VTB interdisciplinary system design/simulation environment several gaming concepts such as network-centric multiplayer interactions...simulation speed so that the physics-based gaming environment can operate fast enough for effective human interaction. The multiplayer gaming

  20. Methods and software tools for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance, navigation and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somov, Yevgeny; Oparin, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    We shortly present results on development and employment of the software systems for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance. navigation and control systems - modeling, synthesis, nonlinear analysis, simulation and graphic mapping of dynamic processes.

  1. Evaluation of computer-aided system design tools for SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Battle Management/C3 (command, control and communications) architecture development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, D.W.; Campbell, K.; Chludzinski, J.; Corcoran, N.; Gonzalez, C.

    1987-10-01

    This IDA paper was prepared at the request of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The paper documents findings of an evaluation on the capabilities of certain computer software/computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools to provide computer-aided graphic design of Battle Management/C3 for the SDIO. Each tool (of the five selected on the basis of the best available at this time), was installed at IDA. After training by vendor tool staff, an IDA team, using a hands-on design experience determined the merits of the tools for SDI application. A comparative summary of the tools is given relative to envisaged SDI requirements and an extensive questionnaire is answered for each.

  2. Computer-Aided Drafting and Design Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry, Course Syllabi, [and] Instructor's Handbook. Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and a student laboratory manual for a 2-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level employment in computer-aided drafting and design in the machine tool industry. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum)…

  3. Computer Aided Drafting and Design, Industrial Manufacturing Technician, and Mechanical Engineering Technician and Machine Tool, Die and Moldmaking Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-East Ohio Tech Prep Consortium, Zanesville.

    This document contains competency profiles in four areas: computer-aided drafting and design; industrial manufacturing technician; mechanical engineering technician; and machine tool, die, and moldmaking technology occupations. The profiles are intended for use in articulating tech prep programs from high school through associate degrees in Ohio.…

  4. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  5. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  6. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  7. Tool and Fixture Design

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Mark W.

    2015-07-28

    In a manufacturing process, a need is identified and a product is created to fill this need. While design and engineering of the final product is important, the tools and fixtures that aid in the creation of the final product are just as important, if not more so. Power supplies assembled at the TA-55 PF-5 have been designed by an excellent engineering team. The task in PF-5 now is to ensure that all steps of the assembly and manufacturing process can be completed safely, reliably, and in a quality repeatable manner. One of these process steps involves soldering fine wires to an electrical connector. During the process development phase, the method of soldering included placing the power supply in a vice in order to manipulate it into a position conducive to soldering. This method is unacceptable from a reliability, repeatability, and ergonomic standpoint. To combat these issues, a fixture was designed to replace the current method. To do so, a twelve step engineering design process was used to create the fixture that would provide a solution to a multitude of problems, and increase the safety and efficiency of production.

  8. Computer Aided Drug Design: Success and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmad, Khurshid; Roy, Sudeep; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Adil, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Haris; Khan, Saif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Provazník, Ivo; Choi, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a powerful technique playing a crucial role in the development of new drug molecules. Structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design are two methods commonly used in computer-aided drug design. In this article, we discuss the theory behind both methods, as well as their successful applications and limitations. To accomplish this, we reviewed structure based and ligand based virtual screening processes. Molecular dynamics simulation, which has become one of the most influential tool for prediction of the conformation of small molecules and changes in their conformation within the biological target, has also been taken into account. Finally, we discuss the principles and concepts of molecular docking, pharmacophores and other methods used in computer-aided drug design.

  9. MLP Tools: a PyMOL plugin for using the molecular lipophilicity potential in computer-aided drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhauser, Nils; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain

    2014-05-01

    The molecular lipophilicity potential (MLP) is a well-established method to calculate and visualize lipophilicity on molecules. We are here introducing a new computational tool named MLP Tools, written in the programming language Python, and conceived as a free plugin for the popular open source molecular viewer PyMOL. The plugin is divided into several sub-programs which allow the visualization of the MLP on molecular surfaces, as well as in three-dimensional space in order to analyze lipophilic properties of binding pockets. The sub-program Log MLP also implements the virtual log P which allows the prediction of the octanol/water partition coefficients on multiple three-dimensional conformations of the same molecule. An implementation on the recently introduced MLP GOLD procedure, improving the GOLD docking performance in hydrophobic pockets, is also part of the plugin. In this article, all functions of the MLP Tools will be described through a few chosen examples.

  10. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  11. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The goal was the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. Several packages and design studies were completed, including two software tools currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) and the Environment for Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and additionally provides initial mass property analysis. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand alone analysis codes that result in the streamlining of the exchange of data between programs, reducing errors and improving efficiency.

  12. Computer aided airship design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Rosenstein, H.

    1975-01-01

    The Comprehensive Airship Sizing and Performance Computer Program (CASCOMP) is described which was developed and used in the design and evaluation of advanced lighter-than-air (LTA) craft. The program defines design details such as engine size and number, component weight buildups, required power, and the physical dimensions of airships which are designed to meet specified mission requirements. The program is used in a comparative parametric evaluation of six advanced lighter-than-air concepts. The results indicate that fully buoyant conventional airships have the lightest gross lift required when designed for speeds less than 100 knots and the partially buoyant concepts are superior above 100 knots. When compared on the basis of specific productivity, which is a measure of the direct operating cost, the partially buoyant lifting body/tilting prop-rotor concept is optimum.

  13. Telerobotic workstation design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

    1989-01-01

    Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

  14. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.

  15. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  16. Designing Visual Aids That Promote Risk Literacy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2017-02-01

    Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy. The systematic review covers scientific research published between January 1995 and April 2016, drawn from the following databases: Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, Medline, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were investigation of the effect of numeracy and/or graph literacy, and investigation of the effect of visual aids or comparison of their effect with that of numerical information. Thirty-six publications met the criteria, providing data on 27,885 diverse participants from 60 countries. Results Transparent visual aids robustly improved risk understanding in diverse individuals by encouraging thorough deliberation, enhancing cognitive self-assessment, and reducing conceptual biases in memory. Improvements in risk understanding consistently produced beneficial changes in attitudes, behavioral intentions, trust, and healthy behaviors. Visual aids were found to be particularly beneficial for vulnerable and less skilled individuals. Conclusion Well-designed visual aids tend to be highly effective tools for improving informed decision making among diverse decision makers. We identify five categories of practical, evidence-based guidelines for heuristic evaluation and design of effective visual aids.

  17. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  18. New Tools for Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliburton, Cal; Roza, Victoria

    2006-01-01

    Technology educators are constantly in search of new tools and methods to enhance the education of their students. This article is an excerpt from a longer article published in "The Technology Teacher" that introduced the technology education community to a research- and knowledge-based methodology for design--invention and innovation. This…

  19. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  20. EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dantzler, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

  1. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes.

  2. Computer-Aided Drug Design Methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenbo; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-01-01

    Computational approaches are useful tools to interpret and guide experiments to expedite the antibiotic drug design process. Structure-based drug design (SBDD) and ligand-based drug design (LBDD) are the two general types of computer-aided drug design (CADD) approaches in existence. SBDD methods analyze macromolecular target 3-dimensional structural information, typically of proteins or RNA, to identify key sites and interactions that are important for their respective biological functions. Such information can then be utilized to design antibiotic drugs that can compete with essential interactions involving the target and thus interrupt the biological pathways essential for survival of the microorganism(s). LBDD methods focus on known antibiotic ligands for a target to establish a relationship between their physiochemical properties and antibiotic activities, referred to as a structure-activity relationship (SAR), information that can be used for optimization of known drugs or guide the design of new drugs with improved activity. In this chapter, standard CADD protocols for both SBDD and LBDD will be presented with a special focus on methodologies and targets routinely studied in our laboratory for antibiotic drug discoveries.

  3. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  4. Computer-aided design of LSI topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliutin, V. A.

    The problems and methods of the computer-aided design of the topology of LSI circuits and computer-aided manufacture of LSI templates are reviewed. Topics discussed include algorithms for the layout of cells and circuit units, algorithms for tracing connections, the design of the topology of matrix LSI, and the topology of functional LSI circuit units based on MIS structures. The discussion also covers the design of the layout of LSI circuits with single-layer commutation, application examples, and the main trends in the computer-aided design of LSI circuits.

  5. A computer-aided regulator design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmarkar, J. S.; Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    A unified computer-aided method for the design of linear and nonlinear regulators is discussed. The general mathematical programming approach considered involves the determination of a vector that solves the problem of minimizing the objective function subject to constraints. Classical design problems stated are related to stability design, dominant mode design, and comprehensive design. A computer algorithm is also developed.

  6. MOD Tool (Microwave Optics Design Tool)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently designing and building a number of instruments that operate in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands. These include MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and IMAS (Integrated Multispectral Atmospheric Sounder). These instruments must be designed and built to meet key design criteria (e.g., beamwidth, gain, pointing) obtained from the scientific goals for the instrument. These criteria are frequently functions of the operating environment (both thermal and mechanical). To design and build instruments which meet these criteria, it is essential to be able to model the instrument in its environments. Currently, a number of modeling tools exist. Commonly used tools at JPL include: FEMAP (meshing), NASTRAN (structural modeling), TRASYS and SINDA (thermal modeling), MACOS/IMOS (optical modeling), and POPO (physical optics modeling). Each of these tools is used by an analyst, who models the instrument in one discipline. The analyst then provides the results of this modeling to another analyst, who continues the overall modeling in another discipline. There is a large reengineering task in place at JPL to automate and speed-up the structural and thermal modeling disciplines, which does not include MOD Tool. The focus of MOD Tool (and of this paper) is in the fields unique to microwave and millimeter-wave instrument design. These include initial design and analysis of the instrument without thermal or structural loads, the automation of the transfer of this design to a high-end CAD tool, and the analysis of the structurally deformed instrument (due to structural and/or thermal loads). MOD Tool is a distributed tool, with a database of design information residing on a server, physical optics analysis being performed on a variety of supercomputer platforms, and a graphical user interface (GUI) residing on the user's desktop computer. The MOD Tool client is being developed using Tcl

  7. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  8. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  9. Photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design

    SciTech Connect

    Keneflick, J.F.; Chirillo, R.D.

    1985-02-18

    Three-dimensional measurements taken from photographs of a plant model can be digitized and linked with computer-aided piping design. This can short-cut the design and construction of new plants and expedite repair and retrofitting projects. Some designers bridge the gap between model and computer by digitizing from orthographic prints obtained via orthography or the laser scanning of model sections. Such valve or fitting then processed is described in this paper. The marriage of photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design can economically produce such numerical drawings.

  10. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  11. Aids in designing laboratory flumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Garnett P.

    1971-01-01

    The upsurge of interest in our environment has caused research and instruction in the flow of water along open channels to become increasingly popular in universities and institutes. This, in turn, has brought a greater demand for properly-designed laboratory flumes. Whatever the reason for your interest, designing and building the flume will take a little preparation. You may choose a pattern exactly like a previous design, or you may follow the more time-consuming method of studying several existing flumes and combine the most desirable features of each.

  12. Analysis/Design Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Excelerator II, developed by INTERSOLV, Inc., provides a complete environment for rules-based expert systems. The software incorporates NASA's C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a shell for constructing expert systems. Excelerator II provides complex verification and transformation routines based on matching that is simple and inexpensive. *Excelerator II was sold to SELECT Software Tools in June 1997 and is now called SELECT Excelerator. SELECT has assumed full support and maintenance for the product line.

  13. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  14. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  15. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  16. Simulation as an Aid to Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Jack W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses simulation program to aid in the design of enzyme kinetic experimentation (includes sample runs). Concentration versus time profiles of any subset or all nine states of reactions can be displayed with/without simulated instrumental noise, allowing the user to estimate the practicality of any proposed experiment given known instrument…

  17. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  18. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  19. USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOL IN POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Process Engineering has become established in industry as a design tool. With the establishment of the CAPE-OPEN software specifications for process simulation environments. CAPE-OPEN provides a set of "middleware" standards that enable software developers to acces...

  20. Dataflow Design Tool: User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L., III

    1996-01-01

    The Dataflow Design Tool is a software tool for selecting a multiprocessor scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described with a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on a set of identical processors. Typical applications include signal processing and control law problems. The software tool implements graph-search algorithms and analysis techniques based on the dataflow paradigm. Dataflow analyses provided by the software are introduced and shown to effectively determine performance bounds, scheduling constraints, and resource requirements. The software tool provides performance optimization through the inclusion of artificial precedence constraints among the schedulable tasks. The user interface and tool capabilities are described. Examples are provided to demonstrate the analysis, scheduling, and optimization functions facilitated by the tool.

  1. CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) Highlights.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    AD-Aift 532 CAD/CAN (COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN /COMPUTER-ADD D7 MANUFACTURING) HIGHLIGHTSMU ARMY INDUSTRIAL BASE ENGINEERING ACTIVITY ROCK ISLAND IL D L...1985 B DISCLAIMER This document presents information for the US Army Materiel Command (AMC) Computer-Alded Design /Computer-Aided Manufacturing...contains summaries of Army Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and . Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) efforts that are either completed or ongoing. The Army CAD

  2. Domain specific software design for decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Kirby; Stanley, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) is involved in many large multi-discipline design and development efforts of tactical aircraft. These involve a number of design disciplines that must be coordinated to produce an integrated design and a successful product. Our interpretation of a domain specific software design (DSSD) is that of a representation or framework that is specialized to support a limited problem domain. A DSSD is an abstract software design that is shaped by the problem characteristics. This parallels the theme of object-oriented analysis and design of letting the problem model directly drive the design. The DSSD concept extends the notion of software reusability to include representations or frameworks. It supports the entire software life cycle and specifically leads to improved prototyping capability, supports system integration, and promotes reuse of software designs and supporting frameworks. The example presented in this paper is the task network architecture or design which was developed for the MCAIR Pilot's Associate program. The task network concept supported both module development and system integration within the domain of operator decision aiding. It is presented as an instance where a software design exhibited many of the attributes associated with DSSD concept.

  3. DeMAID/GA USER'S GUIDE Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition with a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool that is available to aid in this decision making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial release of DEMAID in 1989, numerous enhancements have been added to aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement is a genetic algorithm (GA) and the enhanced version is called DeMAID/GA. The GA orders the sequence of design processes to minimize the cost and time to converge to a solution. These enhancements as well as the existing features of the original version of DEMAID are described. Two sample problems are used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle. This report serves as a user's guide for DeMAID/GA.

  4. WEMAP - A computer aided instructional tool for electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, V.K.; Ware, L.E.; Bogden, F.J.; DelVecchio, R.M.; Ashkin, M.; Woodward, W.S.

    1989-05-01

    The recent advances in computer technology and associated software have introduced new concepts and techniques into the traditional classroom environment of engineering education. WEMAP, an electromagnetic analysis computer code, is a part of a new breed of computer aided engineering tools for teaching electromagnetics to power engineering students. WEMAP is a stand-alone interactive graphics system for electromagnetic analysis, which includes electrostatics, magnetostatics, eddy currents (time harmonic as well as transient), and permanent magnet fields. These capabilities are described in this paper and examples are given to illustrate how this program enhances the classroom presentation of some of the electromagnetic phenomena.

  5. Aspects on Transfer of Aided - Design Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.; Anghelache, D. G.

    2016-08-01

    At this stage of development of hardware and software, each company that makes design software packages has a certain type of file created and customized in time to distinguish that company from its competitors. Thus today are widely known the DWG files belonging AutoCAD, IPT / IAM belonging to Inventor, PAR / ASM of Solid Edge's, PRT from the NX and so on. Behind every type of file there is a mathematical model which is common to more types of files. A specific aspect of the computer -aided design is that all softwares are working with both individual parts and assemblies, but their approach is different in that some use the same type of file both for each part and for the whole (PRT ), while others use different types of files (IPT / IAM, PAR / ASM, etc.). Another aspect of the computer -aided design is to transfer files between different companies which use different software packages or even the same software package but in different versions. Each of these situations generates distinct issues. Thus, to solve the partial reading by a project different from the native one, transfer files of STEP and IGES type are used

  6. Genome editing strategies: potential tools for eradicating HIV-1/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Kamel; Gordon, Jennifer; Cosentino, Laura; Hu, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Current therapy for controlling HIV-1 infection and preventing AIDS progression has profoundly decreased viral replication in cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, but it does not eliminate the low level of viral replication in latently infected cells which contain integrated copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA. There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that will lead to a permanent or “sterile” cure of HIV-1/AIDS. In the past few years, novel nuclease-initiated genome editing tools have been developing rapidly, including ZFNs, TALENs, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These surgical knives, which can excise any genome, provide a great opportunity to eradicate the HIV-1 genome by targeting highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 long terminal repeats or essential viral genes. Given the time consuming and costly engineering of target-specific ZFNs and TALENs, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 technology has emerged as a simpler and more versatile technology to allow permanent removal of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA in eukaryotic cells, and hopefully animal models or human patients. The major unmet challenges of this approach at present include inefficient nuclease gene delivery, potential off-target cleavage, and cell-specific genome targeting. Nanoparticle or lentivirus-mediated delivery of next generation Cas9 technologies including nickase or RNA-guided FokI nuclease (RFN) will further improve the potential for genome editing to become a promising approach for curing HIV-1/AIDS. PMID:25716921

  7. Visions of visualization aids - Design philosophy and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or a parsimonious description of phenomena implicit in the data. Useful visualization, in contrast to glitzy, high-tech, computer-graphics imagery, is generally based on preexisting theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena. These beliefs guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Visualization tools are useful for understanding naturally three-dimensional data bases such as those used by pilots or astronauts. Two examples of such aids for spatial maneuvering illustrate that informative geometric distortion may be introduced to assist visualization and that visualization of complex dynamics alone may not be adequate to provide the necessary insight into the underlying processes.

  8. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  9. Design tools for passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J D

    1986-04-01

    Examples of passive solar design tools are given, categorized as either evaluation tools or guidance tools. A trend toward microcomputer-based tools is noted; however, these are usually developed for use by engineers rather than architects. The need for more instructive tools targeted specifically to designers is emphasized.

  10. The fourth dimension of tool use: temporally enduring artefacts aid primates learning to use tools.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, D M; Biro, D; Eshchar, Y; Humle, T; Izar, P; Resende, B; Visalberghi, E

    2013-11-19

    All investigated cases of habitual tool use in wild chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys include youngsters encountering durable artefacts, most often in a supportive social context. We propose that enduring artefacts associated with tool use, such as previously used tools, partly processed food items and residual material from previous activity, aid non-human primates to learn to use tools, and to develop expertise in their use, thus contributing to traditional technologies in non-humans. Therefore, social contributions to tool use can be considered as situated in the three dimensions of Euclidean space, and in the fourth dimension of time. This notion expands the contribution of social context to learning a skill beyond the immediate presence of a model nearby. We provide examples supporting this hypothesis from wild bearded capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees, and suggest avenues for future research.

  11. The fourth dimension of tool use: temporally enduring artefacts aid primates learning to use tools

    PubMed Central

    Fragaszy, D. M.; Biro, D.; Eshchar, Y.; Humle, T.; Izar, P.; Resende, B.; Visalberghi, E.

    2013-01-01

    All investigated cases of habitual tool use in wild chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys include youngsters encountering durable artefacts, most often in a supportive social context. We propose that enduring artefacts associated with tool use, such as previously used tools, partly processed food items and residual material from previous activity, aid non-human primates to learn to use tools, and to develop expertise in their use, thus contributing to traditional technologies in non-humans. Therefore, social contributions to tool use can be considered as situated in the three dimensions of Euclidean space, and in the fourth dimension of time. This notion expands the contribution of social context to learning a skill beyond the immediate presence of a model nearby. We provide examples supporting this hypothesis from wild bearded capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees, and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:24101621

  12. Genome editing strategies: potential tools for eradicating HIV-1/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Kamel; Kaminski, Rafal; Gordon, Jennifer; Cosentino, Laura; Hu, Wenhui

    2015-06-01

    Current therapy for controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and preventing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression has profoundly decreased viral replication in cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, but it does not eliminate the low level of viral replication in latently infected cells, which contain integrated copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA. There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that will lead to a permanent or "sterile" cure of HIV-1/AIDS. In the past few years, novel nuclease-initiated genome editing tools have been developing rapidly, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These surgical knives, which can excise any genome, provide a great opportunity to eradicate the HIV-1 genome by targeting highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 long terminal repeats or essential viral genes. Given the time consuming and costly engineering of target-specific ZFNs and TALENs, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 technology has emerged as a simpler and more versatile technology to allow permanent removal of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA in eukaryotic cells, and hopefully animal models or human patients. The major unmet challenges of this approach at present include inefficient nuclease gene delivery, potential off-target cleavage, and cell-specific genome targeting. Nanoparticle or lentivirus-mediated delivery of next generation Cas9 technologies including nickase or RNA-guided FokI nuclease (RFN) will further improve the potential for genome editing to become a promising approach for curing HIV-1/AIDS.

  13. When product designers use perceptually based color tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Walter R.

    1998-07-01

    Palette synthesis and analysis tools have been built based upon a model of color experience. This model adjusts formal compositional elements such as hue, value, chroma, and their contrasts, as well as size and proportion. Clothing and household product designers were given these tools to give guidance to their selection of seasonal palettes for use in production of the private-label merchandise of a large retail chain. The designers chose base palettes. Accents to these palettes were generated with and without the aid of the color tools. These palettes are compared by using perceptual metrics and interviews. The results are presented.

  14. When product designers use perceptually based color tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Walter R.

    2001-01-01

    Palette synthesis and analysis tools have been built based upon a model of color experience. This model adjusts formal compositional elements such as hue, value, chroma, and their contrasts, as well as size and proportion. Clothing and household product designers were given these tools to guide their selection of seasonal palettes in the production of the private-label merchandise in a large retail chain. The designers chose base palettes. Accents to these palettes were generated with and without the aid of the color tools. These palettes are compared by using perceptual metrics and interviews. The results are presented.

  15. Computer-Aided Socket Design For Amputees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novicov, Aleksey; Foort, James

    1983-07-01

    The fitting of sockets and artificial legs to amputees' stumps is a difficult and lengthy process that can take numerous trials. It has been proposed that most amputees can be fitted with a standard socket shape with minimal changes to the socket. To perform this task, a procedure is being developed at the Medical Engineering Resource Unit for computer aided socket design for amputees. An interactive PASCAL program, operating on a microcomputer, will prompt the operator (or prosthetist) by asking him to determine the condition of the stump. While the operator is inputing this information into the computer, together with a few critical anatomical measurements, a standard socket shape, viewed on the video monitor, will begin to change. Throughout the "shape fitting" procedure, the operator will have the ability to modify the socket shape on the screen with the use of a light pen. It will also be possible to view various cross-sections and different perspectives. The shape fitting procedure continues until a suitable socket shape is designed. Future efforts will focus on transferring the computer designed socket into a physical socket. The overall goal is to provide amputees with a better fit in less time and to objectify socket fitting so that new prosthetists may be easily taught.

  16. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  17. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  18. Reliability-Based Electronics Shielding Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; O'Neill, P. J.; Zang, T. A.; Pandolf, J. E.; Tripathi, R. K.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2007-01-01

    Shielding design on large human-rated systems allows minimization of radiation impact on electronic systems. Shielding design tools require adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and adequate follow-up on final design evaluation.

  19. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  20. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  1. A digital patient for computer-aided prosthesis design

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio; Facoetti, Giancarlo; Rizzi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the design of lower limb prosthesis, both below and above knee. It describes a new computer-based design framework and a digital model of the patient around which the prosthesis is designed and tested in a completely virtual environment. The virtual model of the patient is the backbone of the whole system, and it is based on a biomechanical general-purpose model customized with the patient's characteristics (e.g. anthropometric measures). The software platform adopts computer-aided and knowledge-guided approaches with the goal of replacing the current development process, mainly hand made, with a virtual one. It provides the prosthetics with a set of tools to design, configure and test the prosthesis and comprehends two main environments: the prosthesis modelling laboratory and the virtual testing laboratory. The first permits the three-dimensional model of the prosthesis to be configured and generated, while the second allows the prosthetics to virtually set up the artificial leg and simulate the patient's postures and movements, validating its functionality and configuration. General architecture and modelling/simulation tools for the platform are described as well as main aspects and results of the experimentation. PMID:24427528

  2. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  3. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  4. Modeling Tool Advances Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Continuum Dynamics Inc. (CDI), founded in 1979, specializes in advanced engineering services, including fluid dynamic modeling and analysis for aeronautics research. The company has completed a number of SBIR research projects with NASA, including early rotorcraft work done through Langley Research Center, but more recently, out of Ames Research Center. NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants on helicopter wake modeling resulted in the Comprehensive Hierarchical Aeromechanics Rotorcraft Model (CHARM), a tool for studying helicopter and tiltrotor unsteady free wake modeling, including distributed and integrated loads, and performance prediction. Application of the software code in a blade redesign program for Carson Helicopters, of Perkasie, Pennsylvania, increased the payload and cruise speeds of its S-61 helicopter. Follow-on development resulted in a $24 million revenue increase for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, of Stratford, Connecticut, as part of the company's rotor design efforts. Now under continuous development for more than 25 years, CHARM models the complete aerodynamics and dynamics of rotorcraft in general flight conditions. CHARM has been used to model a broad spectrum of rotorcraft attributes, including performance, blade loading, blade-vortex interaction noise, air flow fields, and hub loads. The highly accurate software is currently in use by all major rotorcraft manufacturers, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.

  5. Visual display aid for orbital maneuvering - Design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an interactive proximity operations planning system that allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient multiburn maneuvers in a potential multispacecraft environment. Although this display system most directly assists planning by providing visual feedback to aid visualization of the trajectories and constraints, its most significant features include: (1) the use of an 'inverse dynamics' algorithm that removes control nonlinearities facing the operator, and (2) a trajectory planning technique that separates, through a 'geometric spreadsheet', the normally coupled complex problems of planning orbital maneuvers and allows solution by an iterative sequence of simple independent actions. The visual feedback of trajectory shapes and operational constraints, provided by user-transparent and continuously active background computations, allows the operator to make fast, iterative design changes that rapidly converge to fuel-efficient solutions. The planning tool provides an example of operator-assisted optimization of nonlinear cost functions.

  6. New tools for the simulation and design of calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, W.J.

    1989-07-10

    Two new approaches to the simulation and design of large hermetic calorimeters are presented. Firstly, the Shower Library scheme used in the fast generation of showers in the Monte Carlo of the calorimeter for the D-Zero experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Secondly, a tool for the design future calorimeters is described, which can be integrated with a computer aided design system to give engineering designers an immediate idea of the relative physics capabilities of different geometries. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The role of guideline-based design tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    User System Interface (USI) design guidelines are one of the more popular tools that have been developed to aid designers in creating effective interfaces. When used properly, guidelines can provide the basis for a structured design methodology throughout the system life cycle. A survey published by Mosier and Smith (1986) provides an in-depth account of guideline usage. That 1986 survey showed that guidelines were used in varying degrees by virtually all types of people involved in the design and evaluation of USIs. Design guidelines are one of the older USI design tools, and the continued popularity of guidelines can be seen by the continued updating and expansion of guideline compendiums to keep up with new advances in the field.

  8. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  9. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  10. AIDS: Legal Tools Helpful for Mental Health Counseling Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ann Lorentson; Hughes, Rosemary B.

    1994-01-01

    Complex HIV and AIDS related legal issues confronting mental health professionals are addressed, specifically: living will, statutes, durable power of attorney, durable power of attorney for health care, rational suicide, euthanasia, workplace discrimination, and laws affecting minors. (JBJ)

  11. Numerical Manufacturing And Design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan; Resor, Brian; Owens, Brian; Laird, Daniel

    2013-03-25

    NuMAD helps to enable efficient creation and use of high fidelity wind turbine blade models for structural and aerodynamic analysis. NuMAD is a GUI-based tool used to manage the specific geometry and materials inputs required to fully describe a wind turbine blade.

  12. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  13. Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Bendure, A.O.

    1995-03-01

    Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making is as much of a challenge as properly using the tool once it has been selected. Failure to consider customer and stakeholder requirements and the technical bases and differences in risk-based decision making tools will produce confounding and/or politically unacceptable results when the tool is used. Selecting a risk-based decisionmaking tool must therefore be undertaken with the same, if not greater, rigor than the use of the tool once it is selected. This paper presents a process for selecting a risk-based tool appropriate to a set of prioritization or resource allocation tasks, discusses the results of applying the process to four risk-based decision-making tools, and identifies the ``musts`` for successful selection and implementation of a risk-based tool to aid in decision making.

  14. Learning Designer[TM]: A Theory-Based SCORM-Compliant Content Development Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Lim, Doo H.; Kim, Minkyung

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a recently developed e-learning design and development tool called Learning Designer[TM] (version 1.0). Learning Designer assists learning designers and developers to build e-learning courses with Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) compliant learning objects using decision-making aids and recommended templates…

  15. Research Tools, Tips, and Resources for Financial Aid Administrators. Monograph, A NASFAA Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohning, David D.; Redd, Kenneth E.; Simmons, Barry W., Sr.

    This monograph provides research tools, tips, and resources to financial aid administrators who need to undertake research tasks. It answers: What is research? How can financial aid administrators get started on research projects? What resources are available to help answer research questions quickly and accurately? How can research efforts assist…

  16. Development of a Self-Report Tool to Evaluate Hearing Aid Outcomes among Chinese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lena L. N.; Hang, Na

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports on the development of a self-report tool--the Chinese Hearing Aid Outcomes Questionnaire (CHAOQ)--to evaluate hearing aid outcomes among Chinese speakers. Method: There were 4 phases to construct the CHAOQ and evaluate its psychometric properties. First, items were selected to evaluate a range of culturally relevant…

  17. Heterocyclic Regioisomer Enumeration (HREMS): A Cheminformatics Design Tool.

    PubMed

    Tyagarajan, Sriram; Lowden, Christopher T; Peng, Zhengwei; Dykstra, Kevin D; Sherer, Edward C; Krska, Shane W

    2015-06-22

    We report the development and implementation of a cheminformatics tool which aids in the design of compounds during exploratory chemistry and lead optimization. The Heterocyclic Regioisomer Enumeration and MDDR Search (HREMS) tool allows medicinal chemists to build greater structural diversity into their synthetic planning by enabling a systematic, automated enumeration of heterocyclic regioisomers of target structures. To help chemists overcome biases arising from past experience or synthetic accessibility, the HREMS tool further provides statistics on clinical testing for each enumerated regioisomer substructure using an automated search of a commercial database. Ready access to this type of information can help chemists make informed choices on the targets they will pursue being mindful of past experience with these structures in drug development. This tool and its components can be incorporated into other cheminformatics workflows to leverage their capabilities in triaging and in silico compound enumeration.

  18. DeMAID/GA an Enhanced Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial public release of DeMAID in 1989, much research has been done in the areas of decomposition, concurrent engineering, parallel processing, and process management; many new tools and techniques have emerged. Based on these recent research and development efforts, numerous enhancements have been added to DeMAID to further aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement, a genetic algorithm (GA), will be available in the next public release called DeMAID/GA. The GA sequences the design processes to minimize the cost and time in converging a solution. The major enhancements in the upgrade of DeMAID to DeMAID/GA are discussed in this paper. A sample conceptual design project is used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle.

  19. Computer aids for integrated circuit design at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. W.

    A general framework for a hierarchical computer-aided design (CAD) system for VLSI design is described. The system supports both functional and physical design in the area of initial design specification, system synthesis, simulation, mask layout, verification, and documentation. The system is being implemented in phases within a user environment on a DECsystem 20-VAX 11/780 computer network. It supports evolutionary changes as new technologies, design strategies, and application programs are developed.

  20. Circuit design tool. User's manual, revision 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyake, Keith M.; Smith, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    The CAM chip design was produced in a UNIX software environment using a design tool that supports definition of digital electronic modules, composition of these modules into higher level circuits, and event-driven simulation of these circuits. Our design tool provides an interface whose goals include straightforward but flexible primitive module definition and circuit composition, efficient simulation, and a debugging environment that facilitates design verification and alteration. The tool provides a set of primitive modules which can be composed into higher level circuits. Each module is a C-language subroutine that uses a set of interface protocols understood by the design tool. Primitives can be altered simply by recoding their C-code image; in addition new primitives can be added allowing higher level circuits to be described in C-code rather than as a composition of primitive modules--this feature can greatly enhance the speed of simulation.

  1. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Sarfaty, R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility`s physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables.

  2. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Research focused on two major areas. The first effort addressed the design and implementation of a technique that allows for the visualization of the real time variation of physical properties. The second effort focused on the design and implementation of an on-line help system with components designed for both authors and users of help information.

  3. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  4. Workover well control. Part 7. Special tools aid well control

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, N.

    1981-10-26

    Workover tools give operators extra options for handling well pressures. Such special tools include automatic shutdown systems (surface and subsurface safety equipment), flow-string components (tubing, mandrels and nipples, flow couplings, blast joints, sliding sleeves, and backpressure valves), perforating systems, pumpdown and wireline equipment, packers, and hot-tap and freeze equipment. Adams and Rountree Technology describes the proper application of these tools in workover jobs.

  5. Removal of Supernumerary Teeth Utilizing a Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing Surgical Guide.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chanwoo; Bae, Doohwan; Choi, Byungho; Kim, Jihun

    2016-11-12

    Supernumerary teeth need to be removed because they can cause various complications. Caution is needed because their removal can cause damage to permanent teeth or tooth germs in the local vicinity. Surgical guides have recently been used in maxillofacial surgery. Because surgical guides are designed through preoperative analysis by computer-aided design software and fabricated using a 3-dimensional printer applying computer-aided manufacturing technology, they increase the accuracy and predictability of surgery. This report describes 2 cases of removal of a mesiodens-1 from a child and 1 from an adolescent-using a surgical guide; these would have been difficult to remove with conventional surgical methods.

  6. Automated radiation hard ASIC design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mike; Bartholet, Bill; Baze, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A commercial based, foundry independent, compiler design tool (ChipCrafter) with custom radiation hardened library cells is described. A unique analysis approach allows low hardness risk for Application Specific IC's (ASIC's). Accomplishments, radiation test results, and applications are described.

  7. Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The information available here is presented as a tool to help school districts and facility planners design the next generation of learning environments so that the school facility will help, rather than hinder, schools in achieving their core mission

  8. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  9. Computer Program Aids Design Of Impeller Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Chung; Galazin, John V.

    1992-01-01

    Impeller blades for centrifugal turbopumps designed quickly with help of computer program. Generates blade contours and continually subjects them to evaluation. Checks physical parameters to ensure they are compatible with required performance and recycles design if criteria not met. Program written for centrifugal turbomachinery, also adapted to such axial pump components as inducer blades and stator vanes.

