Science.gov

Sample records for aided diagnostic system

  1. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  2. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali

    2013-01-01

    Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:24575126

  3. New Diagnostic Aides for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Laura K.; Harris, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Detection of melanoma at an early stage is crucial to improving survival rates in melanoma. Accurate diagnosis by current techniques including dermatoscopy remains difficult, and new tools are needed to improve our diagnostic abilities. This article discusses recent advances in diagnostic techniques including confocal scanning laser microscopy, MelaFind, Siascopy, noninvasive genomic detection, as well as other future possibilities to aid in diagnosing melanoma. Advantages and barriers to implementation of the various technologies are discussed as well. PMID:22800557

  4. Using computer aided system to determine the maximum depth of visualization of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslebu, G.; Adi, K.; Suryono

    2016-03-01

    In the service unit of radiology, ultrasound modality is widely used because it has advantages over other modalities, such as relatively inexpensive, non-invasive, does not use ionizing radiation, and portable. Until now, the method for determining the depth visualization on quality control program is through the visual observation of ultrasound image on the monitor. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided system to determine maximum depth of visualization. Data acquisition was done by using B-Mode Diagnostic Ultrasound machine and Multi-purpose Multi-tissue Ultrasound Phantom model 040GSE. Phantom was scanned at fixed frequency of 1,8 MHz, 2,2 MHz, 3,6 MHz and 5,0 MHz with a gain variation of 30 dB, 45 dB, and 60 dB. Global thresholding and Euclidean distance method were used to determine maximum visualization depth. From this study, it is proved that the visualization depth using computer aided provide deeper visualization than visual interpretation. The differences between expert verification and the result of image processing are <6%. Thus, computer aided system can be used for the purpose of quality control in determining maximum visualization depth of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image.

  5. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  6. A Computer-Based, Interactive Videodisc Job Aid and Expert System for Electron Beam Lithography Integration and Diagnostic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Kimberly

    This master's thesis describes the development of an expert system and interactive videodisc computer-based instructional job aid used for assisting in the integration of electron beam lithography devices. Comparable to all comprehensive training, expert system and job aid development require a criterion-referenced systems approach treatment to…

  7. Microcalcification detection based on wavelet domain hidden markov tree model: study for inclusion to computer aided diagnostic prompting system.

    PubMed

    Regentova, Emma; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Veni, Gopalkrishna

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of statistical modeling of digital mammograms by means of wavelet domain hidden Markov trees for its inclusion to a computer-aided diagnostic prompting system. The system is designed for detecting clusters of microcalcifications. Their further discrimination as benign or malignant is to be done by radiologists. The model is used for segmenting images based on the maximum likelihood classifier enhanced by the weighting technique. Further classification incorporates spatial filtering for a single microcalcification (MC) and microcalcification cluster (MCC) detection. Contrast filtering applied for the digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) dataset prior to spatial filtering greatly improves the classification accuracy. For all MC clusters of 40 mammograms from the mini-MIAS database of Mammographic Image Analysis Society, 92.5%-100% of true positive cases can be detected under 2-3 false positives per image. For 150 cases of DDSM cases, the designed system is capable to detect up to 98% of true positives under 3.3% of false positive cases. PMID:17654922

  8. Microcalcification detection based on wavelet domain hidden Markov tree model: Study for inclusion to computer aided diagnostic prompting system

    SciTech Connect

    Regentova, Emma; Zhang Lei; Zheng Jun; Veni, Gopalkrishna

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we investigate the performance of statistical modeling of digital mammograms by means of wavelet domain hidden Markov trees for its inclusion to a computer-aided diagnostic prompting system. The system is designed for detecting clusters of microcalcifications. Their further discrimination as benign or malignant is to be done by radiologists. The model is used for segmenting images based on the maximum likelihood classifier enhanced by the weighting technique. Further classification incorporates spatial filtering for a single microcalcification (MC) and microcalcification cluster (MCC) detection. Contrast filtering applied for the digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) dataset prior to spatial filtering greatly improves the classification accuracy. For all MC clusters of 40 mammograms from the mini-MIAS database of Mammographic Image Analysis Society, 92.5%-100% of true positive cases can be detected under 2-3 false positives per image. For 150 cases of DDSM cases, the designed system is capable to detect up to 98% of true positives under 3.3% of false positive cases.

  9. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. In this methodology, multilevel'' refers to information models described at successful levels of abstraction that are tied together in such a way that reasoning is directed to the appropriate level as determined by the problem solving requirements. The concept of multiagent'' refers to the method of information processing within the multilevel model network; each model in the network is an independent information processor, i.e., an intelligent agent. 19 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. CLIPS: A tool for corn disease diagnostic system and an aid to neural network for automated knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Cathy; Taylor, Pam; Whitson, George; Smith, Cathy

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the building of a corn disease diagnostic expert system using CLIPS, and the development of a neural expert system using the fact representation method of CLIPS for automated knowledge acquisition. The CLIPS corn expert system diagnoses 21 diseases from 52 symptoms and signs with certainty factors. CLIPS has several unique features. It allows the facts in rules to be broken down to object-attribute-value (OAV) triples, allows rule-grouping, and fires rules based on pattern-matching. These features combined with the chained inference engine result to a natural user query system and speedy execution. In order to develop a method for automated knowledge acquisition, an Artificial Neural Expert System (ANES) is developed by a direct mapping from the CLIPS system. The ANES corn expert system uses the same OAV triples in the CLIPS system for its facts. The LHS and RHS facts of the CLIPS rules are mapped into the input and output layers of the ANES, respectively; and the inference engine of the rules is imbedded in the hidden layer. The fact representation by OAC triples gives a natural grouping of the rules. These features allow the ANES system to automate rule-generation, and make it efficient to execute and easy to expand for a large and complex domain.

  11. Development of laser-aided plasma diagnostics and related technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Pavlichenko, R.; Tanaka, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.

    2008-03-12

    Laser-aided plasma diagnostics, aiming for establishment of reliable density measurement in next step magnetically confined fusion devices, are under development at the National Institute for Fusion Science. A new type of two color laser (57.2/47.6-{mu}m CH{sub 3}OD) interferometer has been developed and its original function, vibration subtraction, was confirmed in a test stand. The line integrated density measurements by the polarimeter were demonstrated at Compact Helical System by the Cotton-Mouton polarimeter and at the LHD by the Faraday rotation polarimeter.

  12. Visual aids improve diagnostic inferences and metacognitive judgment calibration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T.; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Visual aids can improve comprehension of risks associated with medical treatments, screenings, and lifestyles. Do visual aids also help decision makers accurately assess their risk comprehension? That is, do visual aids help them become well calibrated? To address these questions, we investigated the benefits of visual aids displaying numerical information and measured accuracy of self-assessment of diagnostic inferences (i.e., metacognitive judgment calibration) controlling for individual differences in numeracy. Participants included 108 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests and disease prevalence. Half of the patients received the information in numbers without a visual aid, while the other half received numbers along with a grid representing the numerical information. In the numerical condition, many patients–especially those with low numeracy–misinterpreted the predictive value of the tests and profoundly overestimated the accuracy of their inferences. Metacognitive judgment calibration mediated the relationship between numeracy and accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In contrast, in the visual aid condition, patients at all levels of numeracy showed high-levels of inferential accuracy and metacognitive judgment calibration. Results indicate that accurate metacognitive assessment may explain the beneficial effects of visual aids and numeracy–a result that accords with theory suggesting that metacognition is an essential part of risk literacy. We conclude that well-designed risk communications can inform patients about healthrelevant numerical information while helping them assess the quality of their own risk comprehension. PMID:26236247

  13. Visual aids improve diagnostic inferences and metacognitive judgment calibration.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Visual aids can improve comprehension of risks associated with medical treatments, screenings, and lifestyles. Do visual aids also help decision makers accurately assess their risk comprehension? That is, do visual aids help them become well calibrated? To address these questions, we investigated the benefits of visual aids displaying numerical information and measured accuracy of self-assessment of diagnostic inferences (i.e., metacognitive judgment calibration) controlling for individual differences in numeracy. Participants included 108 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests and disease prevalence. Half of the patients received the information in numbers without a visual aid, while the other half received numbers along with a grid representing the numerical information. In the numerical condition, many patients-especially those with low numeracy-misinterpreted the predictive value of the tests and profoundly overestimated the accuracy of their inferences. Metacognitive judgment calibration mediated the relationship between numeracy and accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In contrast, in the visual aid condition, patients at all levels of numeracy showed high-levels of inferential accuracy and metacognitive judgment calibration. Results indicate that accurate metacognitive assessment may explain the beneficial effects of visual aids and numeracy-a result that accords with theory suggesting that metacognition is an essential part of risk literacy. We conclude that well-designed risk communications can inform patients about healthrelevant numerical information while helping them assess the quality of their own risk comprehension. PMID:26236247

  14. Posturography as a diagnostic aid in dentistry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Perinetti, G; Contardo, L

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to assess the scientific evidence for detectable correlations between the stomatognathic system and whole-body posture and to provide information on the relevance of posturography as a diagnostic aid in dentistry. A literature survey was performed using the Medline database, covering the period from January 1966 to May 2009, and using the medical subject headings. After selection, 21 articles qualified for the final analysis. Only one study was judged to be of medium/high quality, with all of the rest classified as of low quality design. Only two studies included follow-up of 28 days and 1 year. Overall, 14 of the studies reported detectable correlations between the stomatognathic system and body posture in at least one of the parameters used, although in four of these studies the authors suggested caution in the interpretation of their data. After a reappraisal of the data provided in 13 of the studies, a weak correlation that reaches biological, but not clinical, relevance is apparent. With limitations because of the poor methodological quality of the present published studies, conclusions are that a correlation between the stomatognathic system and whole-body posture can be detected, at least under experimental conditions; although posturography has little relevance in the monitoring of body posture responses to changes in the stomatognathic system (including temporomandibular disorders). While more investigations with improved levels of scientific evidence are needed, the current evidence does not support the usefulness of posturography as a diagnostic aid in dentistry. PMID:19878440

  15. Diagnostic utility of lymphocyte subset analysis in AIDS case finding.

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; MacLeod, A; Douglas, B; Maynard, M; Sharp, R; Wiggs, B

    1986-01-01

    Abnormalities of lymphocyte subsets, especially low absolute number of helper T cells, are characteristically present in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Similar abnormalities can be found in patients with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) and, to a lesser degree, in asymptomatic people who have been exposed to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III). Nevertheless, there appears to be a widespread perception that lymphocyte subset analysis may be useful in AIDS case finding within high-risk groups. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells in 33 patients with AIDS, 43 patients with PGL who had been referred for lymph node biopsy, 90 patients with PGL and 195 male homosexual controls. At conventional cutoff levels the tests did not appear to revise the probability of AIDS upward to any clinically significant degree when the pretest probability of AIDS was low. Lymphocyte subset analysis does not appear to be a cost-effective method of AIDS case finding in identified groups at risk in which the prevalence of AIDS is low. PMID:2938707

  16. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wyeth, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  17. Infrared thermographic diagnostic aid to aircraft maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delo, Michael; Delo, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Thermographic data can be used as a supplement to aircraft maintenance operations in both back shop and flight line situations. Aircraft systems such as electrical, propulsion, environmental, pitot static and hydraulic/pneumatic fluid, can be inspected using a thermal infrared (IR) imager. Aircraft systems utilize electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical, and electro-pneumatic mechanisms, which, if accessible, can be diagnosed for faults using infrared technology. Since thermographs are images of heat, rather than light, the measurement principle is based on the fact that any physical object (radiating energy at infrared wavelengths within the IR portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum), can be imaged with infrared imaging equipment. All aircraft systems being tested with infrared are required to be energized for troubleshooting, so that valuable baseline data from fully operational aircraft can be collected, archived and referenced for future comparisons.

  18. A Diagnostic Aid To Pulp Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Allan; Lebensold, Julian M.

    1989-03-01

    Pitch deposits in the production of pulp from wood are a very significant problem in the pulp and paper industry. Conservative estimates place the annual cost at around $30 million a year. At the present time problems in this domain are handled by human experts, whose time might otherwise be available for research. Development of an expert system in this area would be expected to have several beneficial effects. Quantitatively, it will decrease down time, thus allowing for greater production, and qualitatively it will decrease the occurrence of contamination in the final pulp.

  19. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  20. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    AM Biotechnologies, LLC, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a diagnostic device that quickly detects sampled biomarkers. The TDS quickly quantifies clinically relevant biomarkers using only microliters of a single sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long shelf-life affinity assays with handheld, microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The TDS is easy to use, operates in microgravity, and permits simultaneous quantification of 32 biomarkers. In Phase I of the project, the partners demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument could quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. The team also identified novel affinity agents to bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their ability to detect BAP with the microfluidic instrument. In Phase II, AM Biotech expanded the number of ambient affinity agents and demonstrated a TDS prototype. In the long term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight-tested diagnostic capability for space exploration missions.

  1. Diagnostics aid for mass spectrometer trouble-shooting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filby, E. E.; Rankin, R. A.; Webb, G. W.

    The MS Expert system provides problem diagnostics for instruments used in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (MSL). The most critical results generated on these mass spectrometers are the uranium concentration and isotopic content data used for process control and materials accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two purposes of the system are: (1) to minimize instrument downtime and thereby provide the best possible support to the Plant, and (2) to improve long-term data quality. This system combines the knowledge of several experts on mass spectrometry to provide a diagnostic tool, and can make these skills available on a more timely basis. It integrates code written in the Pascal language with a knowledge base entered into a commercial expert system shell. The user performs some preliminary status checks, and then selects from among several broad diagnostic categories. These initial steps provide input to the rule base. The overall analysis provides the user with a set of possible solutions to the observed problems, graded as to their probabilities. Besides the trouble-shooting benefits expected from this system, it will also provide structures diagnostic training for lab personnel. In addition, development of the system knowledge base has already produced a better understanding of instrument behavior. Two key findings are that a good user interface is necessary for full acceptance of the tool, and a development system should include standard programming capabilities as well as the expert system shell.

  2. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A.; Park, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system called CP Diagnostic has been developed for troubleshooting sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with the CP Diagnostic database system, which stores inventory and field measurement information for CP systems and flags problem areas. When a malfunction is detected, the expert system queries the user and the companion inventory and field measurement databases to determine its symptoms. The system will be described and examples of troubleshooting using the system will be presented.

  3. System diagnostic builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The System Diagnostic Builder (SDB) is an automated software verification and validation tool using state-of-the-art Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB is used extensively by project BURKE at NASA-JSC as one component of a software re-engineering toolkit. The SDB is applicable to any government or commercial organization which performs verification and validation tasks. The SDB has an X-window interface, which allows the user to 'train' a set of rules for use in a rule-based evaluator. The interface has a window that allows the user to plot up to five data parameters (attributes) at a time. Using these plots and a mouse, the user can identify and classify a particular behavior of the subject software. Once the user has identified the general behavior patterns of the software, he can train a set of rules to represent his knowledge of that behavior. The training process builds rules and fuzzy sets to use in the evaluator. The fuzzy sets classify those data points not clearly identified as a particular classification. Once an initial set of rules is trained, each additional data set given to the SDB will be used by a machine learning mechanism to refine the rules and fuzzy sets. This is a passive process and, therefore, it does not require any additional operator time. The evaluation component of the SDB can be used to validate a single software system using some number of different data sets, such as a simulator. Moreover, it can be used to validate software systems which have been re-engineered from one language and design methodology to a totally new implementation.

  4. Aided targeting system simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demaio, Joe; Becker, Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Simulation research was conducted at the Crew Station Research and Development Facility on the effectiveness and ease of use of three targeting systems. A manual system required the aviator to scan a target array area with a simulated second generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, locate and categorize targets, and construct a target hand-off list. The interface between the aviator and the system was like that of an advanced scout helicopter (manual mode). Two aided systems detected and categorized targets automatically. One system used only the FLIR sensor and the second used FLIR fused with Longbow radar. The interface for both was like that of an advanced scout helicopter aided mode. Exposure time while performing the task was reduced substantially with the aided systems, with no loss of target hand-off list accuracy. The fused sensor system showed lower time to construct the target hand-off list and a slightly lower false alarm rate than the other systems. A number of issues regarding system sensitivity and criterion, and operator interface design are discussed.

  5. EUROPattern Suite technology for computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy in autoantibody diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Krause, C; Ens, K; Fechner, K; Voigt, J; Fraune, J; Rohwäder, E; Hahn, M; Danckwardt, M; Feirer, C; Barth, E; Martinetz, T; Stöcker, W

    2015-04-01

    Antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) are highly informative biomarkers in autoimmune diagnostics. The increasing demand for effective test systems, however, has led to the development of a confusingly large variety of different platforms. One of them, the indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), is regarded as the common gold standard for ANA screening, as described in a position statement by the American College of Rheumatology in 2009. Technological solutions have been developed aimed at standardization and automation of IIF to overcome methodological limitations and subjective bias in IIF interpretation. In this review, we present the EUROPattern Suite, a system for computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy (CAIFM) including automated acquisition of digital images and evaluation of IIF results. The system was originally designed for ANA diagnostics on human epithelial cells, but its applications have been extended with the latest system update version 1.5 to the analysis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies. PMID:25801895

  6. Computer aided coordinate measuring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastri, J. W.

    Sikorsky's computer-aided inspection system and equipment utilized to assure that manufactured parts meet drawing tolerance specifications are discussed. An overview of the system is given, and the software is described, including the monitor console routine and commands and the language commands. The system's three coordinate measuring machines are discussed, and the part inspection methods are described in stepwise fashion. System benefits and time savings items are detailed, including quick and accurate measurement of parts difficult to inspect by conventional methods, significant reduction in inspection time, a consistent baseline that highlights variances, and the use of personnel with lower skill levels to effectively inspect critical parts.

  7. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A. ); Park, Y.T. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-12-01

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system has been developed for troubleshooting cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with a database that stores inventory and field measurement information and flags problem areas. The system is described, and examples of troubleshooting using the system are presented.

  8. Embedding CLIPS in a database-oriented diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Tim

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) into a powerful portable maintenance aid (PMA) system used for flightline diagnostics. The current diagnostic target of the system is the Garrett GTCP85-180L, a gas turbine engine used as an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) on some C-130 military transport aircraft. This project is a database oriented approach to a generic diagnostic system. CLIPS is used for 'many-to-many' pattern matching within the diagnostics process. Patterns are stored in database format, and CLIPS code is generated by a 'compilation' process on the database. Multiple CLIPS rule sets and working memories (in sequence) are supported and communication between the rule sets is achieved via the export and import commands. Work is continuing on using CLIPS in other portions of the diagnostic system and in re-implementing the diagnostic system in the Ada language.

  9. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids. [Root-cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems based on research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. Our research in fault diagnosis at PNL grew out of our work in root-cause analysis (RCA). Our approach consists of those major activities which we categorize as (1) determining knowledge requirements, (2) constructing models, and (3) developing the requirements for representation schemes. We group knowledge for fault diagnosis into two broad groups: cognitive task and process-system knowledge. Our research indicates that a useful representation scheme can be developed employing function and object hierarchies, task required inference, and task specified reasoning control. Formal modeling of the reasoning task determines the required task inference and control. This research has focused on the use of the representation scheme for fault diagnosis. However, preliminary analysis indicates that this same scheme may be useful in automating control tasks. The next phase of this research is to develop a prototype. The prototype system has been specified and we are presently developing knowledge models of the components and system. 19 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. ACER Physics Unit Tests: Unit Tests, Diagnostic Aids, [and] Teachers Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Physics Unit Tests are designed to assist in the diagnostic evaluation of students' progress in the study of physics during the last two years of secondary schooling. They consist of a collection of 21 separate tests, each related to a different topic, and 21 diagnostic aids corresponding to the tests. The topics covered are: physical…

  11. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  12. Performance evaluation of computer aided diagnostic tool (CAD) for detection of ultrasonic based liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sriraam, N; Roopa, J; Saranya, M; Dhanalakshmi, M

    2009-08-01

    Recent advances in digital imaging technology have greatly enhanced the interpretation of critical/pathology conditions from the 2-dimensional medical images. This has become realistic due to the existence of the computer aided diagnostic tool. A computer aided diagnostic (CAD) tool generally possesses components like preprocessing, identification/selection of region of interest, extraction of typical features and finally an efficient classification system. This paper enumerates on development of CAD tool for classification of chronic liver disease through the 2-D image acquired from ultrasonic device. Characterization of tissue through qualitative treatment leads to the detection of abnormality which is not viable through qualitative visual inspection by the radiologist. Common liver diseases are the indicators of changes in tissue elasticity. One can show the detection of normal, fatty or malignant condition based on the application of CAD tool thereby, further investigation required by radiologist can be avoided. The proposed work involves an optimal block analysis (64 x 64) of the liver image of actual size 256 x 256 by incorporating Gabor wavelet transform which does the texture classification through automated mode. Statistical features such as gray level mean as well as variance values are estimated after this preprocessing mode. A non-linear back propagation neural network (BPNN) is applied for classifying the normal (vs) fatty and normal (vs) malignant liver which yields a classification accuracy of 96.8%. Further multi classification is also performed and a classification accuracy of 94% is obtained. It can be concluded that the proposed CAD can be used as an expert system to aid the automated diagnosis of liver diseases. PMID:19697693

  13. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  14. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  15. Image-based diagnostic aid for interstitial lung disease with secondary data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Müller, Henning; Hidki, Asmâa; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2007-03-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a relatively heterogeneous group of around 150 illnesses with often very unspecific symptoms. The most complete imaging method for the characterisation of ILDs is the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest but a correct interpretation of these images is difficult even for specialists as many diseases are rare and thus little experience exists. Moreover, interpreting HRCT images requires knowledge of the context defined by clinical data of the studied case. A computerised diagnostic aid tool based on HRCT images with associated medical data to retrieve similar cases of ILDs from a dedicated database can bring quick and precious information for example for emergency radiologists. The experience from a pilot project highlighted the need for detailed database containing high-quality annotations in addition to clinical data. The state of the art is studied to identify requirements for image-based diagnostic aid for interstitial lung disease with secondary data integration. The data acquisition steps are detailed. The selection of the most relevant clinical parameters is done in collaboration with lung specialists from current literature, along with knowledge bases of computer-based diagnostic decision support systems. In order to perform high-quality annotations of the interstitial lung tissue in the HRCT images an annotation software and its own file format is implemented for DICOM images. A multimedia database is implemented to store ILD cases with clinical data and annotated image series. Cases from the University & University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG) are retrospectively and prospectively collected to populate the database. Currently, 59 cases with certified diagnosis and their clinical parameters are stored in the database as well as 254 image series of which 26 have their regions of interest annotated. The available data was used to test primary visual features for the classification of lung tissue patterns

  16. Portable Knowledge-Based Diagnostic And Maintenance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, John; Olson, Noreen S.

    1989-03-01

    It is difficult to diagnose faults and maintain weapon systems because (1) they are highly complex pieces of equipment composed of multiple mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic assemblies, and (2) talented maintenance personnel are continuously being lost through the attrition process. To solve this problem, we developed a portable diagnostic and maintenance aid that uses a knowledge-based expert system. This aid incorporates diagnostics, operational procedures, repair and replacement procedures, and regularly scheduled maintenance into one compact, 18-pound graphics workstation. Drawings and schematics can be pulled up from the CD-ROM to assist the operator in answering the expert system's questions. Work for this aid began with the development of the initial knowledge-based expert system in a fast prototyping environment using a LISP machine. The second phase saw the development of a personal computer-based system that used videodisc technology to pictorially assist the operator. The current version of the aid eliminates the high expenses associated with videodisc preparation by scanning in the art work already in the manuals. A number of generic software tools have been developed that streamlined the construction of each iteration of the aid; these tools will be applied to the development of future systems.

  17. Computer-aided application of quantitative microscopy in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Baak, J P; Kurver, P H; Boon, M E

    1982-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of microscopic images gives objective, consistently reproducible results. The number of applications of such analysis in diagnostic pathology is increasing rapidly. In this chapter, two examples have been given of the development and application of a quantitative microscopic classification rule. Both examples involve admittedly difficult areas of diagnostic pathology, in which considerable disagreement may not only exist among pathologists, but may affect the same pathologist judging the same specimen at different times. These areas are: (1) the discrimination of endometrial hyperplasia from carcinoma, and the grading of endometrial carcinomas; and (2) the preoperative distinction of follicular adenoma from carcinoma of the thyroid in cytologic specimens. With routine use of the classification rule in 148 cases of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma received in our laboratory in 1980, with each case judged by one of eight pathologists, there was mild or absolute disagreement in 7.4 percent and 4.7 percent of the cases, respectively (total: 12.1 percent). However, with blind review of one of us (J.B.), there were no absolute and only 3.3 percent mild disagreement. In this series, the quantitative microscopically assigned grades of carcinomas correlated significantly with the depth of invasion in the myometrial wall, whereas the grade routinely indicated by eight pathologists did not. These two facts strongly support the quality and utility of the developed quantitative microscopic rule for classifying endometrial lesions in a diagnostic setting. The rule can also be used to objectively define such endometrial lesions in order to evaluate more accurately their clinical outcome in a prospective study. In the thyroid adenoma cases discussed in the chapter, material from follicular tumors was subjected to quantitative analysis in 1980, again using a classification rule developed in our laboratory. All 10 cases of adenoma were correctly

  18. Expert system prototype of food aid distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve efficiency of the food aid distribution process of international food relief organizations. An overall objective of this study was to develop a prototype expert system for monitoring and evaluating food aid by international disaster relief organizations. The research identifies data related to monitoring and evaluation processes of various international food-aid organizations. It then applies an artificial intelligence-based expert system to develop a prototype for those processes. Existing data related to monitoring and evaluation program cycles were obtained. An expert system shell called CLIPS(c) (National Aeronautics Space Administration) was used to develop a prototype system named Food Aid Monitor, a rule-based expert system, which uses facts and heuristic rules to provide an adaptive feedback regarding monitoring and evaluating processes at various stages of food aid operation. The Food Aid Monitor was evaluated and validated by three expert panels checking the prototype system for completeness, relevancy, consistency, correctness, precision, and use-ability. Finally, the panels indicated a belief that the system could have an overall positive impact on the stages of monitoring and evaluating food aid processes of the food relief organizations. PMID:17392088

  19. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  20. Development of a diagnostic aid for bacterial infection in wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisanelli, A. M.; Persaud, K. C.; Bailey, A.; Stuczen, M.; Duncan, R.; Dunn, K.

    2009-05-01

    Infection of wounds during hospitalisation often induces morbidity and sometimes mortality. The delay in patient recovery and subsequent increased length of hospital stay also has economic consequences. Standard techniques for microbiological detection are surface swabbing and wound biopsy culture. Surface swabbing is the most commonly used technique mainly because is quite inexpensive and is not invasive but can give only a representation of surface infection and analysis is also time consuming. Infected wounds are often characterised by an offensive odour that can be used as a diagnostic parameter. We report the results obtained by examining swabs and dressings taken from patients using a gas sensor array instrument developed as part of an EU funded project WOUNDMONITOR.

  1. DDS: The Dental Diagnostic Simulation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Daniel E.

    The Dental Diagnostic Simulation (DDS) System provides an alternative to simulation systems which represent diagnostic case studies of relatively limited scope. It may be used to generate simulated case studies in all of the dental specialty areas with case materials progressing through the gamut of the diagnostic process. The generation of a…

  2. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  3. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  4. [Companion diagnostics and reimbursement system].

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Yoshiaki

    2013-05-01

    Recently, Companion Diagnostics (CoDx) have been gaining importance to promote personalized medicine in order to improve the safety and cost effectiveness of therapy. In July 2011, the FDA published draft guidance for the development of CoDx, which recommends the co-development of CoDx and new drugs as the best practice, and then the FDA approved vemurafenib and the BRAF-V600-E gene mutation assay simultaneously as a typical example of the co-development of a new drug and its CoDx. Considering medical needs for multiple biomarker assays to select the right assay from various therapeutic candidates, more complicated assay technologies such as DNA sequencing will be required for CoDx in the near future. However, since it is quite difficult to standardize the validation process and manage test quality under the current regulatory criteria of in-vitro diagnostics using advanced and/or complicated assay technologies, the clinical use of laboratory-developed tests (LDT) should be recommended in order to avoid biomarker test lag. On the other hand, the current reimbursement system is not always suitable to assess the clinical and technological value of CoDx and it should be revised to encourage the development of CoDx. Although Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a potential method to assess the value of CoDx, it is not easy to define appropriate indicators for CoDx because its clinical utility and cost effectiveness are completely dependent on the performance and value of available therapy. It is also suggested that the price and/or insurance rate of CoDx should be included in the price of the drug; however, there is no good solution to how to pay for CoDx with negative results for all therapies. It is said that the concept of personalized medicine with advanced technologies is a destructive innovation that could markedly change the current structure and system of medications; therefore, it is essential to create a quite new regulatory and reimbursement system to

  5. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  6. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF DIFFUSED AERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CADDAS (Computer Aided Design of Diffused Aeration Systems) is a microcomputer-based program that analyzes the cost and performance of diffused aeration used in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. The program can analyze both coarse bubble and fine pore diffusers as we...

  7. Disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS: clinical aspects and diagnostic methods for early detection.

    PubMed

    Corti, M E; Cendoya, C A; Soto, I; Esquivel, P; Trione, N; Villafañe, M F; Corbera, K M; Helou, S; Negroni, R

    2000-03-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients is the focus of this paper. Cutaneous lesions are reported as a frequent clinical sign. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, blood cultures (lysis-centrifugation technique), bronchoalveolar lavage, and skin lesion scrapings are the most effective diagnostic methods. The identification of a specific antigen in blood and urine may be a rapid means of evaluation and follow-up of patients with this disease. PMID:10763544

  8. Expert system applications in support of system diagnostics and prognostics at EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, W.K.; Gross, K.C.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems have been developed to aid in the monitoring and diagnostics of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Systems have been developed for failed fuel surveillance and diagnostics and reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostics. A third project is being done jointly by ANL-W and EG G Idaho to develop a transient analysis system to enhance overall plant diagnostic and prognostic capability. The failed fuel surveillance and diagnosis system monitors, processes, and interprets information from nine key plant sensors. It displays to the reactor operator diagnostic information needed to make proper decisions regarding technical specification conformance during reactor operation with failed fuel. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Direction discriminating hearing aid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.; Ward, G.

    1991-01-01

    A visual display was developed for people with substantial hearing loss in either one or both ears. The system consists of three discreet units; an eyeglass assembly for the visual display of the origin or direction of sounds; a stationary general purpose noise alarm; and a noise seeker wand.

  10. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  11. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  12. Expert system aid for military finance

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.D.; Emrich, M.L.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Meador, M.

    1987-09-14

    Historically, budget preparation processes have been difficult to accomplish. Errors and inconsistencies cause problems for the analyst during budget review. This paper discusses the development and testing of an expert system to aid budget preparation. The prototyping tool, its capabilities, and their application are discussed. Shown are the pilot testing procedures and their role in system development. Current status and enhancements (including software updates and future testing) are also presented. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  13. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  14. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  15. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  16. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  17. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  18. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  19. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision. PMID:25991188

  20. Diagnostics of wear in aeronautical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedeven, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The use of appropriate diagnostic tools for aircraft oil wetted components is reviewed, noting that it can reduce direct operating costs through reduced unscheduled maintenance, particularly in helicopter engine and transmission systems where bearing failures are a significant cost factor. Engine and transmission wear modes are described, and diagnostic methods for oil and wet particle analysis, the spectrometric oil analysis program, chip detectors, ferrography, in-line oil monitor and radioactive isotope tagging are discussed, noting that they are effective over a limited range of particle sizes but compliment each other if used in parallel. Fine filtration can potentially increase time between overhauls, but reduces the effectiveness of conventional oil monitoring techniques so that alternative diagnostic techniques must be used. It is concluded that the development of a diagnostic system should be parallel and integral with the development of a mechanical system.

  1. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauthoff, N. R.; Daniels, R. E.

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man-machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ``groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  2. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Daniels, R.E.; PPL Computer Division

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man--machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ''groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  3. SSME Post Test Diagnostic System: Systems Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    An assessment of engine and component health is routinely made after each test firing or flight firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Currently, this health assessment is done by teams of engineers who manually review sensor data, performance data, and engine and component operating histories. Based on review of information from these various sources, an evaluation is made as to the health of each component of the SSME and the preparedness of the engine for another test or flight. The objective of this project - the SSME Post Test Diagnostic System (PTDS) - is to develop a computer program which automates the analysis of test data from the SSME in order to detect and diagnose anomalies. This report primarily covers work on the Systems Section of the PTDS, which automates the analyses performed by the systems/performance group at the Propulsion Branch of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This group is responsible for assessing the overall health and performance of the engine, and detecting and diagnosing anomalies which involve multiple components (other groups are responsible for analyzing the behavior of specific components). The PTDS utilizes several advanced software technologies to perform its analyses. Raw test data is analyzed using signal processing routines which detect features in the data, such as spikes, shifts, peaks, and drifts. Component analyses are performed by expert systems, which use 'rules-of-thumb' obtained from interviews with the MSFC data analysts to detect and diagnose anomalies. The systems analysis is performed using case-based reasoning. Results of all analyses are stored in a relational database and displayed via an X-window-based graphical user interface which provides ranked lists of anomalies and observations by engine component, along with supporting data plots for each.

  4. Adaptive environment classification system for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Luc; Giguère, Christian; Gueaieb, Wail; Aboulnasr, Tyseer; Othman, Hisham

    2010-05-01

    An adaptive sound classification framework is proposed for hearing aid applications. The long-term goal is to develop fully trainable instruments in which both the acoustical environments encountered in daily life and the hearing aid settings preferred by the user in each environmental class could be learned. Two adaptive classifiers are described, one based on minimum distance clustering and one on Bayesian classification. Through unsupervised learning, the adaptive systems allow classes to split or merge based on changes in the ongoing acoustical environments. Performance was evaluated using real-world sounds from a wide range of acoustical environments. The systems were first initialized using two classes, speech and noise, followed by a testing period when a third class, music, was introduced. Both systems were successful in detecting the presence of an additional class and estimating its underlying parameters, reaching a testing accuracy close to the target rates obtained from best-case scenarios derived from non-adaptive supervised versions of the classifiers (about 3% lower performance). The adaptive Bayesian classifier resulted in a 4% higher overall accuracy upon splitting adaptation than the minimum distance classifier. Merging accuracy was found to be the same in the two systems and within 1%-2% of the best-case supervised versions. PMID:21117761

  5. First mirrors for diagnostic systems of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litnovsky, A.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Costley, A.; Donné, A. J. H.; SWG on First Mirrors of the ITPA Topical Group on Diagnostics

    2007-08-01

    The majority of optical diagnostics presently foreseen for ITER will implement in-vessel metallic mirrors as plasma-viewing components. Mirrors are used for the observation of the plasma radiation in a very wide wavelength range: from about 1 nm up to a few mm. In the hostile ITER environment, mirrors are subject to erosion, deposition, particle implantation and other adverse effects which will change their optical properties, affecting the entire performance of the respective diagnostic systems. The Specialists Working Group (SWG) on first mirrors was established under the wings of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Topical Group (TG) on Diagnostics to coordinate and guide the investigations on diagnostic mirrors towards the development of optimal, robust and durable solutions for ITER diagnostic systems. The results of tests of various ITER-candidate mirror materials, performed in Tore-Supra, TEXTOR, DIII-D, TCV, T-10, TRIAM-1M and LHD under various plasma conditions, as well as an overview of laboratory investigations of mirror performance and mirror cleaning techniques are presented in the paper. The current tasks in the R&D of diagnostic mirrors will be addressed.

  6. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Story, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  7. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  8. Bay integrated power system control and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Beierl, O.

    1996-03-01

    The paper presents new concepts for control and diagnostic systems for high voltage switchgear (123-kV and above). Air insulated and gas insulated (SF6) switchgear is considered. The new aspect is the integration of monitoring and diagnostic concepts in digital control and protection systems. Communication concepts for sensors and actuators with digital process busses at bay level are discussed. The paper covers integration concepts for circuit breaker monitoring (AIS, GIS) and for GIS the integration of on-line partial discharge measurement, on-line arc detection and on-line monitoring of the gas conditions. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and the applicability of integrated diagnostic and control concepts are discussed by means of technical and commercial aspects.

  9. The CSS Guide to Implementing Financial Aid Data Processing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, William D.; And Others

    The College Scholarship Service guide to implementing financial aid data processing systems is presented, based on conferences that promoted information exchange between data processing and financial aid administrators. The following topics are addressed: long-range planning, the rationale and organizational basis for financial aid, specific…

  10. The EMMA Accelerator, a Diagnostic Systems Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, A.; Berg, J.; Bliss, N. Cox, G.; Dufau, M.; Gallagher, A.; Hill, C.; Jones, J.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Muratori, B.; Oates, A.; Shepherd B.; Smith, R.; Hock, K.; Holder, D.; Ibison, M., Kirkman I.; Borrell, R.; Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M.

    2011-09-04

    The 'EMMA' Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (ns-FFAG) international project is currently being commissioned at Daresbury Laboratory, UK. This accelerator has been equipped with a number of diagnostic systems to facilitate this. These systems include a novel time-domain-multiplexing BPM system, moveable screen systems, a time-of-flight instrument, Faraday cups, and injection/extraction tomography sections to analyze the single bunch beams. An upgrade still to implement includes the installation of wall current monitors. This paper gives an overview of these systems and shows some data and results from the diagnostics that have contributed to the successful demonstration of a serpentine acceleration by this novel accelerator.

  11. Systemic mastocytosis - a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Lladó, Ana Cristina Amorim Oliveira Gaia; Mihon, Claudia Elena; Silva, Madalena; Galzerano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Mastocytosis refers to a group of disorders characterized by the infiltration of clonally derived mast cells to the skin or extracutaneous tissues resulting in a heterogeneous clinical picture. It is a rare hematologic disorder in all its forms. The exact incidence is unknown; it affects patients of any age and males and females equally. Its molecular pathogenesis is incompletely understood. The clinical features of mastocytosis result from both chronic and episodic mast cell mediator release, signs and symptoms arising from diffuse or focal tissue infiltration, and, occasionally, the presence of an associated non-mast cell clonal hematologic disease. The histopathologic analysis is essential for definitive diagnosis but there is no curative treatment. The authors report a clinical case of a 72-year-old woman with no history of allergies, with bicytopenia, weight loss, and diffuse axial osteolytic lesions. This is a rare clinical case of aggressive systemic mastocytosis for which palliative treatment can improve survival and quality of life. A brief review of the literature about this pathology is also included. PMID:25031064

  12. Use of a Flexible Fiberoptic Laparoscope as a Diagnostic Aid in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A. D.; Ferguson, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the use of a flexible fiberoptic colonoscope as a diagnostic aid in cattle. Examinations were carried out on a group of normal animals and the effects of laparoscopy on hematological parameters measured. The use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of left displacement of the abomasum and traumatic reticuloperitonitis was assessed in two separate groups of patients. The results were compared to clinical diagnosis and exploratory laparotomy. No effect was demonstrated on the results of haematological examination in the normal cows and the procedure was concluded to be safe and innocuous. Right flank laparoscopy was not useful in detecting left displacement of the abomasum in any case in this study was not helpful in making a diagnosis. The difficulties of current methods of diagnosing left displacement of the abomasum are discussed. Laparoscopy was useful in detecting and characterizing the lesions of traumatic reticuloperitonitis and was concluded to be superior to clinical examination as a diagnostic test. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17422411

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  14. Building Systems Diagnostics and Predictive Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Pratt, Robert G.; Braun, J.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the development of methods and tools for automated fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) of building systems and components in the 1990s. This chapter, written for the CRC Handbook for HVAC&R Engineering, will describe the status of these methods and and methodologies as applied to HVAC&R and building systems and present certain illustrative case studies.

  15. Encoding expert knowledge: A Bayesian diagnostic system for diesel generators

    SciTech Connect

    Bley, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Developing computer systems to capture the knowledge of human experts offers new opportunities to electric utilities. Such systems become particularly attractive when technical expertise resides within a single individual, possibly nearing retirement, who has not otherwise passed along his important knowledge and though processes. An expert system model called the Bayesian diagnostic module (BMD) has been developed to aid plant personnel in diagnosing the causes of equipment failure. The BDM deals with uncertainty in a mathematically logical and rigorous way. If sufficient observables are provided as input, it can identify a single cause of failure with very high confidence. Given less complete information, the method degrades gracefully by advising operators about alternative causes of failure, including as estimate of the likelihood that each cause is the correct one. The complete theoretical foundation of the BDM is briefly summarized in this paper.

  16. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  17. FIDEX: An expert system for satellite diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Tallo, Donald; Petrik, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    A Fault Isolation and Diagnostic Expert system (FIDEX) was developed for communication satellite diagnostics. It was designed specifically for the 30/20 GHz satellite transponder. The expert system was designed with a generic structure and features that make it applicable to other types of space systems. FIDEX is a frame based system that enjoys many of the inherent frame base features, such as hierarchy that describes the transponder's components, with other hierarchies that provide structural and fault information about the transponder. This architecture provides a flexible diagnostic structure and enhances maintenance of the system. FIDEX also includes an inexact reasoning technique and a primitive learning ability. Inexact reasoning was an important feature for this system due to the sparse number of sensors available to provide information on the transponder's performance. FIDEX can determine the most likely faulted component under the constraint of limited information. FIDEX learns about the most likely faults in the transponder by keeping a record of past established faults. FIDEX also has the ability to detect anomalies in the sensors that provide information on the transponders performance.

  18. Mammographic computer-aided detection systems.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    While mammography is regarded as the best means available to screen for breast cancer, reading mammograms is a tedious, error-prone task. Given the repetitiveness of the process and the fact that less than 1% of mammograms in the average screening population contain cancer, it's no wonder that a significant number of breast cancers--about 28%--are missed by radiologists. The fact that human error is such a significant obstacle makes mammography screening an ideal application for computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. CAD systems serve as a "second pair of eyes" to ensure that radiologists don't miss a suspect area on an image. They analyze patterns on a digitized mammographic image, identify regions that may contain an abnormality indicating cancer, and mark these regions. The marks are then inspected and classified by a radiologist. But CAD systems provide no diagnosis of any kind--it's up to the radiologist to analyze the marked area and decide if it shows cancer. In this Evaluation, we describe the challenges posed by screening mammography, the operating principles and overall efficacy of CAD systems, and the characteristics to consider when purchasing a system. We also compare the performance of two commercially available systems, iCAD's MammoReader and R2's ImageChecker. Because the two systems offer comparable sensitivity, our judgments are based on other performance characteristics, including their ease of use, the number of false marks they produce, the degree to which they can integrate with hospital information systems, and their processing speed. PMID:12760158

  19. Optical Diagnostic System for the TLS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, C. K.; Tseng, T. C.; Wang, D. J.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Perng, S. Y.; Tsai, Z. D.; Ueng, T. S.; Hsueh, H. P.; Chen, J. R.

    2007-01-19

    The Taiwan light source (TLS) uses a photon beam intensity system (Io monitor) to index the electron beam stability. This index combines the information of the fluctuations of electron beam position and size. For understanding the impact of these fluctuations to the electron beam instability, a set of the optical diagnostic system was installed in the TLS BL10 diagnostics beamline. This system includes the photon beam position monitor (PBPM), the beam size monitor (BSM) and the Io monitor. From the result, we concluded that about one-third impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam position and about two-thirds impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam size. The hardware configuration is described in this paper.

  20. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  1. Measuring the Accuracy of Diagnostic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swets, John A.

    1988-06-01

    Diagnostic systems of several kinds are used to distinguish between two classes of events, essentially ``signals'' and ``noise.'' For then, analysis in terms of the ``relative operating characteristic'' of signal detection theory provides a precise and valid measure of diagnostic accuracy. It is the only measure available that is uninfluenced by decision biases and prior probabilities, and it places the performances of diverse systems on a common, easily interpreted scale. Representative values of this measure are reported here for systems in medical imaging, materials testing, weather forecasting, information retrieval, polygraph lie detection, and aptitude testing. Though the measure itself is sound, the values obtained from tests of diagnostic systems often require qualification because the test data on which they are based are of unsure quality. A common set of problems in testing is faced in all fields. How well these problems are handled, or can be handled in a given field, determines the degree of confidence that can be placed in a measured value of accuracy. Some fields fare much better than others.

  2. Design Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szulewski, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    Design-Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS) is a tool that assists in defining embedded computer systems through tree structured graphics, military standard documentation support, and various analyses including automated Software Science parameter counting and metrics calculation. These analyses provide both static and dynamic design quality feedback which can potentially aid in producing efficient, high quality software systems.

  3. Nike Facility Diagnostics and Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yung; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Karasik, Max; Kehne, David; Obenschain, Steve; Oh, Jaechul; Serlin, Victor; Weaver, Jim

    2013-10-01

    The Nike laser-target facility is a 56-beam krypton fluoride system that can deliver 2 to 3 kJ of laser energy at 248 nm onto targets inside a two meter diameter vacuum chamber. Nike is used to study physics and technology issues related to laser direct-drive ICF fusion, including hydrodynamic and laser-plasma instabilities, material behavior at extreme pressures, and optical and x-ray diagnostics for laser-heated targets. A suite of laser and target diagnostics are fielded on the Nike facility, including high-speed, high-resolution x-ray and visible imaging cameras, spectrometers and photo-detectors. A centrally-controlled, distributed computerized data acquisition system provides robust data management and near real-time analysis feedback capability during target shots. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  4. Adaptive Embedded Digital System for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Angel; Rodríguez, Othoniel; Mangual, Osvaldo; Ponce, Eduardo; Vélez, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    An Adaptive Embedded Digital System to perform plasma diagnostics using electrostatic probes was developed at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory at Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico. The system will replace the existing instrumentation at the Laboratory, using reconfigurable hardware to minimize the equipment and software needed to perform diagnostics. The adaptability of the design resides on the possibility of replacing the computational algorithm on the fly, allowing to use the same hardware for different probes. The system was prototyped using Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. The design of the Embedded Digital System includes a Zero Phase Digital Filter, a Derivative Unit, and a Computational Unit designed using the VHDL-2008 Support Library. The prototype is able to compute the Plasma Electron Temperature and Density from a Single Langmuir probe. The system was tested using real data previously acquired from a single Langmuir probe. The plasma parameters obtained from the embedded system were compared with results computed using matlab yielding excellent matching. The new embedded system operates on 4096 samples versus 500 on the previous system, and completes its computations in 26 milliseconds compared with about 15 seconds on the previous system.

  5. Experience report with the Alignment Diagnostic System

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, Georg; /SLAC

    2011-03-03

    Since 2009 an Alignment Diagnostic System (ADS) has been operating at the undulator of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The undulator spans a distance of 132 meters and is structured into 33 segments. Each segment is equipped with four hydrostatic leveling sensors and four wire position monitors. This report describes the set up and reflects the experience gained with the ADS.

  6. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  7. New diagnostic systems on HL-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X. T.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, Z. C.; Xiao, W. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Shi, Z. B.; Yan, L. W.; Hong, W. Y.; Yang, Q. W.

    2006-10-15

    Three new diagnostic systems have been presented in this article: (1) the pulse molecular beam injection as a modulated particle source and microwave reflectometry for investigation of the particle transport, (2) a new three-step electrostatic probe array for zonal flow studying, and (3) eight-channel laser interferometer with 6 m HCN laser for electron density profile measurement with good spatial resolution. The main experimental results have also been shown briefly.

  8. A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

    2001-01-01

    The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

  9. AUV-aided Seafloor Geodetic Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Ura, T.; Fujita, M.; Colombo, O. L.; Sato, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Zheng, H.; Nagahashi, K.

    2007-12-01

    We launched a project supported by the Japan Society for the Science Promotion as the Grants in Aid for Scientific Research. In this project, we are aiming at developing new-generation seafloor geodetic observation system that conquers difficulties inherent with the current system. Central idea of this project is to utilize techniques of underwater robot (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and seafloor platform to make measurements in place of using the research vessels. Combination of underwater robot and seafloor platform make it possible to conduct the observation with selecting favorable condition of sea and GPS satellite distributions, to make much more frequent observations and to enable flexible planning of observation in response to sudden geodetic events. Trial model of the on-board and the seafloor units were finished. Space-saving design for the on-board unit, which controls both acoustic ranging system and GPS, was one of big issues to be overcome. We reviewed the current system configuration and made it simple. It was miniaturized, and then it was put into two cylinders. The cylinder No.1 contains the PHINS (IXSEA), an inertial navigation system based on fiber optic gyroscope technology. Another one, the cylinder No.2, contains the SF-2050M (NAVCOM Technology) GPS receiver and the acoustic ranging units. The original chassis of the SF-2050M was removed to minimize the volume of the unit and then only the electrical boards of the GPS receiver was installed into the cylinder No.2. There is no commercialized GPS antenna that can receive both L1 and L2 signals and has pressure capability of 2,000 m depth in the sea. Then we developed the pressure housing for the GPS antenna. The small size antenna corresponding to the L1 and L2 signals was installed in it. The transducer, for underwater acoustic ranging, employed on both the on-board and the seafloor units has been newly developed by Dr. Tom Ensign, Engineering acoustic Inc.. This transducer has a spherical

  10. Inert gas spraying device aids in repair of hazardous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teleha, S.

    1965-01-01

    Inert gas spraying device aids in safely making mechanical repairs to a cryogenic fluid system without prior emptying of the system. This method can be applied to any natural or bottled gas system and with modifications to gasoline transports.

  11. Computer-Aided Diagnostic (CAD) Scheme by Use of Contralateral Subtraction Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Harakawa, Tetsumi

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for detection of subtle image findings of acute cerebral infarction in brain computed tomography (CT) by using a contralateral subtraction technique. In our computerized scheme, the lateral inclination of image was first corrected automatically by rotating and shifting. The contralateral subtraction image was then derived by subtraction of reversed image from original image. Initial candidates for acute cerebral infarctions were identified using the multiple-thresholding and image filtering techniques. As the 1st step for removing false positive candidates, fourteen image features were extracted in each of the initial candidates. Halfway candidates were detected by applying the rule-based test with these image features. At the 2nd step, five image features were extracted using the overlapping scale with halfway candidates in interest slice and upper/lower slice image. Finally, acute cerebral infarction candidates were detected by applying the rule-based test with five image features. The sensitivity in the detection for 74 training cases was 97.4% with 3.7 false positives per image. The performance of CAD scheme for 44 testing cases had an approximate result to training cases. Our CAD scheme using the contralateral subtraction technique can reveal suspected image findings of acute cerebral infarctions in CT images.

  12. Diagnostic systems in DEMO: Engineering design issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The diagnostic systems of DEMO that are mounted on or near the torus, whether intended for the monitoring and control functions of the engineering aspects or the physics behaviour of the machine, will have to be designed to suit the hostile nuclear environment. This will be necessary not just for their survival and correct functioning but also to satisfy the pertinent regulatory bodies, especially where any of them relate to machine protection or the prevention or mitigation of accidents foreseen in the safety case. This paper aims to indicate the more important of the reactor design considerations that are likely to apply to diagnostics for DEMO, drawn from experience on JET, the provisions in hand for ITER and modelling results for the wall erosion and neutron damage effects in DEMO.

  13. Diagnostic systems in DEMO: Engineering design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T. N.

    2014-08-21

    The diagnostic systems of DEMO that are mounted on or near the torus, whether intended for the monitoring and control functions of the engineering aspects or the physics behaviour of the machine, will have to be designed to suit the hostile nuclear environment. This will be necessary not just for their survival and correct functioning but also to satisfy the pertinent regulatory bodies, especially where any of them relate to machine protection or the prevention or mitigation of accidents foreseen in the safety case. This paper aims to indicate the more important of the reactor design considerations that are likely to apply to diagnostics for DEMO, drawn from experience on JET, the provisions in hand for ITER and modelling results for the wall erosion and neutron damage effects in DEMO.

  14. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  15. Diagnostic Systems for the Ignitor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombarda, F.; Giammanco, F.; Ignir International Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of the Ignitor experiment (R0 ≅ 1 . 32 m , a × b ≅ 0 . 47 × 0 . 83m2 ,BT <= 13 T ,Ip <= 11 MA) is that of establishing the reactor physics in regimes close to ignition (Te ≅Ti ≅ 11 keV ,n0 ≅1021m-3). The pulse evolution at the maximum machine parameters is characterized by a ramp-up phase of the plasma current of 4 s and 4 s of flat-top, which allow to reach fully relaxed current profiles. The set of baseline diagnostic systems includes, among others, the advanced neutron spectrometer originally proposed for Ignitor and later adopted on JET, Thomson Scattering, ECE, High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer. A Dispersion-Interferometer operating at 1 μm instead of the conventional Two-color Interferometer at 10 μm is being considered for plasma density measurements. The high plasma density and temperature, together with the use of tritium, impose some limitations on diagnostic systems based on NB injection, escaping particles or in direct connection with the high vacumm of the plasma chamber. The high neutron flux is also expected to challenge the systems more directly exposed to it, although the low fluences do not pose particular concerns on material survival. The conceptual design of the main diagnostic systems has been carried out and the present lay-out around the machine is shown. Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.

  16. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  17. Efficient Probabilistic Diagnostics for Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole J.; Chavira, Mark; Cascio, Keith; Poll, Scott; Darwiche, Adnan; Uckun, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    We consider in this work the probabilistic approach to model-based diagnosis when applied to electrical power systems (EPSs). Our probabilistic approach is formally well-founded, as it based on Bayesian networks and arithmetic circuits. We investigate the diagnostic task known as fault isolation, and pay special attention to meeting two of the main challenges . model development and real-time reasoning . often associated with real-world application of model-based diagnosis technologies. To address the challenge of model development, we develop a systematic approach to representing electrical power systems as Bayesian networks, supported by an easy-