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Sample records for aided diagnosis cadx

  1. CADx Mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costaridou, Lena

    Although a wide variety of Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) schemes have been proposed across breast imaging modalities, and especially in mammography, research is still ongoing to meet the high performance CADx requirements. In this chapter, methodological contributions to CADx in mammography and adjunct breast imaging modalities are reviewed, as they play a major role in early detection, diagnosis and clinical management of breast cancer. At first, basic terms and definitions are provided. Then, emphasis is given to lesion content derivation, both anatomical and functional, considering only quantitative image features of micro-calcification clusters and masses across modalities. Additionally, two CADx application examples are provided. The first example investigates the effect of segmentation accuracy on micro-calcification cluster morphology derivation in X-ray mammography. The second one demonstrates the efficiency of texture analysis in quantification of enhancement kinetics, related to vascular heterogeneity, for mass classification in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Skin Lesions Using Conventional Digital Photography: A Reliability and Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Yu; Huang, Adam; Yang, Chung-Yi; Lee, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yin-Chun; Wu, Tian-Yau; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) software that provides a second opinion has been widely used to assist physicians with various tasks. In dermatology, however, CADx has been mostly limited to melanoma or melanocytic skin cancer diagnosis. The frequency of non-melanocytic skin cancers and the accessibility of regular digital macrographs have raised interest in developing CADx for broader applications. Objectives To investigate the feasibility of using CADx to diagnose both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions based on conventional digital photographic images. Methods This study was approved by an institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. In total, 769 conventional photographs of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions were retrospectively reviewed and used to develop a CADx system. Conventional and new color-related image features were developed to classify the lesions as benign or malignant using support vector machines (SVMs). The performance of CADx was compared with that of dermatologists. Results The clinicians' overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 83.33%, 85.88%, and 85.31%, respectively. New color correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) features improved the classification ability of the baseline CADx (p = 0.001). The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) of the proposed CADx system was 0.949, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.63% and 87.65%, respectively, and a maximum accuracy of 90.64%. Conclusions We have developed an effective CADx system to classify both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions using conventional digital macrographs. The system's performance was similar to that of dermatologists at our institute. Through improved feature extraction and SVM analysis, we found that conventional digital macrographs were feasible for providing useful information for CADx applications. The new color

  3. Design-based approach to ethics in computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.; Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Wu, Chris Y.; Hayes, Wendelin S.; Mun, Seong K.

    1996-04-01

    A design-based approach to ethical analysis examines how computer scientists, physicians and patients make and justify choices in designing, using and reacting to computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems. The basic hypothesis of this research is that values are embedded in CADx systems during all phases of their development, not just retrospectively imposed on them. This paper concentrates on the work of computer scientists and physicians as they attempt to resolve central technical questions in designing clinically functional CADx systems for lung cancer and breast cancer diagnosis. The work of Lo, Chan, Freedman, Lin, Wu and their colleagues provides the initial data on which this study is based. As these researchers seek to increase the rate of true positive classifications of detected abnormalities in chest radiographs and mammograms, they explore dimensions of the fundamental ethical principal of beneficence. The training of CADx systems demonstrates the key ethical dilemmas inherent in their current design.

  4. CADx of mammographic masses and clustered microcalcifications: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Elter, Matthias; Horsch, Alexander

    2009-06-15

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in the western world. While mammography is regarded as the most effective tool for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, the interpretation of mammograms is a difficult and error-prone task. Hence, computer aids have been developed that assist the radiologist in the interpretation of mammograms. Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems address the problem that radiologists often miss signs of cancers that are retrospectively visible in mammograms. Furthermore, computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have been proposed that assist the radiologist in the classification of mammographic lesions as benign or malignant. While a broad variety of approaches to both CADe and CADx systems have been published in the past two decades, an extensive survey of the state of the art is only available for CADe approaches. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the state of the art of CADx approaches is presented in this work. Besides providing a summary, the goals for this article are to identify relations, contradictions, and gaps in literature, and to suggest directions for future research. Because of the vast amount of publications on the topic, this survey is restricted to the two most important types of mammographic lesions: masses and clustered microcalcifications. Furthermore, it focuses on articles published in international journals.

  5. Computer-Aided Diagnosis with Deep Learning Architecture: Applications to Breast Lesions in US Images and Pulmonary Nodules in CT Scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Ni, Dong; Chou, Yi-Hong; Qin, Jing; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Shen, Dinggang; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2016-04-01

    This paper performs a comprehensive study on the deep-learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant nodules/lesions by avoiding the potential errors caused by inaccurate image processing results (e.g., boundary segmentation), as well as the classification bias resulting from a less robust feature set, as involved in most conventional CADx algorithms. Specifically, the stacked denoising auto-encoder (SDAE) is exploited on the two CADx applications for the differentiation of breast ultrasound lesions and lung CT nodules. The SDAE architecture is well equipped with the automatic feature exploration mechanism and noise tolerance advantage, and hence may be suitable to deal with the intrinsically noisy property of medical image data from various imaging modalities. To show the outperformance of SDAE-based CADx over the conventional scheme, two latest conventional CADx algorithms are implemented for comparison. 10 times of 10-fold cross-validations are conducted to illustrate the efficacy of the SDAE-based CADx algorithm. The experimental results show the significant performance boost by the SDAE-based CADx algorithm over the two conventional methods, suggesting that deep learning techniques can potentially change the design paradigm of the CADx systems without the need of explicit design and selection of problem-oriented features.

  6. Computer-Aided Diagnosis with Deep Learning Architecture: Applications to Breast Lesions in US Images and Pulmonary Nodules in CT Scans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Ni, Dong; Chou, Yi-Hong; Qin, Jing; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Shen, Dinggang; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    This paper performs a comprehensive study on the deep-learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant nodules/lesions by avoiding the potential errors caused by inaccurate image processing results (e.g., boundary segmentation), as well as the classification bias resulting from a less robust feature set, as involved in most conventional CADx algorithms. Specifically, the stacked denoising auto-encoder (SDAE) is exploited on the two CADx applications for the differentiation of breast ultrasound lesions and lung CT nodules. The SDAE architecture is well equipped with the automatic feature exploration mechanism and noise tolerance advantage, and hence may be suitable to deal with the intrinsically noisy property of medical image data from various imaging modalities. To show the outperformance of SDAE-based CADx over the conventional scheme, two latest conventional CADx algorithms are implemented for comparison. 10 times of 10-fold cross-validations are conducted to illustrate the efficacy of the SDAE-based CADx algorithm. The experimental results show the significant performance boost by the SDAE-based CADx algorithm over the two conventional methods, suggesting that deep learning techniques can potentially change the design paradigm of the CADx systems without the need of explicit design and selection of problem-oriented features. PMID:27079888

  7. Computer-Aided Diagnosis with Deep Learning Architecture: Applications to Breast Lesions in US Images and Pulmonary Nodules in CT Scans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Ni, Dong; Chou, Yi-Hong; Qin, Jing; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Shen, Dinggang; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2016-04-15

    This paper performs a comprehensive study on the deep-learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant nodules/lesions by avoiding the potential errors caused by inaccurate image processing results (e.g., boundary segmentation), as well as the classification bias resulting from a less robust feature set, as involved in most conventional CADx algorithms. Specifically, the stacked denoising auto-encoder (SDAE) is exploited on the two CADx applications for the differentiation of breast ultrasound lesions and lung CT nodules. The SDAE architecture is well equipped with the automatic feature exploration mechanism and noise tolerance advantage, and hence may be suitable to deal with the intrinsically noisy property of medical image data from various imaging modalities. To show the outperformance of SDAE-based CADx over the conventional scheme, two latest conventional CADx algorithms are implemented for comparison. 10 times of 10-fold cross-validations are conducted to illustrate the efficacy of the SDAE-based CADx algorithm. The experimental results show the significant performance boost by the SDAE-based CADx algorithm over the two conventional methods, suggesting that deep learning techniques can potentially change the design paradigm of the CADx systems without the need of explicit design and selection of problem-oriented features.

  8. Computer-Aided Diagnosis with Deep Learning Architecture: Applications to Breast Lesions in US Images and Pulmonary Nodules in CT Scans

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Ni, Dong; Chou, Yi-Hong; Qin, Jing; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Shen, Dinggang; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    This paper performs a comprehensive study on the deep-learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant nodules/lesions by avoiding the potential errors caused by inaccurate image processing results (e.g., boundary segmentation), as well as the classification bias resulting from a less robust feature set, as involved in most conventional CADx algorithms. Specifically, the stacked denoising auto-encoder (SDAE) is exploited on the two CADx applications for the differentiation of breast ultrasound lesions and lung CT nodules. The SDAE architecture is well equipped with the automatic feature exploration mechanism and noise tolerance advantage, and hence may be suitable to deal with the intrinsically noisy property of medical image data from various imaging modalities. To show the outperformance of SDAE-based CADx over the conventional scheme, two latest conventional CADx algorithms are implemented for comparison. 10 times of 10-fold cross-validations are conducted to illustrate the efficacy of the SDAE-based CADx algorithm. The experimental results show the significant performance boost by the SDAE-based CADx algorithm over the two conventional methods, suggesting that deep learning techniques can potentially change the design paradigm of the CADx systems without the need of explicit design and selection of problem-oriented features. PMID:27079888

  9. A multi-image approach to CADx of breast cancer with integration into PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Matthias; Wittenberg, Thomas; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2009-02-01

    While screening mammography is accepted as the most adequate technique for the early detection of breast cancer, its low positive predictive value leads to many breast biopsies performed on benign lesions. Therefore, we have previously developed a knowledge-based system for computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) of mammographic lesions. It supports the radiologist in the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions. So far, our approach operates on the lesion level and employs the paradigm of content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Similar lesions with known diagnosis are retrieved automatically from a library of references. However, radiologists base their diagnostic decisions on additional resources, such as related mammographic projections, other modalities (e.g. ultrasound, MRI), and clinical data. Nonetheless, most CADx systems disregard the relation between the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views of conventional mammography. Therefore, we extend our approach to the full case level: (i) Multi-frame features are developed that jointly describe a lesion in different views of mammography. Taking into account the geometric relation between different images, these features can also be extracted from multi-modal data; (ii) the CADx system architecture is extended appropriately; (iii) the CADx system is integrated into the radiology information system (RIS) and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Here, the framework for image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA) is used to support access to the patient's health care record. Of particular interest is the application of the proposed CADx system to digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), which has the potential to succeed digital mammography as the standard technique for breast cancer screening. The proposed system is a natural extension of CADx approaches that integrate only two modalities. However, we are still collecting a large enough database of breast lesions with images from

  10. Computer aided lung cancer diagnosis with deep learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Deep learning is considered as a popular and powerful method in pattern recognition and classification. However, there are not many deep structured applications used in medical imaging diagnosis area, because large dataset is not always available for medical images. In this study we tested the feasibility of using deep learning algorithms for lung cancer diagnosis with the cases from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. The nodules on each computed tomography (CT) slice were segmented according to marks provided by the radiologists. After down sampling and rotating we acquired 174412 samples with 52 by 52 pixel each and the corresponding truth files. Three deep learning algorithms were designed and implemented, including Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBNs), Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDAE). To compare the performance of deep learning algorithms with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) system, we designed a scheme with 28 image features and support vector machine. The accuracies of CNN, DBNs, and SDAE are 0.7976, 0.8119, and 0.7929, respectively; the accuracy of our designed traditional CADx is 0.7940, which is slightly lower than CNN and DBNs. We also noticed that the mislabeled nodules using DBNs are 4% larger than using traditional CADx, this might be resulting from down sampling process lost some size information of the nodules.

  11. A CADx scheme for mammography empowered with topological information from clustered microcalcifications' atlases.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, Ioannis I; Spyrou, George M; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2015-01-01

    A computer-aided diagnosis (CADx ) framework for the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications (MCs) has already been developed, which is based on the analysis of MCs' morphologies,the shape of the cluster they form and the texture of the surrounding tissue. In this study, we investigate the diagnostic information that the relative location of the cluster inside the breast may provide. Breast probabilistic maps are generated and adopted in the CADx pipeline, expecting to empower its diagnostic procedure. We propose a flowchart combining alternative classification algorithms and the aforementioned probabilistic maps in order to provide a final risk for malignancy for new considered mammograms. For the evaluation performance, a large dataset of mammograms provided from the Digital Database of Screening Mammography (DDSM) has been used. The obtained results indicate that the proposed modifications lead to the enhancement of the diagnostic process, as the classification results are further improved. Additionally, a straightforward comparison between the CADx pipeline and the radiologists who assessed the same mammograms, reveal that the CADx pipeline performs toward the right direction, as the sensitivity remains at high levels, while improving both the accuracy, from 51.4% to 69%, and the specificity, from 16.6% to 54.7%. PMID:25073178

  12. Retrieval boosted computer-aided diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Hao; Yang, Yongyi; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors propose an image-retrieval based approach for case-adaptive classifier design in computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). The conventional approach in CADx is to first train a pattern-classifier based on a set of existing training samples and then apply this classifier to subsequent new cases. The purpose of this work is to improve the classification accuracy of a CADx classifier by making use of a set of known cases retrieved from a reference library that are similar to the case under consideration. Methods: In the proposed approach, the authors will first apply image-retrieval to obtain a set of lesion images from a library of known cases that have similar image features to a case being diagnosed (i.e., query). These retrieved cases are then used to optimize a pattern-classifier toward boosting its classification accuracy on the query case. The basic idea is to put more emphasis on those cases that are similar to the query. The proposed approach is demonstrated first using a linear classifier and then extended to a nonlinear classifier induced by kernel principal component analysis. Results: The proposed retrieval-driven approach was tested on a library of mammogram images from 1006 cases (646 benign and 360 malignant) obtained from multiple institutions and was demonstrated to yield significant improvement in classification performance. Measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), the case-adaptive approach could boost the classification performance of a linear classifier from AUC = 0.7415 to AUC = 0.7807; similar improvement was also obtained for a nonlinear classifier, with AUC boosted from 0.7527 to 0.7838. Conclusions: Use of additional cases from a reference library that have similar image features can improve the classification accuracy of a CADx classifier on a query case. It can even outperform retraining the classifier with all the cases from the entire reference library. This implies that cases with

  13. An integrated classifier for computer-aided diagnosis of colorectal polyps based on random forest and location index strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yifan; Han, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Li, Lihong; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2016-03-01

    Feature classification plays an important role in differentiation or computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) of suspicious lesions. As a widely used ensemble learning algorithm for classification, random forest (RF) has a distinguished performance for CADx. Our recent study has shown that the location index (LI), which is derived from the well-known kNN (k nearest neighbor) and wkNN (weighted k nearest neighbor) classifier [1], has also a distinguished role in the classification for CADx. Therefore, in this paper, based on the property that the LI will achieve a very high accuracy, we design an algorithm to integrate the LI into RF for improved or higher value of AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics -- ROC). Experiments were performed by the use of a database of 153 lesions (polyps), including 116 neoplastic lesions and 37 hyperplastic lesions, with comparison to the existing classifiers of RF and wkNN, respectively. A noticeable gain by the proposed integrated classifier was quantified by the AUC measure.

  14. Analysis of the impact of digital watermarking on computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Gomez-Flores, Wilfrido; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Medical images (MI) are relevant sources of information for detecting and diagnosing a large number of illnesses and abnormalities. Due to their importance, this study is focused on breast ultrasound (BUS), which is the main adjunct for mammography to detect common breast lesions among women worldwide. On the other hand, aiming to enhance data security, image fidelity, authenticity, and content verification in e-health environments, MI watermarking has been widely used, whose main goal is to embed patient meta-data into MI so that the resulting image keeps its original quality. In this sense, this paper deals with the comparison of two watermarking approaches, namely spread spectrum based on the discrete cosine transform (SS-DCT) and the high-capacity data-hiding (HCDH) algorithm, so that the watermarked BUS images are guaranteed to be adequate for a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system, whose two principal outcomes are lesion segmentation and classification. Experimental results show that HCDH algorithm is highly recommended for watermarking medical images, maintaining the image quality and without introducing distortion into the output of CADx.

  15. Improving positive predictive value in computer-aided diagnosis using mammographic mass and microcalcification confidence score fusion based on co-location information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Dae Hoe; Choi, Jae Young; Ro, Yong Man

    2013-02-01

    In this study, a novel fusion framework has been developed to combine the detection of both breast masses and microcalcifications (MCs), aiming to improve positive predictive value (PPV) in Computer-aided Diagnosis (CADx). Clinically, it has been widely accepted that a mass associated with MC is a useful indicator of predicting the malignancy of the mass. In light of this fact, given that a mass and MCs are co-located each other (i.e., they are at the same location), the proposed fusion framework combines confidence scores of the mass and MCs for the purpose of improving the probability that the mass is malignant. To this end, the popular Bayesian network model is applied to effectively combine the detection confidence scores and to achieve higher accuracy for malignant mass classification. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fusion framework, 31 mammograms were collected from the public DDSM database. The proposed fusion framework can increase the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) from 0.7939 to 0.8806, and the partial area index (PAUC) above the sensitivity of 0.9 from 0.1270 to 0.2280, compared to the CADx system without exploiting co-location information with MCs. Based on these results, it can be expected that the proposed fusion framework can be readily applied for realizing CADx systems with the higher PPV.

  16. Semiautomatic segmentation for the computer aided diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Matthias; Held, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Screening mammography is recognized as the most effective tool for early breast cancer detection. However, its application in clinical practice shows some of its weaknesses. While clustered microcalcifications are often an early sign of breast cancer, the discrimination of benign from malignant clusters based on their appearance in mammograms is a very difficult task. Hence, it is not surprising that typically only 15% to 30% of breast biopsies performed on calcifications will be positive for malignancy. As this low positive predictive value of mammography regarding the diagnosis of calcification clusters results in many unnecessary biopsies performed on benign calcifications, we propose a novel computer aided diagnosis (CADx) approach with the goal to improve the reliability of microcalcification classification. As effective automatic classification of microcalcification clusters relies on good segmentations of the individual calcification particles, many approaches to the automatic segmentation of individual particles have been proposed in the past. Because none of the fully automatic approaches seem to result in optimal segmentations, we propose a novel semiautomatic approach that has automatic components but also allows some interaction of the radiologist. Based on the resulting segmentations we extract a broad range of features that characterize the morphology and distribution of calcification particles. Using regions of interest containing either benign or malignant clusters extracted from the digital database for screening mammography we evaluate the performance of our approach using a support vector machine and ROC analysis. The resulting ROC performance is very promising and we show that the performance of our semiautomatic segmentation is significantly higher than that of a comparable fully automatic approach.

  17. A prototype of mammography CADx scheme integrated to imaging quality evaluation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiabel, Homero; Matheus, Bruno R. N.; Angelo, Michele F.; Patrocínio, Ana Claudia; Ventura, Liliane

    2011-03-01

    As all women over the age of 40 are recommended to perform mammographic exams every two years, the demands on radiologists to evaluate mammographic images in short periods of time has increased considerably. As a tool to improve quality and accelerate analysis CADe/Dx (computer-aided detection/diagnosis) schemes have been investigated, but very few complete CADe/Dx schemes have been developed and most are restricted to detection and not diagnosis. The existent ones usually are associated to specific mammographic equipment (usually DR), which makes them very expensive. So this paper describes a prototype of a complete mammography CADx scheme developed by our research group integrated to an imaging quality evaluation process. The basic structure consists of pre-processing modules based on image acquisition and digitization procedures (FFDM, CR or film + scanner), a segmentation tool to detect clustered microcalcifications and suspect masses and a classification scheme, which evaluates as the presence of microcalcifications clusters as well as possible malignant masses based on their contour. The aim is to provide enough information not only on the detected structures but also a pre-report with a BI-RADS classification. At this time the system is still lacking an interface integrating all the modules. Despite this, it is functional as a prototype for clinical practice testing, with results comparable to others reported in literature.

  18. Distance weighted 'inside disc' classifier for computer-aided diagnosis of colonic polyps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yifan; Song, Bowen; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2015-03-01

    Feature classification plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) of suspicious lesions or polyps in this concerned study. As one of the simplest machine learning algorithms, the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier has been widely used in many classification problems. However, the k-NN classifier has a drawback that the majority classes will dominate the prediction of a new sample. To mitigate this drawback, efforts have been devoted to set weight on each neighbor to avoid the influence of the "majority" classes. As a result, various weighted or wk-NN strategies have been explored. In this paper, we explored an alternative strategy, called "distance weighted inside disc" (DWID) classifier, which is different from the k-NN and wk-NN by such a way that it classifies the test point by assigning a corresponding label (instead a weight) with consideration of only those points inside the disc whose center is the test point instead of the k-nearest points. We evaluated this new DWID classifier with comparison to the k-NN, wk-NN, support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers by experiments on a database of 153 polyps, including 116 neoplastic (malignance) polyps and 37 hyperplastic (benign) polyps, in terms of CADx or differentiation of benign from malignancy. The evaluation outcomes were documented quantitatively by the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and the merit of area under the ROC curve (AUC), which is a well-established evaluation criterion to various classifiers. The results showed noticeable gain on the polyp differentiation by this new classifier according to the AUC values, as compared to the k-NN and wk-NN, as well as the SVM and RF. In the meantime, this new classifier also showed a noticeable reduction of computing time.

  19. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  20. The feasibility of using manual segmentation in a multifeature computer-aided diagnosis system for classification of skin lesions: a retrospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Adam; Chen, Yin-Chun; Lin, Chi-Wei; Tsai, John; Yang, Chung-Kai; Huang, Yin-Tseng; Wu, Yi-Fan; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility of manual segmentation by users of different backgrounds in a previously developed multifeature computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system to classify melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions based on conventional digital photographic images. Methods In total, 347 conventional photographs of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions were retrospectively reviewed, and manually segmented by two groups of physicians, dermatologists and general practitioners, as well as by an automated segmentation software program, JSEG. The performance of CADx based on inputs from these two groups of physicians and that of the JSEG program was compared using feature agreement analysis. Results The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for classification of benign or malignant skin lesions based were comparable on individual segmentation by the gold standard (0.893, 95% CI 0.856 to 0.930), dermatologists (0.886, 95% CI 0.863 to 0.908), general practitioners (0.883, 95% CI 0.864 to 0.903) and JSEG (0.856, 95% CI 0.812 to 0.899). The agreement in the malignancy probability scores among the physicians was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.91). By selecting an optimal cut-off value of malignancy probability score, the sensitivity and specificity were 80.07% and 81.47% for dermatologists and 79.90% and 80.20% for general practitioners. Conclusions This study suggests that manual segmentation by general practitioners is feasible in the described CADx system for classifying benign and malignant skin lesions. PMID:25941190

  1. Evaluation of a computer-aided skin cancer diagnosis system for conventional digital photography with manual segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Adam; Chang, Wen-Yu; Hsieh, Cheng-Han; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2014-03-01

    We evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system developed for both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions by using conventional digital photographs with lesion boundaries manually marked by a dermatologist. Clinical images of skin lesions taken by conventional digital cameras can capture useful information such as shape, color, and texture for diagnosing skin cancer. However, shape/border features are difficult to analyze automatically because skin surface reflections may change skin color and make segmentation a challenging task. In this study, two non-medical users manually mark the boundaries of a dataset of 769 (174 malignant, 595 benign) conventional photographs of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions. A state-of-the-art software system for segmenting color images, JSEG, is also tested on the same dataset. Their results are compared to a dermatologist's markings, which are used as the gold standard in this study. The human users' markings are relatively close to the gold standard and achieve an overlapping rate of 70.4% (+/- 15.3%, std) and 74.5% (+/- 14.7%, std). Compared to human users, JSEG only succeeds in segmenting 636 (82.7%) out of 769 lesions and achieves an overlapping rate of 72.4% (+/-20.4%) for these 636 lesions. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the CADx by using lesion boundary markings of users 1, 2, and JSEG are 0.915, 0.940, and 0.857 respectively. Our preliminary results indicate that manual segmentation can be repeated relatively consistent compared to automatic segmentation.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis in thoracic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) provides a computer output as a "second opinion" in order to assist radiologists in the diagnosis of various diseases on medical images. Currently, a hot topic in CAD is the development of computerized schemes for detection of lung abnormalities, such as lung nodule and interstitial lung disease, in computed tomography (CT) images. The author describes in this article the current status of the CAD schemes for the detection of lung nodules and interstitial lung disease in CT developed by the author and his colleagues at the University of Chicago and Duke University.

  3. Computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) for colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Holger; Ferris, Daron G.

    2005-04-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva and vagina), with special emphasis on the subjective appearance of metaplastic epithelium comprising the transformation zone on the cervix. Cervical cancer precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. Lesion characteristics such as margin; color or opacity; blood vessel caliber, intercapillary spacing and distribution; and contour are considered by colposcopists to derive a clinical diagnosis. Clinicians and academia have suggested and shown proof of concept that automated image analysis of cervical imagery can be used for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis, having the potential to have a direct impact on improving women"s health care and reducing associated costs. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD. At the heart of ColpoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-feature image analysis system. A functional description is presented of the envisioned ColpoCAD system, broken down into: Modality Data Management System, Image Enhancement, Feature Extraction, Reference Database, and Diagnosis and directed Biopsies. The system design and development process of the image analysis system is outlined. The system design provides a modular and open architecture built on feature based processing. The core feature set includes the visual features used by colposcopists. This feature set can be extended to include new features introduced by new instrument technologies, like fluorescence and impedance, and any other plausible feature that can be extracted from the cervical data. Preliminary results of our research on detecting the three most important features: blood vessel structures, acetowhite regions and lesion margins are shown. As this is a new

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jia; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths, and ranks third for new cancer cases and cancer mortality for both men and women. However, its death rate can be dramatically reduced by appropriate treatment when early detection is available. The purpose of colonoscopy is to identify and assess the severity of lesions, which may be flat or protruding. Due to the subjective nature of the examination, colonoscopic proficiency is highly variable and dependent upon the colonoscopist's knowledge and experience. An automated image processing system providing an objective, rapid, and inexpensive analysis of video from a standard colonoscope could provide a valuable tool for screening and diagnosis. In this paper, we present the design, functionality and preliminary results of its Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colonoscopy - ColonoCAD TM. ColonoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-algorithm image processing system, incorporating data management and visualization, video quality assessment and enhancement, calibration, multiple view based reconstruction, feature extraction and classification. As this is a new field in medical image processing, our hope is that this paper will provide the framework to encourage and facilitate collaboration and discussion between industry, academia, and medical practitioners.

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer in the peripheral zone using multiparametric MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaf, Emilie; Rouvière, Olivier; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Bratan, Flavie; Lartizien, Carole

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated a computer-assisted diagnosis (CADx) system for determining a likelihood measure of prostate cancer presence in the peripheral zone (PZ) based on multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 1.5 T. Based on a feature set derived from grey-level images, including first-order statistics, Haralick features, gradient features, semi-quantitative and quantitative (pharmacokinetic modelling) dynamic parameters, four kinds of classifiers were trained and compared : nonlinear support vector machine (SVM), linear discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbours and naïve Bayes classifiers. A set of feature selection methods based on t-test, mutual information and minimum-redundancy-maximum-relevancy criteria were also compared. The aim was to discriminate between the relevant features as well as to create an efficient classifier using these features. The diagnostic performances of these different CADx schemes were evaluated based on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The evaluation database consisted of 30 sets of multiparametric MR images acquired from radical prostatectomy patients. Using histologic sections as the gold standard, both cancer and nonmalignant (but suspicious) tissues were annotated in consensus on all MR images by two radiologists, a histopathologist and a researcher. Benign tissue regions of interest (ROIs) were also delineated in the remaining prostate PZ. This resulted in a series of 42 cancer ROIs, 49 benign but suspicious ROIs and 124 nonsuspicious benign ROIs. From the outputs of all evaluated feature selection methods on the test bench, a restrictive set of about 15 highly informative features coming from all MR sequences was discriminated, thus confirming the validity of the multiparametric approach. Quantitative evaluation of the diagnostic performance yielded a maximal area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.89 (0.81-0.94) for the

  6. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  7. Life Quality Changes after HIV/AIDS Diagnosis: Positive Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, Christine J.; Appleton, Valerie

    Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS promotes a fear of the unknown, of death, or annihilation of self, of being, and of identity. Individuals face this threat in unique and holistic ways. This experience of crisis reflects stages of shock, disorganization, reorganization and resolution. Crisis can become a turning point and result in a passage toward successful…

  8. Analysis of breast CT lesions using computer-aided diagnosis: an application of neural networks on extracted morphologic and texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Shonket; Prionas, Nicolas D.; Lindfors, Karen K.; Boone, John M.

    2012-03-01

    Dedicated cone-beam breast CT (bCT) scanners have been developed as a potential alternative imaging modality to conventional X-ray mammography in breast cancer diagnosis. As with other modalities, quantitative imaging (QI) analysis can potentially be utilized as a tool to extract useful numeric information concerning diagnosed lesions from high quality 3D tomographic data sets. In this work, preliminary QI analysis was done by designing and implementing a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system consisting of image preprocessing, object(s) of interest (i.e. masses, microcalcifications) segmentation, structural analysis of the segmented object(s), and finally classification into benign or malignant disease. Image sets were acquired from bCT patient scans with diagnosed lesions. Iterative watershed segmentation (IWS), a hybridization of the watershed method using observer-set markers and a gradient vector flow (GVF) approach, was used as the lesion segmentation method in 3D. Eight morphologic parameters and six texture features based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) calculations were obtained per segmented lesion and combined into multi-dimensional feature input data vectors. Artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers were used by performing cross validation and network parameter optimization to maximize area under the curve (AUC) values of the resulting receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Within these ANNs, biopsy-proven diagnoses of malignant and benign lesions were recorded as target data while the feature vectors were saved as raw input data. With the image data separated into post-contrast (n = 55) and pre-contrast sets (n = 39), a maximum AUC of 0.70 +/- 0.02 and 0.80 +/- 0.02 were achieved, respectively, for each data set after ANN application.

  9. PACS-Based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K. (Bernie); Liu, Brent J.; Le, Anh HongTu; Documet, Jorge

    The ultimate goal of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)-based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis (CAD) is to integrate CAD results into daily clinical practice so that it becomes a second reader to aid the radiologist's diagnosis. Integration of CAD and Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS) or PACS requires certain basic ingredients from Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for textual data, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for images, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles in order to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements to be a healthcare information system. Among the DICOM standards and IHE workflow profiles, DICOM Structured Reporting (DICOM-SR); and IHE Key Image Note (KIN), Simple Image and Numeric Report (SINR) and Post-processing Work Flow (PWF) are utilized in CAD-HIS/RIS/PACS integration. These topics with examples are presented in this chapter.

  10. Radiology as an aid to diagnosis in lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Stephen; Aziz, Zelena

    2016-10-01

    A great deal has changed in the imaging of chest diseases over the last 90 years. The plain chest radiograph has gone through numerous improvements and continues to be the front-line investigative technique with the mainstream adoption of digital imaging opening the doors to more advances in imaging efficacy and computer-aided diagnostics. The main change is in the advent and dramatic advances in CT, in some instances superseding the chest X-ray (CXR) as the first-line imaging investigation, not entirely to the authors' liking, and providing in vivo morphological data to aid a more specific diagnosis. However, in our view, there is a danger that the improvement in diagnostic imaging is starting to undermine clinical diagnostic acumen and that there is an increasing reliance on imaging that in the long run may not be advantageous to patient management. PMID:27535941

  11. A decision aid for diagnosis of liver lesions on MRI.

    PubMed Central

    Tombropoulos, R.; Shiffman, S.; Davidson, C.

    1993-01-01

    Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the evaluation of liver abnormalities. The interpretation of MR images requires expert training in a rapidly changing field. DAFODILL (Decision Aid for Diagnosing Liver Lesions) is a decision-support tool designed to aid radiologists in the diagnosis of hepatic lesions seen on MRI. DAFODILL uses a knowledge base of MRI findings and a belief-network inference engine to generate probabilistic differential diagnoses of the most commonly encountered hepatic lesions. DAFODILL performs limited image processing to identify clinically relevant features, which are presented to the user for confirmation before they are used by the network. Preliminary evaluation of an initial version of the system suggests that DAFODILL may be a useful tool for radiology residents and nonexpert radiologists in interpreting MR images of the liver. PMID:8130512

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis of lumbar stenosis conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koompairojn, Soontharee; Hua, Kathleen; Hua, Kien A.; Srisomboon, Jintavaree

    2010-03-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are indispensable tools for patients' healthcare in modern medicine. Nevertheless, the only fully automatic CAD system available for lumbar stenosis today is for X-ray images. Its performance is limited due to the limitations intrinsic to X-ray images. In this paper, we present a system for magnetic resonance images. It employs a machine learning classification technique to automatically recognize lumbar spine components. Features can then be extracted from these spinal components. Finally, diagnosis is done by applying a Multilayer Perceptron. This classification framework can learn the features of different spinal conditions from the training images. The trained Perceptron can then be applied to diagnose new cases for various spinal conditions. Our experimental studies based on 62 subjects indicate that the proposed system is reliable and significantly better than our older system for X-ray images.

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis in lung nodule assessment.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Jonathan G; Brown, Matthew S; Petkovska, Iva

    2008-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging is playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection, diagnosis, and lesion characterization, and it is the most sensitive test for lung nodule detection. Interpretation of lung nodules involves characterization and integration of clinical and other imaging information. Advances in lung nodule management using CT require optimization of CT data acquisition, postprocessing tools, and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The goal of CAD systems being developed is to both assist radiologists in the more sensitive detection of nodules and noninvasively differentiate benign from malignant lesions; the latter is important given that malignant lesions account for between 1% and 11% of pulmonary nodules. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of the art regarding CAD techniques for the detection and characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules and their potential applications in the clinical workup of these lesions.

  14. Lyme disease diagnosis and treatment: lessons from the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Stricker, R B; Johnson, L

    2010-12-01

    Lyme disease is a controversial tick-borne illness that is estimated to be four times more common than AIDS in the United States. This paper outlines the challenges overcome in the healthcare response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the development of sensitive laboratory tests for the AIDS virus, and the promotion of long-term combination antimicrobial regimens to effectively treat HIV disease. We suggest that similar challenges need to be overcome before the chronic form of Lyme disease can be successfully treated. Currently, diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease is hindered by the lack of a uniform case definition that adequately reflects the clinical presentation of the disease, poor laboratory test sensitivity, and high treatment failure rates using short-term monotherapy. Consequently the optimal treatment for patients with persistent symptoms of Lyme disease remains undefined. Although antibiotic monotherapy has been successful in treating early Lyme disease, the use of combination antibiotic therapy modelled on HIV treatment appears to be more effective for patients with persistent symptoms of tick-borne infection. Resolution of the controversy surrounding Lyme disease should lead to improved diagnosis and treatment modelled on the approach to HIV disease.

  15. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis of alcoholism-related EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vidya; Bhat, Shreya; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholism is a severe disorder that affects the functionality of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and alters the behavior of the affected person. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of subjects with alcoholism. The neurophysiological interpretation of EEG signals in persons with alcoholism (PWA) is based on observation and interpretation of the frequency and power in their EEGs compared to EEG signals from persons without alcoholism. This paper presents a review of the known features of EEGs obtained from PWA and proposes that the impact of alcoholism on the brain can be determined by computer-aided analysis of EEGs through extracting the minute variations in the EEG signals that can differentiate the EEGs of PWA from those of nonaffected persons. The authors advance the idea of automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of alcoholism by employing the EEG signals. This is achieved through judicious combination of signal processing techniques such as wavelet, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos theory and pattern recognition and classification techniques. A CAD system is cost-effective and efficient and can be used as a decision support system by physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism especially those who do not specialize in alcoholism or neurophysiology. It can also be of great value to rehabilitation centers to assess PWA over time and to monitor the impact of treatment aimed at minimizing or reversing the effects of the disease on the brain. A CAD system can be used to determine the extent of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals (low, medium, high) and the effectiveness of therapeutic plans.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  18. Application of infrared thermography in computer aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Oliver; Rajendra Acharya, U.; Ng, E. Y. K.; Hong, Tan Jen; Yu, Wenwei

    2014-09-01

    The invention of thermography, in the 1950s, posed a formidable problem to the research community: What is the relationship between disease and heat radiation captured with Infrared (IR) cameras? The research community responded with a continuous effort to find this crucial relationship. This effort was aided by advances in processing techniques, improved sensitivity and spatial resolution of thermal sensors. However, despite this progress fundamental issues with this imaging modality still remain. The main problem is that the link between disease and heat radiation is complex and in many cases even non-linear. Furthermore, the change in heat radiation as well as the change in radiation pattern, which indicate disease, is minute. On a technical level, this poses high requirements on image capturing and processing. On a more abstract level, these problems lead to inter-observer variability and on an even more abstract level they lead to a lack of trust in this imaging modality. In this review, we adopt the position that these problems can only be solved through a strict application of scientific principles and objective performance assessment. Computing machinery is inherently objective; this helps us to apply scientific principles in a transparent way and to assess the performance results. As a consequence, we aim to promote thermography based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Another benefit of CAD systems comes from the fact that the diagnostic accuracy is linked to the capability of the computing machinery and, in general, computers become ever more potent. We predict that a pervasive application of computers and networking technology in medicine will help us to overcome the shortcomings of any single imaging modality and this will pave the way for integrated health care systems which maximize the quality of patient care.

  19. Improved mammographic interpretation of masses using computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Leichter, I; Fields, S; Nirel, R; Bamberger, P; Novak, B; Lederman, R; Buchbinder, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computerized image enhancement, to investigate criteria for discriminating benign from malignant mammographic findings by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), and to test the role of quantitative analysis in improving the accuracy of interpretation of mass lesions. Forty sequential mammographically detected mass lesions referred for biopsy were digitized at high resolution for computerized evaluation. A prototype CAD system which included image enhancement algorithms was used for a better visualization of the lesions. Quantitative features which characterize the spiculation were automatically extracted by the CAD system for a user-defined region of interest (ROI). Reference ranges for malignant and benign cases were acquired from data generated by 214 known retrospective cases. The extracted parameters together with the reference ranges were presented to the radiologist for the analysis of 40 prospective cases. A pattern recognition scheme based on discriminant analysis was trained on the 214 retrospective cases, and applied to the prospective cases. Accuracy of interpretation with and without the CAD system, as well as the performance of the pattern recognition scheme, were analyzed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. A significant difference (p < 0.005) was found between features extracted by the CAD system for benign and malignant cases. Specificity of the CAD-assisted diagnosis improved significantly (p < 0.02) from 14 % for the conventional assessment to 50 %, and the positive predictive value increased from 0.47 to 0.62 (p < 0.04). The area under the ROC curve (A(z)) increased significantly (p < 0. 001) from 0.66 for the conventional assessment to 0.81 for the CAD-assisted analysis. The A(z) for the results of the pattern recognition scheme was higher (0.95). The results indicate that there is an improved accuracy of diagnosis with the use of the mammographic CAD system above that of the

  20. A survey on computer aided diagnosis for ocular diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), which can automate the detection process for ocular diseases, has attracted extensive attention from clinicians and researchers alike. It not only alleviates the burden on the clinicians by providing objective opinion with valuable insights, but also offers early detection and easy access for patients. Method We review ocular CAD methodologies for various data types. For each data type, we investigate the databases and the algorithms to detect different ocular diseases. Their advantages and shortcomings are analyzed and discussed. Result We have studied three types of data (i.e., clinical, genetic and imaging) that have been commonly used in existing methods for CAD. The recent developments in methods used in CAD of ocular diseases (such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Age-related Macular Degeneration and Pathological Myopia) are investigated and summarized comprehensively. Conclusion While CAD for ocular diseases has shown considerable progress over the past years, the clinical importance of fully automatic CAD systems which are able to embed clinical knowledge and integrate heterogeneous data sources still show great potential for future breakthrough. PMID:25175552

  1. Computer Aided Instruction and Problem Solving in the Teaching of Oral Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Judson; Gobetti, John P.

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program is being used at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry to aid in the teaching of oral diagnosis to dental students. The program is designed to simulate a real life situation--i.e., the diagnosis of patient illness-which would not be otherwise available to the student and to demonstrate to…

  2. Acute leukemia diagnosis aid using multicriteria fuzzy assignment methodology.

    PubMed

    Belacel, N; Vincke, P; Scheiff, J M; Boulassel, M R

    2001-02-01

    We recently developed a new multicriteria classification method called PROAFTN to help medical diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to present the application of the proposed method for the diagnosis of acute leukemia (AL). The implementation of PROAFTN was carried out on cytological data of 108 cases of AL, using the classification rules of French, American and British hematologists, and was then applied on an independent test set of 83 cases of AL. Forty-seven features, obtained by examining patients' bone-marrow smears with light microscope, defined each case. In order to determine the percentage of correct classifications for each subtype of AL, we compared our results with the clinical diagnosis given previously by the hematologist. 96.4% of the cases were correctly classified by the program, suggesting that the method yields good results in terms of discrimination between AL subtypes.

  3. Rapid diagnosis of cytomegalovirus in Thai pediatric AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Tantivanich, Surang; Sawatmongkonkun, Wandee; Balachandra, Kruavan; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Amarapal, Pomsawan

    2002-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from 100 pediatric AIDS patients for the detection of CMV in pp65-bearing leukocytes (PBLs) by immunoperoxidase staining (IP) and PCR. IgM antibody assay was performed to determine the correlation of antigen and antibody. IP and PCR can be used as methods for the early detection of CMV (prior to the presence of IgM antibody). The sensitivity and specificity of IP were 73% and 97% respectively. IP is superior to PCR in several ways: it is very easy to perform, less time consuming, less expensive, and does not require expensive instruments.

  4. Computer aided differential diagnosis in emergency situations (CADDIES) system

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-03-01

    This report presents an idea for a portable computerized differential diagnosis tool that could be utilized by a health care provider during an emergency situation. This radio frequency, networked, menu driven system would analyze various patient assessment parameters and make recommendations regarding possible diagnoses/treatment options outside the scope of suspicion of the health care provider. This system would serve as a repository for initial epidemiological data and assist the health care provider with spotting emerging trends.

  5. Cell-free DNA testing: an aid to prenatal sonographic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chitty, Lyn S

    2014-04-01

    Sonographic diagnosis of fetal abnormalities is based on the recognition of sonographic patterns associated with structural abnormalities. Although diagnosis in some situations, such as neural tube defects, gastroschisis, and omphalocoele, can be straightforward, in many situations, the constellation of fetal abnormalities suggest an underlying chromosomal or genetic cause. In these situations, invasive testing is needed to provide the information required to make a definitive diagnosis, and thus accurately counsel parents. Since the identification of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma, the potential for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis is increasingly becoming possible. In this chapter, the current role and future potential of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, combined with new molecular techniques as an aid to sonographic diagnosis, will be discussed.

  6. Echocardiography in congenital heart disease. An aid to surgical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R A

    1977-05-01

    Echocardiography is an important noninvasive method for accurately diagnosing many congenital cardiac defects. This method provides significant information so that cardiac surgery, when necessary, can be planned with greater facility. The value of the sonar method rests not only on its ability to diagnose specific cardiac defects but also to exclude heart disease, especially in infants with shock or cyanosis from noncardiac causes. Development of two-dimensional real-time scanning systems should provide greater understanding of anatomic spatial relationships and ease of diagnosis.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis system: a Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    PubMed

    Calle-Alonso, F; Pérez, C J; Arias-Nicolás, J P; Martín, J

    2013-10-01

    A novel method to classify multi-class biomedical objects is presented. The method is based on a hybrid approach which combines pairwise comparison, Bayesian regression and the k-nearest neighbor technique. It can be applied in a fully automatic way or in a relevance feedback framework. In the latter case, the information obtained from both an expert and the automatic classification is iteratively used to improve the results until a certain accuracy level is achieved, then, the learning process is finished and new classifications can be automatically performed. The method has been applied in two biomedical contexts by following the same cross-validation schemes as in the original studies. The first one refers to cancer diagnosis, leading to an accuracy of 77.35% versus 66.37%, originally obtained. The second one considers the diagnosis of pathologies of the vertebral column. The original method achieves accuracies ranging from 76.5% to 96.7%, and from 82.3% to 97.1% in two different cross-validation schemes. Even with no supervision, the proposed method reaches 96.71% and 97.32% in these two cases. By using a supervised framework the achieved accuracy is 97.74%. Furthermore, all abnormal cases were correctly classified.

  8. Virus morphology as an aid for rapid diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Doane, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Standard methods of virus diagnosis may take many days to complete. As antiviral drugs are being used with more effectiveness, it becomes more important to develop rapid diagnostic methods. It takes only a few minutes to prepare and examine a specimen for electron microscopy (EM), using the negative staining technique. Viruses in the specimen can readily be identified by their morphology. In order to be detected by EM there must be at least 10(7) virus particles per milliliter of sample. This concentration is frequently found in certain types of specimens. The sensitivity of EM is increased 100-fold if homologous antibody is used to aggregate the virus. Visualization of virus-antibody aggregates forms the basis for serotyping by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PMID:6155006

  9. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  10. Does the Conners' Continuous Performance Test aid in ADHD diagnosis?

    PubMed

    McGee, R A; Clark, S E; Symons, D K

    2000-10-01

    The performance of clinic-referred children aged 6-11 (N = 100) was examined using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and measures of auditory attention (Auditory Continuous Performance Test; ACPT), phonological awareness, visual processing speed, and visual-motor competence. The Conners' CPT overall index was unrelated to measures of visual processing speed or visual-motor competence. Although the Conners' CPT converged with the ACPT, the latter demonstrated age and order effects. Significant variance in Conners' CPT parameters was predicted by phonological awareness measures, suggesting that Reading Disordered (RD) children could be "false positives" on the Conners' CPT. The Conners' CPT overall index, phonological awareness, and visual-motor measures were submitted to a 2 x 2 MANCOVA (ADHD vs. RD, covarying for age and socioeconomic status): a main effect for RD status was found. Children with ADHD did not have higher Conners' CPT scores than did clinical controls; however, children with Reading Disorders did. Phonological measures distinguished RD children from ADHD children and other clinical controls. ADHD children who failed the Conners' CPT were rated by teachers as more hyperactive. Despite the strengths of the Conners' CPT, its utility for differential diagnosis of ADHD is questioned.

  11. On the convergence of nanotechnology and Big Data analysis for computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose F; Paulovich, Fernando V; de Oliveira, Maria Cf; de Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-04-01

    An overview is provided of the challenges involved in building computer-aided diagnosis systems capable of precise medical diagnostics based on integration and interpretation of data from different sources and formats. The availability of massive amounts of data and computational methods associated with the Big Data paradigm has brought hope that such systems may soon be available in routine clinical practices, which is not the case today. We focus on visual and machine learning analysis of medical data acquired with varied nanotech-based techniques and on methods for Big Data infrastructure. Because diagnosis is essentially a classification task, we address the machine learning techniques with supervised and unsupervised classification, making a critical assessment of the progress already made in the medical field and the prospects for the near future. We also advocate that successful computer-aided diagnosis requires a merge of methods and concepts from nanotechnology and Big Data analysis.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis of interstitial lung disease: a texture feature extraction and classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Voracek, Rene; McAdams, H. Page; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    1998-06-01

    An approach for the classification of normal or abnormal lung parenchyma from selected regions of interest (ROIs) of chest radiographs is presented for computer aided diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The proposed approach uses a feed-forward neural network to classify each ROI based on a set of isotropic texture measures obtained from the joint grey level distribution of pairs of pixels separated by a specific distance. Two hundred ROIs, each 64 X 64 pixels in size (11 X 11 mm), were extracted from digitized chest radiographs for testing. Diagnosis performance was evaluated with the leave-one-out method. Classification of independent ROIs achieved a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 84% with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85. The diagnosis for each patient was correct for all cases when a `majority vote' criterion for the classification of the corresponding ROIs was applied to issue a normal or ILD patient classification. The proposed approach is a simple, fast, and consistent method for computer aided diagnosis of ILD with a very good performance. Further research will include additional cases, including differential diagnosis among ILD manifestations.

  13. Sinus barotrauma--late diagnosis and treatment with computer-aided endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anders Schermacher; Buchwald, Christian; Vesterhauge, Søren

    2003-02-01

    Sinus barotrauma is usually easy to diagnose, and treatment achieves good results. We present two severe cases where delayed diagnosis caused significant morbidity. The signs and symptoms were atypical and neither the patients themselves, nor the initial examiners recognized that the onset of symptoms coincided with descent in a commercial airliner. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal, but in both cases showed opafication of the sphenoid sinuses, which lead to the correct diagnosis. Subsequent surgical intervention consisting of endoscopic computer-aided surgery showed blood and petechia in the affected sinuses. This procedure provided immediate relief.

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease using support vector machines and classification trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Gonzalez, D.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; López, M.; Álvarez, I.; Segovia, F.; Chaves, R.; Puntonet, C. G.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis technique for improving the accuracy of early diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia. The proposed methodology is based on the selection of voxels which present Welch's t-test between both classes, normal and Alzheimer images, greater than a given threshold. The mean and standard deviation of intensity values are calculated for selected voxels. They are chosen as feature vectors for two different classifiers: support vector machines with linear kernel and classification trees. The proposed methodology reaches greater than 95% accuracy in the classification task.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett"s esophagus using endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xin; Sivak, Michael V., Jr.; Wilson, David L.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2004-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) has become a major health care burden because of its association with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. We have shown that endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) has a 70% accuracy in the diagnosis of dysplasia (Gastrointest Endosc 2003; 57:AB77). To demonstrate the feasiblity of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of dysplasia in BE using EOCT digital images, to quantitate/standardize the diagnosis of dysplasia, and to develop algorithms suitable for EOCT surveillance of large areas of Barrett"s mucosa, 106 EOCT images were selected (13 patients from 28 cases) from the clinical study including 68 of non-dysplastic and 38 of dysplastic mucosa. From the digital image stream, the 3 frames immediately preceding impact of the forceps on the tissue were selected to insure close correlation between histology/EOCT image pairs. Computer aided diagnosis by center symmetric autocorrelation (CENS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for feature parameter extraction and analysis based on the segmented ROI. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used for classification and finally receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the performance of CAD and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were calculated. The result shows that CAD is able to achieve a higher accuracy than humans for identification of dysplasia in EOCT images. CAD may be of assistance in the EOCT surveillance of large surface areas of Barrett"s mucosa for dysplasia.

  17. A feasibility trial of computer-aided diagnosis for enteric lesions in capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Tao; Wu, Jun-Chao; Rao, Ni-Ni; Chen, Tao; Liu, Bing

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and evaluate the feasibility of the computer-aided screening diagnosis for enteric lesions in the capsule endoscopy (CE). METHODS: After developing a series of algorithms for the screening diagnosis of the enteric lesions in CE based on their characteristic colors and contours, the normal and abnormal images obtained from 289 patients were respectively scanned and diagnosed by the CE readers and by the computer-aided screening for the enteric lesions with the image-processed software (IPS). The enteric lesions shown by the images included esoenteritis, mucosal ulcer and erosion, bleeding, space-occupying lesions, angioectasia, diverticula, parasites, etc. The images for the lesions or the suspected lesions confirmed by the CE readers and the computers were collected, and the effectiveness rate of the screening and the number of the scanned images were evaluated, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the diagnostic results obtained by the CE readers, the total effectiveness rate (sensitivity) in the screening of the commonly-encountered enteric lesions by IPS varied from 42.9% to 91.2%, with a median of 74.2%, though the specificity and the accuracy rates were still low, and the images for the rarely-encountered lesions were difficult to differentiate from the normal images. However, the number of the images screened by IPS was 5000 on average, and only 10%-15% of the original images were left behind. As a result, a large number of normal images were excluded, and the reading time decreased from 5 h to 1 h on average. CONCLUSION: Though the total accuracy and specificity rates by the computer-aided screening for the enteric lesions with IPS are much lower than those by the CE readers, the computer-aided screening diagnosis can exclude a large number of the normal images and confine the enteric lesions to 5000 images on average, which can reduce the workload of the readers in the scanning of the images. This computer-aided screening technique can

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date. PMID:27528421

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date.

  20. Computer Aided Diagnosis for Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Advanced Colorectal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ştefănescu, Daniela; Streba, Costin; Cârţână, Elena Tatiana; Săftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Gabriel; Gruionu, Lucian Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is becoming a popular method for optical biopsy of digestive mucosa for both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Computer aided diagnosis of CLE images, using image processing and fractal analysis can be used to quantify the histological structures in the CLE generated images. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic diagnosis algorithm of colorectal cancer (CRC), based on fractal analysis and neural network modeling of the CLE-generated colon mucosa images. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed a series of 1035 artifact-free endomicroscopy images, obtained during CLE examinations from normal mucosa (356 images) and tumor regions (679 images). The images were processed using a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) medical imaging system in order to obtain an automatic diagnosis. The CAD application includes image reading and processing functions, a module for fractal analysis, grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) computation module, and a feature identification module based on the Marching Squares and linear interpolation methods. A two-layer neural network was trained to automatically interpret the imaging data and diagnose the pathological samples based on the fractal dimension and the characteristic features of the biological tissues. Results Normal colon mucosa is characterized by regular polyhedral crypt structures whereas malignant colon mucosa is characterized by irregular and interrupted crypts, which can be diagnosed by CAD. For this purpose, seven geometric parameters were defined for each image: fractal dimension, lacunarity, contrast correlation, energy, homogeneity, and feature number. Of the seven parameters only contrast, homogeneity and feature number were significantly different between normal and cancer samples. Next, a two-layer feed forward neural network was used to train and automatically diagnose the malignant samples, based on the seven parameters tested. The neural network

  1. Eye examination for early diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Heiden, David; Saranchuk, Peter; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ford, Nathan; Lowinger, Alan; Yen, Michael; McCune, Joseph; Rao, Narsing A

    2016-04-01

    Choroidal tuberculosis is present in 5-20% of patients with disseminated tuberculosis, and point-of-care dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy eye examination can provide immediate diagnosis. In geographical areas of high tuberculosis prevalence and in susceptible patients (CD4 counts less than 200 cells per μL) detection of choroidal granulomas should be accepted as evidence of disseminated tuberculosis. With training and proper support, eye screening can be done by HIV/AIDS clinicians, allowing early tuberculosis treatment. In regions with a high burden of tuberculosis, we recommend that eye screening be a standard part of the initial assessment of susceptible patients, including at a minimum all patients with HIV/AIDS with CD4 less than 100 cells per μL with or without eye symptoms, and with or without suspicion of disseminated tuberculosis.

  2. Eye examination for early diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Heiden, David; Saranchuk, Peter; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ford, Nathan; Lowinger, Alan; Yen, Michael; McCune, Joseph; Rao, Narsing A

    2016-04-01

    Choroidal tuberculosis is present in 5-20% of patients with disseminated tuberculosis, and point-of-care dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy eye examination can provide immediate diagnosis. In geographical areas of high tuberculosis prevalence and in susceptible patients (CD4 counts less than 200 cells per μL) detection of choroidal granulomas should be accepted as evidence of disseminated tuberculosis. With training and proper support, eye screening can be done by HIV/AIDS clinicians, allowing early tuberculosis treatment. In regions with a high burden of tuberculosis, we recommend that eye screening be a standard part of the initial assessment of susceptible patients, including at a minimum all patients with HIV/AIDS with CD4 less than 100 cells per μL with or without eye symptoms, and with or without suspicion of disseminated tuberculosis. PMID:26907735

  3. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-07-28

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  4. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-01-01

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis of digital mammography images using unsupervised clustering and biclustering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Olfe, Mohamed A.; Al-Akwaa, Fadhl M.; Mohamed, Wael A.; Kadah, Yasser M.

    2010-03-01

    A new methodology for computer aided diagnosis in digital mammography using unsupervised classification and classdependent feature selection is presented. This technique considers unlabeled data and provides unsupervised classes that give a better insight into classes and their interrelationships, thus improving the overall effectiveness of the diagnosis. This technique is also extended to utilize biclustering methods, which allow for definition of unsupervised clusters of both pathologies and features. This has potential to provide more flexibility, and hence better diagnostic accuracy, than the commonly used feature selection strategies. The developed methods are applied to diagnose digital mammographic images from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database and the results confirm the potential for improving the current diagnostic rates.

  6. Computer aided diagnosis for severity assessment of pneumoconiosis using CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Kato, Katsuya; Kishimoto, Takumi; Ashizawa, Kazuto

    2016-03-01

    240,000 participants have a screening for diagnosis of pneumoconiosis every year in Japan. Radiograph is used for staging of severity in pneumoconiosis worldwide. This paper presents a method for quantitative assessment of severity in pneumoconiosis using both size and frequency of lung nodules that detected by thin-section CT images. This method consists of three steps. First, thoracic organs (body, ribs, spine, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart, and pulmonary blood vessels) are segmented. Second, lung nodules that have radius over 1.5mm are detected. These steps used functions of our developed computer aided detection system of chest CT images. Third, severity in pneumoconiosis is quantified using size and frequency of lung nodules. This method was applied to nine pneumoconiosis patients. The initial results showed that proposed method can assess severity in pneumoconiosis quantitatively. This paper demonstrates effectiveness of our method in diagnosis and prognosis of pneumoconiosis in CT screening.

  7. Computer-Aided Diagnosis and Quantification of Cirrhotic Livers Based on Morphological Analysis and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Luo, Jie; Dong, Chunhua; Han, Xianhua; Tateyama, Tomoko; Furukawa, Akira; Kanasaki, Shuzo

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that morphological changes of the liver and the spleen occur during the clinical course of chronic liver diseases. In this paper, we proposed a morphological analysis method based on statistical shape models (SSMs) of the liver and spleen for computer-aided diagnosis and quantification of the chronic liver. We constructed not only the liver SSM but also the spleen SSM and a joint SSM of the liver and the spleen for a morphologic analysis of the cirrhotic liver in CT images. The effective modes are selected based on both its accumulation contribution rate and its correlation with doctor's opinions (stage labels). We then learn a mapping function between the selected mode and the stage of chronic liver. The mapping function was used for diagnosis and staging of chronic liver diseases. PMID:24187579

  8. The Recent Progress in Quantitative Medical Image Analysis for Computer Aided Diagnosis Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Yun; Son, Jaebum

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Many different CAD schemes are being developed for use in the detection and/or characterization of various lesions found through various types of medical imaging. These imaging technologies employ conventional projection radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, etc. In order to achieve a high performance level for a computerized diagnosis, it is important to employ effective image analysis techniques in the major steps of a CAD scheme. The main objective of this review is to attempt to introduce the diverse methods used for quantitative image analysis, and to provide a guide for clinicians. PMID:22084808

  9. Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

    The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are

  10. Detection of longitudinal ulcer using roughness value for computer aided diagnosis of Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new method to detect ulcers, which is one of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, from CT images. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease of the digestive tract. Crohn's disease commonly affects the small intestine. An optical or a capsule endoscope is used for small intestine examinations. However, these endoscopes cannot pass through intestinal stenosis parts in some cases. A CT image based diagnosis allows a physician to observe whole intestine even if intestinal stenosis exists. However, because of the complicated shape of the small and large intestines, understanding of shapes of the intestines and lesion positions are difficult in the CT image based diagnosis. Computer-aided diagnosis system for Crohn's disease having automated lesion detection is required for efficient diagnosis. We propose an automated method to detect ulcers from CT images. Longitudinal ulcers make rough surface of the small and large intestinal wall. The rough surface consists of combination of convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall. We detect convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall by a blob and an inverse-blob structure enhancement filters. A lot of convex and concave parts concentrate on roughed parts. We introduce a roughness value to differentiate convex and concave parts concentrated on the roughed parts from the other on the intestinal wall. The roughness value effectively reduces false positives of ulcer detection. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can detect convex and concave parts on the ulcers.

  11. Survey on computer aided decision support for diagnosis of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Hegenbart, Sebastian; Uhl, Andreas; Vécsei, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a complex autoimmune disorder in genetically predisposed individuals of all age groups triggered by the ingestion of food containing gluten. A reliable diagnosis is of high interest in view of embarking on a strict gluten-free diet, which is the CD treatment modality of first choice. The gold standard for diagnosis of CD is currently based on a histological confirmation of serology, using biopsies performed during upper endoscopy. Computer aided decision support is an emerging option in medicine and endoscopy in particular. Such systems could potentially save costs and manpower while simultaneously increasing the safety of the procedure. Research focused on computer-assisted systems in the context of automated diagnosis of CD has started in 2008. Since then, over 40 publications on the topic have appeared. In this context, data from classical flexible endoscopy as well as wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) and confocal laser endomicrosopy (CLE) has been used. In this survey paper, we try to give a comprehensive overview of the research focused on computer-assisted diagnosis of CD. PMID:25770906

  12. The association between combination antiretroviral adherence and AIDS-defining conditions at HIV diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Abara, Winston E; Xu, Junjun; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A; Rust, George

    2016-08-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has changed the clinical course of HIV. AIDS-defining conditions (ADC) are suggestive of severe or advanced disease and are a leading cause of HIV-related hospitalizations and death among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the USA. Optimal adherence to cART can mitigate the impact of ADC and disease severity on the health and survivability of PLWHA. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between ADC at HIV diagnosis and optimal adherence among PLWHA. Using data from the 2008 and 2009 Medicaid data from 29 states, we identified individuals, between 18 and 49 years, recently infected with HIV and with a cART prescription. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize sample. Univariate and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were employed to evaluate the association optimal cART adherence (defined as ≥ 95% study days covered by cART) and ADC at HIV diagnosis (≥1 ADC) were assessed. Approximately 17% of respondents with ADC at HIV diagnosis reported optimal cART adherence. After adjusting for covariates, respondents with an ADC at HIV diagnosis were less likely to report optimal cART adherence (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 0.64, 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.54-0.75). Among the covariates, males (APR=1.10, 95% CI, 1.02-1.19) compared to females were significantly more likely to report optimal adherence while younger respondents, 18-29 years (APR=0.67, 95% CI, 0.57-0.77), 30-39 years (APR=0.86, 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) compared to older respondents were significantly less likely to report optimal adherence. PLWHA with ADC at HIV diagnosis are at risk of suboptimal cART adherence. Multiple adherence strategies that include healthcare providers, case managers, and peer navigators should be utilized to improve cART adherence and optimize health outcomes among PLWHA with ADC at HIV diagnosis. Targeted adherence programs and services are required to address

  13. Retinal vessel detection and measurement for computer-aided medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaokun; Wee, William G

    2014-02-01

    Since blood vessel detection and characteristic measurement for ocular retinal images is a fundamental problem in computer-aided medical diagnosis, automated algorithms/systems for vessel detection and measurement are always demanded. To support computer-aided diagnosis, an integrated approach/solution for vessel detection and diameter measurement is presented and validated. In the proposed approach, a Dempster-Shafer (D-S)-based edge detector is developed to obtain initial vessel edge information and an accurate vascular map for a retinal image. Then, the appropriate path and the centerline of a vessel of interest are identified automatically through graph search. Once the vessel path has been identified, the diameter of the vessel will be measured accordingly by the algorithm in real time. To achieve more accurate edge detection and diameter measurement, mixed Gaussian-matched filters are designed to refine the initial detection and measures. Other important medical indices of retinal vessels can also be calculated accordingly based on detection and measurement results. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was validated by the retinal images obtained from different public databases. Experimental results show that the vessel detection rate of the algorithm is 100 % for large vessels and 89.9 % for small vessels, and the error rate on vessel diameter measurement is less than 5 %, which are all well within the acceptable range of deviation among the human graders.

  14. Cystatin C Falsely Underestimated GFR in a Critically Ill Patient with a New Diagnosis of AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Caitlin S.; Kashani, Kianoush B.; Clain, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    Cystatin C has been suggested to be a more accurate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) surrogate than creatinine in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) because it is unaffected by skeletal muscle mass and dietary influences. However, little is known about the utility of this marker for monitoring medications in the critically ill. We describe the case of a 64-year-old female with opportunistic infections associated with a new diagnosis of AIDS. During her course, she experienced neurologic, cardiac, and respiratory failure; yet her renal function remained preserved as indicated by an eGFR ≥ 120 mL/min and a urine output > 1 mL/kg/hr without diuresis. The patient was treated with nephrotoxic agents; therefore cystatin C was assessed to determine if cachexia was resulting in a falsely low serum creatinine. Cystatin C measured 1.50 mg/L which corresponded to an eGFR of 36 mL/min. Given the >60 mL/min discrepancy, serial 8-hour urine samples were collected and a GFR > 120 mL/min was confirmed. It is unclear why cystatin C was falsely elevated, but we hypothesize that it relates to the proinflammatory state with AIDS, opportunistic infections, and corticosteroids. More research is needed before routine use of cystatin C in this setting can be recommended. PMID:27293926

  15. Spectrum of complicated migraine in children: A common profile in aid to clinical diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Surya N; Gupta, Vikash S; Fields, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    Complicated migraine encompasses several individual clinical syndromes of migraine. Such a syndrome in children frequently presents with various neurological symptoms in the Emergency Department. An acute presentation in the absence of headache presents a diagnostic challenge. A delay in diagnosis and treatment may have medicolegal implication. To date, there are no reports of a common clinical profile proposed in making a clinical diagnosis for the complicated migraine. In this clinical review, we propose and describe: (1) A common clinical profile in aid to clinical diagnosis for spectrum of complicated migraine; (2) How it can be used in differentiating complicated migraine from migraine without aura, migraine with aura, and seizure; (3) We discuss the status of complicated migraine in the International Headache Society classification 2013; and (4) In addition, a common treatment strategy for the spectrum of migraine has been described. To diagnose complicated migraine clinically, it is imperative to adhere with the proposed profile. This will optimize the use of investigation and will also avoid a legal implication of delay in their management. The proposed common clinical profile is incongruent with the International Headache Society 2013. Future classification should minimize the dissociation from clinically encountered syndromes and coin a single word to address collectively this subtype of migraine with an acute presentation of a common clinical profile. PMID:25664241

  16. Towards a computer-aided diagnosis system for colon motility dysfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocker, Ben; Buhmann, Sonja; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Mussack, Thomas; Reiser, Maximilian; Navab, Nassir

    2007-03-01

    Colon motility disorders are a very common problem. A precise diagnosis with current methods is almost unachievable. This makes it extremely difficult for the clinical experts to decide for the right intervention such as colon resection. The use of cine MRI for visualizing the colon motility is a very promising technique. In addition, if image segmentation and qualitative motion analysis provide the necessary tools, it could provide the appropriate diagnostic solution. In this work we defined necessary steps in the image processing workflow to gain valuable measurements for a computer aided diagnosis of colon motility disorders. For each step, we developed methods to deal with the dynamic image data. There is need for compensating the breathing motion since no respiratory gating could be used. We segment the colon using a graph cuts approach in 2D and 3D for further analysis and visualization. The analysis of the large bowel motility is done by tracking the extension of the colon during a propagating peristaltic wave. The main objective of this work is to extract a motion model to define a clinical index that can be used in diagnosis of large bowel motility dysfunction. We aim at the classification and localization of such pathologies.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer based on fine needle biopsy microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Marek; Filipczuk, Paweł; Obuchowicz, Andrzej; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2013-10-01

    Prompt and widely available diagnostics of breast cancer is crucial for the prognosis of patients. One of the diagnostic methods is the analysis of cytological material from the breast. This examination requires extensive knowledge and experience of the cytologist. Computer-aided diagnosis can speed up the diagnostic process and allow for large-scale screening. One of the largest challenges in the automatic analysis of cytological images is the segmentation of nuclei. In this study, four different clustering algorithms are tested and compared in the task of fast nuclei segmentation. K-means, fuzzy C-means, competitive learning neural networks and Gaussian mixture models were incorporated for clustering in the color space along with adaptive thresholding in grayscale. These methods were applied in a medical decision support system for breast cancer diagnosis, where the cases were classified as either benign or malignant. In the segmented nuclei, 42 morphological, topological and texture features were extracted. Then, these features were used in a classification procedure with three different classifiers. The system was tested for classification accuracy by means of microscopic images of fine needle breast biopsies. In cooperation with the Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra, 500 real case medical images from 50 patients were collected. The acquired classification accuracy was approximately 96-100%, which is very promising and shows that the presented method ensures accurate and objective data acquisition that could be used to facilitate breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:24034748

  18. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoitsis, John; Valavanis, Ioannis; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G.; Golemati, Spyretta; Nikita, Alexandra; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2006-12-01

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis.

  19. Role of Gist and PHOG Features in Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Tuberculosis without Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Chauhan, Devesh; Rout, Chittaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Effective diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) relies on accurate interpretation of radiological patterns found in a chest radiograph (CXR). Lack of skilled radiologists and other resources, especially in developing countries, hinders its efficient diagnosis. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods provide second opinion to the radiologists for their findings and thereby assist in better diagnosis of cancer and other diseases including TB. However, existing CAD methods for TB are based on the extraction of textural features from manually or semi-automatically segmented CXRs. These methods are prone to errors and cannot be implemented in X-ray machines for automated classification. Methods Gabor, Gist, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and pyramid histogram of oriented gradients (PHOG) features extracted from the whole image can be implemented into existing X-ray machines to discriminate between TB and non-TB CXRs in an automated manner. Localized features were extracted for the above methods using various parameters, such as frequency range, blocks and region of interest. The performance of these features was evaluated against textural features. Two digital CXR image datasets (8-bit DA and 14-bit DB) were used for evaluating the performance of these features. Results Gist (accuracy 94.2% for DA, 86.0% for DB) and PHOG (accuracy 92.3% for DA, 92.0% for DB) features provided better results for both the datasets. These features were implemented to develop a MATLAB toolbox, TB-Xpredict, which is freely available for academic use at http://sourceforge.net/projects/tbxpredict/. This toolbox provides both automated training and prediction modules and does not require expertise in image processing for operation. Conclusion Since the features used in TB-Xpredict do not require segmentation, the toolbox can easily be implemented in X-ray machines. This toolbox can effectively be used for the mass screening of TB in high-burden areas with improved efficiency. PMID

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis of peripheral soft tissue masses based on ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chen, Chih-Yen; Liu, Tzu-Chiang; Chiou, See-Ying; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2009-07-01

    Medical ultrasound (US) has been widely used for distinguishing benign from malignant peripheral soft tissue tumors. However, diagnosis by US is subjective and depends on the experience of the radiologists. The rarity of peripheral soft tissue tumors can make them easily neglected and this frequently leads to delayed diagnosis, which results in a much higher death rate than with other tumors. In this paper, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to diagnose peripheral soft tissue masses on US images. We retrospectively evaluated 49 cases of pathologically proven peripheral soft tissue masses (32 benign, 17 malignant). The proposed CAD system includes three main procedures: image pre-processing and region-of-interest (ROI) segmentation, feature extraction and statistics-based discriminant analysis (DA). We developed a depth-normalization factor (DNF) to compensate for the influence of the depth setting on the apparent size of the ROI. After image pre-processing and normalization, five features, namely area (A), boundary transition ratio (T), circularity (C), high intensity spots (H) and uniformity (U), were extracted from the US images. A DA function was then employed to analyze these features. A CAD algorithm was then devised for differentiating benign from malignant masses. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87.8%, a sensitivity of 88.2%, a specificity of 87.5%, a positive predictive value (PPV) 78.9% and a negative predictive value (NPV) 93.3%. These results indicate that the CAD system is valuable as a means of providing a second diagnostic opinion when radiologists carry out peripheral soft tissue mass diagnosis.

  1. Computer aided diagnosis of osteoporosis using multi-slice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Eiji; Saita, Shinsuke; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Ito, Masako; Nishitani, Hiromu; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    The patients of osteoporosis comprised about 11 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems the aging society has. In order to prevent the osteoporosis, it is necessary to do early detection and treatment. The development of Multislice CT technology made it possible to perform the three dimensional (3-D) image analysis with higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. The 3-D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used as a support to diagnose osteoporosis and at the same time can be used for lung cancer screening which may lead to its early detection. We develop an automatic extraction algorithm of vertebra, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the computer aided diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  2. Computer aided diagnosis of schizophrenia on resting state fMRI data by ensembles of ELM.

    PubMed

    Chyzhyk, Darya; Savio, Alexandre; Graña, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used for the identification of image biomarkers of brain diseases or psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia. This paper deals with the application of ensembles of Extreme Learning Machines (ELM) to build Computer Aided Diagnosis systems on the basis of features extracted from the activity measures computed over rs-fMRI data. The power of ELM to provide quick but near optimal solutions to the training of Single Layer Feedforward Networks (SLFN) allows extensive exploration of discriminative power of feature spaces in affordable time with off-the-shelf computational resources. Exploration is performed in this paper by an evolutionary search approach that has found functional activity map features allowing to achieve quite successful classification experiments, providing biologically plausible voxel-site localizations.

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Morillo, Daniel; León Jiménez, Antonio; Moreno, Sonia Astorga

    2013-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of pneumonia and discrimination between this disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations in patients with COPD are crucial for optimal clinical management and treatment. Objectives To examine the use of computerized analysis of respiratory sounds, a hybrid system based on principal component analysis (PCA) and probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), to aid the detection of coexisting pneumonia in patients with COPD. Methods and materials A convenience sample of 58 patients with COPD (25 patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia and 33 owing to acute exacerbation of COPD) was studied. Auscultations were performed by the patients themselves on their suprasternal notch. Short-time Fourier transform analysis was used to extract features from the recorded respiratory sounds, PCA was selected for dimensionality reduction and a PNN was trained as classifier. 10-Fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used to estimate the system performance. Results Based on the cross-validation results, a sensitivity and a specificity of 72% and 81.8%, respectively, were achieved in validation data. The operating point was selected to maximize the specificity and sensitivity pair in the training set. Discussion The results strongly suggest that electronic self-auscultation at a single location (suprasternal notch) can support diagnosis of pneumonia in patients with COPD. Conclusions A simple, cost-effective method has been proposed to aid decision-making in areas with no radiological facilities available and in resource-constrained settings, and could have a great diagnostic impact on telemedicine applications. PMID:23396513

  4. Evaluation of Computer-aided Diagnosis on a Large Clinical Full-Field Digital Mammographic Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Yuan, Yading; Chen, Weijie; Horsch, Karla; Lan, Li; Jamieson, Andrew R.; Sennett, Charlene A.; Jansen, Sanaz A.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: To convert and optimize our previously developed computerized analysis methods for use with images from full-field digital mammography (FFDM) for breast mass classification in order to aid in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: An institutional review board approved protocol was obtained, with waiver of consent for retrospective use of mammograms and pathology data. Seven hundreds and thirty-nine full-field digital mammographic images, which contained 287 biopsy-proven breast mass lesions, of which 148 lesions were malignant and 139 lesions were benign, were retrospectively collected. Lesion margins were delineated by an expert breast radiologist and were used as the truth for lesion-segmentation evaluation. Our computerized image analysis method consisted of several steps: 1) identified lesions were automatically extracted from the parenchymal background using computerized segmentation methods; 2) a set of image characteristics (mathematical descriptors) were automatically extracted from image data of the lesions and surrounding tissues; and 3) selected features were merged into an estimate of the probability of malignancy using a Bayesian artificial neural network classifier. Performance of the analyses was evaluated at various stages of the conversion using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: An AUC value of 0.81 was obtained in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign mass lesions in a round-robin by case evaluation on the entire FFDM dataset. We failed to show a statistically significant difference (P value=0.83) as compared with results from our previous study in which the computerized classification was performed on digitized screen-film mammograms (SFMD). Conclusion: Our computerized analysis methods developed on digitized screen-film mammography can be converted for use with FFDM. Results show that the computerized analysis methods for the diagnosis of breast mass lesions on

  5. CD4 quantification based on magneto ELISA for AIDS diagnosis in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré, C; Alegret, S; Martí, M; Pividori, M I

    2016-11-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) affects the life of millions of people around the world. Although rapid and low cost screening tests are widely available for the diagnosis of HIV infection, the count of CD4+ T lymphocytes remains a drawback in the areas mostly affected by the HIV, being this control imperative for assessing the deterioration of the immunological system and the progression towards AIDS, when the counting of cells falls down 200cellsμL(-1). This paper describes a high-throughput, simple and rapid method for CD4+ T lymphocytes quantification, directly in whole blood, based on a magneto ELISA. The CD4 cells are separated and preconcentrated from whole blood in magnetic particles, and labeled with an enzyme for the optical readout performed with a standard microplate reader. The magneto ELISA is able to reach the whole CD4 counting range of medical interest, being the limit of detection as low as 50 CD4+ cells per μL of whole blood, without any pretreatment. This method is a highly suitable alternative diagnostic tool for the expensive flow cytometry at the community and primary care level, providing a sensitive method but by using instrumentation widely available in low-resource settings laboratories and requiring low-maintenance, as is the case of a microplate reader operated by filters.

  6. Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2015-12-15

    The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 μL of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells μL(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells μL(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries.

  7. CD4 quantification based on magneto ELISA for AIDS diagnosis in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré, C; Alegret, S; Martí, M; Pividori, M I

    2016-11-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) affects the life of millions of people around the world. Although rapid and low cost screening tests are widely available for the diagnosis of HIV infection, the count of CD4+ T lymphocytes remains a drawback in the areas mostly affected by the HIV, being this control imperative for assessing the deterioration of the immunological system and the progression towards AIDS, when the counting of cells falls down 200cellsμL(-1). This paper describes a high-throughput, simple and rapid method for CD4+ T lymphocytes quantification, directly in whole blood, based on a magneto ELISA. The CD4 cells are separated and preconcentrated from whole blood in magnetic particles, and labeled with an enzyme for the optical readout performed with a standard microplate reader. The magneto ELISA is able to reach the whole CD4 counting range of medical interest, being the limit of detection as low as 50 CD4+ cells per μL of whole blood, without any pretreatment. This method is a highly suitable alternative diagnostic tool for the expensive flow cytometry at the community and primary care level, providing a sensitive method but by using instrumentation widely available in low-resource settings laboratories and requiring low-maintenance, as is the case of a microplate reader operated by filters. PMID:27591585

  8. Can computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) help radiologists find mammographically missed screening cancers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Schmidt, Robert A.; Papaioannou, John

    2001-06-01

    We present data from a pilot observer study whose goal is design a study to test the hypothesis that computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) can improve radiologists' performance in reading screening mammograms. In a prospective evaluation of our computer detection schemes, we have analyzed over 12,000 clinical exams. Retrospective review of the negative screening mammograms for all cancer cases found an indication of the cancer in 23 of these negative cases. The computer found 54% of these in our prospective testing. We added to these cases normal exams to create a dataset of 75 cases. Four radiologists experienced in mammography read the cases and gave their BI-RADS assessment and their confidence that the patient should be called back for diagnostic mammography. They did so once reading the films only and a second time reading with the computer aid. Three radiologists had no change in area under the ROC curve (mean Az of 0.73) and one improved from 0.73 to 0.78, but this difference failed to reach statistical significance (p equals 0.23). These data are being used to plan a larger more powerful study.

  9. Electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in AIDS diagnosis and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carinelli, S; Xufré Ballesteros, C; Martí, M; Alegret, S; Pividori, M I

    2015-12-15

    The counting of CD4(+) T lymphocytes is a clinical parameter used for AIDS diagnosis and follow-up. As this disease is particularly prevalent in developing countries, simple and affordable CD4 cell counting methods are urgently needed in resource-limited settings. This paper describes an electrochemical magneto-actuated biosensor for CD4 count in whole blood. The CD4(+) T lymphocytes were isolated, preconcentrated and labeled from 100 μL of whole blood by immunomagnetic separation with magnetic particles modified with antiCD3 antibodies. The captured cells were labeled with a biotinylated antiCD4 antibody, followed by the reaction with the electrochemical reporter streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate. The limit of detection for the CD4 counting magneto-actuated biosensor in whole blood was as low as 44 cells μL(-1) while the logistic range was found to be from 89 to 912 cells μL(-1), which spans the whole medical interest range for CD4 counts in AIDS patients. The electrochemical detection together with the immunomagnetic separation confers high sensitivity, resulting in a rapid, inexpensive, robust, user-friendly method for CD4 counting. This approach is a promising alternative for the costly standard flow cytometry and suitable as diagnostic tool at decentralized practitioner sites in low resource settings, especially in less developed countries. PMID:26264263

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis of leukoencephalopathy in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, John O.; Li, Chin-Shang; Helton, Kathleen J.; Reddick, Wilburn E.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use objective quantitative MR imaging methods to develop a computer-aided diagnosis tool to differentiate white matter (WM) hyperintensities as either leukoencephalopathy (LE) or normal maturational processes in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with intravenous high dose methotrexate. A combined imaging set consisting of T1, T2, PD, and FLAIR MR images and WM, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid a priori maps from a spatially normalized atlas were analyzed with a neural network segmentation based on a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map. Segmented regions were manually classified to identify the most hyperintense WM region and the normal appearing genu region. Signal intensity differences normalized to the genu within each examination were generated for two time points in 203 children. An unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithm with the agglomeration method of McQuitty was used to divide data from the first examination into normal appearing or LE groups. A C-support vector machine (C-SVM) was then trained on the first examination data and used to classify the data from the second examination. The overall accuracy of the computer-aided detection tool was 83.5% (299/358) with sensitivity to normal WM of 86.9% (199/229) and specificity to LE of 77.5% (100/129) when compared to the readings of two expert observers. These results suggest that subtle therapy-induced leukoencephalopathy can be objectively and reproducibly detected in children treated for cancer using this computer-aided detection approach based on relative differences in quantitative signal intensity measures normalized within each examination.

  11. Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii infection in a patient with AIDS: rapid diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Pellaton, Cyril; Cavassini, Matthias; Jaton-Ogay, Katia; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Christen-Zaech, Stéphanie; Calandra, Thierry; Bille, Jacques; Hauser, Philippe M

    2009-05-01

    We describe an original case of disseminated infection with Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) var. duboisii in an African patient with AIDS who migrated to Switzerland. The diagnosis of histoplasmosis was suggested using direct examination of tissues and confirmed in 24 h with a panfungal polymerase chain reaction assay. The variety duboisii of Hc was established using DNA sequencing of the polymorphic genomic region OLE. Molecular tools allow diagnosis of histoplasmosis in 24 h, which is drastically shorter than culture procedures. PMID:19304436

  12. Substance abuse treatment in persons with HIV/AIDS: challenges in managing triple diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R

    2014-01-01

    Clinical management of HIV must account for the "triple diagnosis" of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in the mid 1990s, a literature review focusing on literature published since 2000, and using relevant key words was conducted using a wide range of literature search databases. This literature review was complemented by studies to expand on specific treatment modalities for which there was a dearth of literature addressing HIV infected cohorts and to provide discussion of issues around substance abuse treatment as an HIV prevention tool. Existing models of substance abuse treatment including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing have proven to be useful for enhancing adherence and reducing substance use in outpatient populations, while methadone maintenance and directly observed treatment have been useful with specific subgroups of users. Contextualization of services heightens the likelihood of successful outcomes and relapse prevention.

  13. Reducing annotation cost and uncertainty in computer-aided diagnosis through selective iterative classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riely, Amelia; Sablan, Kyle; Xiaotao, Thomas; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging technology has always provided radiologists with the opportunity to view and keep records of anatomy of the patient. With the development of machine learning and intelligent computing, these images can be used to create Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems, which can assist radiologists in analyzing image data in various ways to provide better health care to patients. This paper looks at increasing accuracy and reducing cost in creating CAD systems, specifically in predicting the malignancy of lung nodules in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). Much of the cost in creating an accurate CAD system stems from the need for multiple radiologist diagnoses or annotations of each image, since there is rarely a ground truth diagnosis and even different radiologists' diagnoses of the same nodule often disagree. To resolve this issue, this paper outlines an method of selective iterative classification that predicts lung nodule malignancy by using multiple radiologist diagnoses only for cases that can benefit from them. Our method achieved 81% accuracy while costing only 46% of the method that indiscriminately used all annotations, which achieved a lower accuracy of 70%, while costing more.

  14. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters’ predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization.

  15. Computer aided diagnosis and treatment planning for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Lu, Hongbing; Cai, Wenli; Li, Xiang; Meng, Jie; Liang, Zhengrong

    2005-04-01

    The developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a congenital malformation affecting the proximal femurs and acetabulum that are subluxatable, dislocatable, and dislocated. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because failure to diagnose and improper treatment can result in significant morbidity. In this paper, we designed and implemented a computer aided system for the diagnosis and treatment planning of this disease. With the design, the patient received CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan first. A mixture-based PV partial-volume algorithm was applied to perform bone segmentation on CT image, followed by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of the segmented image, demonstrating the special relationship between the acetabulum and femurs for visual judgment. Several standard procedures, such as Salter procedure, Pemberton procedure and Femoral Shortening osteotomy, were simulated on the screen to rehearse a virtual treatment plan. Quantitative measurement of Acetabular Index (AI) and Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA) were performed on the 3D image for evaluation of DDH and treatment plans. PC graphics-card GPU architecture was exploited to accelerate the 3D rendering and geometric manipulation. The prototype system was implemented on PC/Windows environment and is currently under clinical trial on patient datasets.

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis and lipidomics analysis to detect and treat breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Retter, Felix; Steinbrücker, Frank; Görke, Robert; Burgeth, Bernhard; Schlossbauer, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Multi-modality diagnosis techniques are more and more replacing traditional medical imaging for breast cancer detection. Newly emerging advances in both intelligent cancer detection systems and lipidomics technologies offer an excellent opportunity to detect tumors and to understand regulation at the molecular level in many diseases such as cancer. In this paper, we present a detailed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems combining motion artefact reduction and automated feature extraction and classification, and a novel data mining approach for visualization of gene therapy leading to apoptosis in U87 MG glioblastoma cells, a secondary tumor of breast cancer. The achieved results show that the CAD system represents a robust and integrative tool for reliable small contrast enhancing lesions. Graph-clustering methods are introduced as powerful correlation networks which enable a simultaneous exploration and visualization of co-regulation in glioblastoma data. These new paradigms are providing unique "fingerprints" by revealing how the intricate interactions at the lipidome level can be employed to induce apoptosis (cell death) and are thus opening a new window to biomedical frontiers.

  17. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters’ predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization. PMID:27648166

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis of mammographic masses using scalable image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Menglin; Zhang, Shaoting; Li, Hongsheng; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2015-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis of masses in mammograms is important to the prevention of breast cancer. Many approaches tackle this problem through content-based image retrieval techniques. However, most of them fall short of scalability in the retrieval stage, and their diagnostic accuracy is, therefore, restricted. To overcome this drawback, we propose a scalable method for retrieval and diagnosis of mammographic masses. Specifically, for a query mammographic region of interest (ROI), scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features are extracted and searched in a vocabulary tree, which stores all the quantized features of previously diagnosed mammographic ROIs. In addition, to fully exert the discriminative power of SIFT features, contextual information in the vocabulary tree is employed to refine the weights of tree nodes. The retrieved ROIs are then used to determine whether the query ROI contains a mass. The presented method has excellent scalability due to the low spatial-temporal cost of vocabulary tree. Extensive experiments are conducted on a large dataset of 11 553 ROIs extracted from the digital database for screening mammography, which demonstrate the accuracy and scalability of our approach. PMID:25361497

  19. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-08-28

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters' predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization. PMID:27648166

  20. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-08-28

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters' predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization.

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis in radiological imaging: current status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Kunio

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Many different types of CAD schemes are being developed for detection and/or characterization of various lesions in medical imaging, including conventional projection radiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasound imaging. Commercial systems for detection of breast lesions on mammograms have been developed and have received FDA approval for clinical use. CAD may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a "second opinion". The purpose of CAD is to improve the quality and productivity of physicians in their interpretation of radiologic images. The quality of their work can be improved in terms of the accuracy and consistency of their radiologic diagnoses. In addition, the productivity of radiologists is expected to be improved by a reduction in the time required for their image readings. The computer output is derived from quantitative analysis of radiologic images by use of various methods and techniques in computer vision, artificial intelligence, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computer output may indicate a number of important parameters, for example, the locations of potential lesions such as lung cancer and breast cancer, the likelihood of malignancy of detected lesions, and the likelihood of various diseases based on differential diagnosis in a given image and clinical parameters. In this review article, the basic concept of CAD is first defined, and the current status of CAD research is then described. In addition, the potential of CAD in the future is discussed and predicted.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast microcalcifications based on dual-tree complex wavelet transform

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Digital mammography is the most reliable imaging modality for breast carcinoma diagnosis and breast micro-calcifications is regarded as one of the most important signs on imaging diagnosis. In this paper, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system is presented for breast micro-calcifications based on dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) to facilitate radiologists like double reading. Methods Firstly, 25 abnormal ROIs were extracted according to the center and diameter of the lesions manually and 25 normal ROIs were selected randomly. Then micro-calcifications were segmented by combining space and frequency domain techniques. We extracted three texture features based on wavelet (Haar, DB4, DT-CWT) transform. Totally 14 descriptors were introduced to define the characteristics of the suspicious micro-calcifications. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to transform these descriptors to a compact and efficient vector expression. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was used to classify potential micro-calcifications. Finally, we used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and free-response operating characteristic (FROC) curve to evaluate the performance of the CAD system. Results The results of SVM classifications based on different wavelets shows DT-CWT has a better performance. Compared with other results, DT-CWT method achieved an accuracy of 96% and 100% for the classification of normal and abnormal ROIs, and the classification of benign and malignant micro-calcifications respectively. In FROC analysis, our CAD system for clinical dataset detection achieved a sensitivity of 83.5% at a false positive per image of 1.85. Conclusions Compared with general wavelets, DT-CWT could describe the features more effectively, and our CAD system had a competitive performance. PMID:23253202

  3. SU-E-J-248: Contributions of Tumor and Stroma Phenotyping in Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H; Lan, L; Sennett, C; Giger, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To gain insight into the role of parenchyma stroma in the characterization of breast tumors by incorporating computerized mammographic parenchyma assessment into breast CADx in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. Methods: This study was performed on 182 biopsy-proven breast mass lesions, including 76 benign and 106 malignant lesions. For each full-field digital mammogram (FFDM) case, our quantitative imaging analysis was performed on both the tumor and a region-of-interest (ROI) from the normal contralateral breast. The lesion characterization includes automatic lesion segmentation and feature extraction. Radiographic texture analysis (RTA) was applied on the normal ROIs to assess the mammographic parenchymal patterns of these contralateral normal breasts. Classification performance of both individual computer extracted features and the output from a Bayesian artificial neural network (BANN) were evaluated with a leave-one-lesion-out method using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with area under the curve (AUC) as the figure of merit. Results: Lesion characterization included computer-extracted phenotypes of spiculation, size, shape, and margin. For parenchymal pattern characterization, five texture features were selected, including power law beta, contrast, and edge gradient. Merging of these computer-selected features using BANN classifiers yielded AUC values of 0.79 (SE=0.03) and 0.67 (SE=0.04) in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions using only tumor phenotypes and texture features from the contralateral breasts, respectively. Incorporation of tumor phenotypes with parenchyma texture features into the BANN yielded improved classification performance with an AUC value of 0.83 (SE=0.03) in the task of differentiating malignant from benign lesions. Conclusion: Combining computerized tumor and parenchyma phenotyping was found to significantly improve breast cancer diagnostic accuracy

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using x-ray darkfield radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einarsdóttir, Hildur; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Hellbach, Katharina; Auweter, Sigrid; Yildirim, Önder; Meinel, Felix G.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Reiser, Maximilian; Larsen, Rasmus; Kjær Ersbøll, Bjarne; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-01

    In this work we develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for classification of pulmonary disease for grating-based x-ray radiography. In addition to conventional transmission radiography, the grating-based technique provides a dark-field imaging modality, which utilizes the scattering properties of the x-rays. This modality has shown great potential for diagnosing early stage emphysema and fibrosis in mouse lungs in vivo. The CAD scheme is developed to assist radiologists and other medical experts to develop new diagnostic methods when evaluating grating-based images. The scheme consists of three stages: (i) automatic lung segmentation; (ii) feature extraction from lung shape and dark-field image intensities; (iii) classification between healthy, emphysema and fibrosis lungs. A study of 102 mice was conducted with 34 healthy, 52 emphysema and 16 fibrosis subjects. Each image was manually annotated to build an experimental dataset. System performance was assessed by: (i) determining the quality of the segmentations; (ii) validating emphysema and fibrosis recognition by a linear support vector machine using leave-one-out cross-validation. In terms of segmentation quality, we obtained an overlap percentage (Ω) 92.63  ±  3.65%, Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) 89.74  ±  8.84% and Jaccard Similarity Coefficient 82.39  ±  12.62%. For classification, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of diseased lung recognition was 100%. Classification between emphysema and fibrosis resulted in an accuracy of 93%, whilst the sensitivity was 94% and specificity 88%. In addition to the automatic classification of lungs, deviation maps created by the CAD scheme provide a visual aid for medical experts to further assess the severity of pulmonary disease in the lung, and highlights regions affected.

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis based on quantitative elastographic features with supersonic shear wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Zeng, Jie; Niu, Lili; Zeng, Qingjing; Wu, Tao; Wang, Congzhi; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-02-01

    Supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) has recently been explored as a technique to evaluate tissue elasticity modulus and has become a valuable tool for tumor characterization. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system that can acquire quantitative elastographic information from color SSI elastography images automatically and objectively for the purpose of classifying benign and malignant breast tumors. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and SSI elastography images of 125 breast tumors (81 benign, 44 malignant), in 93 consecutive patients (mean age: 40 y, age range: 16-75 y), were obtained. After reconstruction of tissue elasticity data and automatic segmentation of each breast tumor, 10 quantitative elastographic features of the tumor and peri-tumoral areas, respectively (elasticity modulus mean, maximum and standard deviation, hardness degree and elasticity ratio), were computed and evaluated. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for optimum classification via combination of these features. The B-mode Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was used to compare gray-scale US and SSI elastography with respect to diagnostic performance. Histopathologic examination was used as the reference standard. Student's t-test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, the point biserial correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed for statistical analysis. As a result, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of benign/malignant classification were 95.2% (119/125), 90.9% (40/44), 97.5% (79/81), 95.2% (40/42) and 95.2% (79/83) for the CAD scheme, respectively, and 79.2% (99/125), 90.9% (40/44), 72.8% (59/81), 64.5% (40/62) and 93.7% (59/63) for BI-RADS assessment, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az value) for the proposed CAD system using the combination of elastographic features was

  6. Use of genetic algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancers from image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, Carey E., Jr.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Baker, Jay A.

    1996-04-01

    In this investigation we explore genetic algorithms as a technique to train the weights in a feed forward neural network designed to predict breast cancer based on mammographic findings and patient history. Mammograms were obtained from 206 patients who obtained breast biopsies. Mammographic findings were recorded by radiologists for each patient. In addition, the outcome of the biopsy was recorded. Of the 206 cases, 73 were malignant while 133 were benign at the time of biopsy. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to adjust the weights of an artificial neural network (ANN) so that the ANN would output the outcome of the biopsy when the mammographic findings were given as inputs. The GA is a technique for function optimization that reflects biological genetic evolution. The ANN was a fully connected feed- forward network using a sigmoid activation with 11 inputs, one hidden layer with 10 nodes, and one output node (benign/malignant). The GA approach allows much flexibility in selecting the function to be optimized. In this work both mean-squared error (MSE) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area (Az) were explored as optimization criteria. The system was trained using a bootstrap sampling. Optimizing for the two criteria result in different solutions. The 'best' solution was obtained by minimizing a linear combination of MSE and (1-Az). ROC areas were 0.82 plus or minus 0.07, somewhat less than those obtained using backpropagation for ANN training: 0.90 plus or minus 0.05. This is the first description of a genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis. The novel advantage of this technique is the ability to optimize the system for maximizing ROC area rather than minimizing mean squared error. A new technique for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer has been explored. The flexibility of the GA approach allows optimization of cost functions that have relevance to breast cancer prediction.

  7. A tool for computer-aided diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zheen; Wallace, David K.; Freedman, Sharon F.; Aylward, Stephen R.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we present improvements to a software application, named ROPtool, that aids in the timely and accurate detection and diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). ROP occurs in 68% of infants less than 1251 grams at birth, and it is a leading cause of blindness for prematurely born infants. The standard of care for its diagnosis is the subjective assessment of retinal vessel dilation and tortuosity. There is significant inter-observer variation in those assessments. ROPtool analyzes retinal images, extracts user-selected blood vessels from those images, and quantifies the tortuosity of those vessels. The presence of ROP is then gauged by comparing the tortuosity of an infant's retinal vessels with measures made from a clinical-standard image of severely tortuous retinal vessels. The presence of such tortuous retinal vessels is referred to as 'plus disease'. In this paper, a novel metric of tortuosity is proposed. From the ophthalmologist's point of view, the new metric is an improvement from our previously published algorithm, since it uses smooth curves instead of straight lines to simulate 'normal vessels'. Another advantage of the new ROPtool is that minimal user interactions are required. ROPtool utilizes a ridge traversal algorithm to extract retinal vessels. The algorithm reconstructs connectivity along a vessel automatically. This paper supports its claims by reporting ROC curves from a pilot study involving 20 retinal images. The areas under two ROC curves, from two experts in ROP, using the new metric to diagnose 'tortuosity sufficient for plus disease', varied from 0.86 to 0.91.

  8. Age-based computer-aided diagnosis approach for pancreatic cancer on endoscopic ultrasound images

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Murat; Cakiroglu, Murat; Kocaman, Orhan; Kurt, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Bulent; Can, Guray; Korkmaz, Ugur; Dandil, Emre; Eksi, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to develop a high-performance computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with image processing and pattern recognition in diagnosing pancreatic cancer by using endosonography images. Materials and Methods: On the images, regions of interest (ROI) of three groups of patients (<40, 40-60 and >60) were extracted by experts; features were obtained from images using three different techniques and were trained separately for each age group with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to diagnose cancer. The study was conducted on endosonography images of 202 patients with pancreatic cancer and 130 noncancer patients. Results: 122 features were identified from the 332 endosonography images obtained in the study, and the 20 most appropriate features were selected by using the relief method. Images classified under three age groups (in years; <40, 40-60 and >60) were tested via 200 random tests and the following ratios were obtained in the classification: accuracy: 92%, 88.5%, and 91.7%, respectively; sensitivity: 87.5%, 85.7%, and 93.3%, respectively; and specificity: 94.1%, 91.7%, and 88.9%, respectively. When all the age groups were assessed together, the following values were obtained: accuracy: 87.5%, sensitivity: 83.3%, and specificity: 93.3%. Conclusions: It was observed that the CAD system developed in the study performed better in diagnosing pancreatic cancer images based on classification by patient age compared to diagnosis without classification. Therefore, it is imperative to take patient age into consideration to ensure higher performance. PMID:27080608

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis scheme for histological classification of clustered microcalcifications on magnification mammograms.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Ryohei; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Ryoji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Namba, Kiyoshi; Doi, Kunio

    2004-04-01

    The histological classification of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms can be difficult, and thus often require biopsy or follow-up. Our purpose in this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnosis scheme for identifying the histological classification of clustered microcalcifications on magnification mammograms in order to assist the radiologists' interpretation as a "second opinion." Our database consisted of 58 magnification mammograms, which included 35 malignant clustered microcalcifications (9 invasive carcinomas, 12 noninvasive carcinomas of the comedo type, and 14 noninvasive carcinomas of the noncomedo type) and 23 benign clustered microcalcifications (17 mastopathies and 6 fibroadenomas). The histological classifications of all clustered microcalcifications were proved by pathologic diagnosis. The clustered microcalcifications were first segmented by use of a novel filter bank and a thresholding technique. Five objective features on clustered microcalcifications were determined by taking into account subjective features that experienced the radiologists commonly use to identify possible histological classifications. The Bayes decision rule with five objective features was employed for distinguishing between five histological classifications. The classification accuracies for distinguishing between three malignant histological classifications were 77.8% (7/9) for invasive carcinoma, 75.0% (9/12) for noninvasive carcinoma of the comedo type, and 92.9% (13/14) for noninvasive carcinoma of the noncomedo type. The classification accuracies for distinguishing between two benign histological classifications were 94.1% (16/17) for mastopathy, and 100.0% (6/6) for fibroadenoma. This computerized method would be useful in assisting radiologists in their assessments of clustered microcalcifications. PMID:15124996

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis system for lung cancer based on retrospective helical CT image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukai, Yuji; Niki, Noboru; Satoh, Hitoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Mori, Kiyoshi; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for lung cancer to detect nodule candidates at an early stage from the present and the early helical CT screening of the thorax. We developed an algorithm that can compare automatically the slice images of present and early CT scans for the assistance of comparative reading in retrospect. The algorithm consists of the ROI detection and shape analysis based on comparison of each slice image in the present and the early CT scans. The slice images of present and early CT scans are both displayed in parallel and analyzed quantitatively in order to detect the changes in size and intensity affection. We validated the efficiency of this algorithm by application to image data for mass screening of 50 subjects (total: 150 CT scans). The algorithm could compare the slice images correctly in most combinations with respect to physician's point of view. We validated the efficiency of the algorithm which automatically detect lung nodule candidates using CAD system. The system was applied to the helical CT images of 450 subjects. Currently, we are carrying out the clinical field test program using the CAD system. The results of our CAD system have indicated good performance when compared with physician's diagnosis. The experimental results of the algorithm indicate that our CAD system is useful to increase the efficiency of the mass screening process. CT screening of thorax will be performed by using the CAD system as a counterpart to the double reading technique actually used in herical CT screening program, not by using the film display.

  11. Computer-aided diagnosis system for lung cancer based on retrospective helical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Ukai, Yuji; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Mori, Kiyoshi; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for lung cancer to detect nodule candidates at an early stage from the present and the early helical CT screening of the thorax. We developed an algorithm that can compare automatically the slice images of present and early CT scans for the assistance of comparative reading in retrospect. The algorithm consists of the ROI detection and shape analysis based on comparison of each slice image in the present and the early CT scans. The slice images of present and early CT scans are both displayed in parallel and analyzed quantitatively in order to detect the changes in size and intensity affection. We validated the efficiency of this algorithm by application to image data for mass screening of 50 subjects (total: 150 CT scans). The algorithm could compare the slice images correctly in most combinations with respect to physician's point of view. We validated the efficiency of the algorithm which automatically detect lung nodule candidates using CAD system. The system was applied to the helical CT images of 450 subjects. Currently, we are carrying out the clinical field test program using the CAD system. The results of our CAD system have indicated good performance when compared with physician's diagnosis. The experimental results of the algorithm indicate that our CAD system is useful to increase the efficiency of the mass screening process. CT screening of thorax will be performed by using the CAD system as a counterpart to the double reading technique actually used in herical CT screening program, not by using the film display.

  12. A novel approach to computer-aided diagnosis of mammographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Sari-Sarraf, H.; Gleason, S.S.; Hudson, K.T.; Hubner, K.F.

    1996-08-01

    This is a work-in-progress report of a research endeavor that deals with the design and development of a novel approach to computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of mammographic images. With the initial emphasis being on the analysis of microcalcifications, the proposed approach defines a synergistic paradigm that utilizes new methodologies together with previously developed techniques. The new paradigm is intended to promote a higher degree of accuracy in CAD of mammograms with an increased overall throughput. The process of accomplishing these goals is initiated by the fractal encoding of the input image, which gives rise to the generation of focus-of-attention regions (FARs), that is, regions that contain anomalies. The primary thrust of this work is to demonstrate that by considering FARs, rather than the entire input image, the performances of the ensuing processes (i.e., segmentation, feature extraction, and classification) are enhanced in terms of accuracy and speed. After presenting the proposed approach to CAD of mammographic images, the paper describes the generation of FARs. Furthermore, an experimental study is included that demonstrates the impact of this front-end procedure on the process of microcalcification segmentation. Specifically, the experimentation reveals a dramatic decrease (increase) in the amount of input data (throughput), as well as a reduction in the number of false detections.

  13. Front-End Data Reduction in Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Mammograms: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, S.S.; Nishikawa, R.M.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-02-20

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study whose primary objective was to further substantiate the efficacy of front-end data reduction in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of mammograms. This concept is realized by a preprocessing module that can be utilized at the front-end of most mammographic CAD systems. Based on fractal encoding, this module takes a mammo-graphic image as its input and generates, as its output, a collection of subregions called focus-of-attention regions (FARs). These FARs contain all structures in the input image that appear to be different from the normal background tissue. Subsequently, the CAD systems need only to process the presented FARs, rather than the entire input image. This accomplishes two objectives simultaneously: (1) an increase in throughput via a reduction in the input data, and (2) a reduction in false detections by limiting the scope of the detection algorithms to FARs only. The pilot study consisted of using the preprocessing module to analyze 80 mammographic images. The results were an average data reduction of 83% over all 80 images and an average false detection reduction of 86%. Furthermore, out of a total of 507 marked microcalcifications, 467 fell within FW, representing a coverage rate of 92%.

  14. A ROC-based feature selection method for computer-aided detection and diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Songyuan; Zhang, Guopeng; Liao, Qimei; Zhang, Junying; Jiao, Chun; Lu, Hongbing

    2014-03-01

    Image-based computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) has been a very active research topic aiming to assist physicians to detect lesions and distinguish them from benign to malignant. However, the datasets fed into a classifier usually suffer from small number of samples, as well as significantly less samples available in one class (have a disease) than the other, resulting in the classifier's suboptimal performance. How to identifying the most characterizing features of the observed data for lesion detection is critical to improve the sensitivity and minimize false positives of a CAD system. In this study, we propose a novel feature selection method mR-FAST that combines the minimal-redundancymaximal relevance (mRMR) framework with a selection metric FAST (feature assessment by sliding thresholds) based on the area under a ROC curve (AUC) generated on optimal simple linear discriminants. With three feature datasets extracted from CAD systems for colon polyps and bladder cancer, we show that the space of candidate features selected by mR-FAST is more characterizing for lesion detection with higher AUC, enabling to find a compact subset of superior features at low cost.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of photic driving response for computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Ishikawa, Fumito; Ishikawa, Bunnoshin; Saito, Yoichi

    2008-12-01

    The aim of our research is the quantification of the photic driving response, a routine electroencephalogram (EEG) examination, for computer-aided diagnosis. It is well known that the EEG responds not only to the fundamental frequency but also to all sub and higher harmonics of a stimulus. In this study, we propose a method for detecting and evaluating responses in screening data for individuals. This method consists of two comparisons based on statistical tests. One is an intraindividual comparison between the EEG at rest and the photic stimulation (PS) response reflecting enhancement and suppression by PS, and the other is a comparison between data from an individual and a distribution of normals reflecting the position of the individual's data in the distribution of normals in the normal database. These tests were evaluated using the Z-value based on the Mann-Whitney U-test. We measured EEGs from 130 normal subjects and 30 patients with any of schizophrenia, dementia and epilepsy. Normal data were divided into two groups, the first consisting of 100 data for database construction and the second of 30 data for test data. Using our method, a prominent statistical peak of the Z-value was recognized even if the harmonics and alpha band overlapped. Moreover, we found a statistical difference between patients and the normal database at diagnostically helpful frequencies such as subharmonics, the fundamental wave, higher harmonics and the alpha frequency band.

  16. Three-class classification in computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer by support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuejun; Qian, Wei; Song, Dansheng

    2004-05-01

    Design of classifier in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of breast cancer plays important role to its overall performance in sensitivity and specificity. Classification of a detected object as malignant lesion, benign lesion, or normal tissue on mammogram is a typical three-class pattern recognition problem. This paper presents a three-class classification approach by using two-stage classifier combined with support vector machine (SVM) learning algorithm for classification of breast cancer on mammograms. The first classification stage is used to detect abnormal areas and normal breast tissues, and the second stage is for classification of malignant or benign in detected abnormal objects. A series of spatial, morphology and texture features have been extracted on detected objects areas. By using genetic algorithm (GA), different feature groups for different stage classification have been investigated. Computerized free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses have been employed in different classification stages. Results have shown that obvious performance improvement in both sensitivity and specificity was observed through proposed classification approach compared with conventional two-class classification approaches, indicating its effectiveness in classification of breast cancer on mammograms.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis: detection and localization of prostate cancer within the peripheral zone.

    PubMed

    Rampun, Andrik; Chen, Zhili; Malcolm, Paul; Tiddeman, Bernie; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2016-05-01

    We propose a methodology for prostate cancer detection and localization within the peripheral zone based on combining multiple segmentation techniques. We extract four image features using Gaussian and median filters. Subsequently, we use each image feature separately to generate binary segmentations. Finally, we take the intersection of all four binary segmentations, incorporating a model of the peripheral zone, and perform erosion to remove small false-positive regions. The initial evaluation of this method is based on 275 MRI images from 37 patients, and 86% of the slices were classified correctly with 87% and 86% sensitivity and specificity achieved, respectively. This paper makes two contributions: firstly, a novel computer-aided diagnosis approach, which is based on combining multiple segmentation techniques using only a small number of simple image features, and secondly, the development of the proposed method and its application in prostate cancer detection and localization using a single MRI modality with the results comparable with the state-of-the-art multimodality and advanced computer vision methods in the literature. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A public image database to support research in computer aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Reeves, A P; Biancardi, A M; Yankelevitz, D; Fotin, S; Keller, B M; Jirapatnakul, A; Lee, J

    2009-01-01

    The Public Lung Database to address drug response (PLD) has been developed to support research in computer aided diagnosis (CAD). Originally established for applications involving the characterization of pulmonary nodules, the PLD has been augmented to provide initial datasets for CAD research of other diseases. In general, the best performance for a CAD system is achieved when it is trained with a large amount of well documented data. Such training databases are very expensive to create and their lack of general availability limits the targets that can be considered for CAD applications and hampers development of the CAD field. The approach taken with the PLD has been to make available small datasets together with both manual and automated documentation. Furthermore, datasets with special properties are provided either to span the range of task complexity or to provide small change repeat images for direct calibration and evaluation of CAD systems. This resource offers a starting point for other research groups wishing to pursue CAD research in new directions. It also provides an on-line reference for better defining the issues relating to specific CAD tasks.

  19. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Different Rotator Cuff Lesions Using Shoulder Musculoskeletal Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ruey-Feng; Lee, Chung-Chien; Lo, Chung-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The lifetime prevalence of shoulder pain approaches 70%, which is mostly attributable to rotator cuff lesions such as inflammation, calcific tendinitis and tears. On clinical examination, shoulder ultrasound is recommended for the detection of lesions. However, there exists inter-operator variability in diagnostic accuracy because of differences in the experience and expertise of operators. In this study, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system was developed to assist ultrasound operators in diagnosing rotator cuff lesions and to improve the practicality of ultrasound examination. The collected cases included 43 cases of inflammation, 30 cases of calcific tendinitis and 26 tears. For each case, the lesion area and texture features were extracted from the entire lesions and combined in a multinomial logistic regression classifier for lesion classification. The proposed CAD achieved an accuracy of 87.9%. The individual accuracy of this CAD system was 88.4% for inflammation, 83.3% for calcific tendinitis and 92.3% for tears. Cohen's k was 0.798. On the basis of its diagnostic performance, clinical use of this CAD technique has promise.

  20. Impact of lesion segmentation metrics on computer-aided diagnosis/detection in breast computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsien-Chi; Giger, Maryellen L.; Reiser, Ingrid; Drukker, Karen; Boone, John M.; Lindfors, Karen K.; Yang, Kai; Edwards, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Evaluation of segmentation algorithms usually involves comparisons of segmentations to gold-standard delineations without regard to the ultimate medical decision-making task. We compare two segmentation evaluations methods—a Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) evaluation and a diagnostic classification task–based evaluation method using lesions from breast computed tomography. In our investigation, we use results from two previously developed lesion-segmentation algorithms [a global active contour model (GAC) and a global with local aspects active contour model]. Although similar DSC values were obtained (0.80 versus 0.77), we show that the global + local active contour (GLAC) model, as compared with the GAC model, is able to yield significantly improved classification performance in terms of area under the receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curve in the task of distinguishing malignant from benign lesions. [Area under the ROC curve (AUC)=0.78 compared to 0.63, p≪0.001]. This is mainly because the GLAC model yields better detailed information required in the calculation of morphological features. Based on our findings, we conclude that the DSC metric alone is not sufficient for evaluating segmentation lesions in computer-aided diagnosis tasks. PMID:26158052

  1. Comparison between computer-aided diagnosis and radiologists: assessment of pulmonary blood flow on chest radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kido, S; Arisawa, J; Kuriyama, K; Kuroda, C; Nakamura, H

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for estimating increased pulmonary blood flow on chest radiographs, we compared computerized assessment with findings by radiologists. Our CAD scheme extracts selectively linear opacities corresponding to vessels in regions of interest (ROIs) in the right upper and lower lung zones on digitized chest radiographs, and then calculates a radiographic index as a physical measure that reflects the area of the extracted opacities in selected ROIs. As a measure of increased pulmonary blood flow, the upper/lower radiographic index ratio was calculated for each patient. Seven radiologists estimated the degree of increased pulmonary blood flow for the same images of ROI sets presented on a cathode-ray tube monitor in a randomized order. Between the normal-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) group and increased-PCWP groups, there was no significant difference in performance between CAD and radiologists (p = 0.105). However, when the normal and mild PCWP groups were compared, the performance of CAD was superior to that of radiologists (p = 0.001). This study indicates that our CAD scheme is promising for quantitative estimation of increased pulmonary blood flow, especially in mild cases.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis with optical tomography, Part 1: feature extraction

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K.; Netz, Uwe J.; Blaschke, Sabine; Müller, Gerhard A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. This is the first part of a two-part paper on the application of computer-aided diagnosis to diffuse optical tomography (DOT). An approach for extracting heuristic features from DOT images and a method for using these features to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are presented. Feature extraction is the focus of Part 1, while the utility of five classification algorithms is evaluated in Part 2. The framework is validated on a set of 219 DOT images of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. Overall, 594 features are extracted from the absorption and scattering images of each joint. Three major findings are deduced. First, DOT images of subjects with RA are statistically different (p<0.05) from images of subjects without RA for over 90% of the features investigated. Second, DOT images of subjects with RA that do not have detectable effusion, erosion, or synovitis (as determined by MRI and ultrasound) are statistically indistinguishable from DOT images of subjects with RA that do exhibit effusion, erosion, or synovitis. Thus, this subset of subjects may be diagnosed with RA from DOT images while they would go undetected by reviews of MRI or ultrasound images. Third, scattering coefficient images yield better one-dimensional classifiers. A total of three features yield a Youden index greater than 0.8. These findings suggest that DOT may be capable of distinguishing between PIP joints that are healthy and those affected by RA with or without effusion, erosion, or synovitis. PMID:23856915

  3. Computer-aided texture analysis combined with experts' knowledge: Improving endoscopic celiac disease diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gadermayr, Michael; Kogler, Hubert; Karla, Maximilian; Merhof, Dorit; Uhl, Andreas; Vécsei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    AIM To further improve the endoscopic detection of intestinal mucosa alterations due to celiac disease (CD). METHODS We assessed a hybrid approach based on the integration of expert knowledge into the computer-based classification pipeline. A total of 2835 endoscopic images from the duodenum were recorded in 290 children using the modified immersion technique (MIT). These children underwent routine upper endoscopy for suspected CD or non-celiac upper abdominal symptoms between August 2008 and December 2014. Blinded to the clinical data and biopsy results, three medical experts visually classified each image as normal mucosa (Marsh-0) or villous atrophy (Marsh-3). The experts’ decisions were further integrated into state-of-the-art texture recognition systems. Using the biopsy results as the reference standard, the classification accuracies of this hybrid approach were compared to the experts’ diagnoses in 27 different settings. RESULTS Compared to the experts’ diagnoses, in 24 of 27 classification settings (consisting of three imaging modalities, three endoscopists and three classification approaches), the best overall classification accuracies were obtained with the new hybrid approach. In 17 of 24 classification settings, the improvements achieved with the hybrid approach were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Using the hybrid approach classification accuracies between 94% and 100% were obtained. Whereas the improvements are only moderate in the case of the most experienced expert, the results of the less experienced expert could be improved significantly in 17 out of 18 classification settings. Furthermore, the lowest classification accuracy, based on the combination of one database and one specific expert, could be improved from 80% to 95% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION The overall classification performance of medical experts, especially less experienced experts, can be boosted significantly by integrating expert knowledge into computer-aided diagnosis

  4. Ultrasound based computer-aided-diagnosis of kidneys for pediatric hydronephrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Peters, Craig A.; Martin, Aaron D.; Myers, Emmarie; Safdar, Nabile; Linguraru, Marius G.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound is the mainstay of imaging for pediatric hydronephrosis, though its potential as diagnostic tool is limited by its subjective assessment, and lack of correlation with renal function. Therefore, all cases showing signs of hydronephrosis undergo further invasive studies, like diuretic renogram, in order to assess the actual renal function. Under the hypothesis that renal morphology is correlated with renal function, a new ultrasound based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for pediatric hydronephrosis is presented. From 2D ultrasound, a novel set of morphological features of the renal collecting systems and the parenchyma, is automatically extracted using image analysis techniques. From the original set of features, including size, geometric and curvature descriptors, a subset of ten features are selected as predictive variables, combining a feature selection technique and area under the curve filtering. Using the washout half time (T1/2) as indicative of renal obstruction, two groups are defined. Those cases whose T1/2 is above 30 minutes are considered to be severe, while the rest would be in the safety zone, where diuretic renography could be avoided. Two different classification techniques are evaluated (logistic regression, and support vector machines). Adjusting the probability decision thresholds to operate at the point of maximum sensitivity, i.e., preventing any severe case be misclassified, specificities of 53%, and 75% are achieved, for the logistic regression and the support vector machine classifier, respectively. The proposed CAD system allows to establish a link between non-invasive non-ionizing imaging techniques and renal function, limiting the need for invasive and ionizing diuretic renography.

  5. [Esophageal pathology in patients with the AIDS virus. Etiology and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Varsky, C G; Yahni, V D; Freire, M C; Patrizio, E; Balbo, V; Benetucci, J; Boffi, A; Mattoni, R A; Luis; Alicia, M

    1991-01-01

    From 180 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and followed-up for one year, 17 cases (9.44%) were referred to detect oesophageal pathology. They were prospectively analyzed through fibroscopy, radiology, biopsies for histopathology, virology and mycology and brush cytology. Most frequent symptoms were dysphagia. Odynophagia and retrosternal pain, usually associated, and not providing an accurate diagnostic clue. The most common causes of symptoms were oesophageal candidiasis (47.70%), and herpetic ulcers (23.52%) caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Reflux pathology was also found (11.76%). Cytomegalovirus, other opportunistic infections and tumors were not detected. Seven (64%) of the eleven patients with oesophageal candidiasis also had oral involvement. Four (66%) of six oesophageal ulcers were herpetic; two of them (50%) showed oral ulcers too, and one (25%) had perioral herpetic blisters. Almost in every case endoscopic features allowed diagnosis. Endoscopy in candidiasis showed isolated or confluent white plaques of variable grade. Herpetic ulcers, alone or multiple, were deep with slightly elevated borders. Radiology yielded a poor diagnostic profit (50%), specially in case of multiple lesions. Cytology was highly specific and sensitive (both 90.9%) and suggested viral etiology in 100% of HSV patients. Histopathology was less sensitive than endoscopy and cytology (73% in candida and one HSV non-ulcer case). Both, cytology and histopathology showed koilocytosis in herpetic virus infected patients. The studies performed allowed to change the HIV disease stage in ten patients (62.5%) and to diagnose AIDS in seven (43.75%). In every case medical behavior was oriented or changed by these studies.

  6. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis in computer-aided diagnosis: the effect of finite sample size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Petrick, Nicholas; Wagner, Robert F.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.

    1999-05-01

    In computer-aided diagnosis, a frequently-used approach is to first extract several potentially useful features from a data set. Effective features are then selected from this feature space, and a classifier is designed using the selected features. In this study, we investigated the effect of finite sample size on classifier accuracy when classifier design involves feature selection. The feature selection and classifier coefficient estimation stages of classifier design were implemented using stepwise feature selection and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis, respectively. The two classes used in our simulation study were assumed to have multidimensional Gaussian distributions, with a large number of features available for feature selection. We investigated the effect of different covariance matrices and means for the two classes on feature selection performance, and compared two strategies for sample space partitioning for classifier design and testing. Our results indicated that the resubstitution estimate was always optimistically biased, except in cases where too few features were selected by the stepwise procedure. When feature selection was performed using only the design samples, the hold-out estimate was always pessimistically biased. When feature selection was performed using the entire finite sample space, and the data was subsequently partitioned into design and test groups, the hold-out estimates could be pessimistically or optimistically biased, depending on the number of features available for selection, number of available samples, and their statistical distribution. All hold-out estimates exhibited a pessimistic bias when the parameters of the simulation were obtained from texture features extracted from mammograms in a previous study.

  7. Computer-aided texture analysis combined with experts' knowledge: Improving endoscopic celiac disease diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gadermayr, Michael; Kogler, Hubert; Karla, Maximilian; Merhof, Dorit; Uhl, Andreas; Vécsei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    AIM To further improve the endoscopic detection of intestinal mucosa alterations due to celiac disease (CD). METHODS We assessed a hybrid approach based on the integration of expert knowledge into the computer-based classification pipeline. A total of 2835 endoscopic images from the duodenum were recorded in 290 children using the modified immersion technique (MIT). These children underwent routine upper endoscopy for suspected CD or non-celiac upper abdominal symptoms between August 2008 and December 2014. Blinded to the clinical data and biopsy results, three medical experts visually classified each image as normal mucosa (Marsh-0) or villous atrophy (Marsh-3). The experts’ decisions were further integrated into state-of-the-art texture recognition systems. Using the biopsy results as the reference standard, the classification accuracies of this hybrid approach were compared to the experts’ diagnoses in 27 different settings. RESULTS Compared to the experts’ diagnoses, in 24 of 27 classification settings (consisting of three imaging modalities, three endoscopists and three classification approaches), the best overall classification accuracies were obtained with the new hybrid approach. In 17 of 24 classification settings, the improvements achieved with the hybrid approach were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Using the hybrid approach classification accuracies between 94% and 100% were obtained. Whereas the improvements are only moderate in the case of the most experienced expert, the results of the less experienced expert could be improved significantly in 17 out of 18 classification settings. Furthermore, the lowest classification accuracy, based on the combination of one database and one specific expert, could be improved from 80% to 95% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION The overall classification performance of medical experts, especially less experienced experts, can be boosted significantly by integrating expert knowledge into computer-aided diagnosis

  8. Study on computer-aided diagnosis of hepatic MR imaging and mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuejun

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that the liver is an organ easily attacked by diseases. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for helping radiologists to differentiate hepatic diseases more efficiently. Our software named LIVERANN integrated the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with different pulse sequences to classify the five categories of hepatic diseases by using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The intensity and homogeneity within the region of interest (ROI) delineated by a radiologist were automatically calculated to obtain numerical data by the program for input signals to the ANN. Outputs were the five pathological categories of hepatic diseases (hepatic cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplasia in cirrhosis, cavernous hemangioma, and metastasis). The experiment demonstrated a testing accuracy of 93% from 80 patients. In order to differentiate the cirrhosis from normal liver, the volume ratio of left to whole (LTW) was proposed to quantify the degree of cirrhosis by three-dimensional (3D) volume analysis. The liver region was firstly extracted from computed tomography (CT) or MR slices based on edge detection algorithms, and then separated into left lobe and right lobe by the hepatic umbilical fissure. The volume ratio of these two parts showed that the LTW ratio in the liver was significantly improved in the differentiation performance, with (25.6%{+-}4.3%) in cirrhosis versus the normal liver (16.4%{+-}5.4%). In addition, the application of the ANN method for detecting clustered microcalcifications in masses on mammograms was described here as well. A new structural ANN, so-called a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN), was integrated with our triple-ring filter (TRF) method in our CAD system. As the result, the sensitivity of detecting clusters was improved from 90% by our previous TRF method to 95% by using both SIANN and TRF.

  9. Assessment of the relationship between lesion segmentation accuracy and computer-aided diagnosis scheme performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Pu, Jiantao; Park, Sang Cheol; Zuley, Margarita; Gur, David

    2008-03-01

    In this study we randomly select 250 malignant and 250 benign mass regions as a training dataset. The boundary contours of these regions were manually identified and marked. Twelve image features were computed for each region. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained as a classifier. To select a specific testing dataset, we applied a topographic multi-layer region growth algorithm to detect boundary contours of 1,903 mass regions in an initial pool of testing regions. All processed regions are sorted based on a size difference ratio between manual and automated segmentation. We selected a testing dataset involving 250 malignant and 250 benign mass regions with larger size difference ratios. Using the area under ROC curve (A Z value) as performance index we investigated the relationship between the accuracy of mass segmentation and the performance of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme. CAD performance degrades as the size difference ratio increases. Then, we developed and tested a hybrid region growth algorithm that combined the topographic region growth with an active contour approach. In this hybrid algorithm, the boundary contour detected by the topographic region growth is used as the initial contour of the active contour algorithm. The algorithm iteratively searches for the optimal region boundaries. A CAD likelihood score of the growth region being a true-positive mass is computed in each iteration. The region growth is automatically terminated once the first maximum CAD score is reached. This hybrid region growth algorithm reduces the size difference ratios between two areas segmented automatically and manually to less than +/-15% for all testing regions and the testing A Z value increases to from 0.63 to 0.90. The results indicate that CAD performance heavily depends on the accuracy of mass segmentation. In order to achieve robust CAD performance, reducing lesion segmentation error is important.

  10. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  11. Improving the Accuracy of CT Colonography Interpretation: Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Computer-aided polyp detection aims to improve the accuracy of the colonography interpretation. The computer searches the colonic wall to look for polyp-like protrusions and presents a list of suspicious areas to a physician for further analysis. Computer-aided polyp detection has developed rapidly over the past decade and in the laboratory setting and has sensitivities comparable to those of experts. Computer-aided polyp detection tends to help inexperienced readers more than experienced ones and may also lead to small reductions in specificity. In its currently proposed use as an adjunct to standard image interpretation, computer-aided polyp detection serves as a spellchecker rather than an efficiency enhancer. PMID:20451814

  12. Multi-modality computer-aided diagnosis system for axillary lymph node (ALN) staging: segmentation of ALN on ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbash Meinel, Lina; Bergtholdt, Martin; Abe, Hiroyuki; Huo, D.; Buelow, Thomas; Carlsen, Ingwer; Newstead, Gillian

    2009-02-01

    Our goal was to develop and evaluate a reliable segmentation method to delineate axillary lymph node (ALN) from surrounding tissues on US images as the first step of building a multi-modality CADx system for staging ALN. Ultrasound images of 24 ALN from 18 breast cancer patients were used. An elliptical model algorithm was used to fit ALNs boundaries using the following steps: reduce image noise, extract image edges using the Canny edge detector, select edge pixels and fit an ellipse by minimizing the quadratic error, Find the best fitting ellipse based on RANSAC. The segmentation was qualitatively evaluated by 3 expert readers using 4 aspects: Orientation of long axis (OLA): within +- 45 degrees, or off by +-45 degrees, overlap (OV): the fitted ellipse completely included ALN, partially included ALN, or missed the ALN, size (SZ): too small, good within 20% error margin, or too large, and aspect ratio (AR): correct or wrong. Nightly six % of ALNs were correctly evaluated by all readers in terms of OLA and AR, 90.2% in terms of OV and 86.11 in terms of SZ. Readers agreed that the segmentation was correct in 70% of the cases in all aspects. Due to small sample size and small variation among readers, we don't have power to show the accuracy of them is different.

  13. A hybrid fuzzy-neural system for computer-aided diagnosis of ultrasound kidney images using prominent features.

    PubMed

    Bommanna Raja, K; Madheswaran, M; Thyagarajah, K

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and implement a computer-aided decision support system for an automated diagnosis and classification of ultrasound kidney images. The proposed method distinguishes three kidney categories namely normal, medical renal diseases and cortical cyst. For the each pre-processed ultrasound kidney image, 36 features are extracted. Two types of decision support systems, optimized multi-layer back propagation network and hybrid fuzzy-neural system have been developed with these features for classifying the kidney categories. The performance of the hybrid fuzzy-neural system is compared with the optimized multi-layer back propagation network in terms of classification efficiency, training and testing time. The results obtained show that fuzzy-neural system provides higher classification efficiency with minimum training and testing time. It has also been found that instead of using all 36 features, ranking the features enhance classification efficiency. The outputs of the decision support systems are validated with medical expert to measure the actual efficiency. The overall discriminating capability of the systems is accessed with performance evaluation measure, f-score. It has been observed that the performance of fuzzy-neural system is superior compared to optimized multi-layer back propagation network. Such hybrid fuzzy-neural system with feature extraction algorithms and pre-processing scheme helps in developing computer-aided diagnosis system for ultrasound kidney images and can be used as a secondary observer in clinical decision making.

  14. Correlative morphologic and functional imaging for diagnosis, staging and follow up in AIDS: an overview.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, A; Soricelli, A; Rotondo, A; Alfano, B; Raman, R; Celentano, L; Di Chiro, G; Salvatore, M

    1995-09-01

    The immunocompromised patient can be affected by different opportunistic infections and tumors, that can involve all organ systems, and particularly, the central nervous system, the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract. The extreme variability of AIDS presentations requires a specific preparation and cooperation between the different diagnostic imaging specialists and a close collaboration with the clinicians. With AIDS, different morphologic and functional imaging techniques can be used for detection of disease sites, assessment of the extent of the disease and monitoring of disease changes over time and response to treatment. The complexity of AIDS presentations is such that full integration of the complementary information obtained with different techniques could be most useful. Image registration (coregistration, fusion) indicates approaches where precise spatial cross-references are obtained, in order to combine the information acquired with different imaging modalities, in particular by blending morphologic CT/MRI data with functional SPET/PET data. In this paper, an overview of the developments in the field of "image fusion" follows some comments on the results of morphologic and functional assessment of brain, chest and abdominal diseases in the course of AIDS, as illustrative examples of the potential benefits of multimodality image correlation.

  15. Computer aided diagnosis for osteoporosis based on vertebral column structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Eiji; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Harada, Masafumi; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-03-01

    Patients of osteoporosis are comprised of about 11 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems that have gained society. For preventing the osteoporosis, obtaining early detection and treatment are necessary. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving for three dimensional (3D) image analysis, higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. 3D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used for supporting diagnosis of osteoporosis. Simultaneously, this analysis can be used for lung cancer diagnosis which may lead to early detection. We develop automatic extraction and partitioning algorithm for spinal column by analyzing vertebral body structure, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. An effective result was provided for the case including an insufficient complicated vertebral body bone fracture by the conventional method.

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis for osteoporosis using chest 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, K.; Matsuhiro, M.; Suzuki, H.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2016-03-01

    The patients of osteoporosis comprised of about 13 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems the aging society has. In order to prevent the osteoporosis, it is necessary to do early detection and treatment. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving the three dimensional (3-D) image analysis with higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. The 3-D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used as a support to diagnose osteoporosis and at the same time can be used for lung cancer diagnosis which may lead to early detection. We develop automatic extraction and partitioning algorithm for spinal column by analyzing vertebral body structure, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis diagnosis support system obtained high extraction rate of the thoracic vertebral in both normal and low doses.

  17. Iterative method for automatic detection of masses in digital mammograms for computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Victor G.; Gamo, Daniel M.; Rios, Juan; Vilarrasa, Amparo

    1999-05-01

    An iterative algorithm has been developed for automatic detection of breast masses from digitalized mammograms. The procedure has been divided in two stages. The first one based on the histogram analysis of the input image. The second one employs a topological analysis from the results obtained in the first stage. The final output is a set of interest regions that are defined as suspicious areas by the system. These suspicious regions should be harder studied in order to present a final diagnosis. The developed system may be used together with any other suspicious area diagnosis algorithms. In this way a computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) program to assist radiologists in his mammography interpretation task could be easy developed.

  18. Fungal Malignant Otitis Externa with Facial Nerve Palsy: Tissue Biopsy Aids Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Fungal malignant otitis externa (FMOE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that is challenging to manage. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the low sensitivity of aural swabs and many antifungal drugs have significant side effects. We present a case of FMOE, where formal tissue sampling revealed the diagnosis and the patient was successfully treated with voriconazole, in addition to an up to date review of the current literature. We would recommend tissue biopsy of the external auditory canal in all patients with suspected FMOE in addition to routine microbiology swabs. PMID:24649388

  19. Utility of Functional Hemodynamics and Echocardiography to Aid Diagnosis and Management of Shock.

    PubMed

    McGee, William T; Raghunathan, Karthik; Adler, Adam C

    2015-12-01

    The utility of functional hemodynamics and bedside ultrasonography is increasingly recognized as advantageous for both improved diagnosis and management of shock states. In contrast to conventional "static" measures, "dynamic" hemodynamic measures and bedside imaging modalities enhance pathophysiology-based comprehensive understanding of shock states and the response to therapy. The current editions of major textbooks in the primary specialties--in which clinicians routinely encounter patients in shock--including surgery, anesthesia, emergency medicine, and internal medicine continue to incorporate traditional (conventional) descriptions of shock that use well-described (but potentially misleading) intravascular pressures to classify shock states. Reliance on such intravascular pressure measurements is not as helpful as newer "dynamic" functional measures including ultrasonography to both better assess volume responsiveness and biventricular cardiac function. This review thus emphasizes the application of current functional hemodynamics and ultrasonography to the diagnosis and management of shock as a contrast to conventional "static" pressure-based measures.

  20. SeDeLo: using semantics and description logics to support aided clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Labra-Gayo, Jose Emilio; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Mayer, Miguel A; Gómez-Berbís, Juan Miguel; García-Crespo, Angel

    2012-08-01

    Automated medical diagnosis systems based on knowledge-oriented descriptions have gained momentum with the emergence of semantic descriptions. The objective of this paper is to propose a normalized design that solves some of the problems which have been detected by authors in previous tools. The authors bring together two different technologies to develop a new clinical decision support system: description logics aimed at developing inference systems to improve decision support for the prevention, treatment and management of illness and semantic technologies. Because of its new design, the system is capable of obtaining improved diagnostics compared with previous efforts. However, this evaluation is more focused in the computational performance, giving as result that description logics is a good solution with small data sets. In this paper, we provide a well-structured ontology for automated diagnosis in the medical field and a three-fold formalization based on Description Logics with the use of Semantic Web technologies.

  1. Laser Doppler flowmetry: an aid in differential diagnosis of apical radiolucencies.

    PubMed

    Chandler, N P; Love, R M; Sundqvist, G

    1999-05-01

    The case of a patient having 2 teeth with associated apical radiolucencies that responded to conventional pulp tests is presented. A decision was made to reexamine the patient at intervals rather than perform root canal treatment. During a recall visit, use of an available laser Doppler flowmeter allowed detection of blood flow within the affected teeth. A diagnosis of periapical cemental dysplasia (cementoma) was made. PMID:10348523

  2. Infantile granular parakeratosis: cytologic examination of superficial scrapings as an aid to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, A Deniz; Oram, Yasemin; Aydın, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Granular parakeratosis (GP) is a benign disorder of keratinization presenting with unilateral or bilateral red to brown hyperkeratotic plaques and papules at the intertriginous areas. The first pediatric case of GP was reported in 2002, and only a few cases have been reported since. Although the exact etiology of GP is unknown, it is thought that certain environmental factors compromise the epidermal barrier and lead to proliferation and altered maturation of the epidermis in predisposed individuals. The histopathology is diagnostic and reveals parakeratosis together with retention of keratohyalin granules within a disproportionately thickened stratum corneum and usually the preservation of stratum granulosum. Herein we report seven cases of infantile GP, six of which also had atopic dermatitis. Cytologic examination confirmed our clinical diagnosis by demonstrating the retention of keratohyalin granules and preservation of the nuclei from the superficial scrapings of the lesions, which we propose as a novel diagnostic technique. In all seven cases the lesions developed after the overuse of topical products and resolved with avoidance of their excessive use. We propose that atopic skin may be more prone to develop GP because the epidermal barrier is disrupted, resulting in the enhanced transepidermal penetration of topical products. In conclusion, GP should be included in the differential diagnosis of diaper area eruptions, especially in atopic children. Cytologic examination of superficial scrapings of the lesions can easily confirm the diagnosis of GP. PMID:25660113

  3. Computer-aided differential diagnosis in movement disorders using MRI morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, S.; Roland, Y.; Verin, M.; Barillot, C.

    2007-03-01

    Background: Reported error rates for initial clinical diagnosis in parkinsonian disorders can reach up to 35%. Reducing this initial error rate is an important research goal. The objective of this work is to evaluate the ability of an automated MR-based classification technique in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple systems atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Methods: A total of 172 subjects were included in this study: 152 healthy subjects, 10 probable PD patients and 10 age-matched patients with diagnostic of either probable MSA or PSP. T1-weighted (T1w) MR images were acquired and subsequently corrected, scaled, resampled and aligned within a common referential space. Tissue transformation and deformation features were then automatically extracted. Classification of patients was performed using forward, stepwise linear discriminant analysis within a multidimensional transformation/deformation feature space built from healthy subjects data. Leave-one-out classification was used to avoid over-determination. Findings: There were no age difference between groups. Highest accuracy (agreement with long-term clinical follow-up) of 85% was achieved using a single MR-based deformation feature. Interpretation: These preliminary results demonstrate that a classification approach based on quantitative parameters of 3D brainstem morphology extracted automatically from T1w MRI has the potential to perform differential diagnosis of PD versus MSA/PSP with high accuracy.

  4. Study of Aided Diagnosis of Hepatic Carcinoma Based on Artificial Neural Network Combined with Tumor Marker Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Shanjuan; Feng, Feifei; Wu, Yongjun; Wu, Yiming

    To develop a computer-aided diagnostic scheme by using an artificial neural network (ANN) combined with tumor markers for diagnosis of hepatic carcinoma (HCC) as a clinical assistant method. 140 serum samples (50 malignant, 40 benign and 50 normal) were analyzed for α-fetoprotein (AFP), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), sialic acid (SA) and calcium (Ca). The five tumor marker values were then used as ANN inputs data. The result of ANN was compared with that of discriminant analysis by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of ANN and discriminant analysis among all samples of the test group was 95.5% and 79.3%, respectively. Analysis of multiple tumor markers based on ANN may be a better choice than the traditional statistical methods for differentiating HCC from benign or normal.

  5. Fourier-based shape feature extraction technique for computer-aided B-Mode ultrasound diagnosis of breast tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Chang, Chu-Ho; Park, Jinman; Park, Moonho; Woo, Kyoung-Gu; Ko, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of breast tumor is critical in determining the best possible treatment approach. Due to its superiority compared with mammography in its possibility to detect lesions in dense breast tissue, ultrasound imaging has become an important modality in breast tumor detection and classification. This paper discusses the novel Fourier-based shape feature extraction techniques that provide enhanced classification accuracy for breast tumor in the computer-aided B-mode ultrasound diagnosis system. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments were performed using 4,107 ultrasound images with 2,508 malignancy cases. Experimental results show that the breast tumor classification accuracy of the proposed technique was 15.8%, 5.43%, 17.32%, and 13.86% higher than the previous shape features such as number of protuberances, number of depressions, lobulation index, and dissimilarity, respectively. PMID:23367430

  6. Fourier-based shape feature extraction technique for computer-aided B-Mode ultrasound diagnosis of breast tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Chang, Chu-Ho; Park, Jinman; Park, Moonho; Woo, Kyoung-Gu; Ko, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of breast tumor is critical in determining the best possible treatment approach. Due to its superiority compared with mammography in its possibility to detect lesions in dense breast tissue, ultrasound imaging has become an important modality in breast tumor detection and classification. This paper discusses the novel Fourier-based shape feature extraction techniques that provide enhanced classification accuracy for breast tumor in the computer-aided B-mode ultrasound diagnosis system. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experiments were performed using 4,107 ultrasound images with 2,508 malignancy cases. Experimental results show that the breast tumor classification accuracy of the proposed technique was 15.8%, 5.43%, 17.32%, and 13.86% higher than the previous shape features such as number of protuberances, number of depressions, lobulation index, and dissimilarity, respectively.

  7. Pattern classification of time plane features of ECG wave from cell-phone photography for machine aided cardiac disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Rupendra Nath; Pramanik, Sayak; Mitra, Sucharita; Chaudhuri, Bidyut B

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a robust technique for extracting time plane features of Electrocardiogram (ECG) from digital images of ECG paper strips. We concluded this article reporting performance evaluation of the system developed for machine aided cardiac disease detection. Mostly paper based ECG recordings are used in developing countries and digital photographs of different leads could easily be taken and sent with a mediocre cellular phone set. Apart from extracting the features, the proposed system detects cardiac axis deviation and diagnose if Left or Right Bundle Branch Blockage (LBBB or RBBB) is present while fed with the digital photographs of different leads of ECG strips. Preprocessing of the low-resolution images involves background grid line noise removal, adaptive image binarization by Sauvola's method and Bresenham's line joining algorithm to link the ECG signature, if broken. Pattern extraction mainly delineate the time plane features like P wave, QRS complex and T wave using water reservoir based pattern recognition techniques and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Cardiac axis deviation detection is done by checking the overall voltage levels of QRS complexes of lead I, II and III. Having the knowledge of cardiac axis completes the requirements to comment on the cardiac blockage like Left or Right Bundle Branch Blockage (LBBB or RBBB). Thus, the proposed algorithm is primarily developed for machine aided diagnosis of LBBB or RBBB from the digital photographs of ECG paper strips. PMID:25571067

  8. A hybrid feature-based segmentation and classification system for the computer aided self-diagnosis of otitis media.

    PubMed

    Shie, Chuen-Kai; Chang, Hao-Ting; Fan, Fu-Cheng; Chen, Chung-Jung; Fang, Te-Yung; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid otitis media (OM) computer aided detection (CAD) system, designed to aid in the self-diagnosis of various forms of OM. OM is a prevalent disease in both children and adults. Our system is able to differentiate normal ear from acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and the multi-categories of chronic otitis media including perforation, retraction, cholesteatoma, etc. We propose a modified double active contour segmentation method designed for use with otoscope images, and enabled to handle user acquired data. To describe the visual symptoms (e.g., red, bulging, effusion, perforation, retraction, etc.) of otitis media accurately, we extract color, geometric and texture features by grid color moment, Gabor filter, local binary pattern and histogram of oriented gradients. A powerful classification structure based on Adaboost is used to select the most useful features and build a strong classifier. Our system achieves classification accuracy as high as 88.06% and is suitable for real use. In addition, some interesting observations about OM otoscope images are also discussed.

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  10. Computer aided diagnosis of degenerative intervertebral disc diseases from lumbar MR images.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Ayse Betul; Albayrak, Nur Banu; Akgul, Yusuf Sinan

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the automated diagnosis of the degenerative intervertebral disc disease in midsagittal MR images. The approach is based on combining distinct disc features under a machine learning framework. The discs in the lumbar MR images are first localized and segmented. Then, intensity, shape, context, and texture features of the discs are extracted with various techniques. A Support Vector Machine classifier is applied to classify the discs as normal or degenerated. The method is tested and validated on a clinical lumbar spine dataset containing 102 subjects and the results are comparable to the state of the art.

  11. Computer aided diagnosis system for retinal analysis: automatic assessment of the vascular tortuosity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, L; Barreira, N; Penedo, M G; Coll De Tuero, G

    2014-01-01

    The tortuosity of a vessel, that is, how many times a vessel curves, and how these turns are, is an important value for the diagnosis of certain diseases. Clinicians analyze fundus images manually in order to estimate it, but there is many drawbacks as it is a tedious, time-consuming and subjective work. Thus, automatic image processing methods become a necessity, as they make possible the efficient computation of objective parameters. In this paper we will discuss Sirius (System for the Integration of Retinal Images Understanding Service), a web-based application that enables the storage and treatment of various types of diagnostic tests and, more specifically, its tortuosity calculation module.

  12. Utility and effectiveness of computer-aided diagnosis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Kyle D; Dykstra, Bradley A; Gakenheimer, David C; Scheetz, James P; Lacina, Stephani; Scarfe, William C; Farman, Allan G

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography has created a growing opportunity for computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) tools. The Logicon Caries Detector (LCD), with upgraded CAD software based on user feedback, was re-evaluated for its effectiveness via a retrospective clinical study. Using the upgraded LCD software, 12 dentists (evaluators) blindly assessed 17 radiographs taken by another (attending) dentist, who restored 28 proximal surfaces. The attending dentist confirmed the presence of early dentinal caries, as well as identifying 48 surfaces as caries-free or with enamel caries only subject to noninvasive treatment. The radiographs, imported into the software using a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) reader, were visually assessed under typical operatory lighting conditions, then with the aid of the software's density analysis tool. The effectiveness of the evaluators was gauged by calculating two measures of performance, sensitivity and specificity, for the detection and classification of dentinal caries. Sensitivity among all evaluator dentists was 30% with the initial image; 34% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 39% when the image was sharpened; and 69% when the density analysis tool was utilized. Specificity was found to be 97% with the initial image; 95% with the brightness and contrast adjusted image; 93% with the sharpened image; and 94% when the density analysis tool was used. Compared to the unaided eye, the LCD can significantly improve dentists' ability to detect and classify caries. Dentists may be able to find twice as much early dentinal caries requiring restoration (or at least aggressive noninvasive treatment) than previously, while not unnecessarily restoring additional healthy teeth. The LCD enables dentists to obtain more information from dental digital radiography than is possible with the unaided eye, leading to improved patient care.

  13. Cell sizing in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: an aid to differential diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, H D; Markey, G M; Nolan, R L; Morris, T C

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine if leucocyte volume distribution analysis (LVDA), obtained using a Coulter Counter Model S Plus IV, can be used to aid differentiation of chronic lymphoproliferative disorder (CLPD) subtypes. METHODS: Mean lymphocyte volume and lymphocyte distribution width were measured on each patient (n = 90) using a hard copy of an amplified LVDA histogram. The mean lymphocyte volume was taken as the mean of the values on either side of the peak at half maximum height. The lymphocyte distribution width was taken as the range of cell values between the two values used to calibrate the mean lymphocyte volume. A template showing typical histograms from commonly occurring CLPD was also produced on an acetate sheet. This was used to examine the histogram from each new patient to evaluate its usefulness as an alternative to the calculation of mean lymphocyte volume and lymphocyte distribution width. RESULTS: Mean lymphocyte volume and lymphocyte distribution width were significantly higher in B cell lymphocytic leukaemia of mixed cell type (B CLL/PL), B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with peripheral blood spill, hairy cell leukaemia and T cell prolymphocytic leukaemia than in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B CLL). The mean lymphocyte volume, but not the lymphocyte distribution width, was also significantly higher in T cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia than in B CLL. The template gave an immediate preliminary indication of possible subtype(s) of disorder and could be used as an alternative to measurement of mean lymphocyte volume and lymphocyte distribution width. CONCLUSIONS: Electronic haematology analysers producing an LVDA provide a useful, cost effective cell sizing analysis which can aid the differentiation of subtypes of CLPD. Images PMID:1430257

  14. Fuzzy Computer-Aided Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis Based on MRI Data.

    PubMed

    Krashenyi, Igor; Ramírez, Javier; Popov, Anton; Górriz, Juan Manuel; The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that has no cure and leads to death. One of the most prevalent tools for AD diagnosis is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because of its capability to visualize brain anatomical structures. There is a variety of classification methods for automatic diagnosis of AD, such as support vector machines, genetic algorithms, Bayes classifiers, neural networks, random forests, etc., but none of them provides robust information about the stage of the AD, they can just reveal the presence of disease. In this paper, a new approach for classification of MRI images using a fuzzy inference system is proposed. Two statistical moments (mean and standard deviation) of 116 anatomical regions of interests (ROIs) are used as input features for the classification system. A t-test feature selection method is used to identify the most discriminative ROIs. In order to evaluate the proposed system, MRI images from a database consisting of 818 subjects (229 normal, 401 mild cognitive impairment and 188 AD subjects) collected from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) is analyzed. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) of the proposed fuzzy inference system fed by statistical input features are employed as the evaluation criteria with k-fold cross validation. The proposed system yields promising results in normal vs. AD classification with AUC of 0.99 on the training set and 0.8622±0.0033 on the testing set. PMID:26971942

  15. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Micro-Malignant Melanoma Lesions Applying Support Vector Machines.

    PubMed

    Jaworek-Korjakowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the fatal disorders causing death is malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The aim of the modern dermatology is the early detection of skin cancer, which usually results in reducing the mortality rate and less extensive treatment. This paper presents a study on classification of melanoma in the early stage of development using SVMs as a useful technique for data classification. Method. In this paper an automatic algorithm for the classification of melanomas in their early stage, with a diameter under 5 mm, has been presented. The system contains the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, feature calculation and selection, and classification stage using SVMs. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 200 images including 70 melanomas and 130 benign lesions. The SVM classifier achieved sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 96%. The results indicate that the proposed approach captured most of the malignant cases and could provide reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Conclusions. Micro-melanomas due to the small size and low advancement of development create enormous difficulties during the diagnosis even for experts. The use of advanced equipment and sophisticated computer systems can help in the early diagnosis of skin lesions. PMID:27382567

  16. Computer-aided design of peptide near infrared fluorescent probe for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congying; Gu, Yueqing

    2014-09-01

    Integrin αvβ3 receptors are expressed on activated endothelial cells during neovascularization to maintain tumor growth, so they become hot research tagets in cancer diagnosis. Peptides possess several attractive features when compared to protein and small molecule, such as small size and high structural compatibility with target proteins. Efficient design of high-affinity peptide ligands to Integrin αvβ3 receptors has been an important problem. Designed peptides in silico provide a valuable and high-selectivity peptide, meanwhile decrease the time of drug screening. In this study, we design peptide which can bind with integrin αvβ3 via computer, and then synthesis near infrared fluorescent probe. The characterization of this near infrared fluorescent probe was detected by UV. To investigate the tumor cell targeting of this probe, it was labeled with visible fluorescent dye Rhodamine B (RhB) for microscopy. To evaluate the targeting capability of this near infrared fluorescent probe, mice bearing integrin αvβ3 positive tumor xenografts were used. In vitro cellular experiments indicated that this probe have a clear binding affinity to αvβ3-positive tumor cells. In vivo experiments confirmed the receptor binding specificity of this probe. The peptide of computational design can bind with integrin αvβ3. Combined peptide near-infrared fluorescent probe with imaging technology use for clinical and tumor diagnosis have a greater development in future.

  17. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Micro-Malignant Melanoma Lesions Applying Support Vector Machines

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the fatal disorders causing death is malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The aim of the modern dermatology is the early detection of skin cancer, which usually results in reducing the mortality rate and less extensive treatment. This paper presents a study on classification of melanoma in the early stage of development using SVMs as a useful technique for data classification. Method. In this paper an automatic algorithm for the classification of melanomas in their early stage, with a diameter under 5 mm, has been presented. The system contains the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, feature calculation and selection, and classification stage using SVMs. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 200 images including 70 melanomas and 130 benign lesions. The SVM classifier achieved sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 96%. The results indicate that the proposed approach captured most of the malignant cases and could provide reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Conclusions. Micro-melanomas due to the small size and low advancement of development create enormous difficulties during the diagnosis even for experts. The use of advanced equipment and sophisticated computer systems can help in the early diagnosis of skin lesions. PMID:27382567

  18. New genomic technologies: an aid for diagnosis of disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Barseghyan, H; Délot, E; Vilain, E

    2015-05-01

    The Chicago Consensus Conference of 2005 defined Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) as "congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex is atypical." DSD diagnoses are difficult to establish. A lack of standardization of anatomical and endocrine phenotyping and the limited number of known DSD genes and genotype/correlation has long hampered the field, leaving many patients without a definitive diagnosis. The resulting uncertainty may intrinsically pose a great amount of discomfort to affected individuals and their families. DSD-causative genes have historically been identified thanks to positional cloning of disease-associated variants segregating in families or chromosomal rearrangements. Recent advances of chromosomal microarray and exome sequencing technologies are allowing for higher rates of diagnostic success for DSD patients and are changing clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the application of these technologies and their findings as an upcoming model for clinical diagnosis of DSD. We show that exome sequencing is a valuable tool and we propose that it should be used as a first-stage diagnostic technique because it allows for early identification of a genetic cause that may be critical for patient management.

  19. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  20. Standardized evaluation of algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of dementia based on structural MRI: the CADDementia challenge.

    PubMed

    Bron, Esther E; Smits, Marion; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Vrenken, Hugo; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; Papma, Janne M; Steketee, Rebecca M E; Méndez Orellana, Carolina; Meijboom, Rozanna; Pinto, Madalena; Meireles, Joana R; Garrett, Carolina; Bastos-Leite, António J; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Ronneberger, Olaf; Amoroso, Nicola; Bellotti, Roberto; Cárdenas-Peña, David; Álvarez-Meza, Andrés M; Dolph, Chester V; Iftekharuddin, Khan M; Eskildsen, Simon F; Coupé, Pierrick; Fonov, Vladimir S; Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Ledig, Christian; Guerrero, Ricardo; Tong, Tong; Gray, Katherine R; Moradi, Elaheh; Tohka, Jussi; Routier, Alexandre; Durrleman, Stanley; Sarica, Alessia; Di Fatta, Giuseppe; Sensi, Francesco; Chincarini, Andrea; Smith, Garry M; Stoyanov, Zhivko V; Sørensen, Lauge; Nielsen, Mads; Tangaro, Sabina; Inglese, Paolo; Wachinger, Christian; Reuter, Martin; van Swieten, John C; Niessen, Wiro J; Klein, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of dementia based on structural MRI have demonstrated high performance in the literature, but are difficult to compare as different data sets and methodology were used for evaluation. In addition, it is unclear how the algorithms would perform on previously unseen data, and thus, how they would perform in clinical practice when there is no real opportunity to adapt the algorithm to the data at hand. To address these comparability, generalizability and clinical applicability issues, we organized a grand challenge that aimed to objectively compare algorithms based on a clinically representative multi-center data set. Using clinical practice as the starting point, the goal was to reproduce the clinical diagnosis. Therefore, we evaluated algorithms for multi-class classification of three diagnostic groups: patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The diagnosis based on clinical criteria was used as reference standard, as it was the best available reference despite its known limitations. For evaluation, a previously unseen test set was used consisting of 354 T1-weighted MRI scans with the diagnoses blinded. Fifteen research teams participated with a total of 29 algorithms. The algorithms were trained on a small training set (n=30) and optionally on data from other sources (e.g., the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle flagship study of aging). The best performing algorithm yielded an accuracy of 63.0% and an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) of 78.8%. In general, the best performances were achieved using feature extraction based on voxel-based morphometry or a combination of features that included volume, cortical thickness, shape and intensity. The challenge is open for new submissions via the web-based framework: http://caddementia.grand-challenge.org.

  1. A novel supervised approach for segmentation of lung parenchyma from chest CT for computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Darmanayagam, Shiloah Elizabeth; Harichandran, Khanna Nehemiah; Cyril, Sunil Retmin Raj; Arputharaj, Kannan

    2013-06-01

    Segmentation of lung parenchyma from the chest computed tomography is an important task in analysis of chest computed tomography for diagnosis of lung disorders. It is a challenging task especially in the presence of peripherally placed pathology bearing regions. In this work, we propose a segmentation approach to segment lung parenchyma from chest. The first step is to segment the lungs using iterative thresholding followed by morphological operations. If the two lungs are not separated, the lung junction and its neighborhood are identified and local thresholding is applied. The second step is to extract shape features of the two lungs. The third step is to use a multilayer feed forward neural network to determine if the segmented lung parenchyma is complete, based on the extracted features. The final step is to reconstruct the two lungs in case of incomplete segmentation, by exploiting the fact that in majority of the cases, at least one of the two lungs would have been segmented correctly by the first step. Hence, the complete lung is determined based on the shape and region properties and the incomplete lung is reconstructed by applying graphical methods, namely, reflection and translation. The proposed approach has been tested in a computer-aided diagnosis system for diagnosis of lung disorders, namely, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, and pneumonia. An accuracy of 97.37 % has been achieved by the proposed approach whereas the conventional thresholding approach was unable to detect peripheral pathology-bearing regions. The results obtained prove to be better than that achieved using conventional thresholding and morphological operations. PMID:23076539

  2. Visualizing request-flow comparison to aid performance diagnosis in distributed systems.

    PubMed

    Sambasivan, Raja R; Shafer, Ilari; Mazurek, Michelle L; Ganger, Gregory R

    2013-12-01

    Distributed systems are complex to develop and administer, and performance problem diagnosis is particularly challenging. When performance degrades, the problem might be in any of the system's many components or could be a result of poor interactions among them. Recent research efforts have created tools that automatically localize the problem to a small number of potential culprits, but research is needed to understand what visualization techniques work best for helping distributed systems developers understand and explore their results. This paper compares the relative merits of three well-known visualization approaches (side-by-side, diff, and animation) in the context of presenting the results of one proven automated localization technique called request-flow comparison. Via a 26-person user study, which included real distributed systems developers, we identify the unique benefits that each approach provides for different problem types and usage modes. PMID:24051813

  3. Computer-aided differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules based on a hybrid classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Omatsu, Hironobu; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Mori, Kiyoshi; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2001-07-01

    We are developing computerized feature extraction and classification methods to analyze malignant and benign pulmonary nodules in 3D thoracic CT images. Internal structure features were derived form CT density and 3D curvatures to characterize the inhomogeneous of CT density distribution inside the nodule. In the classification step, we combined an unsupervised k-means clustering (KMC) procedure and a supervised linear discriminate (LD) classifier. The KMC procedure classified the sample nodules into two classes by using the mean CT density values for two different regions such as a core region and a complement of the core region in 3D nodule image. The LD classifier was designed for each class by using internal structure features. The forward stepwise procedure was used to select the best feature subset from multi-dimensional feature spaces. The discriminant scores output form the classifier were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method and the classification accuracy was quantified by the area, Ax, under the ROC curve. We analyzed a data set of 248 pulmonary nodules in this study. The hybrid classifier was more effective than the LD classifier alone in distinguishing malignant and benign nodules. The improvement was statistically significant in comparison to classification in the LD classifier alone. The results of this study indicate the potential of combining the KMC procedure and the LD classifier for computer-aided classification of pulmonary nodules.

  4. Towards the routine use of brain imaging to aid the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M R; Davis, M H; Rodd, J M; Robson, T; Ali, A; Owen, A M; Pickard, J D

    2009-09-01

    Clinical audits have highlighted the many challenges and dilemmas faced by clinicians assessing persons with disorders of consciousness (vegetative state and minimally conscious state). The diagnostic decision-making process is highly subjective, dependent upon the skills of the examiner and invariably dictated by the patients' ability to move or speak. Whilst a considerable amount has been learnt since Jennett and Plum coined the term 'vegetative state', the assessment process remains largely unchanged; conducted at the bedside, using behavioural assessment tools, which are susceptible to environmental and physiological factors. This has created a situation where the rate of misdiagnosis is unacceptably high (up to 43%). In order to address these problems, various functional brain imaging paradigms, which do not rely upon the patient's ability to move or speak, have been proposed as a source of additional information to inform the diagnostic decision making process. Although accumulated evidence from brain imaging, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has been encouraging, the empirical evidence is still based on relatively small numbers of patients. It remains unclear whether brain imaging is capable of informing the diagnosis beyond the behavioural assessment and whether brain imaging has any prognostic utility. In this study, we describe the functional brain imaging findings from a group of 41 patients with disorders of consciousness, who undertook a hierarchical speech processing task. We found, contrary to the clinical impression of a specialist team using behavioural assessment tools, that two patients referred to the study with a diagnosis of vegetative state did in fact demonstrate neural correlates of speech comprehension when assessed using functional brain imaging. These fMRI findings were found to have no association with the patient's behavioural presentation at the time of investigation and thus provided additional diagnostic

  5. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  6. Image-based retrieval system and computer-aided diagnosis system for renal cortical scintigraphy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumcuoğlu, Erkan; Nar, Fatih; Uğur, Omer; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Aslan, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    Cortical renal (kidney) scintigraphy images are 2D images (256x256) acquired in three projection angles (posterior, right-posterior-oblique and left-posterior-oblique). These images are used by nuclear medicine specialists to examine the functional morphology of kidney parenchyma. The main visual features examined in reading the images are: size, location, shape and activity distribution (pixel intensity distribution within the boundary of each kidney). Among the above features, activity distribution (in finding scars if any) was found to have the least interobserver reproducibility. Therefore, in this study, we developed an image-based retrieval (IBR) and a computer-based diagnosis (CAD) system, focused on this feature in particular. The developed IBR and CAD algorithms start with automatic segmentation, boundary and landmark detection. Then, shape and activity distribution features are computed. Activity distribution feature is obtained using the acquired image and image set statistics of the normal patients. Active Shape Model (ASM) technique is used for more accurate kidney segmentation. In the training step of ASM, normal patient images are used. Retrieval performance is evaluated by calculating precision and recall. CAD performance is evaluated by specificity and sensitivity. To our knowledge, this paper is the first IBR or CAD system reported in the literature on renal cortical scintigraphy images.

  7. Computer-aided clinical laboratory diagnosis in conjunction with the electronic medical textbook.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, F; Kondoh, M; Mori, C; Endoh, J; Takahashi, T

    1995-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION. Medical knowledge has been increasing and diversifying on a worldwide scale, while the specialization of physicians has been extended vigorously. Under this environment, it may be natural that mistakes are made in a comprehensive diagnosis, as the physician cannot master all of this dramatically increasing volume of knowledge. The knowledge has extended beyond the memory of human beings, thereby causing the deterioration of service; this is called the "Knowledge crisis." To tackle this problem, the Electronic Medical Textbook (EMT) has been conceived and set up as a medical knowledge base for physicians to optimize both their specialties and activities in clinical practice. Meanwhile, laboratory information systems were widely introduced. However, there are few systems which allow interpretation of the findings obtained. With this in mind, we have improved the utility of the EMT by enhancing its function with laboratory information follow-up, thesaurus back-up, Japanese language support, and online access. 2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION. The knowledge database for medical decision-making consists of three categories: 1) Medical domain knowledge (including approximately 3500 diseases) from the AMA's "The Current Medical Information & Terminology (CMIT)"; 2) Knowledge on relationship between laboratory testing results and diseases from "The Effects of Disease on Clinical Laboratory," compiled by the AACC; and 3) Clinical testing knowledge from Otsuka's laboratory test handbook "Kensa-Kojien." These categories are connected by links in the process of cross-reference. In actual use, the first is to select the supporting system bringing up clinical signs and findings on CRT from which users can then choose any representations corresponding to the patient's clinical state. Once the relevant objects have been selected, the system presents the correlated investigative tests to be performed, along with a scope of laboratory tests ordering for its initial

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis for prostate cancer detection in the peripheral zone via multisequence MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaf, Emilie; Rouvière, Olivier; Lartizien, Carole

    2011-03-01

    We propose a Computer Assisted Diagnosis Interview (CADi) scheme for determining a likelihood measure of prostate cancer presence in the peripheral zone (PZ) based on multisequence magnetic resonance imaging, including T2-weighted (T2w), diffusion-weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 1.5 Tesla (T). Based on a feature set derived from the gray level images, including first order statistics, Haralick's features, gradient features, semi-quantitative and quantitative (pharmacokinetic modeling) dynamic parameters, we trained and compared four kinds of classifiers: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), k-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) and Naïve Bayes (NB). The aim is twofold: we try to discriminate between the relevant features as well as creating an efficient classifier using these features. The database consists of 23 radical prostatectomy patients. Using histologic sections as the gold standard, both cancers and non-malignant tissues (suspicious and clearly benign) were annotated in consensus on all MR images by two radiologists, a histopathologist and a researcher. Diagnostic performances were evaluated based on a ROC curves analysis. From the outputs of all evaluated feature selection methods on the test bench, we discriminated a restrictive set of about 20 highly informative features. Quantitative evaluation of the diagnostic performance yielded to a maximal Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.89. Moreover, the optimal CADi scheme outperformed, in terms of specificity, our human experts in differentiating malignant from suspicious tissues, thus demonstrating its potential for assisting cancer identification in the PZ.

  9. Computed tomography--a possible aid in the diagnosis of smoke inhalation injury?

    PubMed

    Reske, A; Bak, Z; Samuelsson, A; Morales, O; Seiwerts, M; Sjöberg, F

    2005-02-01

    Inhalation injury is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in burn victims and can trigger acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (1-3). Early diagnosis and treatment of inhalation injury are important, but a major problem in planning treatment and evaluating the prognosis has been the lack of consensus about diagnostic criteria (4). Chest radiographs on admission are often non-specific (5, 6), but indicators include indoor fires, facial burns, bronchoscopic findings of soot in the airways, and detection of carbon monoxide or cyanide in the blood (7). Changes in the lungs may be detected by bronchoscopy with biopsy, xenon imaging, or measurement of pulmonary extracellular fluid (4, 5, 8). These methods have, however, been associated with low sensitivity and specificity, as exemplified by the 50% predictive value in the study of Masanes et al. (8). Computed tomographs (CTs) are better than normal chest radiographs in the detection of other pulmonary lesions such as pulmonary contusion (9, 10). The importance of CT scans in patients with ARDS has been reviewed recently (9), but unfortunately there has been no experience of CT in patients with smoke inhalation injury. To our knowledge, there are only two animal studies reporting that smoke inhalation injury can be detected by CT (4, 11); specific changes in human CT scans have not yet been described. Therefore, confronted with a patient with severe respiratory failure after a burn who from the history and physical examination showed the classic risk factors for inhalation injury, we decided to request a CT. PMID:15715631

  10. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Scheme for Distinguishing Between Benign and Malignant Masses in Breast DCE-MRI.

    PubMed

    Honda, Emi; Nakayama, Ryohei; Koyama, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Akiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Our purpose in this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for distinguishing between benign and malignant breast masses in dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Our database consisted 90 DCE-MRI examinations, each of which contained four sequential phase images; this database included 28 benign masses and 62 malignant masses. In our CAD scheme, we first determined 11 objective features of masses by taking into account the image features and the dynamic changes in signal intensity that experienced radiologists commonly use for describing masses in DCE-MRI. Quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) was employed to distinguish between benign and malignant masses. As the input of the QDA, a combination of four objective features was determined among the 11 objective features according to a stepwise method. These objective features were as follows: (i) the change in signal intensity from 2 to 5 min; (ii) the change in signal intensity from 0 to 2 min; (iii) the irregularity of the shape; and (iv) the smoothness of the margin. Using this approach, the classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were shown to be 85.6 % (77 of 90), 87.1 % (54 of 62), and 82.1 % (23 of 28), respectively. Furthermore, the positive and negative predictive values were 91.5 % (54 of 59) and 74.2 % (23 of 31), respectively. Our CAD scheme therefore exhibits high classification accuracy and is useful in the differential diagnosis of masses in DCE-MRI images.

  11. Mortality of the elderly is still exceedingly high at diagnosis of AIDS despite favourable outcomes after highly active antiretroviral therapy in Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, H R; Kitner, D

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the outcome of an elderly group of AIDS patients with that of a younger group and their features at the time of the diagnosis of AIDS. We evaluated 58 patients aged >60 years and 114 aged 20-39 years, followed for 35.3 months. There was an obvious delay in diagnosing the elderly as they had more AIDS-defining diseases at diagnosis and their most frequent opportunistic infection was pulmonary tuberculosis. Mortality at the time of the diagnosis of AIDS was four times higher in the elderly (24.1% versus 6.1%, P < 0.001). However, when comparing only those submitted to highly active antiretroviral therapy, there was a similar frequency of favourable outcomes; 76.9% in the elderly against 83.1% in the young (P = 0.455). Mean CD4 lymphocyte was 438 cells/mm(3) at the end of follow up in the young when compared with 442 cells/mm(3) in the elderly (P = 0.945). The types of antiretroviral schema and the number of antivirals per patient were similar in both groups.

  12. Computerized nipple identification for multiple image analysis in computer-aided diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Chuan; Chan Heangping; Paramagul, Chintana; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Labomir M.; Petrick, Nicholas

    2004-10-01

    Correlation of information from multiple-view mammograms (e.g., MLO and CC views, bilateral views, or current and prior mammograms) can improve the performance of breast cancer diagnosis by radiologists or by computer. The nipple is a reliable and stable landmark on mammograms for the registration of multiple mammograms. However, accurate identification of nipple location on mammograms is challenging because of the variations in image quality and in the nipple projections, resulting in some nipples being nearly invisible on the mammograms. In this study, we developed a computerized method to automatically identify the nipple location on digitized mammograms. First, the breast boundary was obtained using a gradient-based boundary tracking algorithm, and then the gray level profiles along the inside and outside of the boundary were identified. A geometric convergence analysis was used to limit the nipple search to a region of the breast boundary. A two-stage nipple detection method was developed to identify the nipple location using the gray level information around the nipple, the geometric characteristics of nipple shapes, and the texture features of glandular tissue or ducts which converge toward the nipple. At the first stage, a rule-based method was designed to identify the nipple location by detecting significant changes of intensity along the gray level profiles inside and outside the breast boundary and the changes in the boundary direction. At the second stage, a texture orientation-field analysis was developed to estimate the nipple location based on the convergence of the texture pattern of glandular tissue or ducts towards the nipple. The nipple location was finally determined from the detected nipple candidates by a rule-based confidence analysis. In this study, 377 and 367 randomly selected digitized mammograms were used for training and testing the nipple detection algorithm, respectively. Two experienced radiologists identified the nipple locations

  13. Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Ultrasound Using Computerized BI-RADS Features and Machine Learning Methods.

    PubMed

    Shan, Juan; Alam, S Kaisar; Garra, Brian; Zhang, Yingtao; Ahmed, Tahira

    2016-04-01

    This work identifies effective computable features from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for breast ultrasound. Computerized features corresponding to ultrasound BI-RADs categories were designed and tested using a database of 283 pathology-proven benign and malignant lesions. Features were selected based on classification performance using a "bottom-up" approach for different machine learning methods, including decision tree, artificial neural network, random forest and support vector machine. Using 10-fold cross-validation on the database of 283 cases, the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.84 from a support vector machine with 77.7% overall accuracy; the highest overall accuracy, 78.5%, was from a random forest with the AUC 0.83. Lesion margin and orientation were optimum features common to all of the different machine learning methods. These features can be used in CAD systems to help distinguish benign from worrisome lesions.

  14. A 3D computer-aided design system applied to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, N; Kuroda, T

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a newly developed 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system for the diagnostic set-up of casts in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system comprises a measuring unit which obtains 3D information from the dental model using laser scanning, and a personal computer to generate the 3D graphics. When measuring the 3D shape of the model, to minimize blind sectors, the model is scanned from two different directions with the slit-ray laser beam by rotating the mounting angle of the model on the measuring device. For computed simulation of tooth movement, the representative planes, defined by the anatomical reference points, are formed for each individual tooth and are arranged along a guideline descriptive of the individual arch form. Subsequently, the 3D shape is imparted to each of the teeth arranged on the representative plane to form an arrangement of the 3D profile. When necessary, orthognathic surgery can be simulated by moving the mandibular dental arch three-dimensionally to establish the optimum occlusal relationship. Compared with hand-made set-up models, the computed diagnostic cast has advantages such as high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation on the amount of 3D movement of the individual tooth relative to the craniofacial plane. Trial clinical applications demonstrated that the use of this system facilitated the otherwise complicated and time-consuming mock surgery for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis of carotid atherosclerosis based on ultrasound image statistics, laws' texture and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Mougiakakou, Stavroula G R; Golemati, Spyretta; Gousias, Ioannis; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative characterisation of carotid atherosclerosis and classification into symptomatic or asymptomatic is crucial in planning optimal treatment of atheromatous plaque. The computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system described in this paper can analyse ultrasound (US) images of carotid artery and classify them into symptomatic or asymptomatic based on their echogenicity characteristics. The CAD system consists of three modules: a) the feature extraction module, where first-order statistical (FOS) features and Laws' texture energy can be estimated, b) the dimensionality reduction module, where the number of features can be reduced using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and c) the classifier module consisting of a neural network (NN) trained by a novel hybrid method based on genetic algorithms (GAs) along with the back propagation algorithm. The hybrid method is able to select the most robust features, to adjust automatically the NN architecture and to optimise the classification performance. The performance is measured by the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The CAD design and development is based on images from 54 symptomatic and 54 asymptomatic plaques. This study demonstrates the ability of a CAD system based on US image analysis and a hybrid trained NN to identify atheromatous plaques at high risk of stroke.

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of plus disease via measurement of vessel thickness in retinal fundus images of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Oloumi, Faraz; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M; Casti, Paola; Ells, Anna L

    2015-11-01

    Changes in the characteristics of retinal vessels such as width and tortuosity can be signs of the presence of several diseases such retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and diabetic retinopathy. Plus disease is an indicator of ROP which requires treatment and is signified by an increase in posterior venular width. In this work, we present image processing techniques for the detection, segmentation, tracking, and measurement of the width of the major temporal arcade (MTA), which is the thickest venular branch in the retina. Several image processing techniques have been employed, including the use of Gabor filters to detect the MTA, morphological image processing to obtain its skeleton, Canny's method to detect and select MTA vessel-edge candidates, least-squares fitting to interpolate the MTA edges, and geometrical procedures to measure the width of the MTA. The results, obtained using 110 retinal fundus images of preterm infants, indicate a statistically highly significant difference in MTA width of normal cases as compared to cases with plus disease (p<0.01). The results provide good accuracy in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of plus disease with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76. The proposed methods may be used in CAD of plus disease and timely treatment of ROP in a clinical or teleophthalmological setting.

  18. Incorporating texture features in a computer-aided breast lesion diagnosis system for automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We investigated the benefits of incorporating texture features into an existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying benign and malignant lesions in automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. The existing system takes into account 11 different features, describing different lesion properties; however, it does not include texture features. In this work, we expand the system by including texture features based on local binary patterns, gray level co-occurrence matrices, and Gabor filters computed from each lesion to be diagnosed. To deal with the resulting large number of features, we proposed a combination of feature-oriented classifiers combining each group of texture features into a single likelihood, resulting in three additional features used for the final classification. The classification was performed using support vector machine classifiers, and the evaluation was done with 10-fold cross validation on a dataset containing 424 lesions (239 benign and 185 malignant lesions). We compared the classification performance of the CAD system with and without texture features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.90 to 0.91 after adding texture features (p<0.001). PMID:26158036

  19. Symmetry-based detection and diagnosis of DCIS in breast MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikantha, Abhilash; Harz, Markus T.; Newstead, Gillian; Wang, Lei; Platel, Bram; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Mann, Ritse M.; Hahn, Horst K.; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2013-02-01

    The delineation and diagnosis of non-mass-like lesions, most notably DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ), is among the most challenging tasks in breast MRI reading. Even for human observers, DCIS is not always easy to diferentiate from patterns of active parenchymal enhancement or from benign alterations of breast tissue. In this light, it is no surprise that CADe/CADx approaches often completely fail to classify DCIS. Of the several approaches that have tried to devise such computer aid, none achieve performances similar to mass detection and classification in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In our contribution, we show a novel approach to combine a newly proposed metric of anatomical breast symmetry calculated on subtraction images of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast MRI, descriptive kinetic parameters, and lesion candidate morphology to achieve performances comparable to computer-aided methods used for masses. We have based the development of the method on DCE MRI data of 18 DCIS cases with hand-annotated lesions, complemented by DCE-MRI data of nine normal cases. We propose a novel metric to quantify the symmetry of contralateral breasts and derive a strong indicator for potentially malignant changes from this metric. Also, we propose a novel metric for the orientation of a finding towards a fix point (the nipple). Our combined scheme then achieves a sensitivity of 89% with a specificity of 78%, matching CAD results for breast MRI on masses. The processing pipeline is intended to run on a CAD server, hence we designed all processing to be automated and free of per-case parameters. We expect that the detection results of our proposed non-mass aimed algorithm will complement other CAD algorithms, or ideally be joined with them in a voting scheme.

  20. A structural-functional MRI-based disease atlas: application to computer-aided-diagnosis of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, G.; Bloch, B.; Chappelow, J.; Genega, E.; Rofsky, N.; Lenkinski, R.; Madabhushi, A.

    2010-03-01

    Different imaging modalities or protocols of a single patient may convey different types of information regarding a disease for the same anatomical organ/tissue. On the other hand, multi-modal/multi-protocol medical images from several different patients can also provide spatial statistics of the disease occurrence, which in turn can greatly aid in disease diagnosis and aid in improved, accurate biopsy and targeted treatment. It is therefore important to not only integrate medical images from multiple patients into a common coordinate frame (in the form of a population-based atlas), but also find the correlation between these multi-modal/multi-protocol data features and the disease spatial distribution in order to identify different quantitative structural and functional disease signatures. Most previous work on construction of anatomical atlases has focused on deriving a population-based atlas for the purpose of deriving the spatial statistics. Moreover, these models are typically derived from normal or healthy subjects, either explicitly or implicitly, where it is assumed that the inter-patient pathological variation is not large. These methods are not suitable for constructing a disease atlas, where significant differences between patients on account of disease related variations can be expected. In this paper, we present a novel framework for the construction of a multi-parametric MRI-based data-driven disease atlas consisting of multi-modal and multi-protocol data from across multiple patient studies. Our disease atlas contains 3 Tesla structural (T2) and functional (dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)) prostate in vivo MRI with corresponding whole mount histology specimens obtained via radical prostatectomy. Our atlas construction framework comprises 3 distinct modules: (a) determination of disease spatial extent on the multi-protocol MR imagery for each patient, (b) construction of a multi-protocol MR imaging spatial atlas which captures the geographical

  1. A similarity study between the query mass and retrieved masses using decision tree content-based image retrieval (DTCBIR) CADx system for characterization of ultrasound breast mass images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun-Chong; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Helvie, Mark; Paramagul, Chintana; Nees, Alexis V.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing a Decision Tree Content-Based Image Retrieval (DTCBIR) CADx scheme to assist radiologists in characterization of breast masses on ultrasound (US) images. Three DTCBIR configurations, including decision tree with boosting (DTb), decision tree with full leaf features (DTL), and decision tree with selected leaf features (DTLs) were compared. For DTb, the features of a query mass were combined first into a merged feature score and then masses with similar scores were retrieved. For DTL and DTLs, similar masses were retrieved based on the Euclidean distance between the feature vector of the query and those of the selected references. For each DTCBIR configuration, we investigated the use of the full feature set and the subset of features selected by the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and simplex optimization method, resulting in six retrieval methods. Among the six methods, we selected five, DTb-lda, DTL-lda, DTb-full, DTL-full and DTLs-full, for the observer study. For a query mass, three most similar masses were retrieved with each method and were presented to the radiologists in random order. Three MQSA radiologists rated the similarity between the query mass and the computer-retrieved masses using a ninepoint similarity scale (1=very dissimilar, 9=very similar). For DTb-lda, DTL-lda, DTb-full, DTL-full and DTLs-full, the average Az values were 0.90+/-0.03, 0.85+/-0.04, 0.87+/-0.04, 0.79+/-0.05 and 0.71+/-0.06, respectively, and the average similarity ratings were 5.00, 5.41, 4.96, 5.33 and 5.13, respectively. Although the DTb measures had the best classification performance among the DTCBIRs studied, and DTLs had the worst performance, DTLs-full obtained higher similarity ratings than the DTb measures.

  2. Measurement of myocardial perfusion and infarction size using computer-aided diagnosis system for myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo-Qing; Xue, Jing-Yi; Guo, Yanhui; Chen, Shuang; Du, Pei; Wu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Hang; Zong, Li-Qiu; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Proper evaluation of myocardial microvascular perfusion and assessment of infarct size is critical for clinicians. We have developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach for myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to measure myocardial perfusion and infarct size. Rabbits underwent 15 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group I, n = 15) or 60 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group II, n = 15). Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed before and 7 d after ischemia/reperfusion, and images were analyzed with the CAD system on the basis of eliminating particle swarm optimization clustering analysis. The myocardium was quickly and accurately detected using contrast-enhanced images, myocardial perfusion was quantitatively calibrated and a color-coded map calibrated by contrast intensity and automatically produced by the CAD system was used to outline the infarction region. Calibrated contrast intensity was significantly lower in infarct regions than in non-infarct regions, allowing differentiation of abnormal and normal myocardial perfusion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis documented that -54-pixel contrast intensity was an optimal cutoff point for the identification of infarcted myocardium with a sensitivity of 95.45% and specificity of 87.50%. Infarct sizes obtained using myocardial perfusion defect analysis of original contrast images and the contrast intensity-based color-coded map in computerized images were compared with infarct sizes measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Use of the proposed CAD approach provided observers with more information. The infarct sizes obtained with myocardial perfusion defect analysis, the contrast intensity-based color-coded map and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were 23.72 ± 8.41%, 21.77 ± 7.8% and 18.21 ± 4.40% (% left ventricle) respectively (p > 0.05), indicating that computerized myocardial contrast echocardiography can

  3. Design of a high-sensitivity classifier based on a genetic algorithm: application to computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Petrick, Nicholas; Helvie, Mark A.; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.

    1998-10-01

    -9155/43/10/014/img3.gif" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/>, although the latter provided a higher total area under the ROC curve. By setting an appropriate decision threshold, the high-sensitivity classifier and correctly identified 61% and 34% of the benign masses respectively without missing any malignant masses. Our results show that the choice of the feature selection technique is important in computer-aided diagnosis, and that the GA may be a useful tool for designing classifiers for lesion characterization.

  4. Measurement of myocardial perfusion and infarction size using computer-aided diagnosis system for myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo-Qing; Xue, Jing-Yi; Guo, Yanhui; Chen, Shuang; Du, Pei; Wu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Hang; Zong, Li-Qiu; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Proper evaluation of myocardial microvascular perfusion and assessment of infarct size is critical for clinicians. We have developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach for myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to measure myocardial perfusion and infarct size. Rabbits underwent 15 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group I, n = 15) or 60 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group II, n = 15). Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed before and 7 d after ischemia/reperfusion, and images were analyzed with the CAD system on the basis of eliminating particle swarm optimization clustering analysis. The myocardium was quickly and accurately detected using contrast-enhanced images, myocardial perfusion was quantitatively calibrated and a color-coded map calibrated by contrast intensity and automatically produced by the CAD system was used to outline the infarction region. Calibrated contrast intensity was significantly lower in infarct regions than in non-infarct regions, allowing differentiation of abnormal and normal myocardial perfusion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis documented that -54-pixel contrast intensity was an optimal cutoff point for the identification of infarcted myocardium with a sensitivity of 95.45% and specificity of 87.50%. Infarct sizes obtained using myocardial perfusion defect analysis of original contrast images and the contrast intensity-based color-coded map in computerized images were compared with infarct sizes measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Use of the proposed CAD approach provided observers with more information. The infarct sizes obtained with myocardial perfusion defect analysis, the contrast intensity-based color-coded map and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were 23.72 ± 8.41%, 21.77 ± 7.8% and 18.21 ± 4.40% (% left ventricle) respectively (p > 0.05), indicating that computerized myocardial contrast echocardiography can

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary nodules on CT scans: Segmentation and classification using 3D active contours

    PubMed Central

    Way, Ted W.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Bogot, Naama; Zhou, Chuan

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to classify malignant and benign lung nodules found on CT scans. A fully automated system was designed to segment the nodule from its surrounding structured background in a local volume of interest (VOI) and to extract image features for classification. Image segmentation was performed with a three-dimensional (3D) active contour (AC) method. A data set of 96 lung nodules (44 malignant, 52 benign) from 58 patients was used in this study. The 3D AC model is based on two-dimensional AC with the addition of three new energy components to take advantage of 3D information: (1) 3D gradient, which guides the active contour to seek the object surface, (2) 3D curvature, which imposes a smoothness constraint in the z direction, and (3) mask energy, which penalizes contours that grow beyond the pleura or thoracic wall. The search for the best energy weights in the 3D AC model was guided by a simplex optimization method. Morphological and gray-level features were extracted from the segmented nodule. The rubber band straightening transform (RBST) was applied to the shell of voxels surrounding the nodule. Texture features based on run-length statistics were extracted from the RBST image. A linear discriminant analysis classifier with stepwise feature selection was designed using a second simplex optimization to select the most effective features. Leave-one-case-out resampling was used to train and test the CAD system. The system achieved a test area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.83±0.04. Our preliminary results indicate that use of the 3D AC model and the 3D texture features surrounding the nodule is a promising approach to the segmentation and classification of lung nodules with CAD. The segmentation performance of the 3D AC model trained with our data set was evaluated with 23 nodules available in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). The lung nodule volumes segmented by the 3D AC

  6. Computer-aided diagnosis of diagnostically challenging lesions in breast MRI: a comparison between a radiomics and a feature-selective approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Lobbes, Marc; Houben, Ivo; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Wengert, Georg; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Meyer-Baese, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Diagnostically challenging lesions pose a challenge both for the radiological reading and also for current CAD systems. They are not well-defined in both morphology (geometric shape) and kinetics (temporal enhancement) and pose a problem to lesion detection and classification. Their strong phenotypic differences can be visualized by MRI. Radiomics represents a novel approach to achieve a detailed quantification of the tumour phenotypes by analyzing a large number of image descriptors. In this paper, we apply a quantitative radiomics approach based on shape, texture and kinetics tumor features and evaluate it in comparison to a reduced-order feature approach in a computer-aided diagnosis system applied to diagnostically challenging lesions.

  7. Quantitative Analysis Of Lung Texture For Computer-Aided Diagnosis Of Interstitial Disease In Digital Chest Radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Doi, Kunio; MacMahon, Heber

    1988-06-01

    We have employed physical measures of lung texture in an automated method of detecting and characterizing interstitial lung disease in digital chest radiographs. In addition, by using an analysis of these measures relative to an accumulated data base, we have devised an automated classification method for distinguishing between normal lungs and abnormal lungs with interstitial disease. Our results suggest that this computerized method can be a valuable aid to radiologists in their assessment of interstitial lung infiltrates.

  8. Improvement of MS (multiple sclerosis) CAD (computer aided diagnosis) performance using C/C++ and computing engine in the graphical processing unit (GPU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Joohyung; Ma, Kevin; Le, Anh

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease which is caused by damaged myelin around axons of the brain and spinal cord. Currently, MR Imaging is used for diagnosis, but it is very highly variable and time-consuming since the lesion detection and estimation of lesion volume are performed manually. For this reason, we developed a CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis) system which would assist segmentation of MS to facilitate physician's diagnosis. The MS CAD system utilizes K-NN (k-nearest neighbor) algorithm to detect and segment the lesion volume in an area based on the voxel. The prototype MS CAD system was developed under the MATLAB environment. Currently, the MS CAD system consumes a huge amount of time to process data. In this paper we will present the development of a second version of MS CAD system which has been converted into C/C++ in order to take advantage of the GPU (Graphical Processing Unit) which will provide parallel computation. With the realization of C/C++ and utilizing the GPU, we expect to cut running time drastically. The paper investigates the conversion from MATLAB to C/C++ and the utilization of a high-end GPU for parallel computing of data to improve algorithm performance of MS CAD.

  9. Exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient: use of dermoscopy aids early diagnosis and selection of biopsy site

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Chun; Tey, Hong Liang; Lee, Joyce Siong See; Goh, Boon Kee

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of exogenous ochronosis is often challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. Herein, we report a case of exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient. The condition was caused by the use of bleaching agents, including creams containing hydroquinone. We demonstrate the use of dermoscopy as an invaluable tool for the early recognition of the condition, as well as in the selection of an appropriate site for a skin biopsy. PMID:24452981

  10. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Images Based on Level Set Segmentation and ReliefF Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dongmei; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study established a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for the classification of malignant and benign masses via breast magnetic resonance imaging (BMRI). A breast segmentation method consisting of a preprocessing step to identify the air-breast interfacing boundary and curve fitting for chest wall line (CWL) segmentation was included in the proposed CAD system. The Chan-Vese (CV) model level set (LS) segmentation method was adopted to segment breast mass and demonstrated sufficiently good segmentation performance. The support vector machine (SVM) classifier with ReliefF feature selection was used to merge the extracted morphological and texture features into a classification score. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity measurements for the leave-half-case-out resampling method were 92.3%, 98.2%, and 76.2%, respectively. For the leave-one-case-out resampling method, the measurements were 90.0%, 98.7%, and 73.8%, respectively. PMID:25628755

  11. A vector machine formulation with application to the computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer from DCE-MRI screening examinations.

    PubMed

    Levman, Jacob E D; Warner, Ellen; Causer, Petrina; Martel, Anne L

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the use of a proposed vector machine formulation with application to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examinations in the context of the computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper describes a method for generating feature measurements that characterize a lesion's vascular heterogeneity as well as a supervised learning formulation that represents an improvement over the conventional support vector machine in this application. Spatially varying signal-intensity measures were extracted from the examinations using principal components analysis and the machine learning technique known as the support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify the results. An alternative vector machine formulation was found to improve on the results produced by the established SVM in randomized bootstrap validation trials, yielding a receiver-operating characteristic curve area of 0.82 which represents a statistically significant improvement over the SVM technique in this application.

  12. Statistical-techniques-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) using texture feature analysis: application in computed tomography (CT) imaging to fatty liver disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woon-Kwan; Park, Hyong-Hu; Im, In-Chul; Lee, Jae-Seung; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Dong, Kyung-Rae

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on texture feature analysis and statistical wavelet transformation technology to diagnose fatty liver disease with computed tomography (CT) imaging. In the target image, a wavelet transformation was performed for each lesion area to set the region of analysis (ROA, window size: 50 × 50 pixels) and define the texture feature of a pixel. Based on the extracted texture feature values, six parameters (average gray level, average contrast, relative smoothness, skewness, uniformity, and entropy) were determined to calculate the recognition rate for a fatty liver. In addition, a multivariate analysis of the variance (MANOVA) method was used to perform a discriminant analysis to verify the significance of the extracted texture feature values and the recognition rate for a fatty liver. According to the results, each texture feature value was significant for a comparison of the recognition rate for a fatty liver ( p < 0.05). Furthermore, the F-value, which was used as a scale for the difference in recognition rates, was highest in the average gray level, relatively high in the skewness and the entropy, and relatively low in the uniformity, the relative smoothness and the average contrast. The recognition rate for a fatty liver had the same scale as that for the F-value, showing 100% (average gray level) at the maximum and 80% (average contrast) at the minimum. Therefore, the recognition rate is believed to be a useful clinical value for the automatic detection and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) using the texture feature value. Nevertheless, further study on various diseases and singular diseases will be needed in the future.

  13. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiyi; Sun, Jian; Zou, Lili; Shen, Kaini; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhou, Daobin; Sun, Wei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP) method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores) based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group) and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group) were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples. PMID:25984759

  14. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Lili; Shen, Kaini; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhou, Daobin; Sun, Wei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP) method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores) based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group) and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group) were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples. PMID:25984759

  15. Detection by PCR of Toxoplasma gondii in blood in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Lamoril, J; Molina, J M; de Gouvello, A; Garin, Y J; Deybach, J C; Modaï, J; Derouin, F

    1996-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was performed prospectively in the blood of 19 patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis. The B1 gene and TGR1E sequence were used as targets and results were confirmed by hybridisation. Controls consisted of 24 HIV infected patients with tissue culture proven T gondii parasitaemia and 57 HIV infected patients without toxoplasmosis. PCR was positive with both targets in 20 of 24 samples (84%) from patients with parasitaemia. Three of 57 samples (5%) from patients without toxoplasmosis were PCR positive with either target, but none was positive with both targets. Only three of the 19 patients (16%) with cerebral toxoplasmosis had a positive PCR with both targets before the start of specific treatment. PCR performed in blood is of little diagnostic value in cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis but could be useful in patients with disseminated infection. Images PMID:8666697

  16. [The ultrasonic demonstration of gas in the endometrial cavity--an aid for the diagnosis of puerperal endometritis].

    PubMed

    Piek, P C; Fuchs, N; Venter, P F; van der Merwe, C A; Koch, Z

    1989-09-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of gas in the puerperal endometrial cavity and to determine whether this finding has any relationship to the mode of delivery or to the development of puerperal endometritis. On the first day after delivery 192 patients were examinee ultrasonographically and gas was demonstrated in 26 (13.54%). Gas was found significantly more often in relation to caesarean section and intra-uterine manipulation than in normal vaginal deliveries (P less than 0.0001). On the third puerperal day the gas disappeared in 12 patients but persisted in 14, of whom 7 had signs of endometritis. Endometritis was diagnosed in a total of 8 patients and only 1 did not have signs of gas in the endometrial cavity. Although the figures are small it is concluded that ultrasonography of the puerperal uterus might assist in the diagnosis of puerperal endometritis. PMID:2672375

  17. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document.

  18. Validation of a Blood-Based Laboratory Test to Aid in the Confirmation of a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Emanuel; Izmailov, Rauf; Spain, Michael; Barnes, Anthony; Mapes, James P.; Guest, Paul C.; Rahmoune, Hassan; Pietsch, Sandra; Leweke, F. Markus; Rothermundt, Matthias; Steiner, Johann; Koethe, Dagmar; Kranaster, Laura; Ohrmann, Patricia; Suslow, Thomas; Levin, Yishai; Bogerts, Bernhard; van Beveren, Nico (JM); McAllister, George; Weber, Natalya; Niebuhr, David; Cowan, David; Yolken, Robert H.; Bahn, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    We describe the validation of a serum-based test developed by Rules-Based Medicine which can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of schizophrenia. In preliminary studies using multiplex immunoassay profiling technology, we identified a disease signature comprised of 51 analytes which could distinguish schizophrenia (n = 250) from control (n = 230) subjects. In the next stage, these analytes were developed as a refined 51-plex immunoassay panel for validation using a large independent cohort of schizophrenia (n = 577) and control (n = 229) subjects. The resulting test yielded an overall sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 83% with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) of 89%. These 51 immunoassays and the associated decision rule delivered a sensitive and specific prediction for the presence of schizophrenia in patients compared to matched healthy controls. PMID:20520744

  19. New results in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer using a recently developed SVM/GRNN Oracle hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Walker H., Jr.; Wong, Lut; McKee, Daniel W.; Masters, Timothy; Anderson, Frances R.; Raturi, Anurag; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2004-05-01

    Breast cancer is second only to lung cancer as a tumor-related cause of death in women. Currently, the method of choice for the early detection of breast cancer is mammography. While sensitive to the detection of non palpable breast lesions, its positive predictive value (PPV) is low, resulting in biopsies that are only 15%-34% likely to reveal malignancy. This paper explores the use of a recently designed Support Vector Machine (SVM)/Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) Oracle hybrid to classify breast lesions and evaluate the software's performance as an interpretive aid to radiologists. The main objective of the research was to perform an independent analysis, using a new, integrated film screen mammogram data base of approximately 2500 cases from five separate institutions, to verify results obtained previously[14]. This study demonstrated the following: (1) The DE crossover constant has little, if any, effect on measures of performance (MOP). (2) A specificity of approximately 5.6% is achieved at 100% sensitivity, which increases to approximately 36% at 95% sensitivity. (3) PPV increases from 51% to 56% as sensitivity is decreased from 100 to 95%, respectively.

  20. A fully automated multi-modal computer aided diagnosis approach to coronary calcium scoring of MSCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-03-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. However, it can be difficult for a human observer to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the feasibility and requirement for an automated scoring method to reduce the subjectivity and reproducibility error inherent with manual clinical calcium scoring.

  1. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Measuring Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) Using Quaternion Vectors.

    PubMed

    Kutbay, Uğurhan; Hardalaç, Fırat; Akbulut, Mehmet; Akaslan, Ünsal; Serhatlıoğlu, Selami

    2016-06-01

    This study aims investigating adjustable distant fuzzy c-means segmentation on carotid Doppler images, as well as quaternion-based convolution filters and saliency mapping procedures. We developed imaging software that will simplify the measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) on saliency mapping images. Additionally, specialists evaluated the present images and compared them with saliency mapping images. In the present research, we conducted imaging studies of 25 carotid Doppler images obtained by the Department of Cardiology at Fırat University. After implementing fuzzy c-means segmentation and quaternion-based convolution on all Doppler images, we obtained a model that can be analyzed easily by the doctors using a bottom-up saliency model. These methods were applied to 25 carotid Doppler images and then interpreted by specialists. In the present study, we used color-filtering methods to obtain carotid color images. Saliency mapping was performed on the obtained images, and the carotid artery IMT was detected and interpreted on the obtained images from both methods and the raw images are shown in Results. Also these results were investigated by using Mean Square Error (MSE) for the raw IMT images and the method which gives the best performance is the Quaternion Based Saliency Mapping (QBSM). 0,0014 and 0,000191 mm(2) MSEs were obtained for artery lumen diameters and plaque diameters in carotid arteries respectively. We found that computer-based image processing methods used on carotid Doppler could aid doctors' in their decision-making process. We developed software that could ease the process of measuring carotid IMT for cardiologists and help them to evaluate their findings. PMID:27137786

  2. [THE RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT LOAN PROJECT "PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND AIDS", A "TUBERCULOSIS" COMPONENT].

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a Venezuelan HIV⁺-AIDS patient: pathological diagnosis confirmed by PCR using formalin-fixed- and paraffin-embedded-tissues.

    PubMed

    Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Céspedes, Ghislaine; Romero, Sandra; Fuentes, Isabel; Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A; Cañavate, Carmen; Flores-Chávez, María

    2014-01-01

    Coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infectious agents have been recognized since the early 90s. In the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV(+) patients, parasitic protozoans like Toxoplasma gondii have been described as responsible for the space occupying lesions (SOL) developed. However, the involvement of Trypanosoma cruzi is also described but appears to be less frequent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and transplant recipients, associated with necrotizing myocarditis and neurological symptoms related to the occurrence of necrotizing pseudotumoral encephalitis (NPE) and meningoencephalitis (NME). The present work aims to present a Venezuelan case of NME associated with the coinfection of HIV and a T. cruzi-like trypanosomatid as well as its evolution and diagnosis by histopathological techniques, electron microscopy, and PCR methods using formalin-fixed- (FF-) and paraffin-embedded- (PE-) tissues. Postmortem cytological studies of leptomeninges imprints reveal the presence of trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma sp. Histopathological and electron microscopy studies allowed us to identify an amastigote stage and to reject the involvement of other opportunistic microorganisms as the etiological agent of the SOL. The definitive confirmation of T. cruzi as the etiological agent was achieved by PCR suggesting that the NME by T. cruzi was due to a reactivation of Chagas' disease.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Venezuelan HIV+-AIDS Patient: Pathological Diagnosis Confirmed by PCR Using Formalin-Fixed- and Paraffin-Embedded-Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Céspedes, Ghislaine; Romero, Sandra; Fuentes, Isabel; Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A.; Cañavate, Carmen; Flores-Chávez, María

    2014-01-01

    Coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infectious agents have been recognized since the early 90s. In the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV+ patients, parasitic protozoans like Toxoplasma gondii have been described as responsible for the space occupying lesions (SOL) developed. However, the involvement of Trypanosoma cruzi is also described but appears to be less frequent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and transplant recipients, associated with necrotizing myocarditis and neurological symptoms related to the occurrence of necrotizing pseudotumoral encephalitis (NPE) and meningoencephalitis (NME). The present work aims to present a Venezuelan case of NME associated with the coinfection of HIV and a T. cruzi-like trypanosomatid as well as its evolution and diagnosis by histopathological techniques, electron microscopy, and PCR methods using formalin-fixed- (FF-) and paraffin-embedded- (PE-) tissues. Postmortem cytological studies of leptomeninges imprints reveal the presence of trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma sp. Histopathological and electron microscopy studies allowed us to identify an amastigote stage and to reject the involvement of other opportunistic microorganisms as the etiological agent of the SOL. The definitive confirmation of T. cruzi as the etiological agent was achieved by PCR suggesting that the NME by T. cruzi was due to a reactivation of Chagas' disease. PMID:25763312

  5. Black box integration of computer-aided diagnosis into PACS deserves a second chance: results of a usability study concerning bone age assessment.

    PubMed

    Geldermann, Ina; Grouls, Christoph; Kuhl, Christiane; Deserno, Thomas M; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2013-08-01

    Usability aspects of different integration concepts for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) were inquired on the example of BoneXpert, a program determining the skeletal age from a left hand's radiograph. CAD-PACS integration was assessed according to its levels: data, function, presentation, and context integration focusing on usability aspects. A user-based study design was selected. Statements of seven experienced radiologists using two alternative types of integration provided by BoneXpert were acquired and analyzed using a mixed-methods approach based on think-aloud records and a questionnaire. In both variants, the CAD module (BoneXpert) was easily integrated in the workflow, found comprehensible and fitting in the conceptual framework of the radiologists. Weak points of the software integration referred to data and context integration. Surprisingly, visualization of intermediate image processing states (presentation integration) was found less important as compared to efficient handling and fast computation. Seamlessly integrating CAD into the PACS without additional work steps or unnecessary interrupts and without visualizing intermediate images may considerably improve software performance and user acceptance with efforts in time.

  6. Assessment methodologies and statistical issues for computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules in computed tomography: contemporary research topics relevant to the lung image database consortium.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Lori E; Wagner, Robert F; Armato, Samuel G; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Beiden, Sergey; Chan, Heang-Ping; Gur, David; McLennan, Geoffrey; Metz, Charles E; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Sayre, Jim

    2004-04-01

    Cancer of the lung and bronchus is the leading fatal malignancy in the United States. Five-year survival is low, but treatment of early stage disease considerably improves chances of survival. Advances in multidetector-row computed tomography technology provide detection of smaller lung nodules and offer a potentially effective screening tool. The large number of images per exam, however, requires considerable radiologist time for interpretation and is an impediment to clinical throughput. Thus, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods are needed to assist radiologists with their decision making. To promote the development of CAD methods, the National Cancer Institute formed the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). The LIDC is charged with developing the consensus and standards necessary to create an image database of multidetector-row computed tomography lung images as a resource for CAD researchers. To develop such a prospective database, its potential uses must be anticipated. The ultimate applications will influence the information that must be included along with the images, the relevant measures of algorithm performance, and the number of required images. In this article we outline assessment methodologies and statistical issues as they relate to several potential uses of the LIDC database. We review methods for performance assessment and discuss issues of defining "truth" as well as the complications that arise when truth information is not available. We also discuss issues about sizing and populating a database.

  7. Clinical experience with a computer-aided diagnosis system for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules at spiral CT of the chest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Fiebich, Martin; Saidi, Mustafa; Diederich, Stefan; Heindel, Walter

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) workstation with automatic detection of pulmonary nodules at low-dose spiral CT in a clinical setting for early detection of lung cancer. Two radiologists in consensus reported 88 consecutive spiral CT examinations. All examinations were reviewed using a UNIX-based CAD workstation with a self-developed algorithm for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules. The algorithm was designed to detect nodules with at least 5 mm diameter. The results of automatic nodule detection were compared to the consensus reporting of two radiologists as gold standard. Additional CAD findings were regarded as nodules initially missed by the radiologists or as false positive results. A total of 153 nodules were detected with all modalities (diameter: 85 nodules <5mm, 63 nodules 5-9 mm, 5 nodules >= 10 mm). Reasons for failure of automatic nodule detection were assessed. Sensitivity of radiologists for nodules >=5 mm was 85%, sensitivity of CAD was 38%. For nodules >=5 mm without pleural contact sensitivity was 84% for radiologists at 45% for CAD. CAD detected 15 (10%) nodules not mentioned in the radiologist's report but representing real nodules, among them 10 (15%) nodules with a diameter $GREW5 mm. Reasons for nodules missed by CAD include: exclusion because of morphological features during region analysis (33%), nodule density below the detection threshold (26%), pleural contact (33%), segmentation errors (5%) and other reasons (2%). CAD improves detection of pulmonary nodules at spiral CT significantly and is a valuable second opinion in a clinical setting for lung cancer screening. Optimization of region analysis and an appropriate density threshold have a potential for further improvement of automatic nodule detection.

  8. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  9. Predictors of Late HIV Diagnosis among Adult People Living with HIV/AIDS Who Undertake an Initial CD4 T Cell Evaluation, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Melkamu Bedimo; Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early HIV testing and timely initiation of ART is critical for the improved quality of life of PLWHIV. Having identified a higher rates of Late HIV diagnosis, this study was aimed to determine Determinants of late diagnosis of HIV among adult HIV patients in Bahir Dar, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted between January 2010 to December 2011 at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. The study subjects consisted of 267 cases and 267 controls. Cases were adult people living with HIV/AIDS whose initial CD4 T cell count was < 200/μl of blood. Controls were those with a CD4 T cell count of greater than 200/ μl. Trained staff nurses were involved in data collection using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and Binary logistic regression were performed. Results Subjects who hold a certificate and above (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.13. 0.54), being initiated by friends, families and other socials to undertake HIV testing (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.29, 1.48), who reported a medium and high knowledge score about HIV/AIDS and who undertake HIV testing while visiting a clinic for ANC (AOR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.19, 0.83) were less likely to be diagnosed late. Subjects who undertake HIV testing due to providers’ initiation (AOR = 1.70; 95%CI = 1.08, 2.68), who reported a medium internalized stigma (AOR = 4.94; 95% CI = 3.13, 7.80) and who reported a high internalized stigma score towards HIV/AIDS (AOR = 16.64; 95% CI = 8.29, 33.4) had a high odds of being diagnosed late compared to their counterparts. Conclusion Internalized stigma, low knowledge level about HIV/AIDS, not to have attended formal education and failure to undertake HIV testing by own initiation were significant determinant factors associated with Late HIV diagnosis. Education about HIV/AIDS, promotion of general education, and encouraging people to motivate their social mates to undertake HIV testing are

  10. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  11. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  12. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that detects Histoplasma capsulatum antigenuria in Colombian patients with AIDS for diagnosis and follow-up during therapy.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Diego H; Scheel, Christina M; Tobón, Angela M; Ahlquist Cleveland, Angela; Restrepo, Angela; Brandt, Mary E; Chiller, Tom; Gómez, Beatriz L

    2014-09-01

    We validated an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Colombian persons with AIDS and proven histoplasmosis and evaluated the correlation between antigenuria and clinical improvement during follow-up. The sensitivity of the Histoplasma capsulatum ELISA was 86%, and the overall specificity was 94%. The antigen test successfully monitored the response to therapy.

  13. [Cerebral lesions in AIDS: what can be expected from scintigraphy? Cerebral tomographic scintigraphy using thallium-201: a contribution to the differential diagnosis of lymphomas and infectious lesions].

    PubMed

    Berry, I; Gaillard, J F; Guo, Z; Cordoliani, Y S; Massip, P; Manelfe, C; Danet, B

    1995-09-01

    CT and MRI are not consistently able to differentiate central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma from focal cerebral infection such as toxoplasmosis in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) involvement. In this study thallium 201 (and/or technetium-MIBI) SPECT was performed in 6 patients suffering from AIDS and CNS lesions. An index based on the ratio of thallium uptake in the lesion vs the contralateral scalp was calculated. In 4 out of 5 patients with lymphoma (3 confirmed by biopsy, 2 highly suspected on CT and resistance to antitoxoplasmosis treatment) focal lesions showed high uptake of thallium. On the other hand one markedly necrotic lymphoma and all infectious lesions did not take up thallium. This suggests a role for thallium 201 brain SPECT in the workup of focal CNS lesions in AIDS.

  14. Amalgam tattoo: report of an unusual clinical presentation and the use of energy dispersive X-ray analysis as an aid to diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.P. Jr.; Greer, J.L.; Daniels, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    An unusual appearing gingival amalgam pigmentation (amalgam tattoo) that completely surrounded the maxillary right first premolar in a 13-year-old boy is presented. Because of the wide distribution and apparent clinical progression of the discoloration, an excisional biopsy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis of amalgam pigmentation was confirmed in paraffin sections by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Silver, tin, and mercury were detected in the specimen.

  15. Multiplex diagnosis of viral infectious diseases (AIDS, hepatitis C, and hepatitis A) based on point of care lateral flow assay using engineered proteinticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Seo, Hyuk Seong; Kwon, Jung-Hyuk; Kim, Hee-Tae; Kwon, Koo Chul; Sim, Sang Jun; Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Jeewon

    2015-07-15

    Lateral flow assay (LFA) is an attractive method for rapid, simple, and cost-effective point of care diagnosis. For LFA-based multiplex diagnosis of three viral intractable diseases (acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hepatitis C and A), here we developed proteinticle-based 7 different 3D probes that display different viral antigens on their surface, which were synthesized in Escherichia coli by self-assembly of human ferritin heavy chain that was already engineered by genetically linking viral antigens to its C-terminus. Each of the three test lines on LFA strip contains the proteinticle probes to detect disease-specific anti-viral antibodies. Compared to peptide probes, the proteinticle probes were evidently more sensitive, and the proteinticle probe-based LFA successfully diagnosed all the 20 patient sera per each disease without a false negative signal, whereas the diagnostic sensitivities in the peptide probe-based LFAs were 65-90%. Duplex and triplex assays performed with randomly mixed patient sera gave only true positive signals for all the 20 serum mixtures without any false positive signals, indicating 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. It seems that on the proteinticle surface the antigenic peptides have homogeneous orientation and conformation without inter-peptide clustering and hence lead to the enhanced diagnostic performance with solving the problems of traditional diagnostic probes. Although the multiplex diagnosis of three viral diseases above was demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, the proposed LFA system can be applied to multiplex point of care diagnosis of other intractable diseases.

  16. Use of the frozen section 'jelly-roll' technique to aid in the diagnosis of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis).

    PubMed

    Galler, Blake; Bowen, Casey; Arnold, Jason; Kobayashi, Todd; Dalton, Scott R

    2016-05-01

    Frozen section is a valuable tool that is often underutilized in the setting of in-patient dermatology. Traditionally, frozen section has been used in dermatology to diagnose toxic epidermal necrolysis, with some additional utility in staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in the new born period. We report a newborn female with ruptured bullae on the face, chest, back and extremities with a clinical differential diagnosis that included staphylococcal scalded skin, bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma/epidermolytic hyperkeratosis and epidermolysis bullosa. A thin detached skin sample ('jelly-roll') taken from a ruptured bulla on the abdomen was prepared for frozen section analysis. Characteristic findings of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis were seen which included hyperkeratosis with granular layer degeneration, vacuolization and eosinophilic globules. The 'jelly-roll' technique can be used for quick diagnosis with minimal trauma to the patient. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis was subsequently confirmed by a biopsy fixed in formalin and by genetic testing. A novel missense mutation in KRT1 (I479N) was identified. Herein, we discuss the use of the frozen section 'jelly roll' technique for rapid diagnosis in a case of bullous congenital ichthyosis erythroderma/epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. PMID:26969483

  17. Use of the frozen section 'jelly-roll' technique to aid in the diagnosis of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis).

    PubMed

    Galler, Blake; Bowen, Casey; Arnold, Jason; Kobayashi, Todd; Dalton, Scott R

    2016-05-01

    Frozen section is a valuable tool that is often underutilized in the setting of in-patient dermatology. Traditionally, frozen section has been used in dermatology to diagnose toxic epidermal necrolysis, with some additional utility in staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in the new born period. We report a newborn female with ruptured bullae on the face, chest, back and extremities with a clinical differential diagnosis that included staphylococcal scalded skin, bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma/epidermolytic hyperkeratosis and epidermolysis bullosa. A thin detached skin sample ('jelly-roll') taken from a ruptured bulla on the abdomen was prepared for frozen section analysis. Characteristic findings of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis were seen which included hyperkeratosis with granular layer degeneration, vacuolization and eosinophilic globules. The 'jelly-roll' technique can be used for quick diagnosis with minimal trauma to the patient. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis was subsequently confirmed by a biopsy fixed in formalin and by genetic testing. A novel missense mutation in KRT1 (I479N) was identified. Herein, we discuss the use of the frozen section 'jelly roll' technique for rapid diagnosis in a case of bullous congenital ichthyosis erythroderma/epidermolytic hyperkeratosis.

  18. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  19. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  20. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  1. Performance Testing of PCR Assay in Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in AIDS Patients from the French Departments of America and Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: A Prospective and Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Lamaury, Isabelle; Demar, Magalie; Vautrin, Cyrille; Cabié, André; Simon, Stéphane; Nicolas, Muriel; Desbois-Nogard, Nicole; Boukhari, Rachida; Riahi, Homayoun; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Massip, Patrice; Dupon, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Labrunie, Anaïs; Boncoeur, Marie-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS is a life-threatening disease mostly due to reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR assay in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients in the French West Indies and Guiana. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients with HIV and suspicion of toxoplasmic encephalitis with start of specific antitoxoplasmic therapy were included in this study during 40 months. The real-time PCR assay targeting the 529 bp repeat region of T. gondii was performed in two different centers for all blood samples. A Neighbor-Joining tree was reconstructed from microsatellite data to examine the relationships between strains from human cases of toxoplasmosis in South America and the Caribbean. A total of 44 cases were validated by a committee of experts, including 36 cases with toxoplasmic encephalitis. The specificity of the PCR assay in blood samples was 100% but the sensitivity was only 25% with moderate agreement between the two centers. Altered level of consciousness and being born in the French West Indies and Guiana were the only two variables that were associated with significantly decreased risk of false negative results with the PCR assay. Conclusion/Significance Our results showed that PCR sensitivity in blood samples increased with severity of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. Geographic origin of patients was likely to influence PCR sensitivity but there was little evidence that it was caused by differences in T. gondii strains. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803621 PMID:27355620

  2. SAFE for PTSD: noncontact psychophysiological measure based on high-resolution thermal imaging to aid in PTSD diagnosis and assessment of treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Familoni, Babajide O.; Ma, Lein; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Morgan, C. Andrew, III; Rasmusson, Ann; O'Kane, Barbara L.

    2012-06-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) sometimes develops following exposure to very stressful or traumatic events such as motor vehicle accidents, rape, and war. It is arguably the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTSD sufferers exhibit autonomic hyper-responsiveness to both neutral and trauma-related stimuli. In this study, we propose using high resolution thermal imaging of sweat-pores to obtain a noncontact, remote, and quantifiable measure of the sympathetic autonomic nervous reactivity to guide diagnosis, assess response to treatment, and tease out important cues to suicidality as a PTSD comorbidity.

  3. Age-at-death diagnosis and determination of life-history parameters by incremental lines in human dental cementum as an identification aid.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, P; Grupe, G

    2001-04-15

    Incremental lines in acellular extrinsic fiber cementum of 91 roots from 80 freshly extracted teeth have been investigated for a verification of the suitability of pathological teeth for a valid age-at-death diagnosis. Independent from tooth type, the accuracy of histological age-at-death diagnosis is clearly a function of a tooth's pathological state. Various periodontal diseases lead to a reduced number of incremental lines, while teeth with a sufficient nutritional support of their root showed a deviation of the histological age from the known actual age of 2-3 years only. For all patients, a detailed query concerning a variety of life-history parameters was established. We are able to show that especially previous pregnancies, skeletal traumata and renal diseases which all have a marked influence on the calcium metabolism result in hypomineralized incremental lines. The year of production of these hypomineralized lines could be dated precisely. Differential quality of incremental lines can, therefore, serve as a valuable tool in identification cases. PMID:11343858

  4. Automatic Detection of Calcaneal-Fifth Metatarsal Angle Using Radiograph: A Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Flat Foot for Military New Recruits in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chin-Hua; Chou, Kuei-Ting; Chung, Mu-Bai; Chuang, K. S.; Huang, Tzung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Flatfoot (pes planus) is one of the most important physical examination items for military new recruits in Taiwan. Currently, the diagnosis of flatfoot is mainly based on radiographic examination of the calcaneal-fifth metatarsal (CA–MT5) angle, also known as the arch angle. However, manual measurement of the arch angle is time-consuming and often inconsistent between different examiners. In this study, seventy male military new recruits were studied. Lateral radiographic images of their right and left feet were obtained, and mutual information (MI) registration was used to automatically calculate the arch angle. Images of two critical bones, the calcaneus and the fifth metatarsal bone, were isolated from the lateral radiographs to form reference images, and were then compared with template images to calculate the arch angle. The result of this computer-calculated arch angle was compared with manual measurement results from two radiologists, which showed that our automatic arch angle measurement method had a high consistency. In addition, this method had a high accuracy of 97% and 96% as compared with the measurements of radiologists A and B, respectively. The findings indicated that our MI registration measurement method cannot only accurately measure the CA–MT5 angle, but also saves time and reduces human error. This method can increase the consistency of arch angle measurement and has potential clinical application for the diagnosis of flatfoot. PMID:26126115

  5. Detection of Amyloid β Signature in the Lens and Its Correlation in the Brain to Aid in the Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kerbage, Charles; Sadowsky, Carl H; Tariot, Pierre N; Agronin, Marc; Alva, Gustavo; Turner, F Darell; Nilan, Dennis; Cameron, Anne; Cagle, Gerald D; Hartung, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    We report the findings from a clinical trial in which a group of patients clinically diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were discriminated from an age-matched group of healthy volunteers (HVs) with statistical significance (P<.001). The results from 20 patients with AD and 20 HVs were obtained by a Fluorescent Ligand Eye Scanning (FLES) technique that measures a fluorescent signature specific to an exogenous ligand bound to amyloid-β in the lens of the eye. Sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 95%, respectively, have been achieved in predicting clinical diagnosis. Additionally, amyloid brain imaging using florbetapir F18 positron emission tomography shows significant correlation with the results obtained in the eye. Results of the study demonstrate the safety of the FLES system.

  6. Do Immature Platelet Levels in Chest Pain Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department Aid in the Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Darling, Chad E.; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Barnard, Marc R.; Smith, Craig S.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Early and accurate identification of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) versus non-cardiac chest pain in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) is problematic and new diagnostic markers are needed. Previous studies reported that elevated mean platelet volume (MPV) is associated with ACS and predictive of cardiovascular risk. MPV is closely related to the immature platelet fraction (IPF), and recent studies have suggested that IPF may be a more sensitive marker of ACS than MPV. The objective of the present study was to determine if the measurement of IPF assists in the diagnosis of ACS in patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. Methods In this single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study, adult patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and/or suspected ACS were considered for enrollment. Blood samples from 236 ACS-negative and 44 ACS-positive patients were analyzed in a Sysmex XE-2100 for platelet count, MPV, IPF and the absolute count of immature platelets (IPC). Results Total platelet counts, MPV, IPF and IPC were not statistically different between ACS-negative and -positive patients. The IPF was 4.6 ± 2.7 and 5.0 ± 2.8% (mean ± SD, p = 0.24) and the IPC was 10.0 ± 4.6 and 11.5 ± 7.5 × 103/µL (p = 0.27) for ACS-negative and ACS-positive patients, respectively. Conclusion In 280 patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and/or suspected ACS, no differences in IPF, IPC or MPV were observed in ACS-negative versus ACS-positive patients, suggesting that these parameters do not assist in the diagnosis of ACS. PMID:24806286

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis for classification of focal liver lesions on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: feature extraction and characterization of vascularity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Doi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for classifying focal liver lesions (FLLs) into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver metastasis, and hemangioma, by use of B-mode and micro flow imaging (MFI) of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. We used 98 cases in this study, in which 104 FLLs consisted of 68 HCCs, 21 metastases, and 15 hemangiomas. MFI was obtained with contrast-enhanced low-mechanical-index (MI) pulse subtraction imaging at a fixed plane which included a distinctive cross section of the FLL. In the MFI, the inflow high signals in the plane, which were due to the vascular patterns and the contrast agent, were accumulated following flash scanning with a high-MI ultrasound exposure. In this study, in addition to the existing 29 image features extracted from MFI images, such as replenishment time, the average and the standard deviation of pixel values in a FLL, and the average thickness of vessel-like patterns, four types of image features were extracted from MFI, temporal subtraction and B-mode images based on small square regions of interest (ROIs: 4x4 matrix size) placed to cover a whole region of the FLL. The four features were 1) uniformity of average pixel values for all ROIs, 2) peak pixel values in a histogram of average pixel values of ROIs, 3) fraction of hypoechoic regions within an FLL, and 4) cross-correlation of pixel values within an FLL between B-mode and MFI images. Overall classification accuracies performed by this CAD scheme were 87.5% for all 104 liver lesions.

  8. Using a three-dimension head mounted displayer in audio-visual sexual stimulation aids in differential diagnosis of psychogenic from organic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moon, K-H; Song, P-H; Park, T-C

    2005-01-01

    We designed this study to compare the efficacy of using a three-dimension head mounted displayer (3-D HMD) and a conventional monitor in audio-visual sexual stimulation (AVSS) in differential diagnosis of psychogenic from organic erectile dysfunction (ED). Three groups of subjects such as psychogenic ED, organic ED, and healthy control received the evaluation. The change of penile tumescence in AVSS was monitored with Nocturnal Electrobioimpedance Volumetric Assessment and sexual arousal after AVSS was assessed by a simple question as being good, fair, or poor. Both the group of healthy control and psychogenic ED demonstrated a significantly higher rate of normal response in penile tumescence (P<0.05) and a significantly higher level of sexual arousal (P<0.05) if stimulated with 3-D HMD than conventional monitor. In the group of organic ED, even using 3-D HMD in AVSS could not give rise to a better response in both assessments. Therefore, we conclude that using a 3-D HMD in AVSS helps more to differentiate psychogenic from organic ED than a conventional monitor in AVSS.

  9. HIV/AIDS Researchers Interaction with Schoolteachers: A Key to Combat AIDS among Brazilian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashima, Simone; de Castro, Fabiola Attie; de Castro Amarante, Maria Fernanda; Barbieri, Marisa Ramos; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that information on HIV/AIDS is a strategy for disease control, this project was planned to provide comprehensive information about HIV infection and AIDS to schoolteachers and their students. Previous analysis of adolescent students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS showed that they still have doubts about transmission, diagnosis, and…

  10. An automated normative-based fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography image-analysis procedure to aid Alzheimer disease diagnosis using statistical parametric mapping and interactive image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kewei; Ge, Xiaolin; Yao, Li; Bandy, Dan; Alexander, Gene E.; Prouty, Anita; Burns, Christine; Zhao, Xiaojie; Wen, Xiaotong; Korn, Ronald; Lawson, Michael; Reiman, Eric M.

    2006-03-01

    Having approved fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in some patients, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services suggested the need to develop and test analysis techniques to optimize diagnostic accuracy. We developed an automated computer package comparing an individual's FDG PET image to those of a group of normal volunteers. The normal control group includes FDG-PET images from 82 cognitively normal subjects, 61.89+/-5.67 years of age, who were characterized demographically, clinically, neuropsychologically, and by their apolipoprotein E genotype (known to be associated with a differential risk for AD). In addition, AD-affected brain regions functionally defined as based on a previous study (Alexander, et al, Am J Psychiatr, 2002) were also incorporated. Our computer package permits the user to optionally select control subjects, matching the individual patient for gender, age, and educational level. It is fully streamlined to require minimal user intervention. With one mouse click, the program runs automatically, normalizing the individual patient image, setting up a design matrix for comparing the single subject to a group of normal controls, performing the statistics, calculating the glucose reduction overlap index of the patient with the AD-affected brain regions, and displaying the findings in reference to the AD regions. In conclusion, the package automatically contrasts a single patient to a normal subject database using sound statistical procedures. With further validation, this computer package could be a valuable tool to assist physicians in decision making and communicating findings with patients and patient families.

  11. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  12. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease based on [123I]FP-CIT SPECT binding potential images, using the voxels-as-features approach and support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Francisco P. M.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to develop a fully-automated computational solution for computer-aided diagnosis in Parkinson syndrome based on [123I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Approach. A dataset of 654 [123I]FP-CIT SPECT brain images from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative were used. Of these, 445 images were of patients with Parkinson’s disease at an early stage and the remainder formed a control group. The images were pre-processed using automated template-based registration followed by the computation of the binding potential at a voxel level. Then, the binding potential images were used for classification, based on the voxel-as-feature approach and using the support vector machines paradigm. Main results. The obtained estimated classification accuracy was 97.86%, the sensitivity was 97.75% and the specificity 98.09%. Significance. The achieved classification accuracy was very high and, in fact, higher than accuracies found in previous studies reported in the literature. In addition, results were obtained on a large dataset of early Parkinson’s disease subjects. In summation, the information provided by the developed computational solution potentially supports clinical decision-making in nuclear medicine, using important additional information beyond the commonly used uptake ratios and respective statistical comparisons. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01141023)

  14. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  15. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  16. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  17. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Theresa; Kyrollos, Maggy; Kravcik, Stephen

    2007-09-01

    A 55-year-old man who was recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS developed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy. Workup confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This is the first described case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma in HIV/AIDS, and may represent a rare form of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. PMID:18923729

  18. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Theresa; Kyrollos, Maggy; Kravcik, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A 55-year-old man who was recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS developed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy. Workup confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This is the first described case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma in HIV/AIDS, and may represent a rare form of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. PMID:18923729

  19. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Using a Computer Aided Diagnosis Program for Automatically Scoring Chest X-Rays of Presumptive TB Patients Compared with Xpert MTB/RIF in Lusaka Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Muyoyeta, Monde; Maduskar, Pragnya; Moyo, Maureen; Kasese, Nkatya; Milimo, Deborah; Spooner, Rosanna; Kapata, Nathan; Hogeweg, Laurens; van Ginneken, Bram; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) program for scoring chest x-rays (CXRs) of presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients compared to Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). Method Consecutive presumptive TB patients with a cough of any duration were offered digital CXR, and opt out HIV testing. CXRs were electronically scored as normal (CAD score ≤60) or abnormal (CAD score>60) using a CAD program. All patients regardless of CAD score were requested to submit a spot sputum sample for testing with Xpert and a spot and morning sample for testing with LED Fluorescence Microscopy-(FM). Results Of 350 patients with evaluable data, 291 (83.1%) had an abnormal CXR score by CAD. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of CXR compared to Xpert were 100% (95%CI 96.2–100), 23.2% (95%CI 18.2–28.9), 33.0% (95%CI 27.6–38.7) and 100% (95% 93.9–100), respectively. The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) for CAD was 0.71 (95%CI 0.66–0.77). CXR abnormality correlated with smear grade (r = 0.30, p<0.0001) and with Xpert CT(r = 0.37, p<0.0001). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first time that a CAD program for TB has been successfully tested in a real world setting. The study shows that the CAD program had high sensitivity but low specificity and PPV. The use of CAD with digital CXR has the potential to increase the use and availability of chest radiography in screening for TB where trained human resources are scarce. PMID:24705629

  20. Clinical Utility of Thallium-201 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Cerebrospinal Fluid Epstein-Barr Virus Detection Using Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of AIDS-Related Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Fadilah S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic efficiency of thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) from other central nervous system processes in patients with HIV/AIDS. Design/Methods: Over 10 years, 68 thallium-201 SPECT scans were performed on neurologically symptomatic HIV+ patients with focal lesions on CT or MRI at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Diagnoses were then established by either autopsy, biopsy, or clinical response to anti-toxoplasmosis therapy. Patients were categorized prior to a prospective clinical reading of the SPECT scans by nuclear medicine physicians. Results: In our patient sample overall, the diagnostic efficiency of thallium-201 SPECT was 79%. The diagnostic accuracy of EBV PCR testing alone in a subset of 22 patients in our study that had CSF analyzed was 73%. However, when both positive EBV PCR and positive thallium-201 SPECT results were used together, the diagnostic accuracy improved to 100% based on a sample of 13 patients where EBV PCR and SPECT imaging results were concordant.  Conclusion: Thallium-201 SPECT has a relatively high positive predictive value with regards to the diagnosis of PCNSL, which suggests that patients with positive results could undergo empiric radiation treatment without resorting to brain biopsy. However, the predictive value can be increased by testing for CSF EBV using PCR. Alternatively, if CSF cannot be safely obtained because of mass effect, we believe that these data still suggest that empiric radiation treatment should be considered when discussing treatment options with patients with a positive thallium-201 SPECT. PMID:27330874

  1. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  2. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  3. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  4. Is AIDS a Biasing Factor in Teacher Judgment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David W.; Hulecki, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    Regular-education, third-grade teachers (n=91) in Indiana reviewed one of two psychological reports, identical except that one reported a diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and one reported a diagnosis of rheumatic fever. AIDS was not found to be a biasing factor in teachers' judgments regarding special education placement.…

  5. The Perceived Effect of HIV/AIDS on Other Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Lisa M; Niemi, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The onset of a chronic disease influences other roles or identities. For example, an HIV or AIDS diagnosis can affect a person's work identity (Bedell, 1997). In this article, we explored how living with HIV/AIDS shapes other identities. Thirty-six individuals living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants'…

  6. Case definitions for paediatric AIDS: the Zambian experience.

    PubMed

    Chintu, C; Malek, A; Nyumbu, M; Luo, C; Masona, J; DuPont, H L; Zumla, A

    1993-01-01

    For the purpose of surveillance of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in developing countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended criteria for the clinical case definition of AIDS in adults and children. In a preliminary examination of children in Zambia a number of patients with obvious AIDS did not fit the published WHO case definition for paediatric AIDS. Based on this the Zambia National AIDS Surveillance Committee designed local criteria for the clinical case definition of paediatric AIDS. We compared the Zambian criteria with the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of paediatric AIDS by studying 134 consecutively admitted children to one of the paediatric wards at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka. Twenty-nine of the patients were HIV-1 seropositive and 105 were HIV-1 seronegative. Among the 29 HIV-seropositive patients, the Zambian criteria identified 23, and the WHO criteria identified 20 children as having AIDS. The 105 HIV-seronegative children were classified as having AIDS in 9 cases by the Zambian criteria and in 38 cases by the WHO criteria. These results give the Zambian criteria for the diagnosis of AIDS a sensitivity of 79.3%, a specificity of 91.4% and a positive predictive value of 86.8% compared to a sensitivity of 69%, specificity of 64% and a positive predictive value of 38% for the WHO criteria. The current WHO criteria are inadequate for the diagnosis of paediatric AIDS. The need to refine the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of paediatric AIDS is discussed.

  7. A computer-aided differential diagnosis between UIP and NSIP using automated assessment of the extent and distribution of regional disease patterns at HRCT: comparison with the radiologist's decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Sang Ok; Lee, Youngjoo; Lee, Jeongjin

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of computer aided differential diagnosis (CADD) between usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) at HRCT in comparison with that of a radiologist's decision. A computerized classification for six local disease patterns (normal, NL; ground-glass opacity, GGO; reticular opacity, RO; honeycombing, HC; emphysema, EM; and consolidation, CON) using texture/shape analyses and a SVM classifier at HRCT was used for pixel-by-pixel labeling on the whole lung area. The mode filter was applied on the results to reduce noise. Area fraction (AF) of each pattern, directional probabilistic density function (pdf) (dPDF: mean, SD, skewness of pdf /3 directions: superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, central-peripheral), regional cluster distribution pattern (RCDP: number, mean, SD of clusters, mean, SD of centroid of clusters) were automatically evaluated. Spatially normalized left and right lungs were evaluated separately. Disease division index (DDI) on every combination of AFs and asymmetric index (AI) between left and right lung ((left-right)/left) were also evaluated. To assess the accuracy of the system, fifty-four HRCT data sets in patients with pathologically diagnosed UIP (n=26) and NSIP (n=28) were used. For a classification procedure, a CADD-SVM classifier with internal parameter optimization, and sequential forward floating feature selection (SFFS) were employed. The accuracy was assessed by a 5-folding cross validation with 20- times repetition. For comparison, two thoracic radiologists reviewed the whole HRCT images without clinical information and diagnose each case either as UIP or NSIP. The accuracies of radiologists' decision were 0.75 and 0.87, respectively. The accuracies of the CADD system using the features of AF, dPDF, AI of dPDF, RDP, AI of RDP, DDI were 0.70, 0.79, 0.77, 0.80, 0.78, 0.81, respectively. The accuracy of optimized CADD using all features after SFFS was 0.91. We developed the CADD

  8. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  9. Impact of housing on the survival of persons with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Schwarcz, Sandra K; Hsu, Ling C; Vittinghoff, Eric; Vu, Annie; Bamberger, Joshua D; Katz, Mitchell H

    2009-01-01

    Background Homeless persons with HIV/AIDS have greater morbidity and mortality, more hospitalizations, less use of antiretroviral therapy, and worse medication adherence than HIV-infected persons who are stably housed. We examined the effect of homelessness on the mortality of persons with AIDS and measured the effect of supportive housing on AIDS survival. Methods The San Francisco AIDS registry was used to identify homeless and housed persons who were diagnosed with AIDS between 1996 and 2006. The registry was computer-matched with a housing database of homeless persons who received housing after their AIDS diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival between persons who were homeless at AIDS diagnosis and those who were housed. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the independent effects of homelessness and supportive housing on survival after AIDS diagnosis. Results Of the 6,558 AIDS cases, 9.8% were homeless at diagnosis. Sixty-seven percent of the persons who were homeless survived five years compared with 81% of those who were housed (p < 0.0001). Homelessness increased the risk of death (adjusted relative hazard [RH] 1.20; 95% confidence limits [CL] 1.03, 1.41). Homeless persons with AIDS who obtained supportive housing had a lower risk of death than those who did not (adjusted RH 0.20; 95% CL 0.05, 0.81). Conclusion Supportive housing ameliorates the negative effect of homelessness on survival with AIDS. PMID:19583862

  10. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  11. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  12. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  13. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  14. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  15. Computer-aided diagnostics of screening mammography using content-based image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Soiron, Michael; de Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; de A. Araújo, Arnaldo

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of death among women in occidental countries. In the last years, screening mammography has been established worldwide for early detection of breast cancer, and computer-aided diagnostics (CAD) is being developed to assist physicians reading mammograms. A promising method for CAD is content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Recently, we have developed a classification scheme of suspicious tissue pattern based on the support vector machine (SVM). In this paper, we continue moving towards automatic CAD of screening mammography. The experiments are based on in total 10,509 radiographs that have been collected from different sources. From this, 3,375 images are provided with one and 430 radiographs with more than one chain code annotation of cancerous regions. In different experiments, this data is divided into 12 and 20 classes, distinguishing between four categories of tissue density, three categories of pathology and in the 20 class problem two categories of different types of lesions. Balancing the number of images in each class yields 233 and 45 images remaining in each of the 12 and 20 classes, respectively. Using a two-dimensional principal component analysis, features are extracted from small patches of 128 x 128 pixels and classified by means of a SVM. Overall, the accuracy of the raw classification was 61.6 % and 52.1 % for the 12 and the 20 class problem, respectively. The confusion matrices are assessed for detailed analysis. Furthermore, an implementation of a SVM-based CBIR system for CADx in screening mammography is presented. In conclusion, with a smarter patch extraction, the CBIR approach might reach precision rates that are helpful for the physicians. This, however, needs more comprehensive evaluation on clinical data.

  16. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries. PMID:6100848

  17. A Quarter of a Century with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cerdeira, C; Cruces, M.J; Taboada, J.A

    2011-01-01

    In Northwestern Spain (NWS), the annual incidence of AIDS diagnoses increased from 1984 (when the first case was diagnosed) until 1996. However, since 1996, this incidence has reduced considerably, including a notable 40% reduction between 1997 and 1998. The Galician Register of AIDS supplies information on the evolution of AIDS pathology in NWS. This report compiles data on patients who were diagnosed with AIDS in NWS between 1984 and 2008. From 1981, when the first case of AIDS was described, until December 31, 2008, a total of 3,766 AIDS cases were registered in NWS. Of these, 2,085 cases (55.4%) resulted in death. Examining data from individual provinces revealed that the highest number of cases was in A Coruña (1,548 cases) followed by Pontevedra (1,485 cases). For almost half of the new cases of AIDS diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 (44%), less than six months passed between the diagnosis of infection and manifestations of the disease. Thus, the number of patients that do not receive early diagnosis of HIV infection has remained high. With regard to the transmission mechanism, 64% of the cases occurring during these years resulted from needle-sharing among injected drug users (IDUs). Unprotected heterosexual and homosexual practices were responsible for 20% and 17% of the cases, respectively. PMID:21629502

  18. Local image registration a comparison for bilateral registration mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celaya-Padilaa, José M.; Rodriguez-Rojas, Juan; Trevino, Victor; Tamez-Pena, José G.

    2013-11-01

    Early tumor detection is key in reducing the number of breast cancer death and screening mammography is one of the most widely available and reliable method for early detection. However, it is difficult for the radiologist to process with the same attention each case, due the large amount of images to be read. Computer aided detection (CADe) systems improve tumor detection rate; but the current efficiency of these systems is not yet adequate and the correct interpretation of CADe outputs requires expert human intervention. Computer aided diagnosis systems (CADx) are being designed to improve cancer diagnosis accuracy, but they have not been efficiently applied in breast cancer. CADx efficiency can be enhanced by considering the natural mirror symmetry between the right and left breast. The objective of this work is to evaluate co-registration algorithms for the accurate alignment of the left to right breast for CADx enhancement. A set of mammograms were artificially altered to create a ground truth set to evaluate the registration efficiency of DEMONs , and SPLINE deformable registration algorithms. The registration accuracy was evaluated using mean square errors, mutual information and correlation. The results on the 132 images proved that the SPLINE deformable registration over-perform the DEMONS on mammography images.

  19. Delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Natalie; U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Karalliedde, Janaka

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome. The patient had a history of hearing loss from childhood and presented to the endocrine clinic when aged 32 with an enlarging goitre. The characteristic Mondini deformity was noted on auditory canal MRI scan. Genetic tests confirmed the diagnosis. Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterised by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, goitre and impaired iodide organification and can present at any age. We highlight to the general physician the classical features of this syndrome that would aid early diagnosis. PMID:27620717

  20. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  1. Nurses' Attitudes toward Gay and Hemophiliac Patients with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Judith A.; Damrosch, Shirley

    A sample of nurses (N=183) enrolled in a School of Nursing's master degree program was randomly assigned to read one of six vignettes about a patient who differed only in terms of diagnosis and lifestyle. Possible diagnoses were Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS acquired by a hemophiliac through blood therapy, and leukemia; possible…

  2. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A; Glauser, M P; Weber, R; Katlama, C; Barton, S E; Lundgren, J D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studied. Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p < 0.001). The probability was also higher for patients from Central Europe compared with patients from South Europe (4.1% versus 2.5%, p = 0.005). The rate of developing cryptosporidiosis after the diagnosis of AIDS was 3 per 100 patient years of follow-up. The rate was significantly lower for intravenous drug users than for homosexual men (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence limits 0.22-0.54) and for women compared with men (RR 0.43 (0.21-0.87)). The risk was higher in North Europe than in South and Central Europe. In a multivariate analysis only transmission category remained a significant predictor for the development of cryptosporidiosis. CONCLUSION: The development of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients may be associated with sexual risk behaviour. PMID:8698361

  3. Answering the AIDS denialists: is AIDS real?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-12-01

    This article looks at theories that say AIDS does not exist, or is not a new disease but only a collection of old ones--and explains some of the history behind earlier changes in the official definition of AIDS in the U.S., changes which caused some public confusion. PMID:12171004

  4. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  5. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  6. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  7. Students with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

  8. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

  9. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  10. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  11. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  12. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  13. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  14. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  15. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  16. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  17. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  18. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  19. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  20. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  1. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  2. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  3. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  4. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  5. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  6. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  7. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  8. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  9. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but relapse is common without chronic suppressive therapy. Improvements in treatment are needed in coccidioidomycosis. Research is needed to identify preventive strategies for patients at risk. These strategies may include use of prophylactic antifungal therapy or vaccination. PMID:7704892

  10. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  11. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  12. Ocular toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gagliuso, D J; Teich, S A; Friedman, A H; Orellana, J

    1990-01-01

    We describe 16 cases of ocular and, in some patients, associated CNS toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients. T gondii is commonly associated with infection in the immunocompromised host. The lesions are most often seen in the CNS and eyes; involvement in the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes may be observed. CNS involvement by toxoplasmosis may be an initial manifestation of AIDS and may be associated with discrete or diffuse lesions. CT scan and MR imaging may demonstrate a multitude of lesions often displaying the characteristic ring-shaped enhancement after contrast injection. Ocular involvement by toxoplasmosis, though less common than CNS involvement, is characterized by several features. These may be manifested as single or multifocal retinal lesions in one or both eyes or massive areas of retinal necrosis. Invariably these lesions are unassociated with a pre-existing retinochoroidal scar suggesting that the lesions are a manifestation of acquired rather than congenital disease. Presence of IgM antibodies may support this observation although antibody levels in AIDS patients may not reflect the magnitude of disease. Vitreous reaction is often minimal. Anterior uveitis has been reported in one case. Treatment of the ocular infection with pyrimethamine, clindamycin and sulfadiazine is effective in over 75% of patients. Once resolution of the ocular infection is observed, maintenance therapy is continued as relapses occur in the absence of treatment. Corticosteroid treatment is unnecessary and its use has been associated with the development of CMV retinitis. Other retinal infections in AIDS patients which should be considered in the differential diagnosis include CMV, herpetic-associated ARN and syphilis. Concomitant CMV and toxoplasmosis in the same eye have been seen. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C PMID

  13. Bilateral image subtraction features for multivariate automated classification of breast cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celaya-Padilla, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Rojas, Juan; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Martínez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño, Victor; Tamez-Peña, José G.

    2014-03-01

    Early tumor detection is key in reducing breast cancer deaths and screening mammography is the most widely available method for early detection. However, mammogram interpretation is based on human radiologist, whose radiological skills, experience and workload makes radiological interpretation inconsistent. In an attempt to make mammographic interpretation more consistent, computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems has been introduced. This paper presents an CADx system aimed to automatically triage normal mammograms form suspicious mammograms. The CADx system co-reregister the left and breast images, then extracts image features from the co-registered mammographic bilateral sets. Finally, an optimal logistic multivariate model is generated by means of an evolutionary search engine. In this study, 440 subjects form the DDSM public data sets were used: 44 normal mammograms, 201 malignant mass mammograms, and 195 mammograms with malignant calci cations. The results showed a cross validation accuracy of 0.88 and an area under receiver operating characteristic (AUC) of 0.89 for the calci cations vs. normal mammograms. The optimal mass vs. normal mammograms model obtained an accuracy of 0.85 and an AUC of 0.88.

  14. [AIDS in childhood: basic guidance for attending].

    PubMed

    Machado, A R; da Silva, C L; Dutra, C E; Galvão, N A

    1994-01-01

    The pandemic expansion of AIDS demands that all health care staff and institutions are prepared to diagnose and control this disease. The HIV virus destroys the immune response and causes a series of other organ and system dysfunctions, leading to diverse clinical manifestations. This article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV infection. The role of the health care worker as an educator is also reviewed.

  15. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  16. Pediatric AIDS: psychosocial impact.

    PubMed

    Mangos, J A; Doran, T; Aranda-Naranjo, B; Rodriguez-Escobar, Y; Scott, A; Setzer, J R

    1990-06-01

    There is no question that the domain of the American family has been invaded by the HIV infection/AIDS epidemic. The disease, and particularly its form affecting children (pediatric AIDS), has had marked psychosocial impact on patients and families (intellectual/cognitive, emotional/behavioral, spiritual, and financial) and on our society in general (adverse or favorable). These impacts of pediatric AIDS are discussed in the present communication. PMID:2371699

  17. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  18. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  19. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  20. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation."

  1. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  2. HIV/AIDS and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Bernardo M; Mota, Licia Maria H; Pileggi, Gecilmara S; Safe, Izabella P; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2015-05-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It was first recognized in the United States in 1981, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic has since spread to affect all countries. The interface of HIV/AIDS with opportunistic infectious diseases is well characterized, but further research is required into the concurrence of other chronic diseases. The objective of this review was to identify possible interferences of HIV infection in the diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A review of the available evidence was conducted using the GRADE approach. Overall, the quality of evidence was low. Our main conclusions were: (1) the occurrence of rheumatoid-like arthritis in patients with HIV/AIDS is quite rare; therefore, it is not recommended that HIV infection be considered routinely as a differential diagnosis in this condition (C2); (2) HIV infection may lead to rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody positivity, but usually at low titers (C1); (3) RA might cause false-positive HIV serology and ELISA seems to be a more specific test for HIV in patients with RA (C2); (4) RA and AIDS may coexist, even in cases of severe immunosuppression (C1); (5) RA emergence may seldom occur during or after immune reconstitution (C1); and (6) there is insufficient safety data to recommend use of specific disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in RA patients with HIV/AIDS. Therefore, these drugs should be used cautiously (C1).

  3. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  4. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  5. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  6. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  7. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  8. Teachers with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

  9. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  10. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  11. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  12. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  13. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  14. AIDS: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-08-01

    Each country currently experiencing an AIDS epidemic did not believe that the epidemics would develop, but they did and more than 6 million people have since died. However, if the governments of the approximately 2.3 billion people who live in developing countries where HIV/AIDS has not yet spread to the general population, together with the international community and nongovernmental organizations, act promptly, many lives will be saved. The World Bank publication "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" brings, for the first time, an economic perspective to the problem of AIDS. The author considers how developing country governments should respond to the AIDS epidemic when they also face so many other major and pressing problems related to raising more than 1 billion people out of severe poverty. While AIDS is an important problem which must be immediately addressed, using resources to help people with AIDS will come at the expense of other objectives such as sending children to school, providing safe drinking water, and building infrastructure. The serious nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and what governments should do are considered. PMID:12294026

  15. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  16. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  17. Community responses to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1994-01-01

    Some examples of care in the community for people with HIV/AIDS are reported from Africa. Members of communities committed to fighting the AIDS epidemic cannot do so alone and should be given every possible help. Inadequate care favours the spread of HIV, as does the stigmatization of people with HIV infection and their families.

  18. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  19. AIDS -- a modern hydra.

    PubMed

    Chen, D W

    1988-10-01

    So far, AIDS has not been a major problem in Taiwan. Only 79 people have tested HIV-seropositive, and only 6 have been stricken by the disease. The government has allocated money for AIDS research; blood screening is mandatory in all hospitals; confidential AIDS testing is widely available; and doctors are advised to administer azidothymidine to anyone who tests positive. Azidothymidine is not a cure, but it can prevent the virus from destroying more cells. Nevertheless, a climate of irrational fear of and ignorance about AIDS pervades Taiwan. Many people believe that AIDS can be transmitted by casual contact, and people who are HIV-seropositive are treated as social outcasts. One student at the University of Taipei, only a few credits from graduation, has been refused readmission to the university because he tested HIV-positive. Sex education in the schools is not a good route for AIDS education because sex and especially homosexuality are simply not mentioned in public in Taiwan. Activists, including gay-rights representative, Chi Chia-Wei, have turned to the mass media, especially television as a vehicle for AIDS education, and several programs on AIDS have been shown since 1986.

  20. AIDS heterosexual predominance in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Garris, I; Rodriguez, E M; De Moya, E A; Guerrero, E; Peña, C; Puello, E; Gomez, E; Monterroso, E R; Weissenbacher, M; Vermund, S H

    1991-01-01

    AIDS surveillance data from the Dominican Republic are described for 1983-89. A positive serologic test for HIV was required, and standard clinical criteria were used for defining AIDS. There were 1,202 AIDS cases (820 men, 372 women, 10 of unknown gender) reported to the Ministry of Health, for a cumulative case rate of 17 per 100,000 persons. Rapid growth of the epidemic is noted, with 43% of the total cases reported in 1989. Heterosexual exposure accounts for 53% (593) of all cases, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.2:1, resembling a World Health Organization Pattern I/II country. Prevalence is highest in and surrounding the urbanized tourist areas of Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata and in districts with a high concentration of sugar plantation barracks, where laborers from Haiti and the Dominican Republic work and live. The distribution of AIDS cases is described by transmission exposure category, age, sex, year of diagnosis, and district. The National AIDS Surveillance Program can be improved by validation of exposure transmission categories through selected case investigation and by better reporting through training of health care providers. Surveillance data will assist in targeting future public health efforts to regions and persons at highest risk.

  1. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  2. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  3. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways. PMID:12349153

  4. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  5. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  6. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  7. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  8. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  9. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  10. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  11. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  12. Latina women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worth, D; Rodriguez, R

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS in Latina women is over 11 times that of white women. Women account for 13% of all Latino AIDS deaths since 1980. This examination of the impact of AIDS on Latino women concentrates on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The AIDS deaths among Puerto Rican women in this neighborhood are predominantly intravenous drug abuse related. Latina women accounted for more than 1/2 of all female AIDS deaths on the Lower East Side during the 1980-1985 period. The age range is parallel with that in the rest of New York City, with the exception of a higher number of deaths on the Lower East Side in the age ranges of 15-19 and over 40. Serious obstacles exist to providing AIDS risk reduction information to Puerto Rican women and their partners. Latinos account for 11% of all US AIDS cases among gay and bisexual men. The cultural proscription against these sexual practices in the Puerto Rican community makes AIDS education related to such practices extremely difficult. Many of the female sex partners of these men are unaware of their bisexuality, and, therefore not aware that they are at risk of HIV infection. The Latina women most at risk are young, poor, and have low educational levels. Latina women seriously underutilize ongoing primary health care, family planning, prenatal or pediatric care. Attempts to reach Latina women with AIDS risk reduction education must also contend with issues such as cultural gender roles. Females tend to be dependent on males and defer to male decision making related to sexual practices. In formulating policy regarding services and education, it is essential to involve the leadership of the Latino community. PMID:12268416

  13. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  14. AIDS and public health.

    PubMed

    Moskop, J C

    1988-01-01

    After briefly stating the significance of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for public health, this paper considers programs or proposals to control the spread of AIDS in the following eight general areas: (a) education; (b) distribution of sterile needles; (c) screening and treatment of blood, blood products, and other tissues; (d) voluntary and mandatory screening of persons for evidence of infection; (e) reporting; (f) contact tracing; (g) isolation and other restrictions on freedom of movement or association; and (h) physical marking of persons with AIDS. Significant moral issues within each of these areas are discussed, and the overall justifiability of various proposals is examined.

  15. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  16. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  17. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... October 15th observance calls attention to the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on the Latinx community. The ...

  18. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  19. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  20. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  1. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  2. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  3. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  4. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  5. [AIDS and society].

    PubMed

    Koupernik, C

    1988-03-01

    On the basis of information gathered from media the writer delineates the following aspects of the impact of AIDS upon social life: advertising the danger, sex education of the youth, purposeful contamination by AIDS-patients, legal repressive measures, the doctors and the right to test, Anglican Church and acceptance of homosexuality among ministers, antagonistic incentives epidemiologic research and the right to confidentiality. Finally, he endorses the recent declaration of the America Psychiatric Association determined to fight discrimination and refusal of care.

  6. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.

  7. AIDS and haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Carr, R

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 1% of all AIDS cases are haemophiliacs. LAV/HTLV-III is transmitted by blood and in factor VIII concentrates. Since 1981, increasing numbers of haemophiliacs have been infected, as indicated by detection of antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III. Up to 90% of haemophiliacs in some populations are now seropositive, but to date less than 1% have progressed to clinical AIDS. Immunological abnormalities, in particular reduced T-lymphocyte helper/suppressor ratios, are common in haemophiliacs treated with factor VIII. Such abnormalities do not necessarily indicate past infection by the AIDS virus, but they may predispose to infection following exposure to the virus. Blood Transfusion agencies are introducing screening tests for antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III to help prevent the spread of AIDS by blood products. Heat treated factor VIII concentrate is now available and appears not to transmit AIDS. Factor IX concentrate may also transmit LAV/HTLV-III, but less frequently. A few cases of AIDS have occurred in Haemophilia B (Christmas Disease) patients.

  8. Markov Chain Modelling Analysis of HIV/AIDS Progression: A Race-based Forecast in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Ko, J; Tan, Xi; Patel, Isha; Balkrishnan, R; Chang, J

    2014-03-01

    HIV/AIDS has reached a pandemic level across the world with more than 33 million people who are living with HIV. In the United States, more than half a million people have been victims of AIDS. This study investigates the most vulnerable racial minority population (the African Americans) in the United States and the second least affected (the Caucasians) in order to predict the trends of the epidemic. A Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the disease among vulnerable people, infective people and AIDS cases for the two races separately, based on the 2009 Centers of Disease Control and Prevention HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Based on the Markov model, our study predicts that the number of African American people living with AIDS diagnosis and HIV infection and dead due to HIV/AIDS will be 662.2, 1225.3 and 62.9 in 2015 and 794.9, 1566.5 and 79.2 in 2030, respectively. The number of Caucasian people living with AIDS diagnosis and HIV infection and dead due to HIV/AIDS will be 96.4, 160 and 6.5 in 2015 and 118.6, 206.9 and 8.3 in 2030, respectively. The numbers of deaths due to HIV/AIDS are quite stable over the years in both the races. There is an increasing trend in the number of people living with HIV infection and AIDS diagnosis in Caucasians compared with African Americans. The absolute number of Caucasians living with AIDS diagnosis and HIV infection is quite smaller compared with African Americans. The results reveal discrepancy in HIV infection, AIDS diagnosis and deaths due to HIV/AIDS among the African Americans and the Caucasians races. There is a need for interventions focusing on HIV/AIDS prevention and management, optimum resource allocation and development of antiAIDS campaigns to reduce the infection rate. PMID:24843183

  9. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1992-02-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services.

  10. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  11. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  12. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  13. Career Concerns for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Brandon; Jaques, Jodi; Niles, Spencer G.; Wierzalis, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Study seeks to identify the career concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS. Used qualitative research methodology to ask participants to discuss the impact their diagnosis has had on their career development concerns and their career goals. Responses classified participants' concerns as relating to career or workplace issues, medical issues, or…

  14. AIDS, public health and the panic reaction (Part II).

    PubMed

    Priya, R

    1994-01-01

    Salient points of AIDS control in India are summarized. An autonomous national AIDS control organization has been set up, which received a sizable loan from the World Bank. As a result, the central health budget became skewed with one-fourth of its expenditures going for AIDS and not enough spent on general health services. Among issues inadequately addressed are: 1) HIV surveillance; 2) diagnosis of AIDS; 3) appropriate and safe medical care; 4) wasteful expenditure; 5) educating health workers; and 6) blood bank services. HIV surveillance and testing centers have been attached to a few large hospitals and medical colleges, but more testing and treatment services will be needed. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends testing only after informed consent has been obtained; however, in India this is impossible because of the high rate of illiteracy. Instead, counseling is provided by special social workers and testing is prescribed by doctors. Special AIDS clinics might be the solution, although they lead to isolation and stigmatization of patients. Doctors and nurses should be made aware about the importance of informed consent and counseling to encourage voluntary and anonymous testing. The present WHO definition of AIDS for diagnosis is too general and is based on the African experience. Its use may lead to misdiagnosis of many cases of tuberculosis, diarrhea, and malnutrition as AIDS. Clinical criteria applicable to the Indian reality need to be developed urgently. Private practitioners have also entered HIV testing, but often they rely only on the ELISA test without confirmation which might result in a high rate of false positives. General medical care of AIDS cases have to be strengthened with routine sterilization to avoid wasteful expenditures, health workers have to be reeducated, blood bank services need to be streamlined, and more AIDS-related research is also required.

  15. 78 FR 66940 - Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... implemented to promote the prompt diagnosis of treatable medical conditions causing hearing loss. To ensure... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal... Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products.'' This draft guidance clarifies...

  16. Gay youth and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gay male teenagers face considerable adversity during their "coming out" process due to the AIDS epidemic. They must decide whether to be tested for HIV-1 infection, whether to postpone sexual activity, how to select a partner, and which kinds of sexual practices to engage in. Gay youth often make such decisions based upon misinformation and faulty premises. This paper reviews what is known about gay youth and AIDS, and assesses their possible risk for HIV-1 infection. It is recommended that school and community-based health education programs be developed to teach gay and bisexual youth about safe sex. Moreover, research is needed into sociocultural variations among gay youth in order to develop appropriate and effective intervention strategies for AIDS risk reduction in this diverse population.

  17. Recapture training aid.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, James Edward

    2004-08-01

    The breacher's training aid described in this report was designed to simulate features of magazine and steel-plate doors. The training aid enables breachers to practice using their breaching tools on components that they may encounter when attempting to enter a facility. Two types of fixtures were designed and built: (1) a large fixture incorporates simulated hinges, hasps, lock shrouds, and pins, and (2) a small fixture simulates the cross section of magazine and steel-plate doors. The small fixture consists of steel plates on either side of a structural member, such as an I-beam. The report contains detailed descriptions and photographs of the training aids, assembly instructions, and drawings.

  18. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  19. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs.

  20. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  1. Prolonged fear of AIDS as an early symptom of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Spivak, B; Mester, R; Babur, I; Mark, M; Bleich, A; Weizman, A

    1990-01-01

    A modern complaint--fear of AIDS--is making its way into the world of psychopathology and is becoming a symptom of a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including severe ones. We present a case of a young man who developed a pathological bizarre preoccupation of having AIDS and underwent various unnecessary medical procedures, until finally he was diagnosed as suffering from a paranoid schizophrenic disorder. With the high media profile that AIDS has achieved in recent years, it is expected that AIDS has become the object of psychopathological processes. However, the length of time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the appropriate psychiatric diagnosis, despite being examined by other medical professionals, is surprising. The discussion focuses on the diagnostic questions and on issues related to primary and secondary psychiatric prevention. PMID:2277826

  2. Global prevention, funding, accountability debated in fight against HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    1999-10-18

    World leaders, physicians, economists, governmental health organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers attended the Third International Conference on Healthcare Resource Allocation for HIV/AIDS and Other Life-threatening Illnesses in Vienna, Austria. The conference participants discussed the economic, ethical, and human rights issues underlying health care resource allocation. Some highlights of the meeting included: the prevention strategies in fighting AIDS virus; the use of high medical ethical standards; the affordability and accessibility of essential therapies; the economic aspects affecting the medical assistance mechanisms; the need to improve the pharmaceutical industry; the need to improve HIV/AIDS care access in developing countries; promoting the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines; and developing rapid diagnosis of HIV.

  3. Second assessment of NeuroAIDS in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Kevin; Kopnisky, Kathy; Hakim, James; Merry, Concepta; Nakasujja, Noeline; Hall, Colin; Traore, Moussa; Sacktor, Ned; Clifford, David; Newton, Charles; Van Rie, Annelies; Holding, Penny; Clements, Janice; Zink, Christine; Mielke, Jens; Hosseinipour, Mina; Lalloo, Umesh; Amod, Farida; Marra, Christina; Evans, Scott; Liner, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In July of 2006, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS (CMHRA) sponsored the second conference on the Assessment of NeuroAIDS in Africa, which was held in Arusha, Tanzania. The conference mission was to address the regional variations in epidemiology of HIV-related neurological disorders as well as the assessment and diagnosis of these disorders. Participants discussed and presented data regarding the relevance and translation of neuroAIDS assessment measures developed in resource intensive settings and the challenges of neuro-assessment in Africa, including the applicability of current tools, higher prevalence of confounding diseases, and the complexity of diverse cultural settings. The conference presentations summarized here highlight the need for further research on neuroAIDS in Africa and methods for assessing HIV-related neurological disorders. PMID:18370346

  4. Current issues in HIV/AIDS and insurance.

    PubMed

    Elliott, D

    Insurance was rarely a major concern for Canadians with AIDS early in the AIDS epidemic, when life expectancies were short and drug treatments less expensive. However, with the advent of early diagnosis and triple-drug combinations, people with HIV/AIDS are now confronting insurance problems. In the first of a two-part series, fictional scenarios explore the current issues of obtaining insurance coverage. Insurance applications may ask for HIV status and some people apply for insurance when they suspect they may be infected to protect their coverage. Applying for insurance before confirming HIV status may lead the insurance companies to interpret HIV testing and treatment shortly after initiating coverage as possibly fraudulent and questionable. Group life and mortgage insurance issues, and pre- and post-test counseling are addressed. Recent court cases and their implications on insurance coverage are described, including Gibbs v. Battleford & District Cooperative Ltd., a mental health case that affects AIDS coverage. PMID:11365276

  5. Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.

    1988-08-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder.

  6. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  7. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  8. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  9. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  10. First Aid Instruction Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Mines (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the Department of the Interior, this teaching guide is for the instructors' use in teaching a first aid course. Six fundamental areas include: (1) Artificial Respiration, (2) Control of Bleeding, (3) Physical Shock, (4) Open Wounds, Closed Wounds, and Burns, (5) Fractures and Dislocations, and (6) Transportation. A complete…

  11. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  12. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  13. Child Care Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the child care aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with child care center personnel, the course was prepared by teacher and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested, and…

  14. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  15. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  16. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  17. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  18. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  19. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)

  20. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  1. Instructional Aide Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Henry

    The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to…

  2. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  3. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  4. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  5. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  6. OSTEOPOROSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Márcio Passini Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Articles that update the state of knowledge regarding osteoporosis run the risk of quickly becoming obsolete because research and studies on osteoporosis today are arousing great interest among researchers, the pharmaceutical and medical equipment industries, governments and even WHO. All orthopedists know about osteoporosis because of its most deleterious effect: osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis without fractures does not arouse suspicion because this is a pathological condition with a nonspecific clinical profile. Osteoporotic fractures have an economic cost (from treatment), a social cost (from its sequelae) and a medical cost (from deaths). Many fractures could be avoided through diagnosing osteoporosis prior to the first fracture and thus many temporary and permanent disabilities could be avoided and many lives saved. Awareness of the risk factors for osteoporosis raises suspicions and bone densitometry aids in diagnosis. Treatment should be based on the physiopathology of the disease. Hence, for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis, the activity of osteoclasts should be diminished or the activity of osteoblasts should be increased, or both. Treatment that reduces the incidence of fractures by improving the bone geometry and microarchitecture would be ideal. Newly formed bone tissue needs to have good cell and matrix quality, normal mineralization, a good ratio between mineralized (mechanically resistant) and non-mineralized (flexible) bone, and no accumulated damage. The ideal treatment should have a positive remodeling rate and fast and long-lasting therapeutic effects. Such effects need to be easily detectable. They need to be safe. PMID:27022545

  7. Screening for AIDS.

    PubMed

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  8. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.

  9. HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates…

  10. A sexually transmitted disease: History of AIDS through philately

    PubMed Central

    Vatanoğlu, Emine Elif; Ataman, Ahmet Doğan

    2011-01-01

    AIDS has become the new plague; a disease that is not only physically and psychologically debilitating, but culturally and socially devastating as well. Like the plague, AIDS has caused fear, prejudice and even panic in society. Although there are remarkable improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, AIDS continues its grim passage around the globe. After a slight downturn in the early 1990’s, it then returned with a vengeance. By the end of the 20th century, AIDS was reliably estimated to have caused over 20 million deaths throughout the world. At the same time, 40 million people were estimated to be HIV positive. This paper provides an overview of the history of AIDS, including the discovery and its progress in the world through philately. Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items. Philately involves more than just stamp collecting, it contains the study of the design and educational impact of a philatelic material. We have presented AIDS stamps produced world-wide to emphasize the history of AIDS. PMID:24591992

  11. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  12. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  13. Country living with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kletecka, C

    1998-12-01

    The number of people with HIV in rural areas is small, but it is growing. In rural areas, AIDS organizations must deal with a fragmented client base that is spread out over a large geographic area. The logistics and costs of maintaining these services are higher per person than in urban areas. A description of what it is like to live with HIV in rural Vermont is provided. Although most people in rural Vermont seem to accept the concept of AIDS, few have known someone with the disease. Specialized medical care is difficult to obtain because only one specialty clinic and three part-time sites exist in the state of Vermont. Many who require more complex care, with better treatment options, go out of state to receive it.

  14. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  15. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  16. Manual for Student Financial Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…

  17. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  18. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  19. College Costs and Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The growing campus role in providing student financial aid is discussed based on data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, Peterson's Guide, and other sources. The campus contribution to student aid programs has grown far more than recent tuition increases. A significant portion of the financial aid burden has passed from federal…

  20. Shoulder Conditions: Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline.

    PubMed

    Codsi, Michael; Howe, Chris R

    2015-08-01

    The following guideline covers a wide array of shoulder conditions seen in the workers' compensation, as well as the nonworkers' compensation, population. The guideline is intended to help establish work relatedness and aid in making the diagnosis of shoulder injuries and degenerative conditions. It also provides a nonoperative and operative guideline for the treatment of several shoulder conditions, not limited to rotator cuff tears, subacromial impingement syndrome, acromioclavicular arthritis and dislocations, as well as glenohumeral arthritis.

  1. [Splenic abscess: etiology, diagnosis and possible therapeutics].

    PubMed

    Burnier, C; Ribordy-Baudat, V; Lamy, O

    2007-10-31

    We report the case of a 28-year-old intravenous drug abuser under quadritherapy for stage C3 AIDS and with past history of infectious endocarditis. He was admitted with a diminished general condition, weight loss, progressive unbearable abdominal pain and vomiting, without fever. An inflammatory syndrome is noted and imaging reveals a voluminous splenic abscess. Conservative treatment is initiated with repetitive drainages and intravenous antibiotics. Aetiologies, diagnosis and possible therapeutics of splenic abscesses are discussed. PMID:18018950

  2. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  3. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  4. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  5. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Seghal, P N

    1991-04-01

    In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.

  6. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes.

  7. Emergency laparotomy in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Davidson, T; Allen-Mersh, T G; Miles, A J; Gazzard, B; Wastell, C; Vipond, M; Stotter, A; Miller, R F; Fieldman, N R; Slack, W W

    1991-08-01

    The presentation, operative management and final diagnosis were reviewed in 28 patients with AIDS (27 men and one woman) who underwent emergency laparotomy. On clinical and radiological examination, six patients showed features of toxic megacolon, five patients had small bowel obstruction, six patients had localized peritonitis and three had perforated viscus with generalized peritonitis. The most common disease processes were acute colitis in seven patients (associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in six), intra-abdominal lymphoma in five patients, acute appendicitis in five patients (associated with CMV infection in two), and atypical mycobacterial (MAI) infection in four patients. Two perioperative deaths occurred; one in a patient with acute pancreatitis and a second with generalized peritonitis. Later deaths were due to progression of AIDS, and patient survival at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months was 89 per cent, 64 per cent and 48 per cent, respectively. Lower operative mortality than in previously reported series may be due to earlier intervention in CMV toxic megacolon. Surgery, however, conferred less benefit in patients with acute abdominal pain from MAI infection or lymphoma. With careful patient selection, emergency laparotomy may achieve worthwhile palliation in patients with AIDS. PMID:1655153

  8. Redirecting British foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Dean, M

    1994-01-01

    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  9. AIDS in women: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, A

    1989-09-01

    Several facts concerning the distribution of AIDS in U.S. female populations are clear. This disease has made significant inroads, in a quantitative sense, into the female segment of our society as documented by AIDS surveillance data, information on pregnant women and parturients, and by screening data from the military. The impact on women in the reproductive years, on the reproductive health of these women, and on the reproductive outcome of their pregnancies is of substantial concern. Monitoring epidemiologic trends in certain groups will require clever and creative strategies like those of Hoff and colleagues. Additional data may be derived from the CDC's Family of Surveys that will examine HIV prevalence in five groups (in addition to the newborn infant survey described above): intravenous drug users, patients admitted to hospitals, sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, women's health and reproductive health clinics, and tuberculosis clinics. It is hoped that the data obtained from these studies, as well as data gathered on college students and Job Corps applicants, will contribute additional information on HIV infection in women. Monitoring the progress of the AIDS epidemic in women will be difficult. Even more difficult will be the effort to respond to the epidemic in the women it most frequently affects: the poor, minority, disenfranchised women who may be involved in illegal activities (drug use, prostitution, illegal immigration) who are not well networked into the medical and social services of our society. PMID:2776374

  10. A Facilitation Performance Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a guide, derived from the Situational Leadership model, which describes the process that should be used in facilitating a group discussion. The process includes preparation, assessment, diagnosis, prescription, development, reinforcement, and follow-up. Three figures depict the Situational Leadership model, the facilitation process, and…

  11. Managing AIDS in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M D; Myers, J E

    1993-01-01

    Because of the AIDS epidemic and the protections afforded individuals with AIDS under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employers are well advised to ensure compliance under applicable law to reduce exposure to employee claims of discrimination and to efficiently manage workplace issues associated with AIDS. Employers should implement AIDS policies and programs designed to educate their workforce to reduce the spread of AIDS and to clear up any misunderstandings about the disease which could wreak havoc in the workplace. This article summarizes suggested action steps for employers and outside resources to consult for guidance.

  12. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  13. Interdisciplinary andrology. STDs. AIDS research.

    PubMed

    Hafez, E S

    1987-01-01

    Multidisciplinary andrology deals with clinical application and modern technology for the evaluation and differential diagnosis of male infertility with emphasis on morphological, anatomical, biochemical, immunological, hereditary, and microbiological parameters. Little is known about the effects of diet, disease, stress, environmental, and drugs on male-related unexplained infertility of couples. Regional, national, and international centers of multidisciplinary andrology should provide (1) extensive and unique clinical services; (2) a computerized "patient referral center," (3) self-learning packages (slides/tape programs) for patients; and (4) a computer link to the National Library of Medicine and the Drug Information Center. Specialized laboratories and clinics can be served by expert consultants, visiting professors, bilingual and well-trained clinicians, nurses, laboratory technologists, computer operators, and related allied health personnel. Patient education pamphlets, updated every few years, can be distributed during training workshops when an extensive network of remote teleprinters can be utilized. Qualified client location may install a printer to allow on-site printing of reports in the shortest possible time. Special mailing containers are provided to clients who wish to mail their laboratory specimens. Other clinical services may include the following: 1. Central source of communication and information in andrology; 2. International roster of multidisciplinary andrology centers; 3. Patient referral to centers and consultations for developing countries; 4. Screening of husbands and wives for in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET); 5. Screening of couples with unexplained infertility for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS; 6. Exchange of research material and methodology; 7. Coordination of multicenter research; 8. Organizing training workshops for clinicians, nurses, and laboratory technicians; 9. Establishing a repository

  14. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  15. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  16. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  17. HIV/AIDS eradication

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant immune system, and activation/elimination approaches directed towards flushing out latent virus. This latter approach could involve the use of novel chemically synthesized analogs of natural activating agents. PMID:23735743

  18. Revitalizing AIDS activism.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M

    1998-12-01

    Maxine Wolf, an activist with ACT UP New York, suggests ways to motivate others in her organization and revitalize AIDS activism. Reach out to the gay and lesbian community, get them involved in grassroots efforts, and gain their input. Participate in discussions on larger issues such as research, funding, and treatment options. Wolf also suggests becoming educated, acting in a more public way, and finding more creative ways to act. Lastly, strive for goals with high expectations that can effect change instead of merely gathering and dispensing information.

  19. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  20. Refocusing disaster aid.

    PubMed

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg

    2005-08-12

    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  1. Should Aid Reward Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  2. Hyperreactive Malarious Splenomegaly and AIDS: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tano, Zuleica Naomi; Filho, Chafic Esper Kallas; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério; Ruzon, Uheyna Gancedo

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in the North of Brazil. However, Hyperreactive Malarious Splenomegaly (HMS) has been rarely described. Splenomegaly in HIV/Aids infection has a large differential diagnosis, but malaria is a cause of gross splenomegaly, regardless of the HIV status. In this paper, we report the case of a 50-year-old man, HIV positive, with massive splenomegaly and multiple malaria infections in the past. He fulfilled the criteria for HMS, received a short course of anti-malarial treatment and weekly quimioprofilatic Chloroquine. In 9 months, he had great clinical and laboratorial improvement confirming the HMS, a rare diagnosis in Brazil.

  3. Diagnostic aids for detection of oral precancerous conditions

    PubMed Central

    Messadi, Diana V

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer has a tendency to be detected at late stage which is detrimental to the patients because of its high mortality and morbidity rates. Early detection of oral cancer is therefore important to reduce the burden of this devastating disease. In this review article, the most common oral precancerous lesions are discussed and the importance of early diagnosis is emphasized. In addition, the most common non-invasive oral cancer devices that can aid the general practitioners in early diagnosis are also discussed. PMID:23743617

  4. [Cavum lymphoma in a hemophilic patient with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Corti, M; Villafañe, M F; Cermelj, M; Candela, M; Pérez Blanco, R; Tezanos Pinto, M

    2000-01-01

    Intermediate and highly malignant non-Hodgkin and primary central nervous system lymphomas are marker diseases for AIDS. Cavum and oropharynx involvement by these tumors is uncommon. Although there are few cases reported in the literature, these may be primary localizations of the tumor. We present a hemophilic HIV+ patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cavum. The histologic diagnosis was high-grade, pleomorphic, centroblastic lymphoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy plus intrathecal chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). His evolution has been excellent. One year after diagnosis, the patient is asymptomatic with no evidence of residual tumor, and responding well to HAART.

  5. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.

  7. Unexplained male infertility: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Alaa; Esteves, Sandro C; Nizza, Mark; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  8. Fuel dispenser aid

    SciTech Connect

    Bobst, J.M.

    1993-08-31

    A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.

  9. Stray comment about AIDS leads to job bias trial.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    A supervisor's comment that an employee's poor work attitude could be attributed to his AIDS diagnosis or medications led to a lawsuit for discrimination. The suit was filed by [name removed], who claims he was fired from his job at New York publisher, [name removed] Inc., because he has AIDS. [Name removed] disclosed his diagnosis when his supervisor, [name removed], inquired about his frequent absences. [Name removed] reportedly responded that the medical condition "could cost the company a lot of money"; however, an affidavit presented at the trial showed that the company's insurance premiums would not increase because of [name removed]'s condition. [Name removed] fired [name removed] allegedly after learning that [name removed] was in contact with a competitor about possible employment opportunities. U.S. District Judge Robert L. Carter, finding that the issue turned on the credibility of both the ex-employee and the supervisor, refused to grant summary judgment to the employer in such a close situation.

  10. Artificial intelligence in medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Szolovits, P; Patil, R S; Schwartz, W B

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to overcome limitations inherent in conventional computer-aided diagnosis, investigators have created programs that simulate expert human reasoning. Hopes that such a strategy would lead to clinically useful programs have not been fulfilled, but many of the problems impeding creation of effective artificial intelligence programs have been solved. Strategies have been developed to limit the number of hypotheses that a program must consider and to incorporate pathophysiologic reasoning. The latter innovation permits a program to analyze cases in which one disorder influences the presentation of another. Prototypes embodying such reasoning can explain their conclusions in medical terms that can be reviewed by the user. Despite these advances, further major research and developmental efforts will be necessary before expert performance by the computer becomes a reality.

  11. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: Role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Leona W; Silver, Sylvia; McGrath, Michael S; Orenstein, Jan M

    2007-01-01

    The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR) supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies. The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis) and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast), George Washington University (East Coast) and Ohio State University (Mid-Region) to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators. The available biological samples with clinical data and the application process are described on the ACSR web site. The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43), specimen (15), and anatomical site (50) types. The ACSR provides special biospecimen collections and prepares speciality items, e.g., tissue microarrays (TMA), DNA libraries. Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%). Dispersed requests include 83% tissue (frozen and paraffin embedded), 18% plasma/serum and 9% other. ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens. ACSR members and associates have completed 63 podium and poster presentations. Investigators have submitted 125 letters of intent requests. Discoveries using ACSR have been reported in 61 scientific publications in notable journals with an average impact factor of 7. The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV/AIDS-related malignancy specimens to

  12. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  13. Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

  14. Radiological findings in nine AIDS patients with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wicky, S; Cartei, F; Mayor, B; Frija, J; Gevenois, P A; Giron, J; Laurent, F; Perri, G; Schnyder, P

    1996-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) infections have been incidentally reported as a cause of pulmonary infection in severely immunocompromised hosts, including AIDS patients. Our purpose is to describe the radiological findings in nine AIDS patients with R. equi pneumonia assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), biopsies, cultures of sputum, and hemocultures. All patients were examined by chest radiographs and contrast-medium-enhanced chest CT. Dense pulmonary consolidations with or without cavitations accounted for the most striking radiological patterns. Chest CT also revealed six mediastinal involvements, strongly mimicking a lymphoma. Two of them had multiple bilateral pulmonary nodular opacities. Pleural effusion was not identified. Although intensive therapies were administered, seven among nine patients died within few months. In an AIDS patient living in a rural area or exposed to horses and presenting these radiological patterns, the possibility of R. equi pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis along with other infectious diseases or lymphomas. PMID:8972317

  15. DNA image cytometry in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Auffermann, W; Krueger, G R; Böcking, A

    1986-03-01

    In nine cases with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including four stage I cases, three stage II cases and two stage III cases, DNA image cytometry was performed on Feulgen-stained lymph node imprint smears. Diploidy was found in three cases, tetraploidy in three cases and octoploidy in two cases. Aneuploid DNA distribution patterns were not seen. The lymphoid cells showed an enormously increased proliferation rate. Two cases in stage I revealed characteristic intranuclear DNA inclusions in lymphoid cells. These results indicate that DNA image cytometry may be useful as an adjunct to surgical pathology in certain cases to assist in the differential diagnosis between AIDS and benign conditions of the lymphoid system as well as between AIDS and malignant lymphomas, which usually have aneuploid DNA patterns.

  16. [Hearing aid rehabilitation of hearing disorders in adults].

    PubMed

    Spillmann, T

    1993-09-01

    Hearing-aid provision is still partly a medical task, in spite of technological progress and a confusing variety of types and models of devices. The diagnosis of the underlying disease, the appreciation of the consequences of hearing loss and the counseling of the hearing impaired person are prerequisites of the treatment. The physician should try to determine the etiology of the hearing loss. Also, a state-of-the-art otologic examination should be performed and the physician should be sensitive to the psychological and social consequences of the patient's hearing loss. For the assessment of fitted hearing aids, basic knowledge of the technical background is required. To measure hearing-aid benefit in the ENT office, suprathreshold and speech audiometry are indispensable tools.

  17. [Case report: swallowed hearing aid].

    PubMed

    Walther, E K

    1995-11-01

    An 86-year-old man presented ambulatory with acute dysphagia. Radiologic examination and endoscopy revealed a swallowed postauricular hearing aid. The earmold of the hearing aid became visible in the hypopharynx after mucus and saliva were removed. It could be extracted without effort once the connecting tube was disconnected from the coupling device lodged in the upper esophageal sphincter. The hearing aid itself was impacted in the proximal esophagus and was extracted without any problems. The postoperative phase was uneventful with normal swallowing and discharge. Technical inspection revealed that the hearing aid no longer worked. Diffusion of toxic substances (zinc, mercury) from the impacted batteries is not to be expected.

  18. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-01

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

  19. Pubic "Crab" Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  20. Head Lice: Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  1. Body Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Golbus, M S; Hall, B D; Filly, R A; Poskanzer, L B

    1977-09-01

    Severe rhizomelic and mesomelic dwarfism was demonstrated in a 20-week gestation fetus by amniography. A systematic progressive approach to prenatal diagnosis in the absence of a definitive diagnosis and the use of contrast radiography is discussed. PMID:894421

  3. Bell's Palsy Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms ... Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Diagnosis Reviewed by: Philip R Rizzuto, MD FACS ...

  4. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  5. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  6. Neurologic presentations of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Singer, Elyse J; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Commins, Deborah; Levine, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS, has infected an estimated 33 million individuals worldwide. HIV is associated with immunodeficiency, neoplasia, and neurologic disease. The continuing evolution of the HIV epidemic has spurred an intense interest in a hitherto neglected area of medicine, neuroinfectious diseases and their consequences. This work has broad applications for the study of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, dementias, neuropathies, and CNS disease in other immunosuppressed individuals. HIV is neuroinvasive (can enter the CNS), neurotrophic (can live in neural tissues), and neurovirulent (causes disease of the nervous system). This article reviews the HIV-associated neurologic syndromes, which can be classified as primary HIV neurologic disease (in which HIV is both necessary and sufficient to cause the illness), secondary or opportunistic neurologic disease (in which HIV interacts with other pathogens, resulting in opportunistic infections and tumors), and treatment-related neurologic disease (such as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). PMID:19932385

  7. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development. PMID:26975128

  8. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  9. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  10. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. PMID:27348226

  11. AIDS and sex tourism.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  12. AIDS and sex tourism.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior. PMID

  13. [AIDS information in Zimbabwe].

    PubMed

    Meyer, L

    1993-11-20

    The difficulties of health education concerning AIDs prevention in Zimbabwe include communicating simple information about complicated processes, resistance to the information because of status or tradition, and lack of experience with translating material that was produced in the West. The beliefs in ghosts and witch doctors are still part of the tradition in Zimbabwe, providing cultural diversity and a sense of identification. Traditional medicine is characterized by Westerners as often irrational behavior that is deleterious to one's health. However, even in the allegedly educated part of the world compliance is often lacking and alternative treatment forms are actively pursued in tandem with formal medicine. When there is a short time period between harmful behavior and infection, most people realize that there is a causative connection. On the other hand, it is a more complicated mental exercise to fathom that intercourse can result in HIV infection that 5 years later may lead to death from tuberculosis. No other disease is known by these people that has a corresponding delay from the time of infection to disease or death. It is also confusing that a sexually transmitted disease does not produce symptoms such as discharge or genital sores. It is difficult to comprehend that a sole causative agent, HIV, can lead to so many different diseases and symptoms. When a young man died after having been hospitalized with protracted cough and TB as a result of HIV infection that he had contracted from a girlfriend, the father told the folks at home that his son had died of TB. These conflicting pieces of information make AIDS prevention education wrought with difficulties, which adds to the rapid spread of the disease, although the authorities and international organizations have responded with strategies, informational materials, and educational courses. PMID:8273086

  14. Plasmablastic Lymphoma: A Review of Clinicopathologic Features and Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Charles M; Smith, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a challenging diagnosis given its rarity and lack of expression of markers that are usually used by pathologists in establishing hematopoietic lineage. However, knowledge of the characteristic clinical setting, sites of involvement, and morphologic features of plasmablastic lymphoma can aid in the correct diagnosis of a suspected large cell lymphoma that is negative for B-cell- and T-cell-specific antigens. Herein, we review the clinical and pathologic features of plasmablastic lymphoma with an emphasis on the differential diagnosis of hematolymphoid neoplasms with immunoblastic morphology and/or evidence of plasmacytic differentiation by immunophenotype. PMID:27684979

  15. Bilateral Image Subtraction and Multivariate Models for the Automated Triaging of Screening Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Celaya-Padilla, José; Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Rodriguez-Rojas, Juan; Galvan-Tejada, Jorge; Treviño, Victor; Tamez-Peña, José

    2015-01-01

    Mammography is the most common and effective breast cancer screening test. However, the rate of positive findings is very low, making the radiologic interpretation monotonous and biased toward errors. This work presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) method aimed to automatically triage mammogram sets. The method coregisters the left and right mammograms, extracts image features, and classifies the subjects into risk of having malignant calcifications (CS), malignant masses (MS), and healthy subject (HS). In this study, 449 subjects (197 CS, 207 MS, and 45 HS) from a public database were used to train and evaluate the CADx. Percentile-rank (p-rank) and z-normalizations were used. For the p-rank, the CS versus HS model achieved a cross-validation accuracy of 0.797 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.882; the MS versus HS model obtained an accuracy of 0.772 and an AUC of 0.842. For the z-normalization, the CS versus HS model achieved an accuracy of 0.825 with an AUC of 0.882 and the MS versus HS model obtained an accuracy of 0.698 and an AUC of 0.807. The proposed method has the potential to rank cases with high probability of malignant findings aiding in the prioritization of radiologists work list. PMID:26240818

  16. Bilateral Image Subtraction and Multivariate Models for the Automated Triaging of Screening Mammograms.

    PubMed

    Celaya-Padilla, José; Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Rodriguez-Rojas, Juan; Galvan-Tejada, Jorge; Treviño, Victor; Tamez-Peña, José

    2015-01-01

    Mammography is the most common and effective breast cancer screening test. However, the rate of positive findings is very low, making the radiologic interpretation monotonous and biased toward errors. This work presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) method aimed to automatically triage mammogram sets. The method coregisters the left and right mammograms, extracts image features, and classifies the subjects into risk of having malignant calcifications (CS), malignant masses (MS), and healthy subject (HS). In this study, 449 subjects (197 CS, 207 MS, and 45 HS) from a public database were used to train and evaluate the CADx. Percentile-rank (p-rank) and z-normalizations were used. For the p-rank, the CS versus HS model achieved a cross-validation accuracy of 0.797 with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.882; the MS versus HS model obtained an accuracy of 0.772 and an AUC of 0.842. For the z-normalization, the CS versus HS model achieved an accuracy of 0.825 with an AUC of 0.882 and the MS versus HS model obtained an accuracy of 0.698 and an AUC of 0.807. The proposed method has the potential to rank cases with high probability of malignant findings aiding in the prioritization of radiologists work list.

  17. Visual Aids for English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Masahira

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for the use of the following visual aids are described: hand gestures, drawing diagrams on the blackboard, real objects, magnetic boards and pictures and charts. The aids help to maintain student interest and bridge the gap between drill and communication. (AG)

  18. AIDS--mémoire.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, L

    1994-08-13

    A czar was born when President Clinton named Kristine M. Gebbie to be his national AIDS policy coordinator. But a year later, under unrelenting fire from AIDS activists, Gebbie resigned. Her departure underscores the trouble that some activists have had shifting from the outsider's game to the insider's.

  19. The Underpinnings of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsley, Coral B.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the basic concepts governing student aid funding and the mechanics of delivery, including a review of the development of current federal financial aid programs, the complexities of determining student need, institutional responsibility, and suggested areas for institutional research. Notes that the challenges ahead include strengthening…

  20. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    PubMed

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms.

  1. Who Receives Federal Student Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Washington, DC.

    Information on federal student aid recipients by income, undergraduate and graduate level, and financial dependency status is presented for Pell Grants, campus-based programs, and Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL). Income data are reported for all aid recipients and for financially dependent and independent students for 1983-1984 and for 1976-1977,…

  2. Teaching Aids at Low Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Felicity Savage

    1985-01-01

    Describes the activities of Teaching Aids at Low Cost (TALC), a nonprofit component of the Institute of Child Health in London. TALC develops and distributes books, sets of slides, flannelgraphs, and other teaching aids to developing nations for use in teaching health workers--nurses, auxiliary medical workers, medical students, and doctors. (MBR)

  3. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  4. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health care ...

  5. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  6. School Teachers' Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Van; Spangler, Tracy

    A survey was conducted of 100 elementary and secondary teachers in northwestern Ohio concerning their knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results indicated a lack of basic knowledge of AIDS among the majority of respondents, with a mean score of 14 out of 21 points (67 percent). Several of the most frequently missed questions…

  7. Children's Aid and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, William M.; Duane, Edward A.

    In Ontario, Canada, the agency which has the foremost obligation for the discovery and amelioration of child abuse and neglect is Children's Aid. Elementary schools are the target of much child-abuse detection. This article develops the perceptions of a representative group of 10 workers in Children's Aid on the schools relative to child abuse.…

  8. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2014, ...

  9. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  10. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  11. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  12. [Cerebral toxoplasmosis and AIDS in Martinique].

    PubMed

    Bourée, P; Dumazedier, D; Magdeleine, C; Sobesky, G

    1997-01-01

    This study was carried out in 60 AIDS patients who presented toxoplasma encephalitis in Martinique (French West Indies). Diagnosis was based on a combination of fever, neurologic signs, and characteristic CT-scan images in patients with positive HIV serology. There were 46 males and 14 females with a mean age of 40 years. The mode of transmission was heterosexual in most cases (68.3%). The incidence of drug-related transmission was low (6.7%). Neurotoxoplasmosis was the most frequent presenting symptom of AIDS (53.3%) followed by esophageal candidosis (20%) and pneumocystosis (10%). Clinical symptoms were headache (56.5%), fever (48.3%), hemiparesia (36.6%), and confusion (36.6%). CT-scan showed most lesions to be multiple (70%), hypodense (89%), and subject to contrast uptake (93%). Mean lymphocyte level was 1128/mm3 with 88 CD4/mm3 and a CD4-to-CD8 ratio of 0.14. Conventional treatment using a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine led to skin rash and neutropenia and had to be discontinued in 30% of cases. Clinical symptoms and mean survival (327 days) were the same as comparable findings from Europe and North America. PMID:9513153

  13. Postpartal nursing diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gorrie, T M

    1986-01-01

    The responsibility of nurses for postpartal patients has changed greatly in the past few years. No longer is it adequate to assess and manage only those physical problems that occur during the hospital stay. Today, potential psychosocial problems and consequences of parental knowledge deficit are part of nursing's domain of diagnosis and management. A review of the purpose of nursing diagnosis is important. Clarifying the difference between medical diagnosis and nursing diagnosis is also essential if one is to be comfortable with the process. Careful scrutiny of the unique needs of new parents will form the basis for formulating meaningful postpartal nursing diagnosis.

  14. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  15. An introduction to hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrlund, Ole

    2003-04-01

    This presentation reviews hearing-aid development from analog to advanced digital technology. A basic hearing aid consists of a microphone, an amplification circuit that provides a gain that varies with frequency to accommodate variations in hearing loss with frequency, and a small earphone. In recent years, hearing aid technology has developed rapidly. Digital hearing aids have become commonplace and their share of the marketplace is increasing rapidly. Therefore, the main focus of this talk is signal-processing schemes in advanced digital hearing aids, including microphones with digitally controlled directional characteristics, wide-dynamic-range compression in multiple channels that allow the compression characteristics to vary with frequency, noise reduction, and feedback cancellation. Each of these signal-processing functions help address the needs of individuals with hearing losses.

  16. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  17. Africa and the AIDS myth.

    PubMed

    Versi, A

    1990-04-01

    The recently released television documentary, "Monkey Business, AIDS: The African Story," has created controversy in Europe with its premise that AIDS did not originate in Africa. Although AIDS 1st appeared in New York in 1981 and was not recorded in Africa until 1983, researchers and the media have promoted the theory that AIDS came from Africa through human contact with the green monkey. Subsequent research forced the original champions of this "green monkey connection" theory to acknowledge that the AIDS virus and the green monkey virus are so dissimilar that they could not be historically linked. Then, the focus turned to the theory that a remote pygmy tribe had been endemically infected with the AIDS virus and carried the disease, by airplane, out of the country. This theory, too, was refuted by the failure to locate any HIV-positive pygmies in the Central African Republic. Still determined to prove that AIDS did not have an American or European origin, researchers reported that blood testing conducted in 1984 revealed 50-90% of Africans to be HIV-infected. Retesting with a more accurate procedure revealed the rate of infectivity to be only 0.02%; yet the media have continued to portray Africa as the source of the AIDS scourge. Moreover, it appears that AIDS cases are actually overreported from Africa--not underreported--due to confusion with conditions such as malnutrition and tropical diseases. To some, this relentless drive to vilify Africa reflects racism. Others believe that it represents an effort to cover up the possibility that the AIDS virus is man-made--a result of an accident in gene technology or microbiology.

  18. Athletic Trainers as HIV/AIDS Educators for Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hunt, B P; Pujol, T J

    1994-06-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to spread among the population at large. The age group 20 through 29 is the fastest growing demographic group in terms of AIDS diagnosis. This study examined a specific subgroup of that population: male and female college athletes. Subjects were 821 scholarship basketball players from 53 NCAA institutions across the nation. A survey instrument required respondents to identify common sources of HIV/AIDS information and preferred instructional formats for HIV/AIDS education. Mass media (92.4%), parents (62.2%), and teammates/peers (54.8%) were most commonly identified. Athletic trainers and team physicians were identified by 32.2% and 43.4% of the sample, respectively. The athletes indicated preference for video presentations (66.5%), small group discussions (58.8%), and question and answer sessions with expert panels (52.4%) as the most preferred instructional formats. Athletic trainers and team physicians can use the information presented in this paper to enhance their important roles in HIV/AIDS education for student athletes.

  19. Convolution neural-network-based detection of lung structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1994-05-01

    Chest radiography is one of the most primary and widely used techniques in diagnostic imaging. Nowadays with the advent of digital radiology, the digital medical image processing techniques for digital chest radiographs have attracted considerable attention, and several studies on the computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) as well as on the conventional image processing techniques for chest radiographs have been reported. In the automatic diagnostic process for chest radiographs, it is important to outline the areas of the lungs, the heart, and the diaphragm. This is because the original chest radiograph is composed of important anatomic structures and, without knowing exact positions of the organs, the automatic diagnosis may result in unexpected detections. The automatic extraction of an anatomical structure from digital chest radiographs can be a useful tool for (1) the evaluation of heart size, (2) automatic detection of interstitial lung diseases, (3) automatic detection of lung nodules, and (4) data compression, etc. Based on the clearly defined boundaries of heart area, rib spaces, rib positions, and rib cage extracted, one should be able to use this information to facilitate the tasks of the CADx on chest radiographs. In this paper, we present an automatic scheme for the detection of lung field from chest radiographs by using a shift-invariant convolution neural network. A novel algorithm for smoothing boundaries of lungs is also presented.

  20. A study of several CAD methods for classification of clustered microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liyang; Yang, Yongyi; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Jiang, Yulei

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we investigate several state-of-the-art machine-learning methods for automated classification of clustered microcalcifications (MCs), aimed to assisting radiologists for more accurate diagnosis of breast cancer in a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) scheme. The methods we consider include: support vector machine (SVM), kernel Fisher discriminant (KFD), and committee machines (ensemble averaging and AdaBoost), most of which have been developed recently in statistical learning theory. We formulate differentiation of malignant from benign MCs as a supervised learning problem, and apply these learning methods to develop the classification algorithms. As input, these methods use image features automatically extracted from clustered MCs. We test these methods using a database of 697 clinical mammograms from 386 cases, which include a wide spectrum of difficult-to-classify cases. We use receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate and compare the classification performance by the different methods. In addition, we also investigate how to combine information from multiple-view mammograms of the same case so that the best decision can be made by a classifier. In our experiments, the kernel-based methods (i.e., SVM, KFD) yield the best performance, significantly outperforming a well-established CADx approach based on neural network learning.

  1. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  2. Improved biliary detection and diagnosis through intelligent machine analysis.

    PubMed

    Logeswaran, Rajasvaran

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports on work undertaken to improve automated detection of bile ducts in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images, with the objective of conducting preliminary classification of the images for diagnosis. The proposed I-BDeDIMA (Improved Biliary Detection and Diagnosis through Intelligent Machine Analysis) scheme is a multi-stage framework consisting of successive phases of image normalization, denoising, structure identification, object labeling, feature selection and disease classification. A combination of multiresolution wavelet, dynamic intensity thresholding, segment-based region growing, region elimination, statistical analysis and neural networks, is used in this framework to achieve good structure detection and preliminary diagnosis. Tests conducted on over 200 clinical images with known diagnosis have shown promising results of over 90% accuracy. The scheme outperforms related work in the literature, making it a viable framework for computer-aided diagnosis of biliary diseases.

  3. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America.Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme.The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010.

  4. [AIDS. The trend of HIV/AIDS and the nurse's role in AIDS care].

    PubMed

    Chang, S B

    1993-01-01

    Since the first case of AIDS was found among male homosexuals, the AIDS related problem has been in the male homosexual population, but the AIDS trend is changing from homosexuals to heterosexuals, with the majority of cases in the general population. Even though currently the reported HIV/AIDS cases in Korea are only 324 in Korea, the number of people infected with HIV/AIDS is projected to increase greatly over the next few years. As the number of these cases increases, there will be a major strain on nursing care resources. Since there is no known cure, the only way of halting this epidemic is through the prevention of further infection. In various stages of HIV infection, different problems occur, calling for various specific services and nursing skills. Nurses must develop a strategy to alleviate the negative attitudes related to care of AIDS patients and anxiety and dislike for care of terminally ill patients. Also, nurses must be prepared for teaching the general population about prevention of AIDS, counseling individuals in risk of HIV infection, HIV testing, and transmission risks, and caring for AIDS patients using Hospice concepts in various settings.

  5. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  6. BEMFAM delivers AIDS alert.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar (BEMFAM) of Brazil developed a project using integrated communication strategies to alert prostitutes and their clients about the risks of contracting HIV. The project specifically promoted condom use and was conducted within the context of BEMFAM's Integrated Family Planning Program. Villa Mimoza, a prostitution zone in the Estacio neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, was the site of the intervention. This neighborhood harbors 44 houses of prostitution where an estimated 500 female prostitutes receive clients. An agreement was reached with the Association of Prostitutes of the State of Rio de Janeiro whereby it would help mobilize local women, merchants, brothel owners, and clients. Initial needs were assessed by BEMFAM and AIDSCOM through questionnaires and focus groups. It was subsequently resolved that radio programs, counter displays of educational materials in brothels, and posters in brothel rooms would be the most effective channels through which to carry integrated, effective messages to the community. Final evaluation found a change in attitude and an awareness of the importance of measures to prevent AIDS along with a prevalent increase in condom use.

  7. Peircean Decision Aid

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  8. Peircean Decision Aid

    SciTech Connect

    SENGLAUB, MICHAEL; & WHITFIELD, GREG

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decision maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.

  9. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  10. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  11. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  12. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.

  13. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital. PMID:1392821

  14. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh. PMID:12285939

  15. AIDS: what should we do?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A

    1990-08-01

    There is no 1 AIDS epidemic in the US. The 1st epidemic includes gay and bisexual men. The 2nd consists of intravenous (IV) drug users and their infants, pimps, lovers, and customers. The 3rd and most recent epidemic affects individuals who are exclusively heterosexual who have never had a blood transfusion, never used IV drugs, and have not had sex with those who did any of these things. The former director of the Center for AIDS Research in Baltimore, MD put out 8 proposals that, if implemented, would reduce the transmission of HIV and provide adequate medical care for AIDS patients. Health and educational professionals must develop improved AIDS education programs directed to those at risk. Since many of them are functionally illiterate, television should carry AIDS education messages. In addition, all AIDS prevention and educational programs need to be evaluated strongly so the country can focus on those activities which are most effective. Those who determine public policy should heed the advice of those who truly understand AIDS. Government, drug companies, and university scientists should all increase research to develop antiretroviral drugs that are not dependent on refrigeration, can be transported rapidly, and are inexpensive. Scientists also need to continue working on a vaccine and determine if an HIV vaccine can indeed immunize entire populations. Moreover affordable health care must be available to all AIDS patients. The present haphazard structure of AIDS treatment services must be recognized and integrated into a system that provides patients with coordinated medical and social services. Likewise, all research, treatment and education programs at federal, state, and local levels must be coordinated so that various players do not bicker over priorities. PMID:12283707

  16. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  17. Psychological first-aid: a practical aide-memoire.

    PubMed

    Leach, J

    1995-07-01

    Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.

  18. [Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS: Nursing discussion about dangerous relations for women].

    PubMed

    Xavier, I M

    2001-01-01

    The present article has as its main objective the discussion of the risky relationship between sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the HIV/AIDS under the perspective of gender and sexuality. It presents the increase of AIDS among women as a consequence of social, political, cultural and economic relations. The study uses an exploratory methodology of qualitative nature. It focuses on women who are HIV positive and acquired the disease through sexual relationships with a stable partner. The study concluded that nursing care is a very important opportunity for nurses to make an early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the STDs and AIDS.

  19. Positioning the image of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cooter, Roger; Stein, Claudia

    2010-03-01

    AIDS posters can be treated as material objects whose production, distribution and consumption varied across time and place. It is also possible to reconstruct and analyse the public health discourse at the time these powerful images appeared. More recently, however, these conventional historical approaches have been challenged by projects in literary and art criticism. Here, images of AIDS are considered in terms of their function in and for a new discursive regime of power centred on the human body and its visualization. How images of AIDS came to be understood in Western culture in relation to wider political and economic conditions redefines the historical task.

  20. AIDS and homophobia among nurses.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Y K; Wu, Y W; Haughey, B P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study nurses' attitudes toward homosexuality and caring for homosexual patients. The results reported in this article are a component of a larger study of nurses' knowledge about and attitudes toward caring for patients with AIDS. The sample comprised 581 Registered Nurses residing in Erie County, New York. Data were gathered by mailed questionnaires. Results of the study indicate that issues concerning the care of patients with AIDS may be complicated by the fact that many of these individuals are homosexuals. The results of this research provide data for developing intervention strategies to help nurses cope with their concerns about caring for homosexual patients with AIDS.