  10. ASTROS: A multidisciplinary automated structural design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neill, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System) is a finite-element-based multidisciplinary structural optimization procedure developed under Air Force sponsorship to perform automated preliminary structural design. The design task is the determination of the structural sizes that provide an optimal structure while satisfying numerous constraints from many disciplines. In addition to its automated design features, ASTROS provides a general transient and frequency response capability, as well as a special feature to perform a transient analysis of a vehicle subjected to a nuclear blast. The motivation for the development of a single multidisciplinary design tool is that such a tool can provide improved structural designs in less time than is currently needed. The role of such a tool is even more apparent as modern materials come into widespread use. Balancing conflicting requirements for the structure's strength and stiffness while exploiting the benefits of material anisotropy is perhaps an impossible task without assistance from an automated design tool. Finally, the use of a single tool can bring the design task into better focus among design team members, thereby improving their insight into the overall task.

  11. De novo computer-aided design of novel antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Massarotti, Alberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Sorba, Giovanni; Silvestri, Romano; Brancale, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided drug design techniques have become an integral part of the drug discovery process. In particular, de novo methodologies can be useful to identify putative ligands for a specific target relying only on the structural information of the target itself. Here we discuss the basic de novo approaches available and their application in antiviral drug design.:

  12. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  13. Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roat, S. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a single input/single output feedback control system design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Uses a heat exchanger temperature control loop to illustrate the various applications of the program. (ML)

  14. Design of testbed and emulation tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundstrom, S. F.; Flynn, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The research summarized was concerned with the design of testbed and emulation tools suitable to assist in projecting, with reasonable accuracy, the expected performance of highly concurrent computing systems on large, complete applications. Such testbed and emulation tools are intended for the eventual use of those exploring new concurrent system architectures and organizations, either as users or as designers of such systems. While a range of alternatives was considered, a software based set of hierarchical tools was chosen to provide maximum flexibility, to ease in moving to new computers as technology improves and to take advantage of the inherent reliability and availability of commercially available computing systems.

  15. Program Aids Analysis And Optimization Of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1994-01-01

    NETS/ PROSSS (NETS Coupled With Programming System for Structural Synthesis) computer program developed to provide system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), neural-network application program and CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836), optimization program. Enables user to reach nearly optimal design. Design then used as starting point in normal optimization process, possibly enabling user to converge to optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NEWT/PROSSS written in C language and FORTRAN 77.

  16. A software tool to design thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrus, G.; Ferguson, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes work completed for a NASA Phase 1 SBIR program which demonstrated the feasibility of developing a software tool to aid in the design of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Toward this goal, three tasks were undertaken and completed. Task 1 involved the development of a database containing the pertinent thermal and mechanical property data for the top coat, bond coat and substrate materials that comprise a TBC system. Task 2 involved the development of an automated set-up program for generating two dimensional (2D) finite element models of TBC systems. Most importantly, Task 3 involved the generation of a rule base to aid in the design of a TBC system. These rules were based on a factorial design of experiments involving FEM results, and were generated using a Yates analysis. A previous study has indicated the suitability and benefit of applying finite element analysis to perform computer based experiments to decrease but not eliminate physical experiments on TBC's. This program proved feasibility by expanding on these findings by developing a larger knowledge base and developing a procedure to extract rules to aid in TBC design.

  17. A software tool to design thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrus, Gregory; Ferguson, B. Lynn

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes work completed for a NASA Phase 1 SBIR program which demonstrated the feasibility of developing a software tool to aid in the design of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Toward this goal, three tasks were undertaken and completed. Task 1 involved the development of a database containing the pertinent thermal and mechanical property data for the top coat, bond coat and substrate materials that comprise a TBC system. Task 2 involved the development of an automated set-up program for generating two dimensional (2D) finite element models of TBC systems. Most importantly, task 3 involved the generation of a rule base to aid in the design of a TBC system. These rules were based on a factorial design of experiments involving FEM results and were generated using a Yates analysis. A previous study had indicated the suitability and benefit of applying finite element analysis to perform computer based experiments to decrease but not eliminate physical experiments on TBC's. This program proved feasibility by expanding on these findings by developing a larger knowledgebase and developing a procedure to extract rules to aid in TBC design.

  18. On computer-aided design of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J. E.; Voigt, S. J.; Fulton, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Digital computers are being used in many engineering activities to support design work. This paper provides an overview of some of this work as it relates to the design of aerospace vehicles. Discussions are given of some of the complexities of the design process which lead to large design costs and time. A number of important but disjointed computer capabilities have evolved over the years in analysis, optimization, and graphics, and such capabilities aid in addressing the problem of design complexity. Examples of existing computer-aided design (CAD) systems are given and trends for future CAD systems are indicated, as well as their relationship to pertinent data management technology. It is suggested that major gains in design capability will occur through continued development of CAD methodology and that these gains may be accelerated through a large focused effort.

  19. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.

  20. Control/structure interaction conceptual design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    1990-01-01

    The JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program is developing new analytical methods for designing micro-precision spacecraft with controlled structures. One of these, the Conceptual Design Tool, will illustrate innovative new approaches to the integration of multi-disciplinary analysis and design methods. The tool will be used to demonstrate homogeneity of presentation, uniform data representation across analytical methods, and integrated systems modeling. The tool differs from current 'integrated systems' that support design teams most notably in its support for the new CSI multi-disciplinary engineer. The design tool will utilize a three dimensional solid model of the spacecraft under design as the central data organization metaphor. Various analytical methods, such as finite element structural analysis, control system analysis, and mechanical configuration layout, will store and retrieve data from a hierarchical, object oriented data structure that supports assemblies of components with associated data and algorithms. In addition to managing numerical model data, the tool will assist the designer in organizing, stating, and tracking system requirements.

  1. Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Andrew Jacob

    2012-01-01

    I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been…

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) and process simulation tools has become established industry practice to predict simulation software, new opportunities are available for the creation of a wide range of ancillary tools that can be used from within multiple sim...

  3. Design of Training Aids and Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsdaine, Arthur A.

    Training devices should be designed to provide efficient learning conditions, especially guided practice and prompt feedback. These devices can be more useful than their operational equipment counterparts because they facilitate the focusing of learner attention on particular components of a total operation, they make operations visible for study,…

  4. Tools for active control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.; Newsom, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Efficient control law analysis and design tools which properly account for the interaction of flexible structures, unsteady aerodynamics and active controls are developed. Development, application, validation and documentation of efficient multidisciplinary computer programs for analysis and design of active control laws are also discussed.

  5. Designing Online Assessment Tools for Disengaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brader, Andy; Luke, Allan; Klenowski, Val; Connolly, Stephen; Behzadpour, Adib

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the development of online assessment tools for disengaged youth in flexible learning environments. Sociocultural theories of learning and assessment and Bourdieu's sociological concepts of capital and exchange were used to design a purpose-built content management system. This design experiment engaged participants in…

  6. Integrated Design Tools Reduce Risk, Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Thanks in part to a SBIR award with Langley Research Center, Phoenix Integration Inc., based in Wayne, Pennsylvania, modified and advanced software for process integration and design automation. For NASA, the tool has resulted in lower project costs and reductions in design time; clients of Phoenix Integration are experiencing the same rewards.

  7. Web-Based Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, F. B.; Silva, T. L. K.; Silva, R. P.; Teixeira, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a web-based tool that enables the development and provision of learning designs and its reuse and re-contextualization as generative learning objects, aimed at developing educational materials. Design/methodology/approach: The use of learning objects can facilitate the process of production and…

  8. Cognitive tools shape thought: diagrams in design.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Jeffrey V; Corter, James E; Tversky, Barbara; Rho, Yun-Jin; Zahner, Doris; Yu, Lixiu

    2013-08-01

    Thinking often entails interacting with cognitive tools. In many cases, notably design, the predominant tool is the page. The page allows externalizing, organizing, and reorganizing thought. Yet, the page has its own properties that by expressing thought affect it: path, proximity, place, and permanence. The effects of these properties were evident in designs of information systems created by students Paths were interpreted as routes through components. Proximity was used to group subsystems. Horizontal position on the page was used to express temporal sequence and vertical position to reflect real-world spatial position. The permanence of designs on the page guided but also constrained generation of alternative designs. Cognitive tools both reflect and affect thought.

  9. Computer-aided design of the RF-cavity for a high-power S-band klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, D.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Pal, D.; Meena, R.; Nangru, S. C.; Joshi, L. M.

    2012-08-01

    This article describes the computer-aided design of the RF-cavity for a S-band klystron operating at 2856 MHz. State-of-the-art electromagnetic simulation tools SUPERFISH, CST Microwave studio, HFSS and MAGIC have been used for cavity design. After finalising the geometrical details of the cavity through simulation, it has been fabricated and characterised through cold testing. Detailed results of the computer-aided simulation and cold measurements are presented in this article.

  10. Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

  11. Design and Analysis Tools for Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Folk, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Computational tools are being developed for the design and analysis of supersonic inlets. The objective is to update existing tools and provide design and low-order aerodynamic analysis capability for advanced inlet concepts. The Inlet Tools effort includes aspects of creating an electronic database of inlet design information, a document describing inlet design and analysis methods, a geometry model for describing the shape of inlets, and computer tools that implement the geometry model and methods. The geometry model has a set of basic inlet shapes that include pitot, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and stream-traced inlet shapes. The inlet model divides the inlet flow field into parts that facilitate the design and analysis methods. The inlet geometry model constructs the inlet surfaces through the generation and transformation of planar entities based on key inlet design factors. Future efforts will focus on developing the inlet geometry model, the inlet design and analysis methods, a Fortran 95 code to implement the model and methods. Other computational platforms, such as Java, will also be explored.

  12. Multicriteria aided design of integrated heating-cooling energy systems in buildings.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Tomasz M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The multicriteria decision aid method ELECTRE III was proposed as the decision tool for the choice of the most compromised variant. The proposed method was used for a case study calculation-the choice of an integrated heating-cooling system for an office building.

  13. The Design of a Project to Assess Bilateral Versus Unilateral Hearing Aid Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Arlinger, Stig; Gatehouse, Stuart; Kiessling, Jürgen; Naylor, Graham; Verschuure, Hans; Wouters, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Binaural hearing provides advantages over monaural in several ways, particularly in difficult listening situations. For a person with bilateral hearing loss, the bilateral fitting of hearing aids thus seems like a natural choice. However, surprisingly few studies have been reported in which the additional benefit of bilateral versus unilateral hearing aid use has been investigated based on real-life experiences. Therefore, a project has been designed to address this issue and to find tools to identify people for whom the drawbacks would outweigh the advantages of bilateral fitting. A project following this design is likely to provide reliable evidence concerning differences in benefit between unilateral and bilateral fitting of hearing aids by evaluating correlations between entrance data and outcome measures and final preferences. PMID:18567594

  14. Developing Battery Computer Aided Engineering Tools for Military Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) layer decomposition 80 2 Anode — electrolyte 100 3 Cathode — electrolyte 130 4 Electrolyte decomposition 180...performance, NREL and the University of Colorado at Boulder coded and linked a solid mechanics model to explore mechanical phenomena in lithium -ion...electrified military vehicles. Particularly, TARDEC’s objective was the development of tools to accelerate comparative analysis of alternative lithium -ion

  15. An Elective Course on Computer-Aided Process Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemical engineering course which has been offered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The objectives, structure, instructional materials and content of this course, which emphasizes the structure and usage of computer-aided design systems, are also included. (HM)

  16. Competing Ideologies in Software Design for Computer-Aided Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates the ideological foundations of computer-assisted composition (CAC) software by comparing two computer-writing aids: "Grammatik II" and "Interchange." Notes that many of the best CAC programs have come out of the composition classroom. Argues that English departments must support and reward those who work in CAC design. (RS)

  17. The Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design: a bibliometric note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes the articles in, and the citations to, volumes 2-24 of the Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design. The citations to the journal come from almost 2000 different sources that span a very wide range of academic subjects, with the most heavily cited articles being descriptions of software systems and of computational methods.

  18. Structure aided design of chimeric antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Karoli, Tomislav; Mamidyala, Sreeman K; Zuegg, Johannes; Fry, Scott R; Tee, Ernest H L; Bradford, Tanya A; Madala, Praveen K; Huang, Johnny X; Ramu, Soumya; Butler, Mark S; Cooper, Matthew A

    2012-04-01

    The rise of antibiotic resistance is of great clinical concern. One approach to reducing the development of resistance is to co-administer two or more antibiotics with different modes of action. However, it can be difficult to control the distribution and pharmacokinetics of two drugs to ensure both concentrations remain within the range of therapeutic efficacy whilst avoiding adverse effects. Hybrid drugs, where two drugs are linked together with a flexible linker, have been explored, but the resultant large, flexible molecules can have poor bioavailability. We have developed a chimeric approach using click chemistry where the pharmacophores of two drugs are overlapped into a single smaller, more drug-like molecule. Design and selection of compounds were assisted by in silico structural docking. We prepared a series of compounds that include candidates showing activity against the targets of both trimethoprim; dihydrofolate reductase, and ciprofloxacin; DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The resultant triazole containing molecules show modest, but broad spectrum activities against drug sensitive and resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, with no observable cytotoxicity.

  19. Robot-aided rehabilitation task design for inner shoulder muscles.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y; Kim, Y; Obinata, G; Genda, E; Stefanov, D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simultaneous design method of motion and external force trajectories for shoulder inner muscles in the robot-aided rehabilitation system, based on a biomechanical analysis of patient's body. The rehabilitation efficiency evaluation function was maximized by Genetic Algorithm (GA), where the structure of spline curves parameters are pre-defined, and the structural parameters are explored to design smooth rehabilitation motion and external force trajectories.

  20. The servicing aid tool: A teleoperated robotics system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, Keith W.; Pullen, John L.; Keksz, William O.; Eismann, Paul H.; Kowalski, Keith A.; Karlen, James P.

    1994-01-01

    The Servicing Aid Tool (SAT) is a teleoperated, force-reflecting manipulation system designed for use on the Space Shuttle. The system will assist Extravehicular Activity (EVA) servicing of spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope. The SAT stands out from other robotics development programs in that special attention was given to provide a low-cost, space-qualified design which can easily and inexpensively be reconfigured and/or enhanced through the addition of existing NASA funded technology as that technology matures. SAT components are spaceflight adaptations of existing ground-based designs from Robotics Research Corporation (RRC), the leading supplier of robotics systems to the NASA and university research community in the United States. Fairchild Space is the prime contractor and provides the control electronics, safety system, system integration, and qualification testing. The manipulator consists of a 6-DOF Slave Arm mounted on a 1-DOF Positioning Link in the shuttle payload bay. The Slave Arm is controlled via a highly similar, 6-DOF, force-reflecting Master Arm from Schilling Development, Inc. This work is being performed under contract to the Goddard Space Flight Center Code, Code 442, Hubble Space Telescope Flight Systems and Servicing Project.

  1. Multi-parameter optimization tool for low-cost commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabinsky, Zelda; Tuttle, Mark; Graesser, Douglas; Kim, Gun-In; Hatcher, Darrin; Swanson, Gary; Ilcewicz, Larry

    1991-01-01

    The work in progress for developing a methodology and software tool to aid in the optimal design of composite structures is discussed. The methodology is being developed to take advantage of the ability to tailor the composite material in conjunction with the design of the structure. The composites optimization design software UWCODA was found to be very successful in preliminary testing and early experience. UWCODA is a composites design code that uses a number of plies and fiber angles as design variables, employs maximum strain failure criteria for objective function and additional constraints, includes Boeing design tools for stiffened panels, and includes stiffener geometry in the design variables.

  2. Scientific research tools as an aid to Antarctic logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinn, Michael; Rose, Mike; Smith, Andrew; Fleming, Andrew; Garrod, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Logistics have always been a vital part of polar exploration and research. The more efficient those logistics can be made, the greater the likelihood that research programmes will be delivered on time, safely and to maximum scientific effectiveness. Over the last decade, the potential for symbiosis between logistics and some of the scientific research methods themselves, has increased remarkably; suites of scientific tools can help to optimise logistic efforts, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of further scientific activity. We present one recent example of input to logistics from scientific activities, in support of the NERC iSTAR Programme, a major ice sheet research effort in West Antarctica. We used data output from a number of research tools, spanning a range of techniques and international agencies, to support the deployment of a tractor-traverse system into a remote area of mainland Antarctica. The tractor system was deployed from RRS Ernest Shackleton onto the Abbot Ice Shelf then driven inland to the research area in Pine Island Glacier Data from NASA ICEBRIDGE were used to determine the ice-front freeboard and surface gradients for the traverse route off the ice shelf and onwards into the continent. Quickbird high resolution satellite imagery provided clear images of route track and some insight into snow surface roughness. Polarview satellite data gave sea ice information in the Amundsen Sea, both the previous multi-annual historical characteristics and for real-time information during deployment. Likewise meteorological data contributed historical and information and was used during deployment. Finally, during the tractors' inland journey, ground-based high frequency radar was used to determine a safe, crevasse-free route.

  3. SNL Mechanical Computer Aided Design (MCAD) guide 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Brandon; Pollice, Stephanie L.; Martinez, Jack R.

    2007-12-01

    This document is considered a mechanical design best-practice guide to new and experienced designers alike. The contents consist of topics related to using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, performing basic analyses, and using configuration management. The details specific to a particular topic have been leveraged against existing Product Realization Standard (PRS) and Technical Business Practice (TBP) requirements while maintaining alignment with sound engineering and design practices. This document is to be considered dynamic in that subsequent updates will be reflected in the main title, and each update will be published on an annual basis.

  4. Graphical Acoustic Liner Design and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An interactive liner design and impedance modeling tool comprises software utilized to design acoustic liners for use in constrained spaces, both regularly and irregularly shaped. A graphical user interface allows the acoustic channel geometry to be drawn in a liner volume while the surface impedance calculations are updated and displayed in real-time. A one-dimensional transmission line model may be used as the basis for the impedance calculations.

  5. A Switching-Mode Power Supply Design Tool to Improve Learning in a Power Electronics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miaja, P. F.; Lamar, D. G.; de Azpeitia, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, M.; Hernando, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The static design of ac/dc and dc/dc switching-mode power supplies (SMPS) relies on a simple but repetitive process. Although specific spreadsheets, available in various computer-aided design (CAD) programs, are widely used, they are difficult to use in educational applications. In this paper, a graphic tool programmed in MATLAB is presented,…

  6. Nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided signal amplification strategy for biochemical analysis: status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Qing, Taiping; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Xu, Fengzhou; Wen, Li; Shangguan, Jingfang; Mao, Zhengui; Lei, Yanli

    2016-04-01

    Owing to their highly efficient catalytic effects and substrate specificity, the nucleic acid tool enzymes are applied as 'nano-tools' for manipulating different nucleic acid substrates both in the test-tube and in living organisms. In addition to the function as molecular scissors and molecular glue in genetic engineering, the application of nucleic acid tool enzymes in biochemical analysis has also been extensively developed in the past few decades. Used as amplifying labels for biorecognition events, the nucleic acid tool enzymes are mainly applied in nucleic acids amplification sensing, as well as the amplification sensing of biorelated variations of nucleic acids. With the introduction of aptamers, which can bind different target molecules, the nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided signal amplification strategies can also be used to sense non-nucleic targets (e.g., ions, small molecules, proteins, and cells). This review describes and discusses the amplification strategies of nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided biosensors for biochemical analysis applications. Various analytes, including nucleic acids, ions, small molecules, proteins, and cells, are reviewed briefly. This work also addresses the future trends and outlooks for signal amplification in nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided biosensors.

  7. Use Computer-Aided Tools to Parallelize Large CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, H.; Frumkin, M.; Yan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Porting applications to high performance parallel computers is always a challenging task. It is time consuming and costly. With rapid progressing in hardware architectures and increasing complexity of real applications in recent years, the problem becomes even more sever. Today, scalability and high performance are mostly involving handwritten parallel programs using message-passing libraries (e.g. MPI). However, this process is very difficult and often error-prone. The recent reemergence of shared memory parallel (SMP) architectures, such as the cache coherent Non-Uniform Memory Access (ccNUMA) architecture used in the SGI Origin 2000, show good prospects for scaling beyond hundreds of processors. Programming on an SMP is simplified by working in a globally accessible address space. The user can supply compiler directives, such as OpenMP, to parallelize the code. As an industry standard for portable implementation of parallel programs for SMPs, OpenMP is a set of compiler directives and callable runtime library routines that extend Fortran, C and C++ to express shared memory parallelism. It promises an incremental path for parallel conversion of existing software, as well as scalability and performance for a complete rewrite or an entirely new development. Perhaps the main disadvantage of programming with directives is that inserted directives may not necessarily enhance performance. In the worst cases, it can create erroneous results. While vendors have provided tools to perform error-checking and profiling, automation in directive insertion is very limited and often failed on large programs, primarily due to the lack of a thorough enough data dependence analysis. To overcome the deficiency, we have developed a toolkit, CAPO, to automatically insert OpenMP directives in Fortran programs and apply certain degrees of optimization. CAPO is aimed at taking advantage of detailed inter-procedural dependence analysis provided by CAPTools, developed by the University of

  8. Electronics Shielding and Reliability Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; ONeill, P. M.; Zang, Thomas A., Jr.; Pandolf, John E.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that electronics placement in large-scale human-rated systems provides opportunity to optimize electronics shielding through materials choice and geometric arrangement. For example, several hundred single event upsets (SEUs) occur within the Shuttle avionic computers during a typical mission. An order of magnitude larger SEU rate would occur without careful placement in the Shuttle design. These results used basic physics models (linear energy transfer (LET), track structure, Auger recombination) combined with limited SEU cross section measurements allowing accurate evaluation of target fragment contributions to Shuttle avionics memory upsets. Electronics shielding design on human-rated systems provides opportunity to minimize radiation impact on critical and non-critical electronic systems. Implementation of shielding design tools requires adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and an adequate follow-up on final design evaluation including results from a systems/device testing program tailored to meet design requirements.

  9. Circular machine design techniques and tools

    SciTech Connect

    Servranckx, R.V.; Brown, K.L.

    1986-04-01

    Some of the basic optics principles involved in the design of circular accelerators such as Alternating Gradient Synchrotrons, Storage and Collision Rings, and Pulse Stretcher Rings are outlined. Typical problems facing a designer are defined, and the main references and computational tools are reviewed that are presently available. Two particular classes of problems that occur typically in accelerator design are listed - global value problems, which affect the control of parameters which are characteristic of the complete closed circular machine, and local value problems. Basic mathematical formulae are given that are considered useful for a first draft of a design. The basic optics building blocks that can be used to formulate an initial machine design are introduced, giving only the elementary properties and transfer matrices only in one transverse plane. Solutions are presented for some first-order and second-order design problems. (LEW)

  10. Participatory design and an eligibility screening tool.

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, J. H.; Reddy, M.

    2000-01-01

    For most medical informatics software products, insufficient effort is spent on the design phase of production. However, poor design often leads to systems that are either not well accepted, or far less effective than they could be. In this paper, we describe the ideas of participatory design and discuss why these ideas are especially applicable to medical informatics systems. In particular, we present a case study in the area of clinical trial protocol management. We designed and developed a tool aimed at increasing accrual to clinical trial protocols at an oncology center. However, the design evolved over time, and features of this design were only discovered through iterative development and interaction with the users within the context of the workplace. PMID:11079891

  11. Designing a Moodle Course with the CADMOS Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsamani, Maria; Retalis, Symeon; Boloudakis, Michail

    2012-01-01

    CADMOS is a graphical learning design (LD) authoring tool that helps a teacher design a unit of learning in two layers: (i) the conceptual layer, which seems like a concept map and contains the learning activities with their associated learning resources and (ii) the flow layer, which contains the orchestration of these activities. One of CADMOS'…

  12. Special Technology Area Review on Computer Aided Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    develop MHDL, AHDL , etc., not only to provide a common modeling language but also to support a robust design environment. This would include language...tools are critical. Analog synthesis requirements must be reflected in VHDL and AHDL (Analog Hardware Description Language) standards. The tools should

  13. The Computer Aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalif, Guy U.

    1994-01-01

    The preliminary design of an aircraft is a complex, labor-intensive, and creative process. Since the 1970's, many computer programs have been written to help automate preliminary airplane design. Time and resource analyses have identified, 'a substantial decrease in project duration with the introduction of an automated design capability'. Proof-of-concept studies have been completed which establish 'a foundation for a computer-based airframe design capability', Unfortunately, today's design codes exist in many different languages on many, often expensive, hardware platforms. Through the use of a module-based system architecture, the Computer aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP) will eventually bring together many of the most useful features of existing programs. Through the use of an expert system, it will add an additional feature that could be described as indispensable to entry level engineers and students: the incorporation of 'expert' knowledge into the automated design process.

  14. Computer Aided Design Of Electrical Machines For Variable Speed Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.; Aravind, S.; Materu, P.

    1987-10-01

    In recent years, the product life cycle has decreased and demands for new products have emerged due to competition, modern industrial needs and rapidly changing technology. This has necessitated changes in design, development and manufacturing processes so as to improve quality and efficiency as well as reducing costs. Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps to meet this challenge in the design evaluation and final product design stages. This paper presents the development of an interactive software for the optimal design of a motor intended for variable speed applications. The use of finite element analysis methods is proposed as an indispensable part of the CAD system for electrical machine design. An illustration of the method is given for the design of a switched reluctance motor.

  15. A tool for hearing aid and cochlear implant users to judge the usability of cellular telephones in field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deer, Maria Soledad

    The auditory experience of using a hearing aid or a cochlear implant simultaneously with a cell phone is driven by a number of factors. These factors are: radiofrequency and baseband interference, speech intelligibility, sound quality, handset design, volume control and signal strength. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool to be used by hearing aid and cochlear implant users in retail stores as they try cell phones before buying them. This tool is meant to be an efficient, practical and systematic consumer selection tool that will capture and document information on all the domains that play a role in the auditory experience of using a cell phone with a hearing aid or cochlear implant. The development of this consumer tool involved three steps as follows: preparation, verification and measurement of success according to a predefined criterion. First, the consumer tool, consisting of a comparison chart and speech material, was prepared. Second, the consumer tool was evaluated by groups of subjects in a two-step verification process. Phase I was conducted in a controlled setting and it was followed by Phase II which took place in real world (field) conditions. In order to perform a systematic evaluation of the consumer tool two questionnaires were developed: one questionnaire for each phase. Both questionnaires involved five quantitative variables scored with the use of ratings scales. These ratings were averaged yielding an Overall Consumer Performance Score. A qualitative performance category corresponding to the Mean Opinion Score (MOS) was allocated to each final score within a scale ranging from 1 to 5 (where 5 = excellent and 1 = bad). Finally, the consumer tool development was determined to be successful if at least 80% of the participants in verification Phase II rated the comparison chart as excellent or good according to the qualitative MOS score. The results for verification Phase II (field conditions) indicated that the Overall Consumer

  16. Pressure garment design tool to monitor exerted pressures.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Lisa; Ferguson, Rhona

    2013-09-01

    Pressure garments are used in the treatment of hypertrophic scarring following serious burns. The use of pressure garments is believed to hasten the maturation process, reduce pruritus associated with immature hypertrophic scars and prevent the formation of contractures over flexor joints. Pressure garments are normally made to measure for individual patients from elastic fabrics and are worn continuously for up to 2 years or until scar maturation. There are 2 methods of constructing pressure garments. The most common method, called the Reduction Factor method, involves reducing the patient's circumferential measurements by a certain percentage. The second method uses the Laplace Law to calculate the dimensions of pressure garments based on the circumferential measurements of the patient and the tension profile of the fabric. The Laplace Law method is complicated to utilise manually and no design tool is currently available to aid this process. This paper presents the development and suggested use of 2 new pressure garment design tools that will aid pressure garment design using the Reduction Factor and Laplace Law methods. Both tools calculate the pressure garment dimensions and the mean pressure that will be exerted around the body at each measurement point. Monitoring the pressures exerted by pressure garments and noting the clinical outcome would enable clinicians to build an understanding of the implications of particular pressures on scar outcome, maturation times and patient compliance rates. Once the optimum pressure for particular treatments is known, the Laplace Law method described in this paper can be used to deliver those average pressures to all patients. This paper also presents the results of a small scale audit of measurements taken for the fabrication of pressure garments in two UK hospitals. This audit highlights the wide range of pressures that are exerted using the Reduction Factor method and that manual pattern 'smoothing' can dramatically

  17. The Servicing Aid Tool. [teleoperated manipulation system for space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pullen, John L.; Keksz, William O.; Manson, Thomas J.; Martin, David; Werneth, Russel

    1992-01-01

    The Servicing Aid Tool (SAT) is a teleoperated manipulation system designed for use on the NSTS Orbiter. The system will assist EVA servicing of spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope and Explorer platform. SAT components are spaceflight adaptations of existing ground-based designs from Robotics Research and Schilling Development. Fairchild Space is providing the control electronics, safety system, and flight integration. The manipulator consists of a 6-DOF Slave Arm mounted on a 1-DOF Positioning Link in the Payload Bay. The Slave Arm is controlled via a highly similar, 6-DOF, force-reflecting Master Arm. Each slave arm joint receives position commands from the corresponding master arm joint; torque commands are reflected to each master joint based on the current state of the slave joint and the master/slave relationship. Scaled and indexed control will be accommodated, as will various features to ensure safe operation. The paper will focus on the development of the safety system, and operations for the demonstration and servicing missions.

  18. Navigation and Alignment Aids Concept of Operations and Supplemental Design Information. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    The IDSS Navigation and Alignment Aids Concept of Operations and Supplemental Design Information document provides supplemental information to the IDSS IDD. The guide provides insight into the navigation and alignment aids design, and how those aids can be utilized by incoming vehicles for proximity operations and docking. The navigation aids are paramount to successful docking.

  19. Graphical and Normative Analysis of Binocular Vision by Mini Computer: A Teaching Aid and Clinical Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Martin; Schor, Clifton

    1981-01-01

    An inexpensive computer graphics systems (Commodore PET), used as a video aid for teaching students advanced case analysis, is described. The course provides students with the analytical tools for evaluating with graphical and statistical techniques and treating with lenses, prisms, and orthoptics various anomalies of binocular vision. (MLW)

  20. Using Design Principles to Foster Understanding of Complex Health Concepts in Consumer Informatics Tools

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Rupananda; Mark, Jessica H.; Khan, Sharib; Kukafka, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Consumer health informatics tools can only be effective if patients comprehend their content. Optimal design may foster better patient comprehension and health literacy, which can improve health outcomes. We developed a patient-centric decision aid, Tailored Lifestyle Conversations (TLC), to help patients comprehend behavioral risks and set behavior change priorities for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. The TLC decision aid was developed using a design framework based on Gestalt Principles of Perception. Further iteration was informed by qualitative user feedback. Preliminary analysis showed that the TLC decision aid helped patients understand their risk and supported their decisions on health behavior change. We identified design elements that supported patient comprehension, and other elements that were not effective, to inform iterative revision. This paper describes an effective methodology for the development of consumer health informatics tools that includes grounding in design principles complemented by iterative revision based on user testing and feedback. PMID:21347027

  1. Challenges Facing Design and Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The design and analysis of future aerospace systems will strongly rely on advanced engineering analysis tools used in combination with risk mitigation procedures. The implications of such a trend place increased demands on these tools to assess off-nominal conditions, residual strength, damage propagation, and extreme loading conditions in order to understand and quantify these effects as they affect mission success. Advances in computer hardware such as CPU processing speed, memory, secondary storage, and visualization provide significant resources for the engineer to exploit in engineering design. The challenges facing design and analysis tools fall into three primary areas. The first area involves mechanics needs such as constitutive modeling, contact and penetration simulation, crack growth prediction, damage initiation and progression prediction, transient dynamics and deployment simulations, and solution algorithms. The second area involves computational needs such as fast, robust solvers, adaptivity for model and solution strategies, control processes for concurrent, distributed computing for uncertainty assessments, and immersive technology. Traditional finite element codes still require fast direct solvers which when coupled to current CPU power enables new insight as a result of high-fidelity modeling. The third area involves decision making by the analyst. This area involves the integration and interrogation of vast amounts of information - some global in character while local details are critical and often drive the design. The proposed presentation will describe and illustrate these areas using composite structures, energy-absorbing structures, and inflatable space structures. While certain engineering approximations within the finite element model may be adequate for global response prediction, they generally are inadequate in a design setting or when local response prediction is critical. Pitfalls to be avoided and trends for emerging analysis tools

  2. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  3. NREL Software Aids Offshore Wind Turbine Designs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    NREL researchers are supporting offshore wind power development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of both fixed and floating offshore wind turbines. While existing computer-aided engineering (CAE) models can simulate the conditions and stresses that a land-based wind turbine experiences over its lifetime, offshore turbines require the additional considerations of variations in water depth, soil type, and wind and wave severity, which also necessitate the use of a variety of support-structure types. NREL's core wind CAE tool, FAST, models the additional effects of incident waves, sea currents, and the foundation dynamics of the support structures.

  4. RAMCAD (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Design)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    documents the Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Design (RAMCAD) Software Development Program which was started in July 1986 ...by General Dynamics Convair Division under a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA 86-16-PMRS). This PRDA was issued on May 15, 1986 ...PRDA 86-16-PMRS) was issued on May 15, 1986 , by the Air Force Human Resources ..aboratory (AFHRL, changed to Armstrong Laboratory, Human Resources

  5. Computer-Aided Final Design Cost Estimating System Overview.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    laboratory _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ /1— COMPUTER-AIDED FINAL DESIGN • COST ESTIMATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW © by...PROJECT . TASKAAEA~~ WORK UNIT NUMBERSCONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY ~~~~~~~~~ .• . — P.O. Box 4005 ~~ 4A7627~ %T4fldt11 Champa ign , IL 61820...Construction Division (FA), U.S. Army Construction Engineering Re- search Laboratory (CERL), Champaign , IL. The Principal Investigator was Mr. Michael

  6. Matlab as a robust control design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation introduces Matlab as a tool used in flight control research. The example used to illustrate some of the capabilities of this software is a robust controller designed for a single stage to orbit air breathing vehicles's ascent to orbit. The global requirements of the controller are to stabilize the vehicle and follow a trajectory in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and strong dynamic coupling between airframe and propulsion.

  7. Assess/Mitigate Risk through the Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to perform an independent assessment of the mitigation of the Constellation Program (CxP) Risk 4421 through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools. With the cancellation of the CxP, the assessment goals were modified to capture lessons learned and best practices in the use of CASE tools. The assessment goal was to prepare the next program for the use of these CASE tools. The outcome of the assessment is contained in this document.

  8. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  9. The Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed, the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. The design manager's aid for intelligent decomposition (DeMAID) is a knowledge based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for design. Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save considerable money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined.

  10. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  11. Computer-aided structural design of a lunar radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgul, Ferhat; Gerstle, Walter H.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided structural design of the main reflector of a fully steerable radio telescope to be located (in the 21st century) on the moon, and presents the results of the structural analysis of the reflector. The reflector is a paraboloid with a surface area of 12,660 sq m and a focal ratio of 0.42. The reflector's surface will be covered by a 5.08 cm-thick sandwich panel made of thin-walled aluminum cells filled with low-density foam. The low weight of the design will be achieved by using graphite-epoxy as the structural material.

  12. Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design of a Vertical Winnower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yumei; Lin, Saijia; Weng, Lijie

    The research states home and abroad of the winnowing technology and winnowers are reviewed in brief. For the air duct, the core component of the winnower, the relevant technical parameters in the winnowing process are calculated based on the winnowing principle. The three-dimensional computer aided design (3D-CAD) software Solidworks is applied. The designed vertical winnower is able to separate different raw materials by adjusting the air speed and has been put into practical production to separate the Chinese traditional medicine with high separating effect.

  13. Multidisciplinary Expert-aided Analysis and Design (MEAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Thomas C.; Taylor, James

    1989-01-01

    The MEAD Computer Program (MCP) is being developed under the Multidisciplinary Expert-Aided Analysis and Design (MEAD) Project as a CAD environment in which integrated flight, propulsion, and structural control systems can be designed and analyzed. The MCP has several embedded computer-aided control engineering (CACE) packages, a user interface (UI), a supervisor, a data-base manager (DBM), and an expert system (ES). The supervisor monitors and coordinates the operation of the CACE packages, the DBM; the ES, and the UI. The DBM tracks the control design process. Models created or installed by the MCP are tracked by date and version, and results are associated with the specific model version with which they were generated. The ES is used to relieve the control engineer from tedious and cumbersome tasks in the iterative design process. The UI provides the capability for a novice as well as an expert to utilize the MCP easily and effectively. The MCP version 2(MCP-2.0) is fully developed for flight control system design and analysis. Propulsion system modeling, analysis, and simulation is also supported; the same is true for structural models represented in state-space form. The ultimate goal is to cover the integration of flight, propulsion, and structural control engineering, including all discipline-specific functionality and interfaces. The current MCP-2.0 components and functionality are discussed.

  14. Evolution of Geometric Sensitivity Derivatives from Computer Aided Design Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Lazzara, David; Haimes, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The generation of design parameter sensitivity derivatives is required for gradient-based optimization. Such sensitivity derivatives are elusive at best when working with geometry defined within the solid modeling context of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. Solid modeling CAD systems are often proprietary and always complex, thereby necessitating ad hoc procedures to infer parameter sensitivity. A new perspective is presented that makes direct use of the hierarchical associativity of CAD features to trace their evolution and thereby track design parameter sensitivity. In contrast to ad hoc methods, this method provides a more concise procedure following the model design intent and determining the sensitivity of CAD geometry directly to its respective defining parameters.

  15. Photomat: A Mobile Tool for Aiding in Student Construction of Research Questions and Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Tia Renee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Silva, Alexandra; Lyons, Leilah; Moher, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile software tool, PhotoMAT (Photo Management and Analysis Tool), and students' experiences with this tool within a scaffolded curricular unit--Neighborhood Safari. PhotoMAT was designed to support learners' investigations of backyard animal behavior and works with image sets obtained using fixed-position field cameras…

  16. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2016-04-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy.

  17. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  18. Retrofitting a crown to a sleep apnea device by using computer-aided design and computer-aided milling technology.

    PubMed

    Biethman, Rick; Land, Martin F; Hruskocy, Heather; Colgin, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    Retrofitting a new crown to an existing dental device is challenging. The continued evolution of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) significantly simplifies the process. This article demonstrates retrofitting a gold crown to an existing sleep apnea device.

  19. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  20. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  1. Multi-Input/Multi-Output Designated Eigenstructure (MODES): A Computer-Aided Control System Design Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    must. introduce some tools. The first of these is known as Newton’s Formulas ( Uspensky , 1948: 261). oA 4-32 ’ */ Newton’s Formulas relate the...Academic Press, Inc., 1976. Uspensky , J.V. Theory of Equations. New York: McGraw- Hill Book Company, 1948. Walker, Robert A., et al. "Computer-Aided

  2. Parachute system design, analysis, and simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, W.D.; McBride, D.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; Waye, D.E.; Hailey, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    For over twenty years designers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed various parachute simulation codes to model deployment, inflation, loading, trajectories, aircraft downwash and line sail. In addition to these codes, material property data bases have been acquired. Recently we have initiated project to integrate these codes and data bases into a single software tool entitled SPARSYS (Sandia PARachute SYstem Simulation). We have constructed a graphical user interface as the driver and framework for SPARSYS. In this paper we present a status report on SPARSYS describing progress in developing and incorporating independent modules, in developing an integrated trajectory package, and in developing a materials data base including high-rate-of-strain data.

  3. Biologically inspired binaural hearing aid algorithms: Design principles and effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Albert

    2002-05-01

    Despite rapid advances in the sophistication of hearing aid technology and microelectronics, listening in noise remains problematic for people with hearing impairment. To solve this problem two algorithms were designed for use in binaural hearing aid systems. The signal processing strategies are based on principles in auditory physiology and psychophysics: (a) the location/extraction (L/E) binaural computational scheme determines the directions of source locations and cancels noise by applying a simple subtraction method over every frequency band; and (b) the frequency-domain minimum-variance (FMV) scheme extracts a target sound from a known direction amidst multiple interfering sound sources. Both algorithms were evaluated using standard metrics such as signal-to-noise-ratio gain and articulation index. Results were compared with those from conventional adaptive beam-forming algorithms. In free-field tests with multiple interfering sound sources our algorithms performed better than conventional algorithms. Preliminary intelligibility and speech reception results in multitalker environments showed gains for every listener with normal or impaired hearing when the signals were processed in real time with the FMV binaural hearing aid algorithm. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD Grant No. R21DC04840 and the Beckman Institute.

  4. Visions of visualization aids: Design philosophy and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two- or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or parsimonious description of the phenomena underlying the data. Indeed, the communication of the essential meaning of some multidimensional data may be obscured by presentation in a spatially distributed format. Useful visualization is generally based on pre-existing theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena which guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Two examples from chaotic dynamics are used to illustrate how a visulaization may be an aid to insight. Two examples of displays to aid spatial maneuvering are described. The first, a perspective format for a commercial air traffic display, illustrates how geometric distortion may be introduced to insure that an operator can understand a depicted three-dimensional situation. The second, a display for planning small spacecraft maneuvers, illustrates how the complex counterintuitive character of orbital maneuvering may be made more tractable by removing higher-order nonlinear control dynamics, and allowing independent satisfaction of velocity and plume impingement constraints on orbital changes.

  5. A Conceptual Design of a Departure Planner Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Idris, Husni R.; Clark, John-Paul; Feron, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Odoni, Amedeo R.; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Terminal area Air Traffic Management handles both arriving and departing traffic. To date, research work on terminal area operations has focused primarily on the arrival flow and typically departures are taken into account only in an approximate manner. However, arrivals and departures are highly coupled processes especially in the terminal airspace, with complex interactions and sharing of the same airport resources between arrivals and departures taking place in practically every important terminal area. Therefore, the addition of automation aids for departures, possibly in co-operation with existing arrival flow automation systems, could have a profound contribution in enhancing the overall efficiency of airport operations. This paper presents the conceptual system architecture for such an automation aid, the Departure Planner (DP). This architecture can be used as a core in the development of decision-aiding systems to assist air traffic controllers in improving the performance of departure operations and optimize runway time allocation among different operations at major congested airports. The design of such systems is expected to increase the overall efficiency of terminal area operations and yield benefits for all stakeholders involved in Air Traffic Management (ATM) operations, users as well as service providers.

  6. DeMAID: A Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1989-01-01

    A design problem is viewed as a complex system divisible into modules. Before the design of a complex system can begin, the couplings among modules and the presence of iterative loops is determined. This is important because the design manager must know how to group the modules into subsystems and how to assign subsystems to design teams so that changes in one subsystem will have predictable effects on other subsystems. Determining these subsystems is not an easy, straightforward process and often important couplings are overlooked. Moreover, the planning task must be repeated as new information become available or as the design specifications change. The purpose of this research is to develop a knowledge-based tool called the Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID) to act as an intelligent advisor for the design manager. DeMaid identifies the subsystems of a complex design problem, orders them into a well-structured format, and marks the couplings among the subsystems to facilitate the use of multilevel tools. DeMAID also provides the design manager with the capability of examining the trade-offs between sequential and parallel processing. This type of approach could lead to a substantial savings or organizing and displaying a complex problem as a sequence of subsystems easily divisible among design teams. This report serves as a User's Guide for the program.

  7. Evaluating a digital ship design tool prototype: Designers' perceptions of novel ergonomics software.

    PubMed

    Mallam, Steven C; Lundh, Monica; MacKinnon, Scott N

    2017-03-01

    Computer-aided solutions are essential for naval architects to manage and optimize technical complexities when developing a ship's design. Although there are an array of software solutions aimed to optimize the human element in design, practical ergonomics methodologies and technological solutions have struggled to gain widespread application in ship design processes. This paper explores how a new ergonomics technology is perceived by naval architecture students using a mixed-methods framework. Thirteen Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering Masters students participated in the study. Overall, results found participants perceived the software and its embedded ergonomics tools to benefit their design work, increasing their empathy and ability to understand the work environment and work demands end-users face. However, participant's questioned if ergonomics could be practically and efficiently implemented under real-world project constraints. This revealed underlying social biases and a fundamental lack of understanding in engineering postgraduate students regarding applied ergonomics in naval architecture.

  8. A critical overview of analytical aids of design

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, I.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses effectiveness of some of the most important analytical tools of design in terms of their relationship to the design integration. The paper finally concludes that the level of integration remains rather superficial and success is only in certain areas relating to the downstream aspects of design. The degree of integration, particularly in the early stages of design activity, such as conceptualization remains very little. More importantly the paper points to the signs of stagnation, despite of phenomenal progress in every aspects of science, in many areas of science and engineering. The main cause of the stagnation is the curse of dimensionality and the complexity. The complexity now effecting every aspects of science and engineering. From the continuum mechanics to scheduling problems, ineffectiveness of the analytical tools of science and engineering becoming too obvious.

  9. Computer Aided Antenna Design and Frequency Selection for HF Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    EESIGN ON THE ADPE-.- NIF (GREEN MACHINE) ... .... . . . . . . . 57 E. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN USING ECAC1S ACCESSIBIE ANTENNA PACKAGE . . . . . . .. 57 F...8217 C8 L4 E-4 W 3a ’H 1 H -g I) - 4 ’ 0-4 =2 E-4 V. E-4 b. m 0 m 4 =- v- -4 3 4 E’- 4 = P4 H - ofC. I- 1 4 = W P4 w 4 I = N = V rq I 0-4 ~ to H W4

  10. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  11. Computer-aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuo, Hung Chang; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  12. Computer aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  13. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  14. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now.

  15. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    Modular fixturing kits are sets of components used for flexible, rapid construction of fixtures. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, each jaw of which is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid-plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, one gains the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed an algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses they have added to the planar algorithm, including a 3-d grasp quality metric based on force information, 3-d geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis. Finally, the authors describe two applications of their code. One of these is an internal application at Sandia, while the other shows a potential use of the code for designing part of an agile assembly line.

  16. CFD Aided Design and Production of Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Alper; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Demirel, Gizem; Ayli, Ece; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are turbo machines which produce electricity from hydraulic energy. Francis type turbines are the most common one in use today. The design of these turbines requires high engineering effort since each turbine is tailor made due to different head and discharge. Therefore each component of the turbine is designed specifically. During the last decades, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become very useful tool to predict hydraulic machinery performance and save time and money for designers. This paper describes a design methodology to optimize a Francis turbine by integrating theoretical and experimental fundamentals of hydraulic machines and commercial CFD codes. Specific turbines are designed and manufactured with the help of a collaborative CFD/CAD/CAM methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and five-axis machining for hydraulic electric power plants. The details are presented in this study. This study is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  17. A Design Rationale Capture Tool to Support Design Verification and Re-use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooey, Becky Lee; Da Silva, Jonny C.; Foyle, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A design rationale tool (DR tool) was developed to capture design knowledge to support design verification and design knowledge re-use. The design rationale tool captures design drivers and requirements, and documents the design solution including: intent (why it is included in the overall design); features (why it is designed the way it is); information about how the design components support design drivers and requirements; and, design alternatives considered but rejected. For design verification purposes, the tool identifies how specific design requirements were met and instantiated within the final design, and which requirements have not been met. To support design re-use, the tool identifies which design decisions are affected when design drivers and requirements are modified. To validate the design tool, the design knowledge from the Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA; Foyle et al., 1996) system was captured and the DR tool was exercised to demonstrate its utility for validation and re-use.

  18. Computer aided design environment for the analysis and design of multi-body flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, Jayant V.; Singh, Ramen P.

    1989-01-01

    A computer aided design environment consisting of the programs NASTRAN, TREETOPS and MATLAB is presented in this paper. With links for data transfer between these programs, the integrated design of multi-body flexible structures is significantly enhanced. The CAD environment is used to model the Space Shuttle/Pinhole Occulater Facility. Then a controller is designed and evaluated in the nonlinear time history sense. Recent enhancements and ongoing research to add more capabilities are also described.

  19. A 3-d modular gripper design tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Brost, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Modular fixturing kits are precisely machined sets of components used for flexible, short-turnaround construction of fixtures for a variety of manufacturing purposes. A modular vise is a parallel-jaw vise, where each jaw is a modular fixture plate with a regular grid of precisely positioned holes. A modular vise can be used to locate and hold parts for machining, assembly, and inspection tasks. To fixture a part, one places pins in some of the holes so that when the vise is closed, the part is reliably located and completely constrained. The modular vise concept can be adapted easily to the design of modular parallel-jaw grippers for robots. By attaching a grid plate to each jaw of a parallel-jaw gripper, the authors gain the ability to easily construct high-quality grasps for a wide variety of parts from a standard set of hardware. Wallack and Canny developed a previous algorithm for planning planar grasp configurations for the modular vise. In this paper, the authors expand this work to produce a 3-d fixture/gripper design tool. They describe several analyses added to the planar algorithm to improve its utility, including a three-dimensional grasp quality metric based on geometric and force information, three-dimensional geometric loading analysis, and inter-gripper interference analysis to determine the compatibility of multiple grasps for handing the part from one gripper to another. Finally, the authors describe two applications which combine the utility of modular vise-style grasping with inter-gripper interference: The first is the design of a flexible part-handling subsystem for a part cleaning workcell under development at Sandia National Laboratories; the second is the automatic design of grippers that support the assembly of multiple products on a single assembly line.

  20. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  1. Role of computer-aided drug design in modern drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Macalino, Stephani Joy Y; Gosu, Vijayakumar; Hong, Sunhye; Choi, Sun

    2015-09-01

    Drug discovery utilizes chemical biology and computational drug design approaches for the efficient identification and optimization of lead compounds. Chemical biology is mostly involved in the elucidation of the biological function of a target and the mechanism of action of a chemical modulator. On the other hand, computer-aided drug design makes use of the structural knowledge of either the target (structure-based) or known ligands with bioactivity (ligand-based) to facilitate the determination of promising candidate drugs. Various virtual screening techniques are now being used by both pharmaceutical companies and academic research groups to reduce the cost and time required for the discovery of a potent drug. Despite the rapid advances in these methods, continuous improvements are critical for future drug discovery tools. Advantages presented by structure-based and ligand-based drug design suggest that their complementary use, as well as their integration with experimental routines, has a powerful impact on rational drug design. In this article, we give an overview of the current computational drug design and their application in integrated rational drug development to aid in the progress of drug discovery research.

  2. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  3. Computer aided process planning and die design in simulation environment in sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, Miklós; Lukács, Zsolt

    2013-12-01

    During the recent 10-15 years, Computer Aided Process Planning and Die Design evolved as one of the most important engineering tools in sheet metal forming, particularly in the automotive industry. This emerging role is strongly emphasized by the rapid development of Finite Element Modeling, as well. The purpose of this paper is to give a general overview about the recent achievements in this very important field of sheet metal forming and to introduce some special results in this development activity. Therefore, in this paper, an integrated process simulation and die design system developed at the University of Miskolc, Department of Mechanical Engineering will be analyzed. The proposed integrated solutions have great practical importance to improve the global competitiveness of sheet metal forming in the very important segment of industry. The concept described in this paper may have specific value both for process planning and die design engineers.

  4. Hardware synthesis from DDL. [Digital Design Language for computer aided design and test of LSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. M.; Shiva, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The details of the digital systems can be conveniently input into the design automation system by means of Hardware Description Languages (HDL). The Computer Aided Design and Test (CADAT) system at NASA MSFC is used for the LSI design. The Digital Design Language (DDL) has been selected as HDL for the CADAT System. DDL translator output can be used for the hardware implementation of the digital design. This paper addresses problems of selecting the standard cells from the CADAT standard cell library to realize the logic implied by the DDL description of the system.

  5. Aiding Design of Wave Energy Converters via Computational Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebeli Aqdam, Hejar; Ahmadi, Babak; Raessi, Mehdi; Tootkaboni, Mazdak

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, wave energy converters will continue to gain attention as a viable alternative to current electricity production methods. It is therefore crucial to develop computational tools for the design and analysis of wave energy converters. A successful design requires balance between the design performance and cost. Here an analytical solution is used for the approximate analysis of interactions between a flap-type wave energy converter (WEC) and waves. The method is verified using other flow solvers and experimental test cases. Then the model is used in conjunction with a powerful heuristic optimization engine, Charged System Search (CSS) to explore the WEC design space. CSS is inspired by charged particles behavior. It searches the design space by considering candidate answers as charged particles and moving them based on the Coulomb's laws of electrostatics and Newton's laws of motion to find the global optimum. Finally the impacts of changes in different design parameters on the power takeout of the superior WEC designs are investigated. National Science Foundation, CBET-1236462.

  6. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  7. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  8. Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory-Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats by Rishub Jain ARL-CR-0760...0760 February 2015 Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats Rishub Jain US...and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-10-2-0076 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  9. Target Impact Detection Algorithm Using Computer-aided Design (CAD) Model Geometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 558 Technical Report ARMET-TR-13024 TARGET IMPACT DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ...DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ) MODEL GEOMETRY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This report documents a method and algorithm to export geometry from a three-dimensional, computer-aided design ( CAD ) model in a format that can be

  10. Simulation Tools Model Icing for Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Here s a simple science experiment to try: Place an unopened bottle of distilled water in your freezer. After 2-3 hours, if the water is pure enough, you will notice that it has not frozen. Carefully pour the water into a bowl with a piece of ice in it. When it strikes the ice, the water will instantly freeze. One of the most basic and commonly known scientific facts is that water freezes at around 32 F. But this is not always the case. Water lacking any impurities for ice crystals to form around can be supercooled to even lower temperatures without freezing. High in the atmosphere, water droplets can achieve this delicate, supercooled state. When a plane flies through clouds containing these droplets, the water can strike the airframe and, like the supercooled water hitting the ice in the experiment above, freeze instantly. The ice buildup alters the aerodynamics of the plane - reducing lift and increasing drag - affecting its performance and presenting a safety issue if the plane can no longer fly effectively. In certain circumstances, ice can form inside aircraft engines, another potential hazard. NASA has long studied ways of detecting and countering atmospheric icing conditions as part of the Agency s efforts to enhance aviation safety. To do this, the Icing Branch at Glenn Research Center utilizes a number of world-class tools, including the Center s Icing Research Tunnel and the NASA 607 icing research aircraft, a "flying laboratory" for studying icing conditions. The branch has also developed a suite of software programs to help aircraft and icing protection system designers understand the behavior of ice accumulation on various surfaces and in various conditions. One of these innovations is the LEWICE ice accretion simulation software. Initially developed in the 1980s (when Glenn was known as Lewis Research Center), LEWICE has become one of the most widely used tools in icing research and aircraft design and certification. LEWICE has been transformed over

  11. Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief statement of the research progress made on Grant NAG2-243 titled "Tools for Nonlinear Control Systems Design", which ran from 1983 till December 1996. The initial set of PIs on the grant were C. A. Desoer, E. L. Polak and myself (for 1983). From 1984 till 1991 Desoer and I were the Pls and finally I was the sole PI from 1991 till the end of 1996. The project has been an unusually longstanding and extremely fruitful partnership, with many technical exchanges, visits, workshops and new avenues of investigation begun on this grant. There were student visits, long term.visitors on the grant and many interesting joint projects. In this final report I will only give a cursory description of the technical work done on the grant, since there was a tradition of annual progress reports and a proposal for the succeeding year. These progress reports cum proposals are attached as Appendix A to this report. Appendix B consists of papers by me and my students as co-authors sorted chronologically. When there are multiple related versions of a paper, such as a conference version and journal version they are listed together. Appendix C consists of papers by Desoer and his students as well as 'solo' publications by other researchers supported on this grant similarly chronologically sorted.

  12. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  13. Tools for Material Design and Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehage, Kristopher

    The present thesis focuses on applications of numerical methods to create tools for material characterization, design and selection. The tools generated in this work incorporate a variety of programming concepts, from digital image analysis, geometry, optimization, and parallel programming to data-mining, databases and web design. The first portion of the thesis focuses on methods for characterizing clustering in bimodal 5083 Aluminum alloys created by cryomilling and powder metallurgy. The bimodal samples analyzed in the present work contain a mixture of a coarse grain phase, with a grain size on the order of several microns, and an ultra-fine grain phase, with a grain size on the order of 200 nm. The mixing of the two phases is not homogeneous and clustering is observed. To investigate clustering in these bimodal materials, various microstructures were created experimentally by conventional cryomilling, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Extrusion, Dual-Mode Dynamic Forging (DMDF) and a new 'Gradient' cryomilling process. Two techniques for quantitative clustering analysis are presented, formulated and implemented. The first technique, the Area Disorder function, provides a metric of the quality of coarse grain dispersion in an ultra-fine grain matrix and the second technique, the Two-Point Correlation function, provides a metric of long and short range spatial arrangements of the two phases, as well as an indication of the mean feature size in any direction. The two techniques are implemented on digital images created by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscatter Detection (EBSD) of the microstructures. To investigate structure--property relationships through modeling and simulation, strategies for generating synthetic microstructures are discussed and a computer program that generates randomized microstructures with desired configurations of clustering described by the Area Disorder Function is formulated and presented. In the computer program, two

  14. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  15. A non-linear programming approach to the computer-aided design of regulators using a linear-quadratic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, P.

    1985-01-01

    A design technique is proposed for linear regulators in which a feedback controller of fixed structure is chosen to minimize an integral quadratic objective function subject to the satisfaction of integral quadratic constraint functions. Application of a non-linear programming algorithm to this mathematically tractable formulation results in an efficient and useful computer-aided design tool. Particular attention is paid to computational efficiency and various recommendations are made. Two design examples illustrate the flexibility of the approach and highlight the special insight afforded to the designer.

  16. Computer-aided drug design at Boehringer Ingelheim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muegge, Ingo; Bergner, Andreas; Kriegl, Jan M.

    2016-09-01

    Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) is an integral part of the drug discovery endeavor at Boehringer Ingelheim (BI). CADD contributes to the evaluation of new therapeutic concepts, identifies small molecule starting points for drug discovery, and develops strategies for optimizing hit and lead compounds. The CADD scientists at BI benefit from the global use and development of both software platforms and computational services. A number of computational techniques developed in-house have significantly changed the way early drug discovery is carried out at BI. In particular, virtual screening in vast chemical spaces, which can be accessed by combinatorial chemistry, has added a new option for the identification of hits in many projects. Recently, a new framework has been implemented allowing fast, interactive predictions of relevant on and off target endpoints and other optimization parameters. In addition to the introduction of this new framework at BI, CADD has been focusing on the enablement of medicinal chemists to independently perform an increasing amount of molecular modeling and design work. This is made possible through the deployment of MOE as a global modeling platform, allowing computational and medicinal chemists to freely share ideas and modeling results. Furthermore, a central communication layer called the computational chemistry framework provides broad access to predictive models and other computational services.

  17. Promoting Shared Decision Making in Disorders of Sex Development (DSD): Decision Aids and Support Tools.

    PubMed

    Siminoff, L A; Sandberg, D E

    2015-05-01

    Specific complaints and grievances from adult patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), and their advocates center around the lack of information or misinformation they were given about their condition and feeling stigmatized and shamed by the secrecy surrounding their condition and its management. Many also attribute poor sexual function to damaging genital surgery and/or repeated, insensitive genital examinations. These reports suggest the need to reconsider the decision-making process for the treatment of children born with DSD. This paper proposes that shared decision making, an important concept in adult health care, be operationalized for the major decisions commonly encountered in DSD care and facilitated through the utilization of decision aids and support tools. This approach may help patients and their families make informed decisions that are better aligned with their personal values and goals. It may also lead to greater confidence in decision making with greater satisfaction and less regret. A brief review of the past and current approach to DSD decision making is provided, along with a review of shared decision making and decision aids and support tools. A case study explores the need and potential utility of this suggested new approach.

  18. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 10: Computer-Aided Drafting & Design, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  19. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  20. Trajectory Design Tools for Libration and Cis-Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Webster, Cassandra M.; Bosanac, Natasha; Cox, Andrew; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2016-01-01

    Innovative trajectory design tools are required to support challenging multi-body regimes with complex dynamics, uncertain perturbations, and the integration of propulsion influences. Two distinctive tools, Adaptive Trajectory Design and the General Mission Analysis Tool have been developed and certified to provide the astrodynamics community with the ability to design multi-body trajectories. In this paper we discuss the multi-body design process and the capabilities of both tools. Demonstrable applications to confirmed missions, the Lunar IceCube Cubesat lunar mission and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Sun-Earth L2 mission, are presented.

  1. Perceptions of the Design of Voice Output Communication Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Simon; Townend, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Voice output communication aids (VOCAs) are a key form of aided communication within the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In recent years, rapid developments in technology have resulted in an explosion of devices available commercially, yet little research has been conducted into what people who use VOCAs…

  2. NREL Multiphysics Modeling Tools and ISC Device for Designing Safer Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Yang, Chuanbo

    2016-03-24

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a portfolio of multiphysics modeling tools to aid battery designers better understand the response of lithium ion batteries to abusive conditions. We will discuss this portfolio, which includes coupled electrical, thermal, chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical modeling. These models can simulate the response of a cell to overheating, overcharge, mechanical deformation, nail penetration, and internal short circuit. Cell-to-cell thermal propagation modeling will be discussed.

  3. Applying macro design tools to the design of MEMS accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Rodgers, M.S.; Montague, S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the design of two different surface micromachined (MEMS) accelerometers and the use of design and analysis tools intended for macro sized devices. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronics circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor are first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the wafer substrate. The trench is then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface is then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing. Next, the CMOS electronics are fabricated and the mechanical structures are released. The mechanical structure of each sensor consists of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. One polysilicon plate mass is suspended using compliant springs forming a variable capacitor. The other polysilicon plate mass is suspended using very stiff springs acting as a fixed capacitor. Acceleration is measured by comparing the variable capacitance with the fixed capacitance during acceleration.

  4. Involving users in the design cycle for parallel tools

    SciTech Connect

    Pancake, C.M.

    1995-01-31

    Parallel programmers do not use software tools, in spite of the fact that parallel application development is a difficult and time- consuming task that could benefit from tool support. It has become increasingly clear that the simple availability of elegant, powerful software tools employing the latest technology is not enough. Usability is the real key to success; users simply do not adopt tools that fail to respond to their needs. Research in the area of usability engineering indicates that five design principles can have significant impact on parallel tool usability. {sm_bullet} tools must be based on demonstrable user requirements {sm_bullet} actively involve users throughout tool design {sm_bullet} minimize tool complexity to reduce the learning curve {sm_bullet} support the tool across multiple machine platforms to amortize the user`s investment {sm_bullet} employ iterative refinement techniques to improve tool usability. Those principles served as the starting point for a Parallel Tools Consortium project to develop a tool that will help users determine the final state of a program that crashes or is terminated forcibly. Carried out over a period of ten months, the project involved the collaboration of tool researchers, and implementors, and users. This report describes how user-centered design techniques were applied to ensure that the tool would provide simple, intuitive support for the programmer`s task.

  5. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  6. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  7. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  8. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  9. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  10. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  11. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  12. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  13. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  14. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  15. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  16. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  17. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  18. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  19. Computational thermodynamics aided design of novel ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Chen, Tianyi; Tan, Lizhen

    2016-06-30

    With the aid of computational thermodynamics, Ni was identified to suppress the liquidus temperature of Fe2Zr and four Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr alloys were designed to study the Ni effect on the phase stability of Fe2Zr laves_phase. These alloys were fabricated through traditional arc-metling, followed by annealing at 1000 C for 336 hours and 700 C for 1275 hours. The microstructure were examined and characterized by SEM BSE image, EDS compositional mapping and point scan, XRD and TEM analysis. The major results were summarized below: 1)For investigated alloys with 12wt% Cr, 3~6wt% Zr and 3~9 wt%Ni, the phases in equilibrium with the BCC phase are C15_Laves phase, Fe23Zr6 phase. The volume fraction of intermetallic phases increases with Ni and Zr contents. 2)Instead of (Fe,Cr)2Zr C14_Laves phase, Ni stabilizes the C15_Laves structure in Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr alloys by substituting Fe and Cr atoms with Ni atoms in the first sublattice. 3)Fe23Zr6, that is metastable in the Fe-Cr-Zr ternary, is also stabilized by Ni addition. 4)Ni7Zr2 phase was observed in samples with high Ni/Zr ratio. Extensive solubility of Fe was identified in the phase. The microstructural and composition results obtained from this study will be incorportated into the the Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr database. The current samples will be subjected to ion irradiaition to be compared with those results for Fe-Cr-Zr alloys. Additional alloys will be designed to form (Fe,Cr,Ni)2Zr nanoprecipitates for further studies.

  20. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  1. Using GREENSCOPE Indicators for Sustainable Computer-Aided Process Evaluation and Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manufacturing sustainability can be increased by educating those who design, construct, and operate facilities, and by using appropriate tools for process evaluation and design. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE methodology and tool, for evaluation and design ...

  2. Conceptual design of clean processes: Tools and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hurme, M.

    1996-12-31

    Design tools available for implementing clean design into practice are discussed. The application areas together with the methods of comparison of clean process alternatives are presented. Environmental principles are becoming increasingly important in the whole life cycle of products from design, manufacturing and marketing to disposal. The hinder of implementing clean technology in design has been the necessity to apply it in all phases of design starting from the beginning, since it deals with the major selections made in the conceptual process design. Therefore both a modified design approach and new tools are needed for process design to make the application of clean technology practical. The first item; extended process design methodologies has been presented by Hurme, Douglas, Rossiter and Klee, Hilaly and Sikdar. The aim of this paper is to discuss the latter topic; the process design tools which assist in implementing clean principles into process design. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. In search of tools to aid logical thinking and communicating about medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Hunink, M G

    2001-01-01

    To have real-time impact on medical decision making, decision analysts need a wide variety of tools to aid logical thinking and communication. Decision models provide a formal framework to integrate evidence and values, but they are commonly perceived as complex and difficult to understand by those unfamiliar with the methods, especially in the context of clinical decision making. The theory of constraints, introduced by Eliyahu Goldratt in the business world, provides a set of tools for logical thinking and communication that could potentially be useful in medical decision making. The author used the concept of a conflict resolution diagram to analyze the decision to perform carotid endarterectomy prior to coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with both symptomatic coronary and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. The method enabled clinicians to visualize and analyze the issues, identify and discuss the underlying assumptions, search for the best available evidence, and use the evidence to make a well-founded decision. The method also facilitated communication among those involved in the care of the patient. Techniques from fields other than decision analysis can potentially expand the repertoire of tools available to support medical decision making and to facilitate communication in decision consults.

  4. Tool path influence on electric pulse aided deformation during incremental sheet metal forming

    SciTech Connect

    Asgar, J.; Lingam, R. Reddy, V. N.

    2013-12-16

    Titanium and its alloys are difficult to form at room temperature due to their high flow stress. Super plastic deformation of Ti alloys involves low strain rate forming at very high temperatures which need special tooling which can withstand high temperatures. It was observed that when high current density electric pulse is applied during deformation it reduces the flow stress through electron-dislocation interaction. This phenomenon is known as electro-plasticity. In the present work, importance of tool configuration to enhance the formability without much resistive heating is demonstrated for Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISMF). Tool configuration is selected to minimize the current carrying zone in DC pulse aided incremental forming to enhance the formability due to electro plasticity and the same is demonstrated by forming two pyramid shaped components of 30° and 45° wall angles using a Titanium alloy sheet of 0.6 mm thickness. Load measurement indicated that a critical current density is essential for the electro-plasticity to be effective and the same is realized with the load and temperature measurements.

  5. Computer-aided Molecular Design of Compounds Targeting Histone Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Federico; Del Rio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidences show that epigenetic mechanisms play crucial roles in the genesis and progression of many physiopathological processes. As a result, research in epigenetic grew at a fast pace in the last decade. In particular, the study of histone post-translational modifications encountered an extraordinary progression and many modifications have been characterized and associated to fundamental biological processes and pathological conditions. Histone modifications are the catalytic result of a large set of enzyme families that operate covalent modifications on specific residues at the histone tails. Taken together, these modifications elicit a complex and concerted processing that greatly contribute to the chromatin remodeling and may drive different pathological conditions, especially cancer. For this reason, several epigenetic targets are currently under validation for drug discovery purposes and different academic and industrial programs have been already launched to produce the first pre-clinical and clinical outcomes. In this scenario, computer-aided molecular design techniques are offering important tools, mainly as a consequence of the increasing structural information available for these targets. In this mini-review we will briefly discuss the most common types of known histone modifications and the corresponding operating enzymes by emphasizing the computer-aided molecular design approaches that can be of use to speed-up the efforts to generate new pharmaceutically relevant compounds. PMID:26082827

  6. Design Tools for Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Mathew; Graham, Paul; Wirthlin, Michael; Larchev, Gregory; Bellows, Peter; Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO) project is focused on creating a set of design tools that facilitate and automate design techniques for reconfigurable computing in space, using SRAM-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) technology. These tools leverage an established FPGA design environment and focus primarily on space effects mitigation and power optimization. The project is creating software to automatically test and evaluate the single-event-upsets (SEUs) sensitivities of an FPGA design and insert mitigation techniques. Extensions into the tool suite will also allow evolvable algorithm techniques to reconfigure around single-event-latchup (SEL) events. In the power domain, tools are being created for dynamic power visualiization and optimization. Thus, this technology seeks to enable the use of Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit, via an integrated design tool-suite aiming to reduce risk, cost, and design time of multimission reconfigurable space processors using SRAM-based FPGAs.

  7. Design review - A tool for all seasons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The origins of design review are considered together with questions of definitions. The main characteristics which distinguish the concept of design review discussed from the basic master-apprentice relationship include competence, objectivity, formality, and a systematic approach. Preliminary, major, and final reviews are the steps used in the management of the design and development process in each company. It is shown that the design review is generically a systems engineering milestone review with certain unique characteristics.

  8. Application of Process Modeling Tools to Ship Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    NAVSEA Frank Waldman; LATTIX May 2011 APPLICATION OF PROCESS MODELING TOOLS TO SHIP DESIGN Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Application of Process Modeling Tools to Ship Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...design teams – Long design schedules – Complicated acquisition procedures • We are applying commercial process modeling techniques for: – Better

  9. Compositing Visualization Tools for Improving Design Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Wayne C.

    2005-01-01

    Today's designers deal with a range of communication modes. These modes vary from hand gestures to sketches, physical models, and computer-generated images. It has been the norm to use these mediums throughout the process to visualize the intended design so that the potential users, designers, team members, and clients can understand the end…

  10. The Design Log: A New Informational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The design log is a record of observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, and performance specifications for each space in a structure. It is a systematic approach to design that integrates information about user needs with traditional architectural programming and design. (Author/MLF)

  11. Barriers and Facilitators to Patient-Provider Communication When Discussing Breast Cancer Risk to Aid in the Development of Decision Support Tools

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Haeseung; Xiao, Tong; Thomas, Parijatham S.; Aguirre, Alejandra N.; Smalletz, Cindy; Dimond, Jill; Finkelstein, Joseph; Infante, Katherine; Trivedi, Meghna; David, Raven; Vargas, Jennifer; Crew, Katherine D.; Kukafka, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to patient-provider communication when discussing breast cancer risk to aid in the development of decision support tools. Four patient focus groups (N=34) and eight provider focus groups (N=10) took place in Northern Manhattan. A qualitative analysis was conducted using Atlas.ti software. The coding yielded 62.3%–94.5% agreement. The results showed that 1) barriers are time constraints, lack of knowledge, low health literacy, and language barriers, and 2) facilitators are information needs, desire for personalization, and autonomy when communicating risk in patient-provider encounters. These results will inform the development of a patient-centered decision aid (RealRisks) and a provider-facing breast cancer risk navigation (BNAV) tool, which are designed to facilitate patient-provider risk communication and shared decision-making about breast cancer prevention strategies, such as chemoprevention. PMID:26958276

  12. Barriers and Facilitators to Patient-Provider Communication When Discussing Breast Cancer Risk to Aid in the Development of Decision Support Tools.

    PubMed

    Yi, Haeseung; Xiao, Tong; Thomas, Parijatham S; Aguirre, Alejandra N; Smalletz, Cindy; Dimond, Jill; Finkelstein, Joseph; Infante, Katherine; Trivedi, Meghna; David, Raven; Vargas, Jennifer; Crew, Katherine D; Kukafka, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to patient-provider communication when discussing breast cancer risk to aid in the development of decision support tools. Four patient focus groups (N=34) and eight provider focus groups (N=10) took place in Northern Manhattan. A qualitative analysis was conducted using Atlas.ti software. The coding yielded 62.3%-94.5% agreement. The results showed that 1) barriers are time constraints, lack of knowledge, low health literacy, and language barriers, and 2) facilitators are information needs, desire for personalization, and autonomy when communicating risk in patient-provider encounters. These results will inform the development of a patient-centered decision aid (RealRisks) and a provider-facing breast cancer risk navigation (BNAV) tool, which are designed to facilitate patient-provider risk communication and shared decision-making about breast cancer prevention strategies, such as chemoprevention.

  13. Designing of a digital behind-the-ear hearing aid to meet the World Health Organization requirements.

    PubMed

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Penteado, Silvio Pires

    2010-06-01

    Hearing loss is a common health issue that affects nearly 10% of the world population as indicated by many international studies. The hearing impaired typically experience more frustration, anxiety, irritability, depression, and disorientation than those with normal hearing levels. The standard rehabilitation tool for hearing impairment is an electronic hearing aid whose main components are transducers (microphone and receiver) and a digital signal processor. These electronic components are manufactured by supply chain rather than by hearing aid manufacturers. Manufacturers can use custom-designed components or generic off-the-shelf components. These electronic components are available as application-specific or off-the-shelf products, with the former designed for a specific manufacturer and the latter for a generic approach. The choice of custom or generic components will affect the product specifications, pricing, manufacturing, life cycle, and marketing strategies of the product. The World Health Organization is interested in making available to developing countries hearing aids that are inexpensive to purchase and maintain. The hearing aid presented in this article was developed with these specifications in mind together with additional contemporary features such as four channels with wide dynamic range compression, an adjustable compression rate for each channel, four comfort programs, an adaptive feedback manager, and full volume control. This digital hearing aid is fitted using a personal computer with minimal hardware requirements in intuitive three-step fitting software. A trimmer-adjusted version can be developed where human and material resources are scarce.

  14. Designing of a Digital Behind-the-Ear Hearing Aid to Meet the World Health Organization Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Penteado, Silvio Pires

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common health issue that affects nearly 10% of the world population as indicated by many international studies. The hearing impaired typically experience more frustration, anxiety, irritability, depression, and disorientation than those with normal hearing levels. The standard rehabilitation tool for hearing impairment is an electronic hearing aid whose main components are transducers (microphone and receiver) and a digital signal processor. These electronic components are manufactured by supply chain rather than by hearing aid manufacturers. Manufacturers can use custom-designed components or generic off-the-shelf components. These electronic components are available as application-specific or off-the-shelf products, with the former designed for a specific manufacturer and the latter for a generic approach. The choice of custom or generic components will affect the product specifications, pricing, manufacturing, life cycle, and marketing strategies of the product. The World Health Organization is interested in making available to developing countries hearing aids that are inexpensive to purchase and maintain. The hearing aid presented in this article was developed with these specifications in mind together with additional contemporary features such as four channels with wide dynamic range compression, an adjustable compression rate for each channel, four comfort programs, an adaptive feedback manager, and full volume control. This digital hearing aid is fitted using a personal computer with minimal hardware requirements in intuitive three-step fitting software. A trimmer-adjusted version can be developed where human and material resources are scarce. PMID:20724354

  15. Role of Graphics Tools in the Learning Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laisney, Patrice; Brandt-Pomares, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the design activities of students in secondary school in France. Graphics tools are now part of the capacity of design professionals. It is therefore apt to reflect on their integration into the technological education. Has the use of intermediate graphical tools changed students' performance, and if so in what direction, in…

  16. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  17. Harnessing Polypharmacology with Computer-Aided Drug Design and Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Wathieu, Henri; Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2016-01-01

    The ascent of polypharmacology in drug development has many implications for disease therapy, most notably in the efforts of drug discovery, drug repositioning, precision medicine and combination therapy. The single- target approach to drug development has encountered difficulties in predicting drugs that are both clinically efficacious and avoid toxicity. By contrast, polypharmacology offers the possibility of a controlled distribution of effects on a biological system. This review addresses possibilities and bottlenecks in the efficient computational application of polypharmacology. The two major areas we address are the discovery and prediction of multiple protein targets using the tools of computer-aided drug design, and the use of these protein targets in predicting therapeutic potential in the context of biological networks. The successful application of polypharmacology to systems biology and pharmacology has the potential to markedly accelerate the pace of development of novel therapies for multiple diseases, and has implications for the intellectual property landscape, likely requiring targeted changes in patent law.

  18. Regression analysis as a design optimization tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perley, R.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization concepts are described in relation to an overall design process as opposed to a detailed, part-design process where the requirements are firmly stated, the optimization criteria are well established, and a design is known to be feasible. The overall design process starts with the stated requirements. Some of the design criteria are derived directly from the requirements, but others are affected by the design concept. It is these design criteria that define the performance index, or objective function, that is to be minimized within some constraints. In general, there will be multiple objectives, some mutually exclusive, with no clear statement of their relative importance. The optimization loop that is given adjusts the design variables and analyzes the resulting design, in an iterative fashion, until the objective function is minimized within the constraints. This provides a solution, but it is only the beginning. In effect, the problem definition evolves as information is derived from the results. It becomes a learning process as we determine what the physics of the system can deliver in relation to the desirable system characteristics. As with any learning process, an interactive capability is a real attriubute for investigating the many alternatives that will be suggested as learning progresses.

  19. Game Methodology for Design Methods and Tools Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Lahonde, Nathalie; Omhover, Jean-françois

    2014-01-01

    Design process optimisation and intelligence are the key words of today's scientific community. A proliferation of methods has made design a convoluted area. Designers are usually afraid of selecting one method/tool over another and even expert designers may not necessarily know which method is the best to use in which circumstances. This…

  20. Computer-Aided Molecular Design of Bis-phosphine Oxide Lanthanide Extractants

    DOE PAGES

    McCann, Billy W.; Silva, Nuwan De; Windus, Theresa L.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Computer-aided molecular design and high-throughput screening of viable host architectures can significantly reduce the efforts in the design of novel ligands for efficient extraction of rare earth elements. This paper presents a computational approach to the deliberate design of bis-phosphine oxide host architectures that are structurally organized for complexation of trivalent lanthanides. Molecule building software, HostDesigner, was interfaced with molecular mechanics software, PCModel, providing a tool for generating and screening millions of potential R2(O)P-link-P(O)R2 ligand geometries. The molecular mechanics ranking of ligand structures is consistent with both the solution-phase free energies of complexation obtained with density functional theory and themore » performance of known bis-phosphine oxide extractants. For the case where link is -CH2-, evaluation of the ligand geometry provides the first characterization of a steric origin for the ‘anomalous aryl strengthening’ effect. The design approach has identified a number of novel bis-phosphine oxide ligands that are better organized for lanthanide complexation than previously studied examples.« less

  1. Computer-Aided Molecular Design of Bis-phosphine Oxide Lanthanide Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, Billy W.; Silva, Nuwan De; Windus, Theresa L.; Gordon, Mark S.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2016-02-17

    Computer-aided molecular design and high-throughput screening of viable host architectures can significantly reduce the efforts in the design of novel ligands for efficient extraction of rare earth elements. This paper presents a computational approach to the deliberate design of bis-phosphine oxide host architectures that are structurally organized for complexation of trivalent lanthanides. Molecule building software, HostDesigner, was interfaced with molecular mechanics software, PCModel, providing a tool for generating and screening millions of potential R2(O)P-link-P(O)R2 ligand geometries. The molecular mechanics ranking of ligand structures is consistent with both the solution-phase free energies of complexation obtained with density functional theory and the performance of known bis-phosphine oxide extractants. For the case where link is -CH2-, evaluation of the ligand geometry provides the first characterization of a steric origin for the ‘anomalous aryl strengthening’ effect. The design approach has identified a number of novel bis-phosphine oxide ligands that are better organized for lanthanide complexation than previously studied examples.

  2. Design tools for complex dynamic security systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Rigdon, James Brian; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Laguna, Glenn A.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Groom, Kenneth Neal; Wilson, David Gerald; Bickerstaff, Robert J.; Harrington, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The development of tools for complex dynamic security systems is not a straight forward engineering task but, rather, a scientific task where discovery of new scientific principles and math is necessary. For years, scientists have observed complex behavior but have had difficulty understanding it. Prominent examples include: insect colony organization, the stock market, molecular interactions, fractals, and emergent behavior. Engineering such systems will be an even greater challenge. This report explores four tools for engineered complex dynamic security systems: Partially Observable Markov Decision Process, Percolation Theory, Graph Theory, and Exergy/Entropy Theory. Additionally, enabling hardware technology for next generation security systems are described: a 100 node wireless sensor network, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.

  3. Next-Generation Ion Thruster Design Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computational tools that accurately predict the performance of electric propulsion devices are highly desirable and beneficial to NASA and the broader electric propulsion community. The current state of the art in electric propulsion modeling relies heavily on empirical data and numerous computational "knobs." In Phase I of this project, Tech-X Corporation developed the most detailed ion engine discharge chamber model that currently exists. This kinetic model simulates all particles in the discharge chamber along with a physically correct simulation of the electric fields. In addition, kinetic erosion models are included for modeling the ion-impingement effects on thruster component erosion. In Phase II, Tech-X developed a user-friendly computer program for NASA and other governmental and industry customers. Tech-X has implemented a number of advanced numerical routines to bring the computational time down to a commercially acceptable level. NASA now has a highly sophisticated, user-friendly ion engine discharge chamber modeling tool.

  4. Designer nanoparticle: nanobiotechnology tool for cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B.; Khan, Niamat Ali

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the use of nanotechnology for subcellular compartment isolation and its application towards subcellular omics. This technology review significantly contributes to our understanding on use of nanotechnology for subcellular systems biology. Here we elaborate nanobiotechnology approach of using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) optimized with different surface coatings for subcellular organelle isolation. Using pulse-chase approach, we review that SPMNPs interacted differently with the cell depending on its surface functionalization. The article focuses on the use of functionalized-SPMNPs as a nanobiotechnology tool to isolate high quality (both purity and yield) plasma membranes and endosomes or lysosomes. Such nanobiotechnology tool can be applied in generating subcellular compartment inventories. As a future perspective, this strategy could be applied in areas such as immunology, cancer and stem cell research.

  5. Engineer's Notebook--A Design Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2011-01-01

    As technology education continues to consider a move toward an engineering design focus as proposed by various leaders in technology education, it will be necessary to employ new pedagogical approaches. Hill (2006) provided some new perspectives regarding pedagogical approaches for technology education with an engineering design focus. One…

  6. Hull Form Design and Optimization Tool Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Combatants • Unconventional Surface Combatants • Twin - Screw , Open-Stern, UNREP and Auxiliary • Single- Screw , Closed-Stern, UNREP and Auxiliary • Single...Waterplane Area Twin Hull TriSWACH – Trimaran Small Waterplane Area Center Hull UI – User Interface UNREP – Underway Replenishment Naval Surface...resistance prediction tool for SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) ships. An example of a SWATH ship is shown in Figure 11. The input files

  7. Tools Lighten Designs, Maintain Structural Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Collier Research Corporation of Hampton, Virginia, licensed software developed at Langley Research Center to reduce design weight through the use of composite materials. The first license of NASA-developed software, it has now been used in everything from designing next-generation cargo containers, to airframes, rocket engines, ship hulls, and train bodies. The company now has sales of the NASA-derived software topping $4 million a year and has recently received several Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to apply its software to nearly all aspects of the new Orion crew capsule design.

  8. Inspiration from Victorian times in Ultrasonic Surgical Tool Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganilova, O. A.; Lucas, M.; Pan, Z.; Y Muir, A.; Simpson, H.

    2012-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of performance of surgical tools used in orthopaedics in terms of the occurrence of signs of necrosis, the accuracy of the cut and cutting tool design. For the comparison of the surgical tool performance different types of cutting devices were studied in a series of experiments. A Victorian surgical saw, its copy, a contemporary surgical saw, a surgical scalpel and an ultrasonic blade designed for a surgical application were chosen for the performance assessment. Such geometrical parameters as cutting edge shape, angle of teeth inclination, and sharpness of the cutting tools were analysed in terms of the quality of the cut and signs of necrosis. As a result of the analysis of experimental data obtained and theoretical insight the authors have come up with a creative solution for a novel design for a surgical ultrasonic blade which benefits from the design advantages of each of the analysed surgical tools and eliminates their drawbacks.

  9. Status of the VOTech Design Study about User Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, M.; Pierfederici, F.; Allen, M.; Boch, T.; Bonnarel, F.; Derrière, S.; Fernique, P.; Noddle, K.; Smareglia, R.

    2006-07-01

    The VOTech design study on future tools started in spring 2005. This project, co-funded by the EC, produces design documents and software prototypes for new VO-compliant end-user tools. It is based on the experience and feedback of precursor projects and on input from the scientific user community. This status report details a number of early deliverables available from the project pages wiki.eurovotech.org, section DS4. This includes a summary of existing tools, desired future tools as derived from the AVO SRM, requirements for a cross matcher, a simple method for transferring instrumental footprints, use cases for simulations and the evaluation of various technologies.

  10. Design enhancement tools in MSC/NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    Design sensitivity is the calculation of derivatives of constraint functions with respect to design variables. While a knowledge of these derivatives is useful in its own right, the derivatives are required in many efficient optimization methods. Constraint derivatives are also required in some reanalysis methods. It is shown where the sensitivity coefficients fit into the scheme of a basic organization of an optimization procedure. The analyzer is to be taken as MSC/NASTRAN. The terminator program monitors the termination criteria and ends the optimization procedure when the criteria are satisfied. This program can reside in several plances: in the optimizer itself, in a user written code, or as part of the MSC/EOS (Engineering Operating System) MSC/EOS currently under development. Since several excellent optimization codes exist and since they require such very specialized technical knowledge, the optimizer under the new MSC/EOS is considered to be selected and supplied by the user to meet his specific needs and preferences. The one exception to this is a fully stressed design (FSD) based on simple scaling. The gradients are currently supplied by various design sensitivity options now existing in MSC/NASTRAN's design sensitivity analysis (DSA).

  11. Formative assessment and design of a complex clinical decision support tool for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sundas; McCullagh, Lauren; Press, Anne; Kharche, Manish; Schachter, Andy; Pardo, Salvatore; McGinn, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Electronic health record (EHR)-based clinical decision support (CDS) tools are rolled out with the urgency to meet federal requirements without time for usability testing and refinement of the user interface. As part of a larger project to design, develop and integrate a pulmonary embolism CDS tool for emergency physicians, we conducted a formative assessment to determine providers' level of interest and input on designs and content. This was a study to conduct a formative assessment of emergency medicine (EM) physicians that included focus groups and key informant interviews. The focus of this study was twofold, to determine the general attitude towards CDS tool integration and the ideal integration point into the clinical workflow. To accomplish this, we first approached EM physicians in a focus group, then, during key informant interviews, we presented workflow designs and gave a scenario to help the providers visualise how the CDS tool works. Participants were asked questions regarding the trigger location, trigger words, integration into their workflow, perceived utility and heuristic of the tool. Results from the participants' survey responses to trigger location, perceived utility and efficiency, indicated that the providers felt the tool would be more of a hindrance than an aid. However, some providers commented that they had not had exposure to CDS tools but had used online calculators, and thought the tools would be helpful at the point-of-care if integrated into the EHR. Furthermore, there was a preference for an order entry wireframe. This study highlights several factors to consider when designing CDS tools: (1) formative assessment of EHR functionality and clinical environment workflow, (2) focus groups and key informative interviews to incorporate providers' perceptions of CDS and workflow integration and/or (3) the demonstration of proposed workflows through wireframes to help providers visualise design concepts.

  12. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  13. Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

    1987-02-01

    This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.

  14. Design of an aid to visual inspection workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Robert; Harding, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Visual Inspection is the most common means for inspecting manufactured parts for random defects such as pits, scratches, breaks, corrosion or general wear. The reason for the need for visual inspection is the very random nature of what might be a defect. Some defects may be very rare, being seen once or twice a year, but May still be critical to part performance. Because of this random and rare nature, even the most sophisticated image analysis programs have not been able to recognize all possible defects. Key to any future automation of inspection is obtaining good sample images of what might be a defect. However, most visual check take no images and consequently generate no digital data or historical record beyond a simple count. Any additional tool to captures such images must be able to do so without taking addition time. This paper outlines the design of a potential visual inspection station that would be compatible with current visual inspection methods, but afford the means for reliable digital imaging and in many cases augmented capabilities to assist the inspection. Considerations in this study included: resolution, depth of field, feature highlighting, and ease of digital capture, annotations and inspection augmentation for repeatable registration as well as operator assistance and training.

  15. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; van Noort, Ric; Apresyan, Samvel; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT) images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26064701

  16. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; Zecca, Piero Antonio; van Noort, Ric; Apresyan, Samvel; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo; Mangano, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT) images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results.

  17. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Hydroxyapatite/Epoxide Acrylate Maleic Compound Construction for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shen, Shunyao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing hydroxyapatite (HA)/epoxide acrylate maleic (EAM) compound construction artificial implants for craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Computed tomography, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and three-dimensional reconstruction, as well as rapid prototyping were performed in 12 patients between 2008 and 2013. The customized HA/EAM compound artificial implants were manufactured through selective laser sintering using a rapid prototyping machine into the exact geometric shapes of the defect. The HA/EAM compound artificial implants were then implanted during surgical reconstruction. Color-coded superimpositions demonstrated the discrepancy between the virtual plan and achieved results using Geomagic Studio. As a result, the HA/EAM compound artificial bone implants were perfectly matched with the facial areas that needed reconstruction. The postoperative aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory. The color-coded superimpositions demonstrated good consistency between the virtual plan and achieved results. The three-dimensional maximum deviation is 2.12 ± 0.65  mm and the three-dimensional mean deviation is 0.27 ± 0.07  mm. No facial nerve weakness or pain was observed at the follow-up examinations. Only 1 implant had to be removed 2 months after the surgery owing to severe local infection. No other complication was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, computer-aided, individually fabricated HA/EAM compound construction artificial implant was a good craniomaxillofacial surgical technique that yielded improved aesthetic results and functional recovery after reconstruction.

  18. Designing Effective Tools for Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E.; Todd, A.

    2005-12-01

    The current debate about climate change reveals gaps in public knowledge about causes and effects of global warming. This points to a need for updated educational models for increasing public understanding of climate change. The results from a series of surveys given to primarily non-science undergraduates from diverse backgrounds indicate that a majority of these students harbor significant misconceptions about the basic science related to global warming, and the relationship between global warming and ozone depletion. This interdisciplinary project seeks to frame new directions for environmental education, in particular developing pedagogical tools for increasing environmental awareness both in the classroom and also as part of public outreach programs. Initial directions include inquiry based learning and personal environmental impact as a motivator for learning.

  19. Computing tools for accelerator design calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Nash, T.

    1984-01-01

    This note is intended as a brief, summary guide for accelerator designers to the new generation of commercial and special processors that allow great increases in computing cost effectiveness. New thinking is required to take best advantage of these computing opportunities, in particular, when moving from analytical approaches to tracking simulations. In this paper, we outline the relevant considerations.

  20. Engineering Design Modules as Physics Teaching Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Douglas L.; Kane, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Pre-engineering is increasingly being taught as a high school subject. This development presents challenges as well as opportunities for the physics education community. If pre-engineering is taught as a separate class, it may divert resources and students from traditional physics classes. However, design modules can be used as physics teaching…

  1. Collaborative Translations: Designing Bilingual Instructional Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Christopher S.; Puzio, Kelly; Jiménez, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the role of collaboration and multilingual literacy as 21st-century skills, the authors used design research methods to present, analyze, and refine a strategic reading approach for bilingual students. The collaborative translation strategy involves reading an academic text, translating key passages, and evaluating these translations.…

  2. DPPrimer – A Degenerate PCR Primer Design Tool

    PubMed Central

    Gahoi, Shachi; Arya, L; Anil, Rai; Marla, ss

    2013-01-01

    Designed degenerate primers unlike conventional primers are superior in matching and amplification of large number of genes, from related gene families. DPPrimer tool was designed to predict primers for PCR amplification of homologous gene from related or diverse plant species. The key features of this tool include platform independence and user friendliness in primer design. Embedded features such as search for functional domains, similarity score selection and phylogebetic tree further enhance the user friendliness of DPPrimer tool. Performance of DPPrimer tool was evaluated by successful PCR amplification of ADP-glucose phosphorylase genes from wheat, barley and rice. Availability DPPrimer is freely accessible at http://202.141.12.147/DGEN_tool/index.html PMID:24307773

  3. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.104 Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid...

  4. Improving Tools and Processes in Mechanical Design Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative product development projects in the aerospace and defense industry are held hostage to high cost and risk due to poor alignment of collaborative design tools and processes. This impasse can be broken if companies will jointly develop implementation approaches and practices in support of high value working arrangements. The current tools can be used to better advantage in many situations and there is reason for optimism that tool vendors will provide significant support.

  5. Resources for Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The information available here is presented as a tool to help school districts and facility planners design the next generation of learning environments so that the school facility will help schools in achieving their core mission of educating children.

  6. A quick guide to CRISPR sgRNA design tools

    PubMed Central

    Brazelton, Vincent A; Zarecor, Scott; Wright, David A; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Jie; Chen, Keting; Yang, Bing; Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Targeted genome editing is now possible in nearly any organism and is widely acknowledged as a biotech game-changer. Among available gene editing techniques, the CRISPR-Cas9 system is the current favorite because it has been shown to work in many species, does not necessarily result in the addition of foreign DNA at the target site, and follows a set of simple design rules for target selection. Use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system is facilitated by the availability of an array of CRISPR design tools that vary in design specifications and parameter choices, available genomes, graphical visualization, and downstream analysis functionality. To help researchers choose a tool that best suits their specific research needs, we review the functionality of various CRISPR design tools including our own, the CRISPR Genome Analysis Tool (CGAT; http://cropbioengineering.iastate.edu/cgat). PMID:26745836

  7. A quick guide to CRISPR sgRNA design tools.

    PubMed

    Brazelton, Vincent A; Zarecor, Scott; Wright, David A; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Jie; Chen, Keting; Yang, Bing; Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J

    2015-01-01

    Targeted genome editing is now possible in nearly any organism and is widely acknowledged as a biotech game-changer. Among available gene editing techniques, the CRISPR-Cas9 system is the current favorite because it has been shown to work in many species, does not necessarily result in the addition of foreign DNA at the target site, and follows a set of simple design rules for target selection. Use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system is facilitated by the availability of an array of CRISPR design tools that vary in design specifications and parameter choices, available genomes, graphical visualization, and downstream analysis functionality. To help researchers choose a tool that best suits their specific research needs, we review the functionality of various CRISPR design tools including our own, the CRISPR Genome Analysis Tool (CGAT; http://cropbioengineering.iastate.edu/cgat ).

  8. Practicing universal design to actual hand tool design process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2015-09-01

    UD evaluation principles are difficult to implement in product design. This study proposes a methodology for implementing UD in the design process through user participation. The original UD principles and user experience are used to develop the evaluation items. Difference of product types was considered. Factor analysis and Quantification theory type I were used to eliminate considered inappropriate evaluation items and to examine the relationship between evaluation items and product design factors. Product design specifications were established for verification. The results showed that converting user evaluation into crucial design verification factors by the generalized evaluation scale based on product attributes as well as the design factors applications in product design can improve users' UD evaluation. The design process of this study is expected to contribute to user-centered UD application.

  9. Distributed design tools: Mapping targeted design tools onto a Web-based distributed architecture for high-performance computing

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Poore, C.A.

    1999-11-30

    Design Tools use a Web-based Java interface to guide a product designer through the design-to-analysis cycle for a specific, well-constrained design problem. When these Design Tools are mapped onto a Web-based distributed architecture for high-performance computing, the result is a family of Distributed Design Tools (DDTs). The software components that enable this mapping consist of a Task Sequencer, a generic Script Execution Service, and the storage of both data and metadata in an active, object-oriented database called the Product Database Operator (PDO). The benefits of DDTs include improved security, reliability, scalability (in both problem size and computing hardware), robustness, and reusability. In addition, access to the PDO unlocks its wide range of services for distributed components, such as lookup and launch capability, persistent shared memory for communication between cooperating services, state management, event notification, and archival of design-to-analysis session data.

  10. Design Tools for Assessing Manufacturing Environmental Impact.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-26

    Batch Size?(1)__ Quality % Scrap? (0)-100% % Recycle? (0)-[100- % Scrapi % % Good Parts equals [100-[% Scrap + % Recyclel Appendix A 7 3.0 Filament...Quality % Scrap? (0-100% % Good Parts equals [100-% Scrapi Appendix A 24 6.0 Finishing SubModel Design Any No M Go to Machining? Finishing? Menu s Yes...part?_ Quality % Scrap? (0)-100% % Good Parts equals f 100- % Scrapi Waste % of original material discarded as waste?(0)__ Appendix A 32 7.0 Quality Insp

  11. Computer aided design of microcircuits. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-09-01

    Government sponsored research covering the computer aided design, modeling, layout, and packaging of integrated and other microelectronic circuits are cited. Computer programs and the use of computer graphics are included.

  12. Aerospace Power Systems Design and Analysis (APSDA) Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.

    1998-01-01

    The conceptual design of space and/or planetary electrical power systems has required considerable effort. Traditionally, in the early stages of the design cycle (conceptual design), the researchers have had to thoroughly study and analyze tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operating parameters (such as frequencies) to optimize system mass, efficiency, reliability, and cost. This process could take anywhere from several months to several years (as for the former Space Station Freedom), depending on the scale of the system. Although there are many sophisticated commercial software design tools for personal computers (PC's), none of them can support or provide total system design. To meet this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center cooperated with Professor George Kusic from the University of Pittsburgh to develop a new tool to help project managers and design engineers choose the best system parameters as quickly as possible in the early design stages (in days instead of months). It is called the Aerospace Power Systems Design and Analysis (APSDA) Tool. By using this tool, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, bus power, and electrical load schedule. With APSDA, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. user interface. It operates on any PC running the MS-DOS (Microsoft Corp.) operating system, version 5.0 or later. A color monitor (EGA or VGA) and two-button mouse are required. The APSDA tool was presented at the 30th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC) and is being beta tested at several NASA centers. Beta test packages are available for evaluation by contacting the author.

  13. Investigation into the development of computer aided design software for space based sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pender, C. W.; Clark, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    The described effort is phase one of the development of a Computer Aided Design (CAD) software to be used to perform radiometric sensor design. The software package will be referred to as SCAD and is directed toward the preliminary phase of the design of space based sensor system. The approach being followed is to develop a modern, graphic intensive, user friendly software package using existing software as building blocks. The emphasis will be directed toward the development of a shell containing menus, smart defaults, and interfaces, which can accommodate a wide variety of existing application software packages. The shell will offer expected utilities such as graphics, tailored menus, and a variety of drivers for I/O devices. Following the development of the shell, the development of SCAD is planned as chiefly selection and integration of appropriate building blocks. The phase one development activities have included: the selection of hardware which will be used with SCAD; the determination of the scope of SCAD; the preliminary evaluation of a number of software packages for applicability to SCAD; determination of a method for achieving required capabilities where voids exist; and then establishing a strategy for binding the software modules into an easy to use tool kit.

  14. Visualization and modeling of factors influencing visibility in computer-aided crewstation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arditi, Aries; Azueta, Steven; Larimer, James; Prevost, Michael; Lubin, Jeffrey; Bergen, James

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two modules for use in computer-aided design (CAD) of crewstation environments that enhance the designer's appreciation of factors influencing the pilot's vision and visual processing capacity. The Binocular Optics Module (BOM) is an interactive tool for visualizing geometric aspects of (1) how retinal imagery of the environment changes on the pilot's retinas under conditions of eye and object motion, and (2) how visual capabilities that can be modeled as regions or contours on the retinas, affect spatial perception of the environment. The Visual Performance Module (VPM) contains a signal processing model of human visual discrimination that quantitatively predicts visual discrimination performance. The outputs of the VPM are retinal contours that represent performance probabilities. These contours may be used as inputs to the BOM for visualizing those volumes of space within the crewstation that bound different levels of the pilot's of visual discrimination capability. Used together, the BOM and VPM provide the designer with the opportunity to interactively explore relationships between environmental retinal imagery and visual function, and the ability to factor the pilot's visual capabilities into the earliest phases of crewstation CAD.

  15. Comparative study of auxetic geometries by means of computer-aided design and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez Elipe, Juan Carlos; Díaz Lantada, Andrés

    2012-10-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several auxetic and potentially auxetic geometries have been summarized in previous reviews and research, precise information regarding relevant properties for design tasks is not always provided. In this study we present a comparative study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional auxetic geometries carried out by means of computer-aided design and engineering tools (from now on CAD-CAE). The first part of the study is focused on the development of a CAD library of auxetics. Once the library is developed we simulate the behavior of the different auxetic geometries and elaborate a systematic comparison, considering relevant properties of these geometries, such as Poisson ratio(s), maximum volume or area reductions attainable and equivalent Young’s modulus, hoping it may provide useful information for future designs of devices based on these interesting structures.

  16. Tools for Designing and Analyzing Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Structural Design and Analysis Toolset is a collection of approximately 26 Microsoft Excel spreadsheet programs, each of which performs calculations within a different subdiscipline of structural design and analysis. These programs present input and output data in user-friendly, menu-driven formats. Although these programs cannot solve complex cases like those treated by larger finite element codes, these programs do yield quick solutions to numerous common problems more rapidly than the finite element codes, thereby making it possible to quickly perform multiple preliminary analyses - e.g., to establish approximate limits prior to detailed analyses by the larger finite element codes. These programs perform different types of calculations, as follows: 1. determination of geometric properties for a variety of standard structural components; 2. analysis of static, vibrational, and thermal- gradient loads and deflections in certain structures (mostly beams and, in the case of thermal-gradients, mirrors); 3. kinetic energies of fans; 4. detailed analysis of stress and buckling in beams, plates, columns, and a variety of shell structures; and 5. temperature dependent properties of materials, including figures of merit that characterize strength, stiffness, and deformation response to thermal gradients

  17. Correction of facial and mandibular asymmetry using a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing prefabricated titanium implant.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jason; Hatamleh, Muhanad; Alwahadni, Ahed; Srinivasan, Dilip

    2014-05-01

    Patients with significant craniofacial asymmetry may have functional problems associated with their occlusion and aesthetic concerns related to the imbalance in soft and hard tissue profiles. This report details a case of facial asymmetry secondary to left mandible angle deficiency due to undergoing previous radiotherapy. We describe the correction of the bony deformity using computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing custom-made titanium onlay using novel direct metal laser sintering. The direct metal laser sintering onlay proved a very accurate operative fit and showed a good aesthetic correction of the bony defect with no reported complications postoperatively. It is a useful low-morbidity technique, and there is no resorption or associated donor-site complications.

  18. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks.

    PubMed

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H Cervantes

    2013-09-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner.

  19. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  20. Automatic Differentiation as a tool in engineering design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Hall, Laura E.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic Differentiation (AD) is a tool that systematically implements the chain rule of differentiation to obtain the derivatives of functions calculated by computer programs. In this paper, it is assessed as a tool for engineering design. The paper discusses the forward and reverse modes of AD, their computing requirements, and approaches to implementing AD. It continues with application to two different tools to two medium-size structural analysis problems to generate sensitivity information typically necessary in an optimization or design situation. The paper concludes with the observation that AD is to be preferred to finite differencing in most cases, as long as sufficient computer storage is available.

  1. Fixed-point Design of the Lattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection and Decoding Receiver for Coded MIMO Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    REPORT Fixed-point Design of theLattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection andDecoding Receiver for Coded MIMO Systems 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Fixed-point Design of theLattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection andDecoding Receiver for Coded ...important, this report illustrates the performance of coded LR aided detectors. 1 Fixed-point Design of the Lattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection and

  2. Design of dynamic load-balancing tools for parallel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, K.D.; Hendrickson, B.A.; Boman, E.G.; St. John, M.; Vaughan, C.T.

    2000-01-03

    The design of general-purpose dynamic load-balancing tools for parallel applications is more challenging than the design of static partitioning tools. Both algorithmic and software engineering issues arise. The authors have addressed many of these issues in the design of the Zoltan dynamic load-balancing library. Zoltan has an object-oriented interface that makes it easy to use and provides separation between the application and the load-balancing algorithms. It contains a suite of dynamic load-balancing algorithms, including both geometric and graph-based algorithms. Its design makes it valuable both as a partitioning tool for a variety of applications and as a research test-bed for new algorithmic development. In this paper, the authors describe Zoltan's design and demonstrate its use in an unstructured-mesh finite element application.

  3. A tool to aid emergency managers and communities in appraising private dam safety and policy.

    PubMed

    Pisaniello, John D; McKay, Jennifer

    2007-06-01

    Issues concerning dam safety and equitable sharing of catchment run-off are receiving more attention throughout the world. This paper assesses these matters in the context of Australia, and the need for policy responses. Landholders often overlook the common law obligation to review/design dams to current standards because of high costs, leaving them vulnerable to litigation if their dam fails. The paper reports on an innovative spillway design/review procedure, applicable to southeast Australia, but transferable to any region worldwide. Dam safety policy models and guidelines derived from international best practice are linked to the procedure and intended to aid government decision-making. The procedure minimises costs to landholders and provides an acceptable level of safety assurance to downstream communities. Also discussed are recent surveys testing community attitudes to the procedure and implemented dam safety and water allocation policies. These further guide any government wanting to implement this'integrated engineering and community partnerships'approach to preventing potential disasters due to private dam failure and achieving sustainable and safe water storage and use.

  4. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  5. Mutual Aid Agreements: Essential Legal Tools for Public Health Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Daniel D.; Goodman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Mutual aid is the sharing of supplies, equipment, personnel, and information across political boundaries. States must have agreements in place to ensure mutual aid to facilitate effective responses to public health emergencies and to detect and control potential infectious disease outbreaks. The 2005 hurricanes triggered activation of the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), a mutual aid agreement among the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. Although EMAC facilitated the movement of an unprecedented amount of mutual aid to disaster areas, inadequacies in the response demonstrated a need for improvement. Mutual aid may also be beneficial in circumstances where EMAC is not activated. We discuss the importance of mutual aid, examine obstacles, and identify legal “gaps” that must be filled to strengthen preparedness. PMID:17413085

  6. Computer-Aided Design Of Turbine Blades And Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wayne Q.

    1988-01-01

    Quasi-three-dimensional method for determining aerothermodynamic configuration of turbine uses computer-interactive analysis and design and computer-interactive graphics. Design procedure executed rapidly so designer easily repeats it to arrive at best performance, size, structural integrity, and engine life. Sequence of events in aerothermodynamic analysis and design starts with engine-balance equations and ends with boundary-layer analysis and viscous-flow calculations. Analysis-and-design procedure interactive and iterative throughout.

  7. Productive Conjunctions: The Design of Effective Literacy and Thinking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David

    2005-01-01

    The application of research outcomes aligned to a single paradigm can result in the design of polarized classroom pedagogies. In contrast, the application of multi-paradigmatic perspectives can result in the design of effective literacy and thinking tools. The research outcomes from cognitive and neuro-psychologists adopting normative…

  8. Orchestrating Learning Activities Using the CADMOS Learning Design Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsamani, Maria; Retalis, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of CADMOS (CoursewAre Development Methodology for Open instructional Systems), a graphical IMS-LD Level A & B compliant learning design (LD) tool, which promotes the concept of "separation of concerns" during the design process, via the creation of two models: the conceptual model, which describes the…

  9. SAPTA: a new design tool for improving TALE nuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanni; Fine, Eli J; Zheng, Zhilan; Antico, Christopher J; Voit, Richard A; Porteus, Matthew H; Cradick, Thomas J; Bao, Gang

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have become a powerful tool for genome editing due to the simple code linking the amino acid sequences of their DNA-binding domains to TALEN nucleotide targets. While the initial TALEN-design guidelines are very useful, user-friendly tools defining optimal TALEN designs for robust genome editing need to be developed. Here we evaluated existing guidelines and developed new design guidelines for TALENs based on 205 TALENs tested, and established the scoring algorithm for predicting TALEN activity (SAPTA) as a new online design tool. For any input gene of interest, SAPTA gives a ranked list of potential TALEN target sites, facilitating the selection of optimal TALEN pairs based on predicted activity. SAPTA-based TALEN designs increased the average intracellular TALEN monomer activity by >3-fold, and resulted in an average endogenous gene-modification frequency of 39% for TALENs containing the repeat variable di-residue NK that favors specificity rather than activity. It is expected that SAPTA will become a useful and flexible tool for designing highly active TALENs for genome-editing applications. SAPTA can be accessed via the website at http://baolab.bme.gatech.edu/Research/BioinformaticTools/TAL_targeter.html.

  10. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  11. Mathematical models as aids for design and development of experiments: the case of transgenic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Robert, Michael A; Legros, Mathieu; Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M; Scott, Thomas W; Gould, Fred; Lloyd, Alun L

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate the utility of models as aids in the design and development of experiments aimed at measuring the effects of proposed vector population control strategies. We describe the exploration of a stochastic, age-structured model that simulates field cage experiments that test the ability of a female-killing strain of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) to suppress a wild-type population. Model output predicts that choices of release ratio and population size can impact mean extinction time and variability in extinction time among experiments. We find that unless fitness costs are >80% they will not be detectable in experiments with high release ratios. At lower release ratios, the predicted length of the experiment increases significantly for fitness costs >20%. Experiments with small populations may more accurately reflect field conditions, but extinction can occur even in the absence of a functional female-killing construct because of stochastic effects. We illustrate how the model can be used to explore experimental designs that aim to study the impact of density dependence and immigration; predictions indicate that cage population eradication may not always be obtainable in an operationally realistic time frame. We propose a method to predict the extinction time of a cage population based on the rate of population reduction with the goal of shortening the duration of the experiment. We discuss the model as a tool for exploring and assessing the utility of a wider range of scenarios than would be feasible to test experimentally because of financial and temporal restraints.

  12. Computer-aided design of stripline ferrite junction circulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    A general design procedure is presented for stripline Y-junction circulators employing solid dielectric between ground planes. The resonator design and impedance matching are derived in a form suitable for computer evaluation. The procedure is applicable to cases where either the circulator bandwidth or the ground plane spacing is specified. An experimental S-band switching circulator design illustrates the technique.

  13. Implementation and display of Computer Aided Design (CAD) models in Monte Carlo radiation transport and shielding applications

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, T.J.

    1994-03-01

    An Xwindow application capable of importing geometric information directly from two Computer Aided Design (CAD) based formats for use in radiation transport and shielding analyses is being developed at ORNL. The application permits the user to graphically view the geometric models imported from the two formats for verification and debugging. Previous models, specifically formatted for the radiation transport and shielding codes can also be imported. Required extensions to the existing combinatorial geometry analysis routines are discussed. Examples illustrating the various options and features which will be implemented in the application are presented. The use of the application as a visualization tool for the output of the radiation transport codes is also discussed.

  14. Visual aid tool to improve decision making in acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Goyal, Mayank; Majoie, Charles; Dippel, Diederik; Roos, Yvo; Demchuk, Andrew; Menon, Bijoy; Mitchell, Peter; Campbell, Bruce; Dávalos, Antoni; Jovin, Tudor; Hill, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Background Acute stroke care represents a challenge for decision makers. Recent randomized trials showed the benefits of endovascular therapy. Our goal was to provide a visual aid tool to guide clinicians in the decision process of endovascular intervention in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We created visual plots (Cates' plots; www.nntonline.net ) representing benefits of standard of care vs. endovascular thrombectomy from the pooled analysis of five RCTs using stent retrievers. These plots represent the following clinically relevant outcomes (1) functionally independent state (modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0 to 2 at 90 days) (2) excellent recovery (mRS 0-1) at 90 days, (3) NIHSS 0-2 (4) early neurological recovery, and (5) revascularization at 24 h. Subgroups visually represented include time to treatment and baseline stroke severity strata. Results Overall, 1287 patients (634 assigned to endovascular thrombectomy, 653 assigned to control were included to create the visual plots. Cates' visual plots revealed that for every 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion, 27 would achieve independence at 90 days (mRS 0-2) in the control group compared to 49 (95% CI 43-56) in the intervention group. Similarly, 21 patients would achieve early neurological recovery at 24 h compared to 54 (95% CI 45-63) out of 100 for the intervention group. Conclusion Cates' plots may assist clinicians and patients to visualize and compare potential outcomes after an acute ischemic stroke. Our results suggest that for every 100 treated individuals with an acute ischemic stroke and a large vessel occlusion, endovascular thrombectomy would provide 22 additional patients reaching independency at three months and 33 more patients achieving ENR compared to controls.

  15. Mutationmapper: a tool to aid the mapping of protein mutation data.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Shabana; Biggin, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the amount of mutational data due to, amongst other things, an increase in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and the use of site-directed mutagenesis as a tool to help dissect out functional properties of proteins. Many manually curated databases have been developed to index point mutations but they are not sustainable with the ever-increasing volume of scientific literature. There have been considerable efforts in the automatic extraction of mutation specific information from raw text involving use of various text-mining approaches. However, one of the key problems is to link these mutations with its associated protein and to present this data in such a way that researchers can immediately contextualize it within a structurally related family of proteins. To aid this process, we have developed an application called MutationMapper. Point mutations are extracted from abstracts and are validated against protein sequences in Uniprot as far as possible. Our methodology differs in a fundamental way from the usual text-mining approach. Rather than start with abstracts, we start with protein sequences, which facilitates greatly the process of validating a potential point mutation identified in an abstract. The results are displayed as mutations mapped on to the protein sequence or a multiple sequence alignment. The latter enables one to readily pick up mutations performed at equivalent positions in related proteins. We demonstrate the use of MutationMapper against several examples including a single sequence and multiple sequence alignments. The application is available as a web-service at http://mutationmapper.bioch.ox.ac.uk.

  16. Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) in USN Shipyards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    D-Ri38 398 METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM / (COMPUTER-HIDED DESIGN/COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING) IN USN SHIPYARDS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE...Monterey, California DT I ~" t • EB3 1984 THESIS METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM IN USN SHIPYARDS by Richard B. Grahlman March 1984 Thesis...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM Mastrch 1984 i in UM Sipyads. PERFORMIANG ORG. REPORT NUM8ER 7- AUHOW11111 4

  17. The multimod application framework: a rapid application development tool for computer aided medicine.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Zannoni, Cinzia; Testi, Debora; Petrone, Marco; Perticoni, Stefano; Quadrani, Paolo; Taddei, Fulvia; Imboden, Silvano; Clapworthy, Gordon

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a new application framework (OpenMAF) for rapid development of multimodal applications in computer-aided medicine. MAF applications are multimodal in data, in representation, and in interaction. The framework supports almost any type of biomedical data, including DICOM datasets, motion-capture recordings, or data from computer simulations (e.g. finite element modeling). The interactive visualization approach (multimodal display) helps the user interpret complex datasets, providing multiple representations of the same data. In addition, the framework allows multimodal interaction by supporting the simultaneous use of different input-output devices like 3D trackers, stereoscopic displays, haptics hardware and speech recognition/synthesis systems. The Framework has been designed to run smoothly even on limited power computers, but it can take advantage of all hardware capabilities. The Framework is based on a collection of portable libraries and it can be compiled on any platform that supports OpenGL, including Windows, MacOS X and any flavor of Unix/linux.

  18. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  19. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Model for Designing HIV/AIDS Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Janet K.; Sanou, Missa P.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Coleman, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) discovered in 1986 is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats. FIV is classified into five subtypes (A–E), and all subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants have been identified throughout the world. A commercial FIV vaccine, consisting of inactivated subtype-A and –D viruses (Fel-O-Vax FIV, Fort Dodge Animal Health), was released in the United States in 2002. The United States Department of Agriculture approved the commercial release of Fel-O-Vax FIV based on two efficacy trials using 105 laboratory cats and a major safety trial performed on 689 pet cats. The prototype and commercial FIV vaccines had broad prophylactic efficacy against global FIV subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants. The mechanisms of cross-subtype efficacy are attributed to FIV-specific T-cell immunity. Findings from these studies are being used to define the prophylactic epitopes needed for an HIV-1 vaccine for humans. PMID:20210778

  20. Web-based software tool for constraint-based design specification of synthetic biological systems.

    PubMed

    Oberortner, Ernst; Densmore, Douglas

    2015-06-19

    miniEugene provides computational support for solving combinatorial design problems, enabling users to specify and enumerate designs for novel biological systems based on sets of biological constraints. This technical note presents a brief tutorial for biologists and software engineers in the field of synthetic biology on how to use miniEugene. After reading this technical note, users should know which biological constraints are available in miniEugene, understand the syntax and semantics of these constraints, and be able to follow a step-by-step guide to specify the design of a classical synthetic biological system-the genetic toggle switch.1 We also provide links and references to more information on the miniEugene web application and the integration of the miniEugene software library into sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools for synthetic biology ( www.eugenecad.org ).

  1. Using Modern Design Tools for Digital Avionics Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, David W.; Lakin, David R., II; Asquith, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    Using Modem Design Tools for Digital Avionics Development Shrinking development time and increased complexity of new avionics forces the designer to use modem tools and methods during hardware development. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have successfully upgraded their design flow and used it to develop a Mongoose V based radiation tolerant processor board for the International Space Station's Water Recovery System. The design flow, based on hardware description languages, simulation, synthesis, hardware models, and full functional software model libraries, allowed designers to fully simulate the processor board from reset, through initialization before any boards were built. The fidelity of a digital simulation is limited to the accuracy of the models used and how realistically the designer drives the circuit's inputs during simulation. By using the actual silicon during simulation, device modeling errors are reduced. Numerous design flaws were discovered early in the design phase when they could be easily fixed. The use of hardware models and actual MIPS software loaded into full functional memory models also provided checkout of the software development environment. This paper will describe the design flow used to develop the processor board and give examples of errors that were found using the tools. An overview of the processor board firmware will also be covered.

  2. Streamlining the Design-to-Build Transition with Build-Optimization Software Tools.

    PubMed

    Oberortner, Ernst; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Hillson, Nathan J; Deutsch, Samuel

    2017-03-17

    Scaling-up capabilities for the design, build, and test of synthetic biology constructs holds great promise for the development of new applications in fuels, chemical production, or cellular-behavior engineering. Construct design is an essential component in this process; however, not every designed DNA sequence can be readily manufactured, even using state-of-the-art DNA synthesis methods. Current biological computer-aided design and manufacture tools (bioCAD/CAM) do not adequately consider the limitations of DNA synthesis technologies when generating their outputs. Designed sequences that violate DNA synthesis constraints may require substantial sequence redesign or lead to price-premiums and temporal delays, which adversely impact the efficiency of the DNA manufacturing process. We have developed a suite of build-optimization software tools (BOOST) to streamline the design-build transition in synthetic biology engineering workflows. BOOST incorporates knowledge of DNA synthesis success determinants into the design process to output ready-to-build sequences, preempting the need for sequence redesign. The BOOST web application is available at https://boost.jgi.doe.gov and its Application Program Interfaces (API) enable integration into automated, customized DNA design processes. The herein presented results highlight the effectiveness of BOOST in reducing DNA synthesis costs and timelines.

  3. Formal design methods for reliable computer-aided diagnosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Faust, Oliver; Acharya, U Rajendra; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    Physiological signals, medical images, and biosystems can be used to access the health of a subject and they can support clinicians by improving the diagnosis for treatment purposes. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in healthcare applications can help in automated decision making, visualization and extraction of hidden complex features to aid in the clinical diagnosis. These CAD systems focus on improving the quality of patient care with a minimum of fault due to device failures. In this paper, we argue that a formal and model driven design methodology can lead to systems which meet this requirement. Modeling is not new to CAD, but modeling for systems design is less explored. Therefore, we discuss selected systems design techniques and provide a more concrete design example on computer-aided diagnosis and automated decision making.

  4. Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor

    2012-05-31

    Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) present higher efficiency, larger production rate, and can be operated in deeper wells than the other geothermal artificial lifting systems. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) applications recommend lifting 300 C geothermal water at 80kg/s flow rate in a maximum 10-5/8-inch diameter wellbore to improve the cost-effectiveness. In this paper, an advanced ESP design tool comprising a 1D theoretical model and a 3D CFD analysis has been developed to design ESPs for geothermal applications. Design of Experiments was also performed to optimize the geometry and performance. The designed mixed-flow type centrifugal impeller and diffuser exhibit high efficiency and head rise under simulated EGS conditions. The design tool has been validated by comparing the prediction to experimental data of an existing ESP product.

  5. Computer-aided methods in bespoke breast prosthesis design and fabrication.

    PubMed

    Eggbeer, D; Evans, P

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents a method of utilizing computer-aided design technologies to provide bespoke, external breast prostheses. The technique is illustrated through a case study of a mastectomy patient. Photogrammetry methods were used to capture the breast form when supported by a brassiere and the unsupported breast and defect side. Computer-aided design techniques were used to generate a digital prosthesis based upon the supported breast shape and with a fitting surface that matched the defect side. Furthermore, a two-part mould was designed and fabricated using rapid prototyping methods. A colour-matched prosthesis was then fabricated in a gel-based, platinum-cured silicone.

  6. Internet MEMS design tools based on component technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueck, Rainer; Schumer, Christian

    1999-03-01

    The micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) industry in Europe is characterized by small and medium sized enterprises specialized on products to solve problems in specific domains like medicine, automotive sensor technology, etc. In this field of business the technology driven design approach known from micro electronics is not appropriate. Instead each design problem aims at its own, specific technology to be used for the solution. The variety of technologies at hand, like Si-surface, Si-bulk, LIGA, laser, precision engineering requires a huge set of different design tools to be available. No single SME can afford to hold licenses for all these tools. This calls for a new and flexible way of designing, implementing and distributing design software. The Internet provides a flexible manner of offering software access along with methodologies of flexible licensing e.g. on a pay-per-use basis. New communication technologies like ADSL, TV cable of satellites as carriers promise to offer a bandwidth sufficient even for interactive tools with graphical interfaces in the near future. INTERLIDO is an experimental tool suite for process specification and layout verification for lithography based MEMS technologies to be accessed via the Internet. The first version provides a Java implementation even including a graphical editor for process specification. Currently, a new version is brought into operation that is based on JavaBeans component technology. JavaBeans offers the possibility to realize independent interactive design assistants, like a design rule checking assistants, a process consistency checking assistants, a technology definition assistants, a graphical editor assistants, etc. that may reside distributed over the Internet, communicating via Internet protocols. Each potential user thus is able to configure his own dedicated version of a design tool set dedicated to the requirements of the current problem to be solved.

  7. OntoMate: a text-mining tool aiding curation at the Rat Genome Database

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weisong; Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; Hayman, G. Thomas; Wang, Shur-Jen; Nigam, Rajni; Smith, Jennifer R.; De Pons, Jeff; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Shimoyama, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is the premier repository of rat genomic, genetic and physiologic data. Converting data from free text in the scientific literature to a structured format is one of the main tasks of all model organism databases. RGD spends considerable effort manually curating gene, Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) and strain information. The rapidly growing volume of biomedical literature and the active research in the biological natural language processing (bioNLP) community have given RGD the impetus to adopt text-mining tools to improve curation efficiency. Recently, RGD has initiated a project to use OntoMate, an ontology-driven, concept-based literature search engine developed at RGD, as a replacement for the PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) search engine in the gene curation workflow. OntoMate tags abstracts with gene names, gene mutations, organism name and most of the 16 ontologies/vocabularies used at RGD. All terms/ entities tagged to an abstract are listed with the abstract in the search results. All listed terms are linked both to data entry boxes and a term browser in the curation tool. OntoMate also provides user-activated filters for species, date and other parameters relevant to the literature search. Using the system for literature search and import has streamlined the process compared to using PubMed. The system was built with a scalable and open architecture, including features specifically designed to accelerate the RGD gene curation process. With the use of bioNLP tools, RGD has added more automation to its curation workflow. Database URL: http://rgd.mcw.edu PMID:25619558

  8. OntoMate: a text-mining tool aiding curation at the Rat Genome Database.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weisong; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Hayman, G Thomas; Wang, Shur-Jen; Nigam, Rajni; Smith, Jennifer R; De Pons, Jeff; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is the premier repository of rat genomic, genetic and physiologic data. Converting data from free text in the scientific literature to a structured format is one of the main tasks of all model organism databases. RGD spends considerable effort manually curating gene, Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) and strain information. The rapidly growing volume of biomedical literature and the active research in the biological natural language processing (bioNLP) community have given RGD the impetus to adopt text-mining tools to improve curation efficiency. Recently, RGD has initiated a project to use OntoMate, an ontology-driven, concept-based literature search engine developed at RGD, as a replacement for the PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) search engine in the gene curation workflow. OntoMate tags abstracts with gene names, gene mutations, organism name and most of the 16 ontologies/vocabularies used at RGD. All terms/ entities tagged to an abstract are listed with the abstract in the search results. All listed terms are linked both to data entry boxes and a term browser in the curation tool. OntoMate also provides user-activated filters for species, date and other parameters relevant to the literature search. Using the system for literature search and import has streamlined the process compared to using PubMed. The system was built with a scalable and open architecture, including features specifically designed to accelerate the RGD gene curation process. With the use of bioNLP tools, RGD has added more automation to its curation workflow. Database URL: http://rgd.mcw.edu.

  9. Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1988-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational

  10. Vertical ridge augmentation of the atrophic posterior mandible with custom-made, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Figliuzzi, Michele; Mangano, Francesco Guido; Fortunato, Leonzio; De Fazio, Rossella; Macchi, Aldo; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Carlo

    2013-05-01

    The present study describes a new protocol for the manufacturing of custom-made hydroxyapatite scaffolds using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), to augment posterior mandibular bone and minimize surgery when severe atrophy is present. Computed tomographic images of an atrophic posterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model. This model was transferred as a stereolithographic file to a CAD program, where virtual 3D reconstructions of the alveolar ridge were performed, drawing 2 anatomically shaped, custom-made scaffolds. Computer-aided-manufacturing software generated a set of tool-paths for manufacture on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D projects. Clinically sized, anatomically shaped scaffolds were generated from commercially available porous hydroxyapatite blocks. The custom-made scaffolds well matched the shape of the bone defects and could be easily implanted during surgery. This matching of the shape helped to reduce the time for the operation and contributed to the good healing of the defects. At the 6-month recall, a newly formed and well-integrated bone was observed, completely filling the mandibular posterior defects, and implants were placed, with good primary stability. At the 1-year follow-up examination, the implant-supported restorations showed a good functional and esthetic integration. Although this is an interim report, this study demonstrates that anatomically shaped custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining computed tomographic scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  11. EDECT: An Energy Design, Evaluation, and Comparison Tool.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    medium offices and retail stores , and private clinics are envelope dosinant examples. Conversely, system dominant buildings’ major energy loads come from...AD-A17l 261 EDECT: AN ENERGY DESIGN EVALUATION AND COMPARISON TOOL 1/2 (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH &RIGHT-PATTERSON AFS OH Wi D ALLEY 1986 RFIT/CI/NR...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EDECT: An Energy Design, Evaluation, and TlESIS/I~$ /r/t N Comparison Tool 6. PERFORMING ORG

  12. ADAPT: A knowledge-based synthesis tool for digital signal processing system design

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    A computer aided synthesis tool for expansion, compression, and filtration of digital images is described. ADAPT, the Autonomous Digital Array Programming Tool, uses an extensive design knowledge base to synthesize a digital signal processing (DSP) system. Input to ADAPT can be either a behavioral description in English, or a block level specification via Petri Nets. The output from ADAPT comprises code to implement the DSP system on an array of processors. ADAPT is constructed using C, Prolog, and X Windows on a SUN 3/280 workstation. ADAPT knowledge encompasses DSP component information and the design algorithms and heuristics of a competent DSP designer. The knowledge is used to form queries for design capture, to generate design constraints from the user's responses, and to examine the design constraints. These constraints direct the search for possible DSP components and target architectures. Constraints are also used for partitioning the target systems into less complex subsystems. The subsystems correspond to architectural building blocks of the DSP design. These subsystems inherit design constraints and DSP characteristics from their parent blocks. Thus, a DSP subsystem or parent block, as designed by ADAPT, must meet the user's design constraints. Design solutions are sought by searching the Components section of the design knowledge base. Component behavior which matches or is similar to that required by the DSP subsystems is sought. Each match, which corresponds to a design alternative, is evaluated in terms of its behavior. When a design is sufficiently close to the behavior required by the user, detailed mathematical simulations may be performed to accurately determine exact behavior.

  13. Computer-Aided Apparel Design in University Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleau, Bonnie D.; Bourgeois, Elva B.

    1991-01-01

    As computer-assisted design (CAD) become an integral part of the fashion industry, universities must integrate CAD into the apparel curriculum. Louisiana State University's curriculum enables students to collaborate in CAD problem solving with industry personnel. (SK)

  14. Computer-aided space shuttle orbiter wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Decker, J. P.; Rau, T. R.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical study was facilitated by the use of the Optimal Design Integration system (ODIN) and the experimental part of the investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel and the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel.

  15. The Design and Evaluation of "CAPTools"--A Computer Aided Parallelization Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Frumkin, Michael; Hribar, Michelle; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Johnson, Steve; Cross, Jark; Evans, Emyr; Ierotheou, Constantinos; Leggett, Pete; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Writing applications for high performance computers is a challenging task. Although writing code by hand still offers the best performance, it is extremely costly and often not very portable. The Computer Aided Parallelization Tools (CAPTools) are a toolkit designed to help automate the mapping of sequential FORTRAN scientific applications onto multiprocessors. CAPTools consists of the following major components: an inter-procedural dependence analysis module that incorporates user knowledge; a 'self-propagating' data partitioning module driven via user guidance; an execution control mask generation and optimization module for the user to fine tune parallel processing of individual partitions; a program transformation/restructuring facility for source code clean up and optimization; a set of browsers through which the user interacts with CAPTools at each stage of the parallelization process; and a code generator supporting multiple programming paradigms on various multiprocessors. Besides describing the rationale behind the architecture of CAPTools, the parallelization process is illustrated via case studies involving structured and unstructured meshes. The programming process and the performance of the generated parallel programs are compared against other programming alternatives based on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks, ARC3D and other scientific applications. Based on these results, a discussion on the feasibility of constructing architectural independent parallel applications is presented.

  16. An investigation of constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Originally, computer programs for engineering design focused on detailed geometric design. Later, computer programs for algorithmically performing the preliminary design of specific well-defined classes of objects became commonplace. However, due to the need for extreme flexibility, it appears unlikely that conventional programming techniques will prove fruitful in developing computer aids for engineering conceptual design. The use of symbolic processing techniques, such as object-oriented programming and constraint propagation, facilitate such flexibility. Object-oriented programming allows programs to be organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, rather than around fixed sequences of function- and subroutine-calls. Constraint propagation allows declarative statements to be understood as designating multi-directional mathematical relationships among all the variables of an equation, rather than as unidirectional assignments to the variable on the left-hand side of the equation, as in conventional computer programs. The research has concentrated on applying these two techniques to the development of a general-purpose computer aid for engineering conceptual design. Object-oriented programming techniques are utilized to implement a user-extensible database of design components. The mathematical relationships which model both geometry and physics of these components are managed via constraint propagation. In addition, to this component-based hierarchy, special-purpose data structures are provided for describing component interactions and supporting state-dependent parameters. In order to investigate the utility of this approach, a number of sample design problems from the field of aerospace engineering were implemented using the prototype design tool, Rubber Airplane. The additional level of organizational structure obtained by representing design knowledge in terms of components is observed to provide greater convenience to the program user, and to

  17. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  18. Using simulation to aid trial design: Ring-vaccination trials

    PubMed Central

    Hitchings, Matt David Thomas; Grais, Rebecca Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Background The 2014–6 West African Ebola epidemic highlights the need for rigorous, rapid clinical trial methods for vaccines. A challenge for trial design is making sample size calculations based on incidence within the trial, total vaccine effect, and intracluster correlation, when these parameters are uncertain in the presence of indirect effects of vaccination. Methods and findings We present a stochastic, compartmental model for a ring vaccination trial. After identification of an index case, a ring of contacts is recruited and either vaccinated immediately or after 21 days. The primary outcome of the trial is total vaccine effect, counting cases only from a pre-specified window in which the immediate arm is assumed to be fully protected and the delayed arm is not protected. Simulation results are used to calculate necessary sample size and estimated vaccine effect. Under baseline assumptions about vaccine properties, monthly incidence in unvaccinated rings and trial design, a standard sample-size calculation neglecting dynamic effects estimated that 7,100 participants would be needed to achieve 80% power to detect a difference in attack rate between arms, while incorporating dynamic considerations in the model increased the estimate to 8,900. This approach replaces assumptions about parameters at the ring level with assumptions about disease dynamics and vaccine characteristics at the individual level, so within this framework we were able to describe the sensitivity of the trial power and estimated effect to various parameters. We found that both of these quantities are sensitive to properties of the vaccine, to setting-specific parameters over which investigators have little control, and to parameters that are determined by the study design. Conclusions Incorporating simulation into the trial design process can improve robustness of sample size calculations. For this specific trial design, vaccine effectiveness depends on properties of the ring

  19. Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.

  20. Automatic differentiation as a tool in engineering design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Hall, Laura E.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic Differentiation (AD) is a tool that systematically implements the chain rule of differentiation to obtain the derivatives of functions calculated by computer programs. AD is assessed as a tool for engineering design. The forward and reverse modes of AD, their computing requirements, as well as approaches to implementing AD are discussed. The application of two different tools to two medium-size structural analysis problems to generate sensitivity information typically necessary in an optimization or design situation is also discussed. The observation is made that AD is to be preferred to finite differencing in most cases, as long as sufficient computer storage is available; in some instances, AD may be the alternative to consider in lieu of analytical sensitivity analysis.

  1. An internet tool for designing energy efficient homes

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, M.; Gomez, C.; Leeper, D.; Zurick, J.; Nindra, A.; Shen, J.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1999-07-01

    To help their 4.5 million residential customers make energy efficient decisions, Southern California Gas asked UCLA to develop an Internet-based simulation tool called Project REED (Residential Energy Efficient Design). The critical problem is to give these ratepayers an easy way to visualize the relative effectiveness of their various options. REED is a internet-based tool that calculates the annual gas and electricity cost for each separate building design or operating decision. Hourly climate data for the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY2) in all the climate zones in the SoCalGas service area are built in, as well as utility rates for each type of residential service. REED's Expert System first designs a basic Code Compliant home, then designs a more Energy Efficient design based on local climate, and it shows how much money ratepayers would save. The simulation engine inside REED is SOLAR-5, one of the nation's most widely used whole building energy design tools. SOLAR-5 has been validated against DOE-2 using the BESTEST procedure. This paper, one of a pair describing REED, explains the project from the user's point of view and describes what was learned from the Ratepayer Usability Test. The second paper explains the project from the simulation and software engineering point of view.

  2. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  3. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  4. Supporting Learning with Process Tools: Theory and Design Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrum, David A.; Knuth, Randy A.

    This report begins by discussing the implications of a constructivist epistemology for instructional design and development, as well as drawbacks of the content database in instruction, the lack of special tools to help the learner actively construct knowledge, and emphasis on learning environments based on individual learning. The whole learning…

  5. Teaching by Design: Tools and Techniques to Improve Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and other state standards have challenged teachers to rethink how they plan units and design their assignments within constraints of time and increasingly diverse classrooms. This article describes the author's efforts to create a coherent, useable set of tools to make his teaching at the unit and daily…

  6. Computer aided design of jet engine test cell exhaust systems

    SciTech Connect

    Collings, D.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized design procedure that provides a multi-directional analysis of available data is a proven method of developing accurate cost models and performing system trade-offs. The application to the engineering of exhaust silencing systems for jet engine test cells is discused.

  7. Design Principles for Computer-Aided Vocabulary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin

    1994-01-01

    Presents six principles for the design of adaptive computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs for vocabulary that incorporate a theory describing quality in the learning outcome and linking it to the learner's approach. Highlights include interactivity; general architecture of a software system; and diagnosis and modification. (Contains…

  8. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  9. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  10. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance.

  11. Interdisciplinary approach to tool-handle design based on medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Harih, G; Cretnik, A

    2013-01-01

    Products are becoming increasingly complex; therefore, designers are faced with a challenging task to incorporate new functionality, higher performance, and optimal shape design. Traditional user-centered design techniques such as designing with anthropometric data do not incorporate enough subject data to design products with optimal shape for best fit to the target population. To overcome these limitations, we present an interdisciplinary approach with medical imaging. The use of this approach is being presented on the development of an optimal sized and shaped tool handle where the hand is imaged using magnetic resonance imaging machine. The obtained images of the hand are reconstructed and imported into computer-aided design software, where optimal shape of the handle is obtained with Boolean operations. Methods can be used to develop fully customized products with optimal shape to provide best fit to the target population. This increases subjective comfort rating, performance and can prevent acute and cumulative trauma disorders. Provided methods are especially suited for products where high stresses and exceptional performance is expected (high performance tools, professional sports, and military equipment, etc.). With the use of these interdisciplinary methods, the value of the product is increased, which also increases the competitiveness of the product on the market.

  12. Experience gained at ZAO Ural Turbine Works with the use of computer-aided design systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenko, V. V.; Valamin, A. E.; Shanturov, D. N.; Sokolov, E. V.; Toibich, S. V.; Glushchenko, A. N.

    2008-08-01

    The results of work accomplished in the field of computer-aided design at ZAO Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) are presented. A concept is described following which the tasks for a specialist’s workstations being developed at the UTZ are solved. Results from solution of problems with the use of modern numerical simulation computer programs for analyzing gas dynamic processes, casting, welding, and strength of complex structures are given. An example is given to show efficient use of a computer-aided design system for shifting an enterprise to a modern level of automation.

  13. Design and ergonomics. Methods for integrating ergonomics at hand tool design stage.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Jacques; Claudon, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    As a marked increase in the number of musculoskeletal disorders was noted in many industrialized countries and more specifically in companies that require the use of hand tools, the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) launched in 1999 a research project on the topic of integrating ergonomics into hand tool design, and more particularly to a design of a boning knife. After a brief recall of the difficulties of integrating ergonomics at the design stage, the present paper shows how 3 design methodological tools--Functional Analysis, Quality Function Deployment and TRIZ--have been applied to the design of a boning knife. Implementation of these tools enabled us to demonstrate the extent to which they are capable of responding to the difficulties of integrating ergonomics into product design.

  14. Intelligent Embedded Instruction for Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    8217 convenience and according to their individual learning preferences. This benefit is extremely valuable for adult professionals whose needs may be highly...solving problems. Adult designers tend to develop their own personal ways of using CAD software which can optimize a system’s use. This ability has been...average age for subjects with more than 1 year of computer experience was 34 whereas those with less than 2 months of experience averaged 41 years old

  15. Use of the surface-based registration function of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing software in medical simulation software for three-dimensional simulation of orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Moon-Key

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography image models are helpful in reproducing the maxillofacial area; however, they do not necessarily provide an accurate representation of dental occlusion and the state of the teeth. Recent efforts have focused on improvement of dental imaging by replacement of computed tomography with other detailed digital images. Unfortunately, despite the advantages of medical simulation software in dentofacial analysis, diagnosis, and surgical simulation, it lacks adequate registration tools. Following up on our previous report on orthognathic simulation surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software, we recently used the registration functions of a CAD/CAM platform in conjunction with surgical simulation software. Therefore, we would like to introduce a new technique, which involves use of the registration functions of CAD/CAM software followed by transfer of the images into medical simulation software. This technique may be applicable when using various registration function tools from different software platforms.

  16. A CAD tool that automatically designs fixtures and pallets

    SciTech Connect

    Brost, R.C.; Peters, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    Costs associated with designing and fabricating fixtures may be a significant portion of the total costs associated with a manufacturing task. The software tool, HoldFast, designs optimal fixtures that hold a single workpiece, are easily fabricated, provide rigid constraint and deterministic location of the workpiece, are robust to workpiece shape variations, obey all associated task constraints, and are easy to load and unload. We illustrate the capabilities of HoldFast by designing fixtures for several examples. Fixtures are designed and built for finish-machining and drilling of a cast part for prototype fabrication and mass-production fabrication. A pallet fixture is designed for vertical assembly of a personal cassette player. Another pallet fixture is designed and built that will hold either the personal cassette player or a glue gun during assembly.

  17. Design, fabrication, and testing of contact-aided compliant cellular mechanisms with curved walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirone, Samantha A.; Hayes, Gregory R.; Babcox, Brian L.; Frecker, Mary; Adair, James H.; Lesieutre, George A.

    2011-03-01

    Contact-Aided Compliant Cellular Mechanisms (C3M) are compliant cellular structures with integrated contact mechanisms. The focus of the paper is on the design, fabrication, and testing of C3M with curved walls for high strain applications. It is shown that global strains were increased by replacing straight walls with curved walls in the traditional honeycomb structure, while the addition of contact mechanisms increased cell performance via stress relief in some cases. Furthermore, curved walls are beneficial for fabrication at the meso-scale. The basic curved honeycomb cell geometry is defined by a set of variables. These variables were optimized using Matlab and finite element analysis to find the best non-contact and contact-aided curved cell geometries as well as the cell geometry that provides the greatest stress relief. Currently, the most effective contact-aided curved honeycomb cell can withstand global strains approximately 160% greater than the most effective contact-aided, non-curved cell. Four different designs were fabricated via the Lost Mold-Rapid Infiltration Forming (LM-RIF) process. An array of the contact-aided optimized curved cell was then mechanically tested using a custom designed test rig, and the results were found to have a higher modulus of elasticity and lower global strain than the predictions. Despite these discrepancies, a high-strength highstrain cellular structure was developed, for potential use in morphing aircraft applications.

  18. Using digital electronic design flow to create a Genetic Design Automation tool.

    PubMed

    Gendrault, Y; Madec, M; Wlotzko, V; Andraud, M; Lallement, C; Haiech, J

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic bio-systems become increasingly more complex and their development is lengthy and expensive. In the same way, in microelectronics, the design process of very complex circuits has benefited from many years of experience. It is now partly automated through Electronic Design Automation tools. Both areas present analogies that can be used to create a Genetic Design Automation tool inspired from EDA tools used in digital electronics. This tool would allow moving away from a totally manual design of bio-systems to assisted conception. This ambitious project is presented in this paper, with a deep focus on the tool that automatically generates models of bio-systems directly usable in electronic simulators.

  19. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  20. Process Improvement Through Tool Integration in Aero-Mechanical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Emerging capabilities in commercial design tools promise to significantly improve the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary design and analysis coverage for aerospace mechanical engineers. This paper explores the analysis process for two example problems of a wing and flap mechanical drive system and an aircraft landing gear door panel. The examples begin with the design solid models and include various analysis disciplines such as structural stress and aerodynamic loads. Analytical methods include CFD, multi-body dynamics with flexible bodies and structural analysis. Elements of analysis data management, data visualization and collaboration are also included.

  1. Powerful tool for design analysis of linear control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maddux, Jr, A S

    1982-05-10

    The methods for designing linear controls for electronic or mechanical systems have been understood and put to practice. What has not been readily available to engineers, however, is a practical, quick and inexpensive method for analyzing these linear control (feedback) systems once they have been designed into the electronic or mechanical hardware. Now, the PET, manufactured by Commodore Business Machines (CBM), operating with several peripherals via the IEEE 488 Bus, brings to the engineer for about $4000 a complete set of office tools for analyzing these system designs.

  2. An ergonomic approach to design hand tool for agricultural production.

    PubMed

    Khidiya, Mahendra Singh; Bhardwaj, Awadhesh

    2012-01-01

    Hand tool mechanisms designed to reduce the risk factors have rarely been studied. In this paper it is analyze trowel firstly designing in CATIA and then its Finite Element Analysis has been carried out by ABAQUS. The main emphasis is on finding stresses by using this software, then removing them by suitable mechanical working on tool & ergonomic change in the design of handle to make it more comfortable. Body part discomfort score and overall discomfort rating experienced by the subjects had also been estimated. During the muscular activity workers physiological responses i.e. energy expenditure rate, oxygen consumption rate and heart rate increases. This increase in physiological responses is related to the type, intensity and duration of work and thus sets limits to the performance of heavy work. In this paper oxygen consumption rate and heart rate was used for physiological cost estimation. These parameters were measured by Computerized Ambulatory Metabolic Measurement System K4b2.

  3. A Study of Computer-Aided Geometric Optical Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    WAHLSTEDT OCT B2 AFIT/GEP/PH/82D-24 UNCLASSIFIED F /’G 9/2 N smhohmohholi EohhhhhhhhhhhE 1111.2 1 .6 mmiima __’___ MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL...The irting point () f the desigri was a Questar 3 inch telescope.. Avidj tional optic:l elements were added and " the design impoved until the desirF...The P|WI? J ) f e the lens is defined as the index of refractioni at ,ither focal point divided by the respective focal length. The power of the lens

  4. A Functional Level Preprocessor for Computer Aided Digital Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    the parsing of ucer input, is based on that for the computer language, PASCAL [J2,1J. The procedure is tle author’s original design Each line of input...NIKLAUS WIR~iN. PASCAL -USER:I MANUAL AmD REPORT. NEW YORK, NY: SPRINGER-VERLAG 1978 Li LANCAST17R, DOIN. CMOS CoORBOLK(A. IND)IANAPOLIS, IND): HOWAI(D...34flGS 0151, OtTAll me:;genera ted by SISL, duri -ne iti; last run. Each message is of the foriiat: SutiWur Uk ;L ATLNG M1:SSA(;lE-, )’URIAT NUMBELR, and

  5. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T = 62.6 ± 65.2 μm ; MC = 60.4 ± 38.4 μm; PMC = 58.1 ± 38.0 μm, and RI = 89.8 ± 62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T = 71.5%, RI = 49.2%, MC = 69.6%, and PMC = 71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T = 8.5%, RI = 0%, MC = 0.8%, and PMC = 3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  6. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  7. Computer-Aided Design of RNA Origami Structures.

    PubMed

    Sparvath, Steffen L; Geary, Cody W; Andersen, Ebbe S

    2017-01-01

    RNA nanostructures can be used as scaffolds to organize, combine, and control molecular functionalities, with great potential for applications in nanomedicine and synthetic biology. The single-stranded RNA origami method allows RNA nanostructures to be folded as they are transcribed by the RNA polymerase. RNA origami structures provide a stable framework that can be decorated with functional RNA elements such as riboswitches, ribozymes, interaction sites, and aptamers for binding small molecules or protein targets. The rich library of RNA structural and functional elements combined with the possibility to attach proteins through aptamer-based binding creates virtually limitless possibilities for constructing advanced RNA-based nanodevices.In this chapter we provide a detailed protocol for the single-stranded RNA origami design method using a simple 2-helix tall structure as an example. The first step involves 3D modeling of a double-crossover between two RNA double helices, followed by decoration with tertiary motifs. The second step deals with the construction of a 2D blueprint describing the secondary structure and sequence constraints that serves as the input for computer programs. In the third step, computer programs are used to design RNA sequences that are compatible with the structure, and the resulting outputs are evaluated and converted into DNA sequences to order.

  8. Design sensitivity analysis and optimization tool (DSO) for sizing design applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kuang-Hua; Choi, Kyung K.; Perng, Jyh-Hwa

    1992-01-01

    The DSO tool, a structural design software system that provides the designer with a graphics-based menu-driven design environment to perform easy design optimization for general applications, is presented. Three design stages, preprocessing, design sensitivity analysis, and postprocessing, are implemented in the DSO to allow the designer to carry out the design process systematically. A framework, including data base, user interface, foundation class, and remote module, has been designed and implemented to facilitate software development for the DSO. A number of dedicated commercial software/packages have been integrated in the DSO to support the design procedures. Instead of parameterizing an FEM, design parameters are defined on a geometric model associated with physical quantities, and the continuum design sensitivity analysis theory is implemented to compute design sensitivity coefficients using postprocessing data from the analysis codes. A tracked vehicle road wheel is given as a sizing design application to demonstrate the DSO's easy and convenient design optimization process.

  9. Computer-aided design and three-dimensional printing in the manufacturing of an ocular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiters, Sébastien; Sun, Yi; de Jong, Stéphan; Politis, Constantinus; Mombaerts, Ilse

    2016-04-27

    Restoring the facial appearance in acquired anophthalmos entails precision fitting of a customised ocular prosthesis. The fabrication is an artisanal process, and is primarily based on an impression of the anophthalmic cavity. This is usually achieved by the impression-moulding method, which, however, may introduce errors, resulting in a poorly fitted prosthesis. We developed a new method in the manufacturing of a customised ocular prosthesis based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. An ocular prosthesis, based on a three-dimensional (3D) printed impression-free mould of the anophthalmic cavity, was successfully fitted in a 68-year-old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a customised ocular prosthesis designed with the aid of 3D printing.

  10. Mnemonic Aids during Tests: Worthless Frivolity or Effective Tool in Statistics Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.; Gorman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have explored many pedagogical approaches in an effort to assist students in finding understanding and comfort in required statistics courses. This study investigates the impact of mnemonic aids used during tests on students' statistics course performance in particular. In addition, the present study explores several hypotheses that…

  11. Assembly and insertion of a self-fitting hearing aid: design of effective instruction materials.

    PubMed

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2011-12-01

    A self-fitting hearing aid has been proposed as a viable option to meet the need for rehabilitation in areas where audiology services are unreliable. A successful outcome with a self-fitting hearing aid pivots in part on the clarity of the instructions accompanying the device. The aims of this article are (a) to review the literature to determine features that should be incorporated into written health-care materials and factors to consider in the design process when developing written instructions for a target audience of older adults and (b) to apply this information to the development of a set of written instructions as the first step in self-fitting of a hearing aid, assembling four parts and inserting the aid into the ear. The method involved a literature review of published peer reviewed research. The literature revealed four steps in the development of written health-care materials: planning, design, assessment of suitability, and pilot testing. Best practice design principles for each step were applied in the development of instructions for how to assemble and insert a hearing aid. Separate booklets were developed for the left and right aids and the content of each consisted of simple line drawings accompanied by captions. The reading level was Grade 3.5 equivalent and the Flesch Reading Ease Score was 91.1 indicating that the materials were "very easy" to read. It is essential to follow best practice design principles when developing written health-care materials to motivate the reader, maximize comprehension, and increase the likelihood of successful application of the content.

  12. The FEYNMAN tools for quantum information processing: Design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, S.

    2014-06-01

    The FEYNMAN tools have been re-designed with the goal to establish and implement a high-level (computer) language that is capable to deal with the physics of finite, n-qubit systems, from frequently required computations to mathematically advanced tasks in quantum information processing. In particular, emphasis has been placed to introduce a small but powerful set of keystring-driven commands in order to support both, symbolic and numerical computations. Though the current design is implemented again within the framework of MAPLE, it is general and flexible enough to be utilized and combined with other languages and computational environments. The present implementation facilitates a large number of computational tasks, including the definition, manipulation and parametrization of quantum states, the evaluation of quantum measures and quantum operations, the evolution of quantum noise in discrete models, quantum measurements and state estimation, and several others. The design is based on a few high-level commands, with a syntax close to the mathematical notation and its use in the literature, and which can be generalized quite readily in order to solve computational tasks at even higher degree of complexity. In this work, I present and discuss the (re-design of the) FEYNMAN tools and make major parts of the code available for public use. Moreover, a few selected examples are shown and demonstrate possible application of this toolbox. The FEYNMAN tools are provided as MAPLE library and can hence be used on all platforms on which this computer-algebra system is accessible.

  13. Development of a Design Tool for Planning Aqueous Amendment Injection Systems Soluble Substrate Design Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    evaluate the effect of important design parameters on remediation system performance. Model simulations were performed using the MODFLOW (Harbaugh et...Certification Program, VA. Harbaugh, A.W., Banta, E.R., Hill, M.C., and McDonald, M.G., 2000. “ MODFLOW -2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground

  14. Spectrograph sensitivity analysis: an efficient tool for different design phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genoni, M.; Riva, M.; Pariani, G.; Aliverti, M.; Moschetti, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we present an efficient tool developed to perform opto-mechanical tolerance and sensitivity analysis both for the preliminary and final design phases of a spectrograph. With this tool it will be possible to evaluate the effect of mechanical perturbation of each single spectrograph optical element in terms of image stability, i.e. the motion of the echellogram on the spectrograph focal plane, and of image quality, i.e. the spot size of the different echellogram wavelengths. We present the MATLAB-Zemax script architecture of the tool. In addition we present the detailed results concerning its application to the sensitivity analysis of the ESPRESSO spectrograph (the Echelle Spectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectroscopic Observations which will be soon installed on ESO's Very Large Telescope) in the framework of the incoming assembly, alignment and integration phases.

  15. Virtual Environment Design for Low/Zero Visibility Tower Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ron; Farouk, Ahmed; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes prototype software for three-dimensional display of aircraft movement based on realtime radar and other Air Traffic Control (ATC) information. This prototype can be used to develop operational tools for controllers in ATC Towers who cannot view aircraft in low or zero visibility (LZV) weather conditions. The controller could also use the software to arbitrarily reposition his virtual eyepoint to overcome physical obstructions or increase situation awareness. The LZV Tower tool prototype consists of server and client components. The server interfaces to operational ATC radar and communications systems, sending processed data to a client process written in java. This client process runs under Netscape Communicator to provide an interactive perspective display of aircraft in the airport environment. Prototype VRML airport models were derived from 3-D databases used in FAA-certified high fidelity flight-simulators. The web-based design offers potential efficiency increases and decreased costs in the development and deployment of operational LZV Tower tools.

  16. Therapist-Aided Exposure for Women with Lifelong Vaginismus: A Replicated Single-Case Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Bulte, Isis; Weijenborg, Philomeen T. M.; Beekman, Aart; Melles, Reinhilde; Onghena, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Vaginismus is commonly described as a persistent difficulty in allowing vaginal entry of a penis or other object. Lifelong vaginismus occurs when a woman has never been able to have intercourse. A replicated single-case A-B-phase design was used to investigate the effectiveness of therapist-aided exposure for lifelong vaginismus. A baseline period…

  17. The Design, Implementation, and Formative Evaluation of a Classroom Aide Professional Development Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulfer, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the process of designing, implementing, and formatively evaluating an eight week Classroom Aide Professional Development Training Program (CAPD-TP) on behavior management and academic instruction within the context of a New Jersey state approved private special education school for students with behavioral and/or…

  18. Gathering Empirical Evidence Concerning Links between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Norman, Eddie; Hodgson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discussion is often reported concerning potential links between computer-aided designing and creativity, but there is a lack of systematic enquiry to gather empirical evidence concerning such links. This paper reports an indication of findings from other research studies carried out in contexts beyond general education that have sought evidence…

  19. Web-Based Learning in the Computer-Aided Design Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Ou, S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Applies principles of constructivism and virtual reality (VR) to computer-aided design (CAD) curriculum, particularly engineering, by integrating network, VR and CAD technologies into a Web-based learning environment that expands traditional two-dimensional computer graphics into a three-dimensional real-time simulation that enhances user…

  20. National Science Foundation 1989 Engineering Senior Design Projects To Aid the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enderle, John D., Ed.

    Through the Bioengineering and Research to Aid the Disabled program of the National Science Foundation, design projects were awarded competitively to 16 universities. Senior engineering students at each of the universities constructed custom devices and software for disabled individuals. This compendium contains a description of each project in…

  1. IB: a Monte Carlo Simulation Tool for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design under Parallel Virtual Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    IB is a Monte Carlo simulation tool for aiding neutron scattering instrument designs. It is written in C++ and implemented under Parallel Virtual Machine. The program has a few basic components, or modules, that can be used to build a virtual neutron scattering instrument. More complex components, such as neutron guides and multichannel beam benders, can be constructed using the grouping technique unique to IB. Users can specify a collection of modules as a group. For example, a neutron guide can be constructed by grouping four neutron mirrors together that make up the four sides of the guide. IB s simulation engine ensures that neutrons entering a group will be properly operated upon by all members of the group. For simulations that require higher computer speed, the program can be run in parallel mode under the PVM architecture. Initially, the program was written for designing instruments on pulsed neutron sources, it has since been used to simulate reactor based instruments as well.

  2. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses.

  3. A conceptual design tool for RBCC engine performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Olds, J.R.; Saks, G.

    1997-01-01

    Future reusable launch vehicles will depend on new propulsion technologies to lower system operational costs while maintaining adequate performance. Recently, a number of vehicle systems utilizing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion have been proposed as possible low-cost space launch solutions. Vehicles using RBCC propulsion have the potential to combine the best aspects of airbreathing propulsion (high average Isp) with the best aspects of rocket propulsion (high propellant bulk density and engine T/W). Proper conceptual assessment of each proposed vehicle will require computer-based tools that allow for quick and cheap, yet sufficiently accurate disciplinary analyses. At Georgia Tech, a spreadsheet-based tool has been developed that uses quasi-1D flow analysis with component efficiencies to parametrically model RBCC engine performance in ejector, fan-ramjet, ramjet and pure rocket modes. The technique is similar to an earlier RBCC modeling technique developed by the Marquardt Corporation in the mid-1960{close_quote}s. For a given sea-level static thrust requirement, the current tool generates engine weight and size data, as well as Isp and thrust data vs. altitude and Mach number. The latter is output in tabular form for use in a trajectory optimization program. This paper reviews the current state of the RBCC analysis tool and the effort to upgrade it from a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to a design-oriented UNIX program in C suitable for integration into a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Metal Cutting Theory and Friction Stir Welding Tool Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payton, Lewis N.

    2003-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new industrial process that was invented at The Weld Institute (TWI, United Kingdom) and patented in 1992 under research funded by in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Often quoted advantages of the process include good strength and ductility along with minimization of residual stress and distortion. Less well advertised are the beneficial effects of this solid state welding process in the field of occupational and environmental safety. It produces superior weld products in difficult to weld materials without producing any toxic fumes or solid waste that must be controlled as hazardous waste. In fact, it reduces noise pollution in the workspace as well. In the early days of FSW, most welding was performed on modified machine tools, in particular on milling machines with modified milling cutters. In spite of the obvious milling heritage of the process, the techniques and lessons learned from almost 250 years of successful metalworking with milling machines have not been applied in the field of modern Friction Stir Welding. The goal of the current research was to study currently successful FSW tools and parameterize the process in such a way that the design of new tools for new materials could be accelerated. Along the way, several successful new tooling designs were developed for current issues at the Marshall Space Flight Center with accompanying patent disclosures

  5. A conceptual design tool for RBCC engine performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olds, John R.; Saks, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Future reusable launch vehicles will depend on new propulsion technologies to lower system operational costs while maintaining adequate performance. Recently, a number of vehicle systems utilizing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion have been proposed as possible low-cost space launch solutions. Vehicles using RBCC propulsion have the potential to combine the best aspects of airbreathing propulsion (high average Isp) with the best aspects of rocket propulsion (high propellant bulk density and engine T/W). Proper conceptual assessment of each proposed vehicle will require computer-based tools that allow for quick and cheap, yet sufficiently accurate disciplinary analyses. At Georgia Tech, a spreadsheet-based tool has been developed that uses quasi-1D flow analysis with component efficiencies to parametrically model RBCC engine performance in ejector, fan-ramjet, ramjet and pure rocket modes. The technique is similar to an earlier RBCC modeling technique developed by the Marquardt Corporation in the mid-1960's. For a given sea-level static thrust requirement, the current tool generates engine weight and size data, as well as Isp and thrust data vs. altitude and Mach number. The latter is output in tabular form for use in a trajectory optimization program. This paper reviews the current state of the RBCC analysis tool and the effort to upgrade it from a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to a design-oriented UNIX program in C suitable for integration into a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework.

  6. New tools for the analysis and design of building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Buhl, W.F.; Chauvet, H.

    1994-08-01

    We describe the integrated development of PowerDOE, a new version of the DOE-2 building energy analysis program, and the Building Design Advisor (BDA), a multimedia-based design tool that assists building designers with the concurrent consideration of multiple design solutions with respect to multiple design criteria. PowerDOE has a windows-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that makes it easier to use than DOE-2, while retaining DOE-2`s calculation power and accuracy. BDA, with a similar GUI, is designed to link to multiple analytical models and databases. In its first release it is linked to PowerDOE and a Daylighting Analysis Module, as well as to a Case Studies Database and a Schematic Graphic Editor. These allow building designers to set performance goals and address key building envelope parameters from the initial, schematic phases of building design to the detailed specification of building components and systems required by PowerDOE. The consideration of the thermal performance of building envelopes through PowerDOE and BDA is integrated with non-thermal envelope performance aspects, such as daylighting, as well as with the performance of non-envelope building components and systems, such as electric lighting and HVAC. Future versions of BDA will support links to CAD and electronic product catalogs, as well as provide context-dependent design advice to improve performance.

  7. The environment workbench: A design tool for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongeward, Gary A.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Rankin, Thomas V.; Wilcox, Katherine G.; Roche, James C.

    1991-01-01

    The environment workbench (EWB) is being developed for NASA by S-CUBED to provide a standard tool that can be used by the Space Station Freedom (SSF) design and user community for requirements verification. The desktop tool will predict and analyze the interactions of SSF with its natural and self-generated environments. A brief review of the EWB design and capabilities is presented. Calculations using a prototype EWB of the on-orbit floating potentials and contaminant environment of SSF are also presented. Both the positive and negative grounding configurations for the solar arrays are examined to demonstrate the capability of the EWB to provide quick estimates of environments, interactions, and system effects.

  8. Designing Tools for Reflection on Problem-Based Instruction and Problem-Based Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Matthew W.; Hui, Diane; RuffusDoerr, Amy Marie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research project into teacher education was to document the collaborative development and refection on teachers' tools in a problem-based learning (PBL) program. These results were then used to design materials and formats for the transmission of this teaching knowledge to less-experienced PBL teachers. The tools were…

  9. Computer-aided design of a proton pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The use of transmembrane proton gradients in energy transduction is an almost universal feature of life on earth. These proton gradients are established and maintained by specialized assemblies of proteins which actively pump protons across membranes. One broad class of proton pumps uses captured light energy to drive the proton pumping. Our goal is to elucidate the minimum structural requirements of a light-driven proton-pump. There are two basic components to a simple light-driven proton pump: a source of photo-generated protons and a "gate-keeper" which prevents these protons from reattaching themselves to their source. A wide variety of molecules in the membrane, even as simple as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are capable of releasing protons when illuminated. Our work is therefore focused on the design of the "gate-keeper." Our initial model involves a pair of proton acceptors, coupled to each other by a transient water bridge, and supported in the membrane by a small bundle of peptide helices. Upon illumination, the proton source transfers its proton to the:- first acceptor of the gate-keeper. While the reverse reaction is highly probable, all that is needed to ensure irreversibility is a nonvanishing probability that the proton will be transferred to the second acceptor across a transient water bridge. Back transfer of the proton to the first acceptor, and thence to the proton source, is impeded by the free energy required to move the proton uphill towards the. proton source and by the disruption of the transient water bridge. As a prototypical water-bridged proton transfer system, we are studying the transfer of a proton across a water bridge from a formic acid to a formate anion. With a pK(sub alpha), of 3.7. formic acid is a good model for the acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate which are good candidates for gate-keeper proton acceptors. Simulations of proton transfer reactions in a membrane are complicated by the quantum mechanical nature of

  10. Genetic Algorithms as a Tool for Phased Array Radar Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. GENETIC ALGORITHMS AS A...REPORT DATE June 2002 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Genetic Algorithms as a Tool for Phased Array Radar...creative ways to design multi-function phased array radars. This thesis proposes that Genetic Algorithms, computer programs that mimic natural selection

  11. Topology and boundary shape optimization as an integrated design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendsoe, Martin Philip; Rodrigues, Helder Carrico

    1990-01-01

    The optimal topology of a two dimensional linear elastic body can be computed by regarding the body as a domain of the plane with a high density of material. Such an optimal topology can then be used as the basis for a shape optimization method that computes the optimal form of the boundary curves of the body. This results in an efficient and reliable design tool, which can be implemented via common FEM mesh generator and CAD type input-output facilities.

  12. Digital design and communication tools for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, M.

    1995-12-31

    Within the computer and communications industry there is a strong sentiment that the speed and power of mainframe computers will be available at personal computer sizes and prices in the next few years. Coinciding with this is the expectation that large data/information/knowledge resource pools will be available online for download. This paper summarizes what is available now and what is coming in the future in computer technologies. Then the author talks the opportunities in `green` building design for energy efficiency and conservation and the type of design tools which will be coming in the future.

  13. The theory, design, and operation of the suppressed carrier data-aided tracking receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Springett, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A viable, efficient, and easily mechanized carrier regenerating receiver for use in suppressed carrier-tracking system is described. The receiver referred to as a data-aided receiver (DAR) incorporates a data-aided loop (DAL) which provides the required carrier reference signal. The DAL employs the principle of decision feedback and as such is more efficient than other forms of suppressed carrier-tracking loops. The analysis, design, and implementation of the DAR are covered in detail. Performance comparisons and mechanization tradeoffs are made, wherever possible, with discrete carrier systems and other suppressed carrier systems presently in use. Experimental performance verification is given throughout in support of the theory presented.

  14. A Spreadsheet Simulation Tool for Terrestrial and Planetary Balloon Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raquea, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    During the early stages of new balloon design and development, it is necessary to conduct many trade studies. These trade studies are required to determine the design space, and aid significantly in determining overall feasibility. Numerous point designs then need to be generated as details of payloads, materials, mission, and manufacturing are determined. To accomplish these numerous designs, transient models are both unnecessary and time intensive. A steady state model that uses appropriate design inputs to generate system-level descriptive parameters can be very flexible and fast. Just such a steady state model has been developed and has been used during both the MABS 2001 Mars balloon study and the Ultra Long Duration Balloon Project. Using Microsoft Excel's built-in iteration routine, a model was built. Separate sheets were used for performance, structural design, materials, and thermal analysis as well as input and output sheets. As can be seen from figure 1, the model takes basic performance requirements, weight estimates, design parameters, and environmental conditions and generates a system level balloon design. Figure 2 shows a sample output of the model. By changing the inputs and a few of the equations in the model, balloons on earth or other planets can be modeled. There are currently several variations of the model for terrestrial and Mars balloons, as well there are versions of the model that perform crude material design based on strength and weight requirements. To perform trade studies, the Visual Basic language built into Excel was used to create an automated matrix of designs. This trade study module allows a three dimensional trade surface to be generated by using a series of values for any two design variables. Once the fixed and variable inputs are defined, the model automatically steps through the input matrix and fills a spreadsheet with the resulting point designs. The proposed paper will describe the model in detail, including current

  15. A novel application of computer-aided design and manufacturing for reduction cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Dorafshar, Amir; Fisher, Mark; Borsuk, Daniel; Fishman, Elliot; Ahn, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Macrocephaly is a rare presentation of untreated hydrocephalus. In cases where medical management has failed, macrocephaly can be managed with reduction cranioplasty. Traditionally, reduction cranioplasty is highly dependent on intraoperative tailoring of bone segments to obtain the best possible result and involves high risks of associated severe blood loss and mortality. In this clinical report, we describe a patient with hydrocephalus macrocephaly treated with reduction cranioplasty with the innovative use of computer-aided design and manufacturing to reduce intraoperative risks and improve efficiency. We used computer-aided design to plan osteotomy sites and the final positioning of bone segments. We also utilized computer-aided manufacturing to produce cutting guides, positioning guides, and models to increase precision and improve the final positioning of the cranium. Computer-aided design and manufacturing technology has enabled a shift of the planning burden of complicated craniofacial reconstructions from the intraoperative to the preoperative phase. With a completed plan and premade guides and models, it is possible to minimize the risks, improve efficiency, and obtain a precise, aesthetic result.

  16. Promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization in HIV/AIDS programmes: lessons and curricular tools from a South African intervention.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Abigail; de Wet, Jacques; Bonell, Christopher Philip; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Proynk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Morison, Linda; Porter, John D H; Busza, Joanna; Watts, Charlotte; Hargreaves, James R

    2011-06-01

    The development of critical consciousness is seen as a key stage in communities increasing levels of dialogue about priority problems and effecting structural change for health. However, relatively little research identifies concrete methods for programmes to build critical consciousness. We examined how a South African structural intervention used critical consciousness as a tool for prevention of intimate partner violence and HIV infection. We collected qualitative data in the form of in-depth interviews with managers, trainers, and participants of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity intervention (IMAGE) in rural South Africa. The data were analysed through a coding structure developed in QSR NVivo. We draw practical lessons from IMAGE to guide other HIV programmes aiming to promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization. This research suggests that specific curricular tools can work towards critical consciousness and that mobilization efforts in future programmes can be strengthened by including individual and collective efforts by participants.

  17. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Yarberry, Victor; Allen, James; Lantz, Jeffery; Priddy, Brian; & Westling, Belinda

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.

  18. Technical Data Exchange Software Tools Adapted to Distributed Microsatellite Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pache, Charly

    2002-01-01

    One critical issue concerning distributed design of satellites, is the collaborative work it requires. In particular, the exchange of data between each group responsible for each subsystem can be complex and very time-consuming. The goal of this paper is to present a design collaborative tool, the SSETI Design Model (SDM), specifically developed for enabling satellite distributed design. SDM is actually used in the ongoing Student Space Exploration &Technology (SSETI) initiative (www.sseti.net). SSETI is lead by European Space Agency (ESA) outreach office (http://www.estec.esa.nl/outreach), involving student groups from all over Europe for design, construction and launch of a microsatellite. The first part of this paper presents the current version of the SDM tool, a collection of Microsoft Excel linked worksheets, one for each subsystem. An overview of the project framework/structure is given, explaining the different actors, the flows between them, as well as the different types of data and the links - formulas - between data sets. Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams give an overview of the different parts . Then the SDM's functionalities, developed in VBA scripts (Visual Basic for Application), are introduced, as well as the interactive features, user interfaces and administration tools. The second part discusses the capabilities and limitations of SDM current version. Taking into account these capabilities and limitations, the third part outlines the next version of SDM, a web-oriented, database-driven evolution of the current version. This new approach will enable real-time data exchange and processing between the different actors of the mission. Comprehensive UML diagrams will guide the audience through the entire modeling process of such a system. Tradeoffs simulation capabilities, security, reliability, hardware and software issues will also be thoroughly discussed.

  19. Design of Scalable and Effective Earth Science Collaboration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Kuo, K. S.; Lynnes, C.; Niamsuwan, N.; Chidambaram, C.

    2014-12-01

    Collaborative research is growing rapidly. Many tools including IDEs are now beginning to incorporate new collaborative features. Software engineering research has shown the effectiveness of collaborative programming and analysis. In particular, drastic reduction in software development time resulting in reduced cost has been highlighted. Recently, we have witnessed the rise of applications that allow users to share their content. Most of these applications scale such collaboration using cloud technologies. Earth science research needs to adopt collaboration technologies to reduce redundancy, cut cost, expand knowledgebase, and scale research experiments. To address these needs, we developed the Earth science collaboration workbench (CWB). CWB provides researchers with various collaboration features by augmenting their existing analysis tools to minimize learning curve. During the development of the CWB, we understood that Earth science collaboration tasks are varied and we concluded that it is not possible to design a tool that serves all collaboration purposes. We adopted a mix of synchronous and asynchronous sharing methods that can be used to perform collaboration across time and location dimensions. We have used cloud technology for scaling the collaboration. Cloud has been highly utilized and valuable tool for Earth science researchers. Among other usages, cloud is used for sharing research results, Earth science data, and virtual machine images; allowing CWB to create and maintain research environments and networks to enhance collaboration between researchers. Furthermore, collaborative versioning tool, Git, is integrated into CWB for versioning of science artifacts. In this paper, we present our experience in designing and implementing the CWB. We will also discuss the integration of collaborative code development use cases for data search and discovery using NASA DAAC and simulation of satellite observations using NASA Earth Observing System Simulation

  20. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Morris, Macdonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks.

  1. Proof of Concept Study of Trade Space Configuration Tool for Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glidden, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft design is a very difficult and time consuming process because requirements and criteria are often changed or modified as the design is refined. Accounting for these adjustments in the design constraints plays a significant role in furthering the overall progress. There are numerous aspects and variables that hold significant influence on various characteristics of the design. This can be especially frustrating when attempting to conduct rapid trade space analysis on system configurations. Currently, the data and designs considered for trade space evaluations can only be displayed by using the traditional interfaces of Excel spreadsheets or CAD (Computer Aided Design) models. While helpful, these methods of analyzing the data from a systems engineering approach can be rather complicated and overwhelming. As a result, a proof of concept was conducted on a dynamic data visualization software called Thinkmap SDK (Software Developer Kit) to allow for better organization and understanding of the relationships between the various aspects that make up an entire design. The Orion Crew Module Aft Bay Subsystem was used as the test case for this study because the design and layout of many of the subsystem components will be significant in ensuring the overall center of gravity of the capsule is correct. A simplified model of this subsystem was created and programmed using Thinkmap SDK to create a preliminary prototype application of a Trade Space Configuration Tool. The completed application ensures that the core requirements for the Tool can be met. Further development is strongly suggested to produce a full prototype application to allow final evaluations and recommendations of the software capabilities.

  2. Synthetic RNAs for Gene Regulation: Design Principles and Computational Tools

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Alessandro; Shasha, Dennis; Croce, Carlo Maria

    2014-01-01

    The use of synthetic non-coding RNAs for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has not only become a standard laboratory tool for gene functional studies but it has also opened up new perspectives in the design of new and potentially promising therapeutic strategies. Bioinformatics has provided researchers with a variety of tools for the design, the analysis, and the evaluation of RNAi agents such as small-interfering RNA (siRNA), short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), artificial microRNA (a-miR), and microRNA sponges. More recently, a new system for genome engineering based on the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), was shown to have the potential to also regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in a more specific way. In this mini review, we present RNAi and CRISPRi design principles and discuss the advantages and limitations of the current design approaches. PMID:25566532

  3. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Tools to Support the Human Factors Design Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Null, Cynthia H.; Jackson, Mariea D.; Perry, Trey; Quick, Jason C.; Stokes, Jack W.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this assessment was to develop a library of basic 1-Gravity (G) human posture and motion elements used to construct complex virtual simulations of ground processing and maintenance tasks for spaceflight vehicles, including launch vehicles, crewed spacecraft, robotic spacecraft, satellites, and other payloads. The report herein describes the task, its purpose, performance, findings, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recommendations, and conclusions in the definition and assemblage of the postures and motions database (PMD).

  4. Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD): Methodological Aspects and Practical Applications in Cancer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianti, Eleonora

    Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) has deservedly gained increasing popularity in modern drug discovery (Schneider, G.; Fechner, U. 2005), whether applied to academic basic research or the pharmaceutical industry pipeline. In this work, after reviewing theoretical advancements in CADD, we integrated novel and stateof- the-art methods to assist in the design of small-molecule inhibitors of current cancer drug targets, specifically: Androgen Receptor (AR), a nuclear hormone receptor required for carcinogenesis of Prostate Cancer (PCa); Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5), implicated in PCa progression; and Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA1), essential to the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) during latent infections. Androgen Receptor. With the aim of generating binding mode hypotheses for a class (Handratta, V.D. et al. 2005) of dual AR/CYP17 inhibitors (CYP17 is a key enzyme for androgens biosynthesis and therefore implicated in PCa development), we successfully implemented a receptor-based computational strategy based on flexible receptor docking (Gianti, E.; Zauhar, R.J. 2012). Then, with the ultimate goal of identifying novel AR binders, we performed Virtual Screening (VS) by Fragment-Based Shape Signatures, an improved version of the original method developed in our Laboratory (Zauhar, R.J. et al. 2003), and we used the results to fully assess the high-level performance of this innovative tool in computational chemistry. STAT5. The SRC Homology 2 (SH2) domain of STAT5 is responsible for phospho-peptide recognition and activation. As a keystone of Structure-Based Drug Design (SBDD), we characterized key residues responsible for binding. We also generated a model of STAT5 receptor bound to a phospho-peptide ligand, which was validated by docking publicly known STAT5 inhibitors. Then, we performed Shape Signatures- and docking-based VS of the ZINC database (zinc.docking.org), followed by Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA

  5. Design and implementation of the mobility assessment tool: software description

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous work, we described the development of an 81-item video-animated tool for assessing mobility. In response to criticism levied during a pilot study of this tool, we sought to develop a new version built upon a flexible framework for designing and administering the instrument. Results Rather than constructing a self-contained software application with a hard-coded instrument, we designed an XML schema capable of describing a variety of psychometric instruments. The new version of our video-animated assessment tool was then defined fully within the context of a compliant XML document. Two software applications—one built in Java, the other in Objective-C for the Apple iPad—were then built that could present the instrument described in the XML document and collect participants’ responses. Separating the instrument’s definition from the software application implementing it allowed for rapid iteration and easy, reliable definition of variations. Conclusions Defining instruments in a software-independent XML document simplifies the process of defining instruments and variations and allows a single instrument to be deployed on as many platforms as there are software applications capable of interpreting the instrument, thereby broadening the potential target audience for the instrument. Continued work will be done to further specify and refine this type of instrument specification with a focus on spurring adoption by researchers in gerontology and geriatric medicine. PMID:23879716

  6. Combustor design tool for a gas fired thermophotovoltaic energy converter

    SciTech Connect

    Lindler, K.W.; Harper, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. A TPV device converts radiant energy from a high temperature incandescent emitter directly into electricity by photovoltaic cells. The current Department of Energy sponsored research involves the design, construction and demonstration of a prototype TPV converter that uses a hydrocarbon fuel (such as natural gas) as the energy source. As the photovoltaic cells are designed to efficiently convert radiant energy at a prescribed wavelength, it is important that the temperature of the emitter be nearly constant over its entire surface. The US Naval Academy has been tasked with the development of a small emitter (with a high emissivity) that can be maintained at 1,756 K (2,700 F). This paper describes the computer spreadsheet model that was developed as a tool to be used for the design of the high temperature emitter.

  7. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Jim; McBrayer, John; Miller, Sam; Rodgers, Steve; montague, Steve; Sniegowski, Jeff; Jakubczak, Jay; Yarberry, Vic; Barnes, Steve; Priddy, Brian; Reyes, David; Westling, Belinda

    2002-06-13

    Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools is a 5-level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c)Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the process of having MEMS fabricated at SNL e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with the software AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. NOTE: THE CUSTOMER MUST PURCHASE HIS/HER OWN COPY OF AutoCAD TO USE WITH THESE FILES.

  8. Mechanical System Analysis/Design Tool (MSAT) Quick Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, HauHua; Kolb, Mark; Madelone, Jack

    1998-01-01

    MSAT is a unique multi-component multi-disciplinary tool that organizes design analysis tasks around object-oriented representations of configuration components, analysis programs and modules, and data transfer links between them. This creative modular architecture enables rapid generation of input stream for trade-off studies of various engine configurations. The data transfer links automatically transport output from one application as relevant input to the next application once the sequence is set up by the user. The computations are managed via constraint propagation - the constraints supplied by the user as part of any optimization module. The software can be used in the preliminary design stage as well as during the detail design of product development process.

  9. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools v. 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Yarberry, Victor R.; Allen, James J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.; Priddy, Brian; Westlin, Belinda; Young, Andrew

    2016-08-25

    This is a major revision to the Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools. It replaces all previous versions. New features in this version: Revised to support AutoCAD 2014 and 2015 This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the process of having MEMS fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed. While there exists some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.

  10. Integrated design workflow and a new tool for urban rainwater management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujiao; Samuelson, Holly W; Tong, Zheming

    2016-09-15

    Low Impact Development (LID) practices provide more sustainable solutions than traditional piping and storm ponds in stormwater management. However, architects are not equipped with the knowledge to perform runoff calculations at early design stage. In response to this dilemma, we have developed an open-source stormwater runoff evaluation and management tool, Rainwater+. It is seamlessly integrated into computer-aided design (CAD) software to receive instant estimate on the stormwater runoff volume of architecture and landscape designs. Designers can thereby develop appropriate rainwater management strategies based on local precipitation data, specific standards, site conditions and economic considerations. We employed Rainwater+ to conduct two case studies illustrating the importance of considering stormwater runoff in the early design stage. The first case study showed that integrating rainwater management into design modeling is critical for determining LID practice at any specific site. The second case study demonstrated the need of visualizing runoff flow direction in assisting the placement of LID practices at proper locations when the terrain is of great complexity.

  11. Applying CBR to machine tool product configuration design oriented to customer requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengjia; Gong, Yadong; Xie, Hualong; Liu, Yongxian; Nee, Andrew Yehching

    2017-01-01

    Product customization is a trend in the current market-oriented manufacturing environment. However, deduction from customer requirements to design results and evaluation of design alternatives are still heavily reliant on the designer's experience and knowledge. To solve the problem of fuzziness and uncertainty of customer requirements in product configuration, an analysis method based on the grey rough model is presented. The customer requirements can be converted into technical characteristics effectively. In addition, an optimization decision model for product planning is established to help the enterprises select the key technical characteristics under the constraints of cost and time to serve the customer to maximal satisfaction. A new case retrieval approach that combines the self-organizing map and fuzzy similarity priority ratio method is proposed in case-based design. The self-organizing map can reduce the retrieval range and increase the retrieval efficiency, and the fuzzy similarity priority ratio method can evaluate the similarity of cases comprehensively. To ensure that the final case has the best overall performance, an evaluation method of similar cases based on grey correlation analysis is proposed to evaluate similar cases to select the most suitable case. Furthermore, a computer-aided system is developed using MATLAB GUI to assist the product configuration design. The actual example and result on an ETC series machine tool product show that the proposed method is effective, rapid and accurate in the process of product configuration. The proposed methodology provides a detailed instruction for the product configuration design oriented to customer requirements.

  12. The 3 "C" Design Model for Networked Collaborative E-Learning: A Tool for Novice Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Len

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines a model for online course design aimed at the mainstream majority of university academics rather than at the early adopters of technology. It has been developed from work at Coventry Business School where tutors have been called upon to design online modules for the first time. Like many good tools, the model's key strength is…

  13. Designing a Software Tool for Fuzzy Logic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abietar, José M.; Morcillo, Pedro J.; Moreno, Ginés

    2007-12-01

    Fuzzy Logic Programming is an interesting and still growing research area that agglutinates the efforts for introducing fuzzy logic into logic programming (LP), in order to incorporate more expressive resources on such languages for dealing with uncertainty and approximated reasoning. The multi-adjoint logic programming approach is a recent and extremely flexible fuzzy logic paradigm for which, unfortunately, we have not found practical tools implemented so far. In this work, we describe a prototype system which is able to directly translate fuzzy logic programs into Prolog code in order to safely execute these residual programs inside any standard Prolog interpreter in a completely transparent way for the final user. We think that the development of such fuzzy languages and programing tools might play an important role in the design of advanced software applications for computational physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, industrial control and so on.

  14. Designing a training tool for imaging mental models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.; Jayaram, Geetha

    1990-01-01

    The training process can be conceptualized as the student acquiring an evolutionary sequence of classification-problem solving mental models. For example a physician learns (1) classification systems for patient symptoms, diagnostic procedures, diseases, and therapeutic interventions and (2) interrelationships among these classifications (e.g., how to use diagnostic procedures to collect data about a patient's symptoms in order to identify the disease so that therapeutic measures can be taken. This project developed functional specifications for a computer-based tool, Mental Link, that allows the evaluative imaging of such mental models. The fundamental design approach underlying this representational medium is traversal of virtual cognition space. Typically intangible cognitive entities and links among them are visible as a three-dimensional web that represents a knowledge structure. The tool has a high degree of flexibility and customizability to allow extension to other types of uses, such a front-end to an intelligent tutoring system, knowledge base, hypermedia system, or semantic network.

  15. Colossal Tooling Design: 3D Simulation for Ergonomic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Thomas, Robert E.; Babai, Majid

    2003-01-01

    The application of high-level 3D simulation software to the design phase of colossal mandrel tooling for composite aerospace fuel tanks was accomplished to discover and resolve safety and human engineering problems. The analyses were conducted to determine safety, ergonomic and human engineering aspects of the disassembly process of the fuel tank composite shell mandrel. Three-dimensional graphics high-level software, incorporating various ergonomic analysis algorithms, was utilized to determine if the process was within safety and health boundaries for the workers carrying out these tasks. In addition, the graphical software was extremely helpful in the identification of material handling equipment and devices for the mandrel tooling assembly/disassembly process.

  16. A software tool to aid budget planning for long-term care at local authority level.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haifeng; Chaussalet, Thierry; Toffa, Sam; Crowther, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a software tool that implements a novel modelling framework developed by the authors to provide useful information to budget planners for long-term care at local authority level. By combining unit costs of care with an underlying survival model for publicly funded residents in long-term care, the software tool is able to provide forecasts on the cost of maintaining the group of elderly who are currently in long-term care (referred to as known commitments) for a period of time. User interacts with the tool via a friendly graphical interface that guides them through a set of screens of options in a familiar wizard fashion. This tool was created and tested in collaboration with an English borough. Feedbacks from the care planner and manager show that the tool helps them gain better understanding on the behaviour of length-of-stay of residents under their care, and provides quantitative inputs into their decision making on budget planning for long-term care.

  17. Multi-tool design and analysis of an automotive HUD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, Bruce; Hasenauer, David; Mulder, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Design and analysis of an optical system is often a multidisciplinary task, and can involve the use of specialized software packages for imaging, mechanics, and illumination. This paper will present a case study on the design and analysis of a basic heads-up display (HUD) for automotive use. The emphasis will be on the special requirements of a HUD visual system and on the tools and techniques needed to accomplish the design. The first section of this paper will present an overview of the imaging design using commercially available imaging design software. Topics addressed in this section include modeling the windshield, visualizing the imaging performance, using constraints and freeform surfaces to improve the system, and meeting specific visual performance specifications with design/analysis methods. The second section will address the use of a CAD program to design a basic mechanical structure to support and protect the optics. This section will also discuss some of the issues and limitations involved in translating data between a CAD program and a lens design or illumination program. Typical issues that arise include the precision of optical surface prescriptions, surface and material properties, and the management of large data files. In the final section, the combined optical and mechanical package will be considered, using an illumination design program for stray light analysis. The stray light analysis will be directed primarily toward finding, visualizing, and quantifying unexpected ray paths. Techniques for sorting optical ray paths by path length, power, and elements or materials encountered will be discussed, along with methods for estimating the impact of stray light on the optical system performance.

  18. SSME Investment in Turbomachinery Inducer Impeller Design Tools and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoladz, Thomas; Mitchell, William; Lunde, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Within the rocket engine industry, SSME turbomachines are the de facto standards of success with regard to meeting aggressive performance requirements under challenging operational environments. Over the Shuttle era, SSME has invested heavily in our national inducer impeller design infrastructure. While both low and high pressure turbopump failures/anomaly resolution efforts spurred some of these investments, the SSME program was a major benefactor of key areas of turbomachinery inducer-impeller research outside of flight manifest pressures. Over the past several decades, key turbopump internal environments have been interrogated via highly instrumented hot-fire and cold-flow testing. Likewise, SSME has sponsored the advancement of time accurate and cavitating inducer impeller computation fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. These investments together have led to a better understanding of the complex internal flow fields within aggressive high performing inducers and impellers. New design tools and methodologies have evolved which intend to provide confident blade designs which strike an appropriate balance between performance and self induced load management.

  19. Development of Design Tools for Flow-Control Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, Jose; Gallas, Quentin; Cattafesta, Louis N., III

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the: 1. Development coupled electro/fluid/structural lumped-element model (LEM) of a prototypical flow-control actuator. 2. Validation the coupled electro/fluid/structural dynamics lumped-element models. 3. Development simple, yet effective, design tools for actuators. 4. Development structural dynamic models that accurately characterize the dynamic response of piezoelectric flap actuators using the Finite Element Method (FEW as well as analytical methods. 5. Perform a parametric study of a piezo-composite flap actuator. 6.Develop an optimization scheme for maximizing the actuator performance.

  20. Parachute system design, analysis, and simulation tool. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, W.D.; McBride, D.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; Waye, D.E.; Hailey, C.E.

    1992-12-31

    For over twenty years designers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed various parachute simulation codes to model deployment, inflation, loading, trajectories, aircraft downwash and line sail. In addition to these codes, material property data bases have been acquired. Recently we have initiated project to integrate these codes and data bases into a single software tool entitled SPARSYS (Sandia PARachute SYstem Simulation). We have constructed a graphical user interface as the driver and framework for SPARSYS. In this paper we present a status report on SPARSYS describing progress in developing and incorporating independent modules, in developing an integrated trajectory package, and in developing a materials data base including high-rate-of-strain data.

  1. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance.

  2. A Visualisation Tool to Aid Exploration of Students' Interactions in Asynchronous Online Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jyothi, Sujana; McAvinia, Claire; Keating, John

    2012-01-01

    Much research in recent years has focused on the introduction of virtual learning environments (VLEs) to universities, documenting practice, and sharing experience ([2], [9], [45] and [58]). Attention has been directed towards the importance of online dialogue for learning as a defining feature of the VLE. Communicative tools are an important…

  3. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  4. A Computer-Aided Approach for Designing Edge-Slot Waveguide Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, Renee Brian

    2003-01-01

    Traditional techniques for designing resonant edge-slot waveguide arrays have required an iterative trial-and-error process of measuring slot data from several prototypes. Since very little meaningful data has been published, this technology remains relatively immature and prohibitive for many smaller programs that could benefit from some advantages this antenna has to offer. A new Computer-Aided Design technique for designing resonant edge-slot waveguide arrays was used to successfuliy design such an X-band radiometer antenna for the NASA Light Rainfall Radiometer (LRR) instrument. Having the ability to rapidly create such an extremely accurate and efficient antenna design without the need to manufacture prototypes has also enabled inexpensive research that promises to improve the system-level performance of microwave radiometers for upcoming space-flight missions. This paper will present details of the LRR antenna design and describe some other current edge-slot array accomplishments at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  5. SUPIN: A Computational Tool for Supersonic Inlet Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A computational tool named SUPIN is being developed to design and analyze the aerodynamic performance of supersonic inlets. The inlet types available include the axisymmetric pitot, three-dimensional pitot, axisymmetric outward-turning, two-dimensional single-duct, two-dimensional bifurcated-duct, and streamline-traced inlets. The aerodynamic performance is characterized by the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The inlet flow-field is divided into parts to provide a framework for the geometry and aerodynamic modeling. Each part of the inlet is defined in terms of geometric factors. The low-fidelity aerodynamic analysis and design methods are based on analytic, empirical, and numerical methods which provide for quick design and analysis. SUPIN provides inlet geometry in the form of coordinates, surface angles, and cross-sectional areas. SUPIN can generate inlet surface grids and three-dimensional, structured volume grids for use with higher-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Capabilities highlighted in this paper include the design and analysis of streamline-traced external-compression inlets, modeling of porous bleed, and the design and analysis of mixed-compression inlets. CFD analyses are used to verify the SUPIN results.

  6. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  7. A Simple and Resource-efficient Setup for the Computer-aided Drug Design Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Loris; Sartori, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Undertaking modelling investigations for Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) requires a proper environment. In principle, this could be done on a single computer, but the reality of a drug discovery program requires robustness and high-throughput computing (HTC) to efficiently support the research. Therefore, a more capable alternative is needed but its implementation has no widespread solution. Here, the realization of such a computing facility is discussed, from general layout to technical details all aspects are covered.

  8. Evolution of facility layout requirements and CAD (computer-aided design) system development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. )

    1990-06-01

    The overall configuration of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) including the infrastructure and land boundary requirements were developed using a computer-aided design (CAD) system. The evolution of the facility layout requirements and the use of the CAD system are discussed. The emphasis has been on minimizing the amount of input required and maximizing the speed by which the output may be obtained. The computer system used to store the data is also described.

  9. CFD-aided cell settler design optimization and scale-up: effect of geometric design and operational variables on separation performance.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuyi; Yanagimachi, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The inclined multiplate (lamella) gravity settler has proven to be an effective cell retention device in industrial perfusion cell culture applications. Investigations on the effects of geometric design and operational variables of the cell settler are crucial to understanding how to best improve the settler performance. Maximizing the harvest/perfusion flow rate while minimizing viable cell loss out of the harvest is the primary challenge for optimization of the settler design. This study demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be utilized to accurately model and evaluate the settler separation performance for near-monodisperse suspensions and therefore aid in the design optimization of the settler under these baseline conditions. With the preferred geometric features that were identified from CFD modeling results, we proposed design guidelines for the scale-up of these multiplate settler systems. With these guidelines and performance verification using the CFD model, a new large-scale settler was designed and fabricated for a perfusion cell culture process using a minimally aggregating production cell line. Perfusion cell culture runs with this particular cell line were performed with this settler, and the CFD model was able to predict the initial ramp-up performance, proving it to be a valuable scale-up design tool for this production process.

  10. New tool designs for high rate gravel pack operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    Fracturing of the wellbore to improve hydrocarbon recovery has been a universally accepted practice in the oilfield. The fracturing procedures reduce skin by breaking through or bypassing near wellbore damage that inhibits production. In loosely consolidated formations, a propped fracture can reduce fluid velocity in the near wellbore region, which subsequently reduces fines migration that can plug the wellbore. Fracturing also provides highly conductive paths for gas and oil production. Gravel packing is another operation that is often needed during a well`s productive cycle. When a highly conductive fracture is created before a gravel packing operation is run, it has been found that well productivity increases. Performing the operations separately, however, diminishes the productivity gains because of formation damage that can occur between completion operations. A method of gravel packing that includes a tip-screenout-design fracturing procedure, performed with the gravel pack packer, screen, and blank in the hole, was proposed to allow the procedures to be performed simultaneously. This paper will describe the various types of gravel packing tools that are currently in use, their specific application, and a new series of gravel packing tools that was developed to resolve the difficulties that arose when the operations of fracturing and gravel packing were combined. Also discussed is the need that arose for tools that could sustain high flow rates in small casing diameters. Test results will be used to provide acceptable flow rates for different bore sizes.

  11. New tool designs for high rate gravel pack operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    A universally accepted practice in the oilfield has been fracturing of the wellbore to improve hydrocarbon recovery. Fracturing procedures reduce skin by breaking through or bypassing near wellbore damage that inhibits production. In loosely consolidated formations, a propped fracture can reduce fluid velocity in the near wellbore region, which subsequently reduces fines migration that can plug the wellbore. Fracturing also provides highly conductive paths for gas and oil production. Gravel packing is another operation that is often needed during a well`s productive cycle. When a highly-conductive fracture is created before a gravel packing operation is run, it has been found that well productivity increases. Performing the operations separately however, diminishes the productivity gains because of formation damage that can occur between completion operations. A method of gravel packing that includes a tip-screen-out-design fracturing procedure, performed with the gravel pack packer, screen, and blank in the hole, was proposed to allow the procedures to be performed simultaneously. This paper will describe the various types of gravel packing tools that are currently in use, their specific application, and a new series of gravel packing tools that was developed to resolve the difficulties that arose when the operations of fracturing and gravel packing were combined. Also discussed is the need that arose for tools that could sustain high flow rates in small casing diameters. Test results will be used to provide acceptable flow rates for different bore sizes.

  12. Designing tools for assumption-proof brain-mapping

    PubMed Central

    Marblestone, Adam H.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    There is much excitement in neuroscience about the potential for tools that might enable scalable mapping of brain circuits at the anatomical, molecular, and activity levels. In parallel, new fundamental mechanisms of neural function -- novel transmitters, new cell types and structures, unanticipated genetic and molecular signaling modalities -- are being discovered all the time. This raises a question: how should we design brain mapping technologies so that they can scalably acquire knowledge about mechanisms we already know we want to understand, while taking in stride the novel mechanisms as they are uncovered, so that comprehensive and integrative pictures of brain function, in the end, emerge? Here we discuss the design principles governing mapping technologies so that they can meet these somewhat contrary goals – scalability and flexibility. PMID:25233303

  13. Collective curriculum design as a tool for rethinking scientific literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plakitsi, Katerina

    2010-09-01

    This is a review essay from an educator's point of view, on the article written by Maria Inês Mafra Goulart and Wolff-Michael Roth Engaging young children in collective curriculum design. The article as well as the commentary essay contributes to the current agenda about the feasibility of social practices in (science) education even from the early childhood. A child centered collective curriculum design can be a tool for rethinking scientific literacy towards a multi-science perspective, participative thinking and dialectical teaching strategies that take account of structure or/and agency relationships. The review is structured on five levels: (a) scientific literacy, (b) multi-science perspective, (c) participative thinking—structure or∣and agency, (d) comments on methodology—the emergency of a new order, (e) conclusions.

  14. Computational Modeling as a Design Tool in Microelectronics Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Plans to introduce pilot lines or fabs for 300 mm processing are in progress. The IC technology is simultaneously moving towards 0.25/0.18 micron. The convergence of these two trends places unprecedented stringent demands on processes and equipments. More than ever, computational modeling is called upon to play a complementary role in equipment and process design. The pace in hardware/process development needs a matching pace in software development: an aggressive move towards developing "virtual reactors" is desirable and essential to reduce design cycle and costs. This goal has three elements: reactor scale model, feature level model, and database of physical/chemical properties. With these elements coupled, the complete model should function as a design aid in a CAD environment. This talk would aim at the description of various elements. At the reactor level, continuum, DSMC(or particle) and hybrid models will be discussed and compared using examples of plasma and thermal process simulations. In microtopography evolution, approaches such as level set methods compete with conventional geometric models. Regardless of the approach, the reliance on empricism is to be eliminated through coupling to reactor model and computational surface science. This coupling poses challenging issues of orders of magnitude variation in length and time scales. Finally, database development has fallen behind; current situation is rapidly aggravated by the ever newer chemistries emerging to meet process metrics. The virtual reactor would be a useless concept without an accompanying reliable database that consists of: thermal reaction pathways and rate constants, electron-molecule cross sections, thermochemical properties, transport properties, and finally, surface data on the interaction of radicals, atoms and ions with various surfaces. Large scale computational chemistry efforts are critical as experiments alone cannot meet database needs due to the difficulties associated with such

  15. Design and Application of the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Terry, Michelle; Crillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce; Maxwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conducting human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will present unique challenges in the areas of supportability and maintainability. The durations of proposed missions can be relatively long and re-supply of logistics, including maintenance and repair items, will be limited or non-existent. In addition, mass and volume constraints in the transportation system will limit the total amount of logistics that can be flown along with the crew. These constraints will require that new strategies be developed with regards to how spacecraft systems are designed and maintained. NASA is currently developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) as an initial step in defining future human missions. These DRMs establish destinations and concepts of operation for future missions, and begin to define technology and capability requirements. Because of the unique supportability challenges, historical supportability data and models are not directly applicable for establishing requirements for beyond LEO missions. However, supportability requirements could have a major impact on the development of the DRMs. The mass, volume, and crew resources required to support the mission could all be first order drivers in the design of missions, elements, and operations. Therefore, there is a need for enhanced analysis capabilities to more accurately establish mass, volume, and time requirements for supporting beyond LEO missions. Additionally, as new technologies and operations are proposed to reduce these requirements, it is necessary to have accurate tools to evaluate the efficacy of those approaches. In order to improve the analysis of supportability requirements for beyond LEO missions, the Space Missions Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool (EMAT). This tool is a probabilistic simulator that evaluates the need for repair and maintenance activities during space missions and the logistics and crew

  16. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R.; Cheng, G.; Trinh, H.; Tucker, K.

    2000-01-01

    A practical design tool which emphasizes the analysis of flowfields near the injector face of liquid rocket engines has been developed and used to simulate preliminary configurations of NASA's Fastrac and vortex engines. This computational design tool is sufficiently detailed to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows and the combusting flow which results. In order to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe sub- and supercritical liquid and vapor flows, the model utilized thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The model was constructed such that the local quality of the flow was determined directly. Since both the Fastrac and vortex engines utilize RP-1/LOX propellants, a simplified hydrocarbon combustion model was devised in order to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the recirculating flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity and the film coolant flow to be accurately predicted.

  17. High-order computational fluid dynamics tools for aircraft design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. J.

    2014-01-01

    Most forecasts predict an annual airline traffic growth rate between 4.5 and 5% in the foreseeable future. To sustain that growth, the environmental impact of aircraft cannot be ignored. Future aircraft must have much better fuel economy, dramatically less greenhouse gas emissions and noise, in addition to better performance. Many technical breakthroughs must take place to achieve the aggressive environmental goals set up by governments in North America and Europe. One of these breakthroughs will be physics-based, highly accurate and efficient computational fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics tools capable of predicting complex flows over the entire flight envelope and through an aircraft engine, and computing aircraft noise. Some of these flows are dominated by unsteady vortices of disparate scales, often highly turbulent, and they call for higher-order methods. As these tools will be integral components of a multi-disciplinary optimization environment, they must be efficient to impact design. Ultimately, the accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and geometric flexibility will determine which methods will be adopted in the design process. This article explores these aspects and identifies pacing items. PMID:25024419

  18. Computer-Aided Development and Simulation Tools for Shape-Memory Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Horst; Czechowicz, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    This article discusses the dynamic properties of shape-memory alloy (SMA) actuators, which are characterized by their rate of heating and cooling procedures and can be described only insufficiently for different boundary conditions. Based on an analysis of energy fluxes into and out of the actuator, a numerical model implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK (MathWorks, Natick, MA) is presented. Besides the fluxes, the time-variable parameters like the latent heat of transformation or the influence of stress on the transformation temperatures are also included in the model. These parameters, depending on actuator geometry and temperature, the fraction of martensite, and the environmental conditions, are considered in the simulation in real time. In addition, this publication sums up the needed empirical data ( e.g., fatigue behavior) to create a general-purpose engineering tool. The SMA wire-based actuation system can be configured by drag-and-drop tools and finally simulated and graphically displayed for different actuator systems. The development and verification of such a tool (called CASMADA) from theoretical equations to the verification on real elements is the main topic of this publication.

  19. Design and development of a decision aid to enhance shared decision making by patients with an asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ubbink, Dirk T; Knops, Anouk M; Molenaar, Sjaak; Goossens, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    Objective To design, develop, and evaluate an evidence-based decision aid (DA) for patients with an asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to inform them about the pros and cons of their treatment options (ie, surgery or watchful observation) and to help them make a shared decision. Methods A multidisciplinary team defined criteria for the desired DA as to design, medical content and functionality, particularly for elderly users. Development was according to the international standard (IPDAS). Fifteen patients with an AAA, who were either treated or not yet treated, evaluated the tool. Results A DA was developed to offer information about the disease, the risks and benefits of surgical treatment and watchful observation, and the individual possibilities and threats based on the patient’s aneurysm diameter and risk profile. The DA was improved and judged favorably by physicians and patients. Conclusion This evidence-based DA for AAA patients, developed according to IPDAS criteria, is likely to be a simple, user-friendly tool to offer patients evidence-based information about the pros and cons of treatment options for AAA, to improve patients’ understanding of the disease and treatment options, and may support decision making based on individual values. PMID:19920978

  20. Automotive technicians' training as a community-of-practice: implications for the design of an augmented reality teaching aid.

    PubMed

    Anastassova, Margarita; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents an ergonomic analysis carried out in the early phases of an R&D project. The purpose was to investigate the functioning of today's Automotive Service Technicians (ASTs) training in order to inform the design of an Augmented Reality (AR) teaching aid. The first part of the paper presents a literature review of some major problems encountered by ASTs today. The benefits of AR as technological aid are also introduced. Then, the methodology and the results of two case studies are presented. The first study is based on interviews with trainers and trainees; the second one on observations in real training settings. The results support the assumption that today's ASTs' training could be regarded as a community-of-practice (CoP). Therefore, AR could be useful as a collaboration tool, offering a shared virtual representation of real vehicle's parts, which are normally invisible unless dismantled (e.g. the parts of a hydraulic automatic transmission). We conclude on the methods and the technologies to support the automotive CoP.

  1. NCC: A Multidisciplinary Design/Analysis Tool for Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Quealy, Angela

    1999-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary design/analysis tool for combustion systems is critical for optimizing the low-emission, high-performance combustor design process. Based on discussions between NASA Lewis Research Center and the jet engine companies, an industry-government team was formed in early 1995 to develop the National Combustion Code (NCC), which is an integrated system of computer codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. NCC has advanced features that address the need to meet designer's requirements such as "assured accuracy", "fast turnaround", and "acceptable cost". The NCC development team is comprised of Allison Engine Company (Allison), CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This development team operates under the guidance of the NCC steering committee. The "unstructured mesh" capability and "parallel computing" are fundamental features of NCC from its inception. The NCC system is composed of a set of "elements" which includes grid generator, main flow solver, turbulence module, turbulence and chemistry interaction module, chemistry module, spray module, radiation heat transfer module, data visualization module, and a post-processor for evaluating engine performance parameters. Each element may have contributions from several team members. Such a multi-source multi-element system needs to be integrated in a way that facilitates inter-module data communication, flexibility in module selection, and ease of integration.

  2. Design model of computerized personal decision aid for youth: An expert review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarif, Siti Mahfuzah; Ibrahim, Norfiza; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a structured review of a design model of a computerized personal decision aid that is intended for youth, named as YouthPDA Design Model. The proposed design model was examined by experts in related areas to ensure the appropriateness of the proposed components and elements, relevancy of the terminologies used, logic of the flow, usability, and practicality of the design model towards development of YouthPDA application. Seven experts from related areas were involved in the evaluation. Discussions on the findings obtained from the expert review are included in this paper. Finally, a revised design model of YouthPDA is proposed as main guidance to develop YouthPDA application.

  3. Tools for Designing Thermal Management of Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature has a significant impact on life, performance, and safety of lithium-ion battery technology, which is expected to be the energy storage of choice for electric drive vehicles (xEVs). High temperatures degrade Li-ion cells faster while low temperatures reduce power and energy capabilities that could have cost, reliability, range, or drivability implications. Thermal management of battery packs in xEVs is essential to keep the cells in the desired temperature range and also reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations, both of which impact life and performance. The value that the battery thermal management system provides in reducing battery life and improving performance outweighs its additional cost and complexity. Tools that are essential for thermal management of batteries are infrared thermal imaging, isothermal calorimetry, thermal conductivity meter and computer-aided thermal analysis design software. This presentation provides details of these tools that NREL has used and we believe are needed to design right-sized battery thermal management systems.

  4. Metalloporphyrin catalysts for oxygen reduction developed using computer-aided molecular design

    SciTech Connect

    Ryba, G.N.; Hobbs, J.D.; Shelnutt, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a new class of metalloporphyrin materials used as catalsyts for use in fuel cell applications. The metalloporphyrins are excellent candidates for use as catalysts at both the anode and cathode. The catalysts reduce oxygen in 1 M potassium hydroxide, as well as in 2 M sulfuric acid. Covalent attachment to carbon supports is being investigated. The computer-aided molecular design is an iterative process, in which experimental results feed back into the design of future catalysts.

  5. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  6. Evaluation of brief screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Gogolishvili, David; Rueda, Sergio; Brunetta, Jason; Carvalhal, Adriana; McCombe, Jennifer A.; Gill, M. John; Rachlis, Anita; Rosenes, Ron; Arbess, Gordon; Marcotte, Thomas; Rourke, Sean B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): To systematically review literature on brief screening tools used to detect and differentiate between normal cognition and neurocognitive impairment and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in adult populations of persons with HIV. Design: A formal systematic review. Methods: We searched six electronic databases in 2011 and contacted experts to identify relevant studies published through May 2012. We selected empirical studies that focused on evaluating brief screening tools (<20 min) for neurocognitive impairment in persons with HIV. Two reviewers independently reviewed retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Meta-analyses were completed on screening tools that had sufficient data. Results: Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria; we focused on 31 studies that compared brief screening tools with reference tests. Within these 31 studies, 39 tools were evaluated and 67% used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery as a reference. The majority of these studies evaluated HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) has poor pooled sensitivity (0.48) and the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) has moderate pooled sensitivity (0.62) in detecting a range of cognitive impairment. Five newer screening tools had relatively good sensitivities (>0.70); however, none of the tools differentiated HAND conditions well enough to suggest broader use. There were significant methodological shortcomings noted in most studies. Conclusion: HDS and IHDS perform well to screen for HAD but poorly for milder HAND conditions. Further investigation, with improved methodology, is required to understand the utility of newer screening tools for HAND; further tools may need to be developed for milder HAND conditions. PMID:23751261

  7. Food Web Designer: a flexible tool to visualize interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Sint, Daniela; Traugott, Michael

    Species are embedded in complex networks of ecological interactions and assessing these networks provides a powerful approach to understand what the consequences of these interactions are for ecosystem functioning and services. This is mandatory to develop and evaluate strategies for the management and control of pests. Graphical representations of networks can help recognize patterns that might be overlooked otherwise. However, there is a lack of software which allows visualizing these complex interaction networks. Food Web Designer is a stand-alone, highly flexible and user friendly software tool to quantitatively visualize trophic and other types of bipartite and tripartite interaction networks. It is offered free of charge for use on Microsoft Windows platforms. Food Web Designer is easy to use without the need to learn a specific syntax due to its graphical user interface. Up to three (trophic) levels can be connected using links cascading from or pointing towards the taxa within each level to illustrate top-down and bottom-up connections. Link width/strength and abundance of taxa can be quantified, allowing generating fully quantitative networks. Network datasets can be imported, saved for later adjustment and the interaction webs can be exported as pictures for graphical display in different file formats. We show how Food Web Designer can be used to draw predator-prey and host-parasitoid food webs, demonstrating that this software is a simple and straightforward tool to graphically display interaction networks for assessing pest control or any other type of interaction in both managed and natural ecosystems from an ecological network perspective.

  8. Improving health aid for a better planet: The planning, monitoring and evaluation tool (PLANET)

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Devi; Car, Josip; Chopra, Mickey; Campbell, Harry; Woods, Ngaire; Rudan, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Background International development assistance for health (DAH) quadrupled between 1990 and 2012, from US$ 5.6 billion to US$ 28.1 billion. This generates an increasing need for transparent and replicable tools that could be used to set investment priorities, monitor the distribution of funding in real time, and evaluate the impact of those investments. Methods In this paper we present a methodology that addresses these three challenges. We call this approach PLANET, which stands for planning, monitoring and evaluation tool. Fundamentally, PLANET is based on crowdsourcing approach to obtaining information relevant to deployment of large–scale programs. Information is contributed in real time by a diverse group of participants involved in the program delivery. Findings PLANET relies on real–time information from three levels of participants in large–scale programs: funders, managers and recipients. At each level, information is solicited to assess five key risks that are most relevant to each level of operations. The risks at the level of funders involve systematic neglect of certain areas, focus on donor’s interests over that of program recipients, ineffective co–ordination between donors, questionable mechanisms of delivery and excessive loss of funding to “middle men”. At the level of managers, the risks are corruption, lack of capacity and/or competence, lack of information and /or communication, undue avoidance of governmental structures / preference to non–governmental organizations and exclusion of local expertise. At the level of primary recipients, the risks are corruption, parallel operations / “verticalization”, misalignment with local priorities and lack of community involvement, issues with ethics, equity and/or acceptability, and low likelihood of sustainability beyond the end of the program’s implementation. Interpretation PLANET is intended as an additional tool available to policy–makers to prioritize, monitor and evaluate

  9. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  10. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  11. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  12. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1996-11-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  13. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1996-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  14. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Lipshutz, R.J.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  15. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  16. Design and fabrication of facial prostheses for cancer patient applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Jamayet, Nafij; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad; Luddin, Norhayati; Abdullah, Johari Yap; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Yahya, Suzana

    2016-12-01

    Facial defects are either congenital or caused by trauma or cancer where most of them affect the person appearance. The emotional pressure and low self-esteem are problems commonly related to patient with facial defect. To overcome this problem, silicone prosthesis was designed to cover the defect part. This study describes the techniques in designing and fabrication for facial prosthesis applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM). The steps of fabricating the facial prosthesis were based on a patient case. The patient was diagnosed for Gorlin Gotz syndrome and came to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) for prosthesis. The 3D image of the patient was reconstructed from CT data using MIMICS software. Based on the 3D image, the intercanthal and zygomatic measurements of the patient were compared with available data in the database to find the suitable nose shape. The normal nose shape for the patient was retrieved from the nasal digital library. Mirror imaging technique was used to mirror the facial part. The final design of facial prosthesis including eye, nose and cheek was superimposed to see the result virtually. After the final design was confirmed, the mould design was created. The mould of nasal prosthesis was printed using Objet 3D printer. Silicone casting was done using the 3D print mould. The final prosthesis produced from the computer aided method was acceptable to be used for facial rehabilitation to provide better quality of life.

  17. A tool for computer-aided diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zheen; Wallace, David K.; Freedman, Sharon F.; Aylward, Stephen R.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we present improvements to a software application, named ROPtool, that aids in the timely and accurate detection and diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). ROP occurs in 68% of infants less than 1251 grams at birth, and it is a leading cause of blindness for prematurely born infants. The standard of care for its diagnosis is the subjective assessment of retinal vessel dilation and tortuosity. There is significant inter-observer variation in those assessments. ROPtool analyzes retinal images, extracts user-selected blood vessels from those images, and quantifies the tortuosity of those vessels. The presence of ROP is then gauged by comparing the tortuosity of an infant's retinal vessels with measures made from a clinical-standard image of severely tortuous retinal vessels. The presence of such tortuous retinal vessels is referred to as 'plus disease'. In this paper, a novel metric of tortuosity is proposed. From the ophthalmologist's point of view, the new metric is an improvement from our previously published algorithm, since it uses smooth curves instead of straight lines to simulate 'normal vessels'. Another advantage of the new ROPtool is that minimal user interactions are required. ROPtool utilizes a ridge traversal algorithm to extract retinal vessels. The algorithm reconstructs connectivity along a vessel automatically. This paper supports its claims by reporting ROC curves from a pilot study involving 20 retinal images. The areas under two ROC curves, from two experts in ROP, using the new metric to diagnose 'tortuosity sufficient for plus disease', varied from 0.86 to 0.91.

  18. The Design with Intent Method: a design tool for influencing user behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lockton, Dan; Harrison, David; Stanton, Neville A

    2010-05-01

    Using product and system design to influence user behaviour offers potential for improving performance and reducing user error, yet little guidance is available at the concept generation stage for design teams briefed with influencing user behaviour. This article presents the Design with Intent Method, an innovation tool for designers working in this area, illustrated via application to an everyday human-technology interaction problem: reducing the likelihood of a customer leaving his or her card in an automatic teller machine. The example application results in a range of feasible design concepts which are comparable to existing developments in ATM design, demonstrating that the method has potential for development and application as part of a user-centred design process.

  19. The Robonaut 2 Hand - Designed to do Work with Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridgwater, L. B.; Ihrke, C. A.; Diftler, M. A.; Abdallah, M. E.; Radford, N. A.; Rogers, J. M.; Yayathi, S.; Askew, R. S.; Linn, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    The second generation Robonaut hand has many advantages over its predecessor. This mechatronic device is more dexterous and has improved force control and sensing giving it the capability to grasp and actuate a wider range of tools. It can achieve higher peak forces at higher speeds than the original. Developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA, the hand is designed to more closely approximate a human hand. Having a more anthropomorphic design allows the hand to attain a larger set of useful grasps for working with human interfaces. Key to the hand s improved performance is the use of lower friction drive elements and a redistribution of components from the hand to the forearm, permitting more sensing in the fingers and palm where it is most important. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the hand. Lessons learned during the development and initial operations along with planned refinements to make it more effective are presented.

  20. Design and Analysis Tool for External-Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2012-01-01

    A computational tool named SUPIN has been developed to design and analyze external-compression supersonic inlets for aircraft at cruise speeds from Mach 1.6 to 2.0. The inlet types available include the axisymmetric outward-turning, two-dimensional single-duct, two-dimensional bifurcated-duct, and streamline-traced Busemann inlets. The aerodynamic performance is characterized by the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The inlet flowfield is divided into parts to provide a framework for the geometry and aerodynamic modeling and the parts are defined in terms of geometric factors. The low-fidelity aerodynamic analysis and design methods are based on analytic, empirical, and numerical methods which provide for quick analysis. SUPIN provides inlet geometry in the form of coordinates and surface grids useable by grid generation methods for higher-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. SUPIN is demonstrated through a series of design studies and CFD analyses were performed to verify some of the analysis results.

  1. Designing and implementing full immersion simulation as a research tool.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Belinda; Buckley, Thomas; Curtis, Kate; Morris, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Simulation is a valuable research tool used to evaluate the clinical performance of devices, people and systems. The simulated setting may address concerns unique to complex clinical environments such as the Emergency Department, which make the conduct of research challenging. There is limited evidence available to inform the development of simulated clinical scenarios for the purpose of evaluating practice in research studies, with the majority of literature focused on designing simulated clinical scenarios for education and training. Distinct differences exist in scenario design when implemented in education compared with use in clinical research studies. Simulated scenarios used to assess practice in clinical research must not comprise of any purposeful or planned teaching and be developed with a high degree of validity and reliability. A new scenario design template was devised to develop two standardised simulated clinical scenarios for the evaluation of a new assessment framework for emergency nurses. The scenario development and validation processes undertaken are described and provide an evidence-informed guide to scenario development for future clinical research studies.

  2. Computer-aided design of high-contact-ratio gears for minimum dynamic load and stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Lee, Chinwai; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1990-01-01

    A computer aided design procedure is presented for minimizing dynamic effects on high contact ratio gears by modification of the tooth profile. Both linear and parabolic tooth profile modifications of high contact ratio gears under various loading conditions are examined and compared. The effects of the total amount of modification and the length of the modification zone were systematically studied at various loads and speeds to find the optimum profile design for minimizing the dynamic load and the tooth bending stress. Parabolic profile modification is preferred over linear profile modification for high contact ratio gears because of its lower sensitivity to manufacturing errors. For parabolic modification, a greater amount of modification at the tooth tip and a longer modification zone are required. Design charts are presented for high contact ratio gears with various profile modifications operating under a range of loads. A procedure is illustrated for using the charts to find the optimum profile design.

  3. Investigating Analytic Tools for e-Book Design in Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Brueck, Jeremy; Widman, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Toward the goal of better e-book design to support early literacy learning, this study investigates analytic tools for examining design qualities of e-books for young children. Three research-based analytic tools related to e-book design were applied to a mixed genre collection of 50 e-books from popular online sites. Tool performance varied…

  4. VAPOR: A desktop tool for visualization aided analysis of earth sciences CFD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, J.; Norton, A.

    2009-12-01

    Continual advancements in microprocessor technology are permitting numerical modelers in the earth sciences to run simulations at unprecedented scale. For many computational scientists their most daunting challenge has become analyzing the ever-growing data outputs resulting from these simulations. Computing resources suitable for interactive analysis are rarely available at a scale comparable with the batch computing systems employed to run a model. Moreover, computing technologies essential to supporting interactive analysis work, such as storage, are advancing at more modest rates than the microprocessor. The result is often a deluge of data and a poor return on our scientific investments. We will present a visual data analysis tool that recognizes the current HPC environment and computing technology landscape by taking an intelligent approach to large data handling unlike those tools solely relying on the existence of large scale, highly-parallel interactive computing platforms. VAPOR employs of form of progressive data refinement akin to the techniques used by GoogleEarthTM to display 2D image data at progressively finer resolutions. A VAPOR user is able to make speed/quality trade offs when navigating through data sets that may be Terabytes in size. VAPOR has been used in practice on simulation outputs computed on grids up to 2048^3 using only a commodity Linux PC. Though VAPOR’s roots are in numerical turbulence, recent developments have focused on scientific groups with geo-referenced data sets such as the weather research community. Flapping magnetic field lines visualized with VAPOR by Aake Nordlund, Niels Bohr Institute

  5. Modification of planned postoperative occlusion in orthognathic surgery, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; You, Tae-Kwon; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In orthognathic surgery, it is important to have a planned postoperative occlusion. A 3-dimensional preoperative simulation, based on 3-dimensional optically scanned occlusion data, can predict how the planned postoperative occlusion will affect the maxilla-mandibular relationship that results from orthognathic surgery. In this study we modified the planned postoperative occlusion, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulations. This modification made it possible to resolve the facial asymmetry of the patient successfully with a simple bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy and no additional maxillary or mandibular surgery.

  6. Mandibular reconstructions using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing: A systematic review of a defect-based reconstructive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Del Corso, Giacomo; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Modern planning techniques, including computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) can be used to plan reconstructive surgery, optimising aesthetic outcomes and functional rehabilitation. However, although many such applications are available, no systematic protocol yet describes the entire reconstructive procedure, which must include virtual planning, custom manufacture, and a reconstructive algorithm. We reviewed current practices in this novel field, analysed case series described in the literature, and developed a new, defect-based reconstructive algorithm. We also evaluated methods of mandibular reconstruction featuring virtual planning, the use of surgical guides, and laser printing of custom titanium bony plates to support composite free flaps, and evaluated their utility.

  7. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Increasing the Meaningful Involvement of Women Living With HIV/AIDS (MIWA) in the Design and Delivery of HIV/AIDS Services.

    PubMed

    Carter, Allison; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; O'Brien, Nadia; Sanchez, Margarite; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The meaningful involvement of women living with HIV/AIDS (MIWA) is a key feature of women-centred HIV care, yet little is known about transforming MIWA from principle to practice. Drawing on focus group data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), we explored HIV-positive women's meaningful involvement in the design and delivery of HIV/AIDS services in British Columbia, Canada. In this article, we highlight the benefits and tensions that emerge as women traverse multiple roles as service users and service providers within their care communities, and the impact this has on their access to care and overall health.

  8. Machine Learning: A Crucial Tool for Sensor Design.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weixiang; Bhushan, Abhinav; Santamaria, Anthony D; Simon, Melinda G; Davis, Cristina E

    2008-12-01

    Sensors have been widely used for disease diagnosis, environmental quality monitoring, food quality control, industrial process analysis and control, and other related fields. As a key tool for sensor data analysis, machine learning is becoming a core part of novel sensor design. Dividing a complete machine learning process into three steps: data pre-treatment, feature extraction and dimension reduction, and system modeling, this paper provides a review of the methods that are widely used for each step. For each method, the principles and the key issues that affect modeling results are discussed. After reviewing the potential problems in machine learning processes, this paper gives a summary of current algorithms in this field and provides some feasible directions for future studies.

  9. Machine Learning: A Crucial Tool for Sensor Design

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weixiang; Bhushan, Abhinav; Santamaria, Anthony D.; Simon, Melinda G.; Davis, Cristina E.

    2009-01-01

    Sensors have been widely used for disease diagnosis, environmental quality monitoring, food quality control, industrial process analysis and control, and other related fields. As a key tool for sensor data analysis, machine learning is becoming a core part of novel sensor design. Dividing a complete machine learning process into three steps: data pre-treatment, feature extraction and dimension reduction, and system modeling, this paper provides a review of the methods that are widely used for each step. For each method, the principles and the key issues that affect modeling results are discussed. After reviewing the potential problems in machine learning processes, this paper gives a summary of current algorithms in this field and provides some feasible directions for future studies. PMID:20191110

  10. Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

  11. Miscellaneous Topics in Computer-Aided Drug Design: Synthetic Accessibility and GPU Computing, and Other Topics

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Misoo, Kiyotaka; Wakabayashi, Yoshinori; Miyaki, Toshiaki; Ohta, Seiji; Nakamura, Mayu; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Computer-aided drug design is still a state-of-the-art process in medicinal chemistry, and the main topics in this field have been extensively studied and well reviewed. These topics include compound databases, ligand-binding pocket prediction, protein-compound docking, virtual screening, target/off-target prediction, physical property prediction, molecular simulation and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) prediction. Message and Conclusion: However, there are also a number of secondary or miscellaneous topics that have been less well covered. For example, methods for synthesizing and predicting the synthetic accessibility (SA) of designed compounds are important in practical drug development, and hardware/software resources for performing the computations in computer-aided drug design are crucial. Cloud computing and general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) computing have been used in virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations. Not surprisingly, there is a growing demand for computer systems which combine these resources. In the present review, we summarize and discuss these various topics of drug design. PMID:27075578

  12. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  13. Spacecraft Station-Keeping Trajectory and Mission Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Min-Kun J.

    2009-01-01

    Two tools were developed for designing station-keeping trajectories and estimating delta-v requirements for designing missions to a small body such as a comet or asteroid. This innovation uses NPOPT, a non-sparse, general-purpose sequential quadratic programming (SQP) optimizer and the Two-Level Differential Corrector (T-LDC) in LTool (Libration point mission design Tool) to design three kinds of station-keeping scripts: vertical hovering, horizontal hovering, and orbiting. The T-LDC is used to differentially correct several trajectory legs that join hovering points. In a vertical hovering, the maximum and minimum range points must be connected smoothly while maintaining the spacecrafts range from a small body, all within the law of gravity and the solar radiation pressure. The same is true for a horizontal hover. A PatchPoint is an LTool class that denotes a space-time event with some extra information for differential correction, including a set of constraints to be satisfied by T-LDC. Given a set of PatchPoints, each with its own constraint, the T-LDC differentially corrects the entire trajectory by connecting each trajectory leg joined by PatchPoints while satisfying all specified constraints at the same time. Vertical and horizontal hover both are needed to minimize delta-v spent for station keeping. A Python I/F to NPOPT has been written to be used from an LTool script. In vertical hovering, the spacecraft stays along the line joining the Sun and a small body. An instantaneous delta-v toward the anti- Sun direction is applied at the closest approach to the small body for station keeping. For example, the spacecraft hovers between the minimum range (2 km) point and the maximum range (2.5 km) point from the asteroid 1989ML. Horizontal hovering buys more time for a spacecraft to recover if, for any reason, a planned thrust fails, by returning almost to the initial position after some time later via a near elliptical orbit around the small body. The mapping or

  14. An empirical evaulation of computerized tools to aid in enroute flight planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, C. Elaine; Layton, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment using the Flight Planning Testbed (FPT) in which 27 airline dispatchers were studied. Five general questions was addresses in the study: Under what circumstances does the introduction of computer-generated suggestions (flight plans) influence the planning behavior of dispatchers; what is the nature of such influences; How beneficial are the general design concepts underlying FPT; How effective are the specific implementation decisions made in realizing these general design concepts; How effectively do dispatchers evaluate situations requiring replanning and how effectively do they identify appropriate solutions to these situations. The study leaves little doubt that the introduction of computer-generated suggestions for solving a flight planning problem can have a marked impact on the cognitive processes of the user and on the ultimate plan selected.

  15. Design of a cervical collar device to facilitate and accelerate implementation of first aid.

    PubMed

    Işık, Hakan; Saraçoğlu, Esra; Harmanci, Hüseyin; Güler, Inan

    2010-08-01

    Frequently there are disasters all over the world-fires, earthquakes, or even some unexpected shocking catastrophes. Hence people injured, or even died. Lifesaving actions begin with the initiation of the chain of survival. With every minute that passes without medical action being taken, the probability of being able to save the patients life decreases by ten percent. After 10 min there is normally no chance of resuscitation being successful. First aid is emergency treatment given before regular medical aid can be obtained. And it is a concept of first hands-on measures performed in a medical emergency by laypersons. The major aim of this study is to develop an easy-feasible cervical collar, for facilitating and accelerating implementation of first aid especially in case of collective injuries. The developed device is different from the cervical collars which are used to treat the neck pain. In the present study, the heartbeat is obtained by detecting pulse with the stethoscope that is a part of the developed device and fixed on the carorid artery. The obtained heartbeat signal has been processed by the electronic control circuit and the used LED has given light according to the patient's life signal. Although there are some disadvantages of the developed system, the precautions for these cases have been taken and the system has been tried to design in order to operate sensibly.

  16. GA-Based Computer-Aided Electromagnetic Design of Two-Phase SRM for Compressor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Yoshiaki; Kosaka, Takashi; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents an approach to Genetic Algorithm (GA)-based computer-aided autonomous electromagnetic design of 2-phase Switched Reluctance Motor drives. The proposed drive is designed for compressor drives in low-priced refrigerators as an alternative to existing brushless DC motors drives with rare-earth magnets. In the proposed design approach, three GA loops work to optimize the lamination design so as to meet the requirements for the target application under the given constraints while simultaneously fine-tuning the control parameters. To achieve the design optimization within an acceptable CPU-time, the repeated-calculation required to obtain fitness evaluation in the proposed approach does not use FEM, but consists of geometric flux tube-based non-linear magnetic analysis and a dynamic simulator based on an analytical expression of the magnetizing curves obtained from the non-linear magnetic analysis. The design results show the proposed approach can autonomously find a feasible design solution of SRM drive for the target application from huge search space. The experimental studies using a 2-phase 8/6 prototype manufactured in accordance with the optimized design parameters show the validity of the proposed approach.

  17. Web-Based Model Visualization Tools to Aid in Model Optimization and Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alder, J.; van Griensven, A.; Meixner, T.

    2003-12-01

    Individuals applying hydrologic models have a need for a quick easy to use visualization tools to permit them to assess and understand model performance. We present here the Interactive Hydrologic Modeling (IHM) visualization toolbox. The IHM utilizes high-speed Internet access, the portability of the web and the increasing power of modern computers to provide an online toolbox for quick and easy model result visualization. This visualization interface allows for the interpretation and analysis of Monte-Carlo and batch model simulation results. Often times a given project will generate several thousands or even hundreds of thousands simulations. This large number of simulations creates a challenge for post-simulation analysis. IHM's goal is to try to solve this problem by loading all of the data into a database with a web interface that can dynamically generate graphs for the user according to their needs. IHM currently supports: a global samples statistics table (e.g. sum of squares error, sum of absolute differences etc.), top ten simulations table and graphs, graphs of an individual simulation using time step data, objective based dotty plots, threshold based parameter cumulative density function graphs (as used in the regional sensitivity analysis of Spear and Hornberger) and 2D error surface graphs of the parameter space. IHM is ideal for the simplest bucket model to the largest set of Monte-Carlo model simulations with a multi-dimensional parameter and model output space. By using a web interface, IHM offers the user complete flexibility in the sense that they can be anywhere in the world using any operating system. IHM can be a time saving and money saving alternative to spending time producing graphs or conducting analysis that may not be informative or being forced to purchase or use expensive and proprietary software. IHM is a simple, free, method of interpreting and analyzing batch model results, and is suitable for novice to expert hydrologic modelers.

  18. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information. PMID:28203270

  19. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications: I. Design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, S.; Owens, B. B.; Coustier, F.

    Rechargeable batteries have been designed for powering hearing aid devices (HAD). The cells, based on the lithium-ion chemistry, were designed in a size that is compatible with the existing HAD. The 10 mA h batteries were tested to characterize the design and the electrochemical performance from the point of view of a typical HAD application. Results are presented for constant-current tests, first-cycle conditions, charge voltage cut-off, rate performance, and cycle life. The pulse capabilities and the preliminary safety tests of the batteries will be presented in a following report. The results of the lithium-ion HAD cells developed in this project are compared with other battery chemistries: lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride secondary batteries and Zn-air primary batteries.

  20. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  1. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaozhong; He, Kunjin; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients' femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information.

  2. Computer aided design of digital controller for radial active magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Zhong; Shen, Zupei; Zhang, Zuming; Zhao, Hongbin

    1992-01-01

    A five degree of freedom Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system is developed which is controlled by digital controllers. The model of the radial AMB system is linearized and the state equation is derived. Based on the state variables feedback theory, digital controllers are designed. The performance of the controllers are evaluated according to experimental results. The Computer Aided Design (CAD) method is used to design controllers for magnetic bearings. The controllers are implemented with a digital signal processing (DSP) system. The control algorithms are realized with real-time programs. It is very easy to change the controller by changing or modifying the programs. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of the controlled magnetic system, a special experiment was carried out. Also, the online Recursive Least Squares (RLS) parameter identification method is studied. It can be realized with the digital controllers. Online parameter identification is essential for the realization of an adaptive controller.

  3. Design of a controlled-brake orthosis for FES-aided gait.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, M; Durfee, W K

    1996-03-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a means of restoring gait to individuals with spinal cord injury, but the performance of most FES-aided gait systems is hampered by the rapid muscle fatigue which results from stimulated muscle contraction and the inadequate control of joint torques necessary to produce desired limb trajectories. The controlled-brake orthosis (CBO) addresses these limitations by utilizing FES in combination with a long-leg brace that contains controllable friction brakes at the knees and hips. A laboratory version of the CBO utilizing computer-controlled magnetic particle brakes at the joints was designed and constructed, and preliminary results with a single spinal cord injury (SCI) subject have demonstrated reduced fatigue and more repeatable gait trajectories when compared to FES-aided gait without the brace. Significant work remains to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept across a wide range of SCI subjects and to design a system which meets appropriate user requirements of size, weight, cosmesis, ease of use and cost. The primary purpose of the paper is to detail the design of the CBO.

  4. Flexibility analysis of biomacromolecules with application to computer-aided drug design.

    PubMed

    Fulle, Simone; Gohlke, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Flexibility characteristics of biomacromolecules can be efficiently determined down to the atomic level by a graph-theoretical technique as implemented in the FIRST (Floppy Inclusion and Rigid Substructure Topology) and ProFlex software packages. The method has been successfully applied to a series of protein and nucleic acid structures. Here, we describe practical guidelines for setting up and performing a flexibility analysis, discuss current bottlenecks of the approach, and provide sample applications as to how this technique can support computer-aided drug design approaches.

  5. User-Friendly, Syntax Directed Input to a Computer Aided Design System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    indepen- dern-. oblems arise in both compu:er aided design and in software development as a result of multipla types cf computz , mUtiple languages...Base CONLAN. Ease CONLAN is defined cy three i- ms , a set of object types and cperations, syntax, and a comPuta-IoL model. It is defined with Primitive...ycsjum on Computer Hardware= DescrT:--c-: -Lanquaqes. ~ p. =-3’EEET73 28. H1Il, F. J., and Petezzcn, J. R., DjZt4- S Lt-= Ms : Hardware O~gan iza,,i.n cand

  6. Design and Analysis Tools for Concurrent Blackboard Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A blackboard system consists of a set of knowledge sources, a blackboard data structure, and a control strategy used to activate the knowledge sources. The blackboard model of problem solving is best described by Dr. H. Penny Nii of the Stanford University AI Laboratory: "A Blackboard System can be viewed as a collection of intelligent agents who are gathered around a blackboard, looking at pieces of information written on it, thinking about the current state of the solution, and writing their conclusions on the blackboard as they generate them. " The blackboard is a centralized global data structure, often partitioned in a hierarchical manner, used to represent the problem domain. The blackboard is also used to allow inter-knowledge source communication and acts as a shared memory visible to all of the knowledge sources. A knowledge source is a highly specialized, highly independent process that takes inputs from the blackboard data structure, performs a computation, and places the results of the computation in the blackboard data structure. This design allows for an opportunistic control strategy. The opportunistic problem-solving technique allows a knowledge source to contribute towards the solution of the current problem without knowing which of the other knowledge sources will use the information. The use of opportunistic problem-solving allows the data transfers on the blackboard to determine which processes are active at a given time. Designing and developing blackboard systems is a difficult process. The designer is trying to balance several conflicting goals and achieve a high degree of concurrent knowledge source execution while maintaining both knowledge and semantic consistency on the blackboard. Blackboard systems have not attained their apparent potential because there are no established tools or methods to guide in their construction or analyze their performance.

  7. User's manual: Computer-aided design programs for inductor-energy-storage dc-to-dc electronic power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed instructions on the use of two computer-aided-design programs for designing the energy storage inductor for single winding and two winding dc to dc converters are provided. Step by step procedures are given to illustrate the formatting of user input data. The procedures are illustrated by eight sample design problems which include the user input and the computer program output.

  8. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  9. Using a genetic-fuzzy algorithm as a computer aided diagnosis tool on Saudi Arabian breast cancer database.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Abir; Tchier, F

    2017-04-01

    The computer-aided diagnosis has become one of the major research topics in medical diagnostics. In this research paper, we focus on designing an automated computer diagnosis by combining two major methodologies, namely the fuzzy base systems and the evolutionary genetic algorithms and applying them to the Saudi Arabian breast cancer diagnosis database, to be employed for assisting physicians in the early detection of breast cancers, and hence obtaining an early-computerized diagnosis complementary to that by physicians. Our hybrid algorithm, the genetic-fuzzy algorithm, has produced optimized diagnosis systems that attain high classification performance, in fact, our best three rule system obtained a 97% accuracy, with simple and well interpretive rules, and with a good degree of confidence of 91%.

  10. Evaluation of Fostering Students' Creativity in Preparing Aided Recalls for Revision Courses Using Electronic Revision and Recapitulation Tools 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Oliver; Weber, Christoph; Sato, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the electronic revision and recapitulation tools 2.0 (EREP 2.0) were used to foster creative moments while creating aided recalls (ARs) (pictures electronic notes etc.). Creative and critical thinking is associated with vital skills which enable students to deal with often complex knowledge domains through an informal way of…

  11. Participation of South African youth in the design and development of AIDS photocomics. 1997-98.

    PubMed

    Toroyan, Tamitza; Reddy, Priscilla S

    In response to an increasing incidence in HIV prevalence among South Africa's youth, a group of interdisciplinary professionals have developed a series of photocomics to address issues around HIV/AIDS communication and sexually transmitted diseases. This article examines the theory behind the use of photocomics in health, and the way the stories work to influence behavior. Results from evaluation of the comics support their use as tools with which to increase information and knowledge while role modeling desirable behavior. Lastly, the article describes the participatory process by which youth were involved in the process of developing and producing the comics. This method of developing culturally relevant and appealing health media is recommended for use in future health promotion strategies that seek to transcend a narrower approach of provision of health information and work to address the social factors that influence youth's decision making.

  12. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1999-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to a sensitivity based Concurrent Subspace Optimization (CSSO) NMO algorithm; the development of a neural network response surface based CSSO-MDO algorithm; and the integration of distributed computing and process scheduling into the MDO environment. This report overviews research efforts in each of these focus. A complete bibliography of research produced with support of this grant is attached.

  13. Computer-Based Cognitive Tools: Description and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, David; McNaught, Carmel

    With computers, tangible tools are represented by the hardware (e.g., the central processing unit, scanners, and video display unit), while intangible tools are represented by the software. There is a special category of computer-based software tools (CBSTs) that have the potential to mediate cognitive processes--computer-based cognitive tools…

  14. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  15. Current Status of Computer-Aided Drug Design for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Shabana; Sakata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that requires multiple therapeutic approaches. The pancreas loses its functionality to properly produce the insulin hormone in patients with diabetes mellitus. In 2012, more than one million people worldwide died as a result of diabetes, which was the eighth leading cause of death. Objective Most drugs currently available and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration cannot reach an adequate level of glycemic control in diabetic patients, and have many side effects; thus, new classes of compounds are required. Efforts based on computer-aided drug design (CADD) can mine a large number of databases to produce new and potent hits and minimize the requirement of time and dollars for new discoveries. Methods Pharmaceutical sciences have made progress with advances in drug design concepts. Virtual screening of large databases is most compatible with different computational methods such as molecular docking, pharmacophore, quantitative structure-activity relationship, and molecular dynamic simulation. Contribution of these methods in selection of antidiabetic compounds has been discussed. Results The Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) approach has contributed to successful discovery of novel anti-diabetic agents. This mini-review focuses on CADD approach on currently approved drugs and new therapeutic agents-in-development that may achieve suitable glucose levels and decrease the risk of hypoglycemia, which is a major obstacle to glucose control and a special concern for therapies that increase insulin levels. Conclusion Drug design and development for type 2 diabetes have been actively studied. However, a large number of antidiabetic drugs are still in early stages of development. The conventional target- and structure-based approaches can be regarded as part of the efforts toward therapeutic mechanism-based drug design for treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is expected that further improvement in CADD approach will

  16. Tools for efficient design of multicomponent separation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Joshua Lee

    formulation and the relative effect of capital and operating cost is weighed for an example feed. Previous methods based on Underwood's equations have no accounting for the temperature at which utilities are required. To account for this, a thermodynamic efficiency function is developed which allows the complete search space to be ranklisted in order of the exergy loss occurring within the configuration. Examining these results shows that this objective function favors configurations which move their reboiler and condenser duties to milder temperature exchangers. A graphical interface is presented which allows interpretation of any of the above results in a quick and intuitive fashion, complete with system flow and composition data and the ability to filter the complete search space based on numerical and structural criteria. This provides a unique way to compare and contrast configurations as well as allowing considerations like column retrofit and maximum controllability to be considered. Using all five of these screening techniques, the traditional intuition-based methods of separations process design can be augmented with analytical and algorithmic tools which enable selection of a process design with low cost and high efficiency.

  17. tkLayout: a design tool for innovative silicon tracking detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, G.

    2014-03-01

    A new CMS tracker is scheduled to become operational for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade in the early 2020's. tkLayout is a software package developed to create 3d models for the design of the CMS tracker and to evaluate its fundamental performance figures. The new tracker will have to cope with much higher luminosity conditions, resulting in increased track density, harsher radiation exposure and, especially, much higher data acquisition bandwidth, such that equipping the tracker with triggering capabilities is envisaged. The design of an innovative detector involves deciding on an architecture offering the best trade-off among many figures of merit, such as tracking resolution, power dissipation, bandwidth, cost and so on. Quantitatively evaluating these figures of merit as early as possible in the design phase is of capital importance and it is best done with the aid of software models. tkLayout is a flexible modeling tool: new performance estimates and support for different detector geometries can be quickly added, thanks to its modular structure. Besides, the software executes very quickly (about two minutes), so that many possible architectural variations can be rapidly modeled and compared, to help in the choice of a viable detector layout and then to optimize it. A tracker geometry is generated from simple configuration files, defining the module types, layout and materials. Support structures are automatically added and services routed to provide a realistic tracker description. The tracker geometries thus generated can be exported to the standard CMS simulation framework (CMSSW) for full Monte Carlo studies. tkLayout has proven essential in giving guidance to CMS in studying different detector layouts and exploring the feasibility of innovative solutions for tracking detectors, in terms of design, performance and projected costs. This tool has been one of the keys to making important design decisions for over five years now and has also enabled project engineers

  18. The Utility of Computer Tracking Tools for User-Centered Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geri; Mazur, Joan

    1993-01-01

    Describes tracking tools used by designers and users to evaluate the efficacy of hypermedia systems. Highlights include human-computer interaction research; tracking tools and user-centered design; and three examples from the Interactive Multimedia Group at Cornell University that illustrate uses of various tracking tools. (27 references) (LRW)

  19. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold-rolling material and Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 were selected as typical hot-rolling and cold-rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape-rolling process were developed. These models utilize the upper-bound and the slab methods of analysis, and are capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll-separating force, roll torque and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design (CAD) system is also capable of simulating the actual rolling process and thereby designing roll-pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or similar shape. The predictions from the CAD system were verified with respect to cold rolling of mild steel plates. The system is being applied to cold and hot isothermal rolling of an airfoil shape, and will be verified with respect to laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.

  20. Computer-aided design and manufacturing in craniomaxillofacial surgery: the new state of the art.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jamie P; Patel, Ashish; Saadeh, Pierre B; Hirsch, David L

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this article was to illustrate the ease in which virtual surgery and computer-aided design and manufacturing can be used by the craniomaxillofacial surgeon to create tremendously accurate postoperative results and provide confidence with even the most complex three-dimensional bony reconstructions. With advancements in software technology and three-dimensional printing, our ability to plan and execute precise bony reconstruction has become a reality. With this technology, guides can be made to ensure exact bony repositioning or replacement. These guides can help guide cutting of the bone and can act as splints to precisely reposition the bone and direct plate placement. With use of these computer-aided design and manufacturing guides and the addition of guidance technology, the position of the bone can be guaranteed intraoperatively. We review our unique and advanced method in approaching some of these problems and illustrate the application of these techniques in mandibular reconstruction, orthognathic surgery, maxillofacial trauma, and temporomandibular joint reconstruction. This technology continues to evolve, and our indications for its application continue to grow. This article represents only a small portion of the types of cases in which these techniques have already been applied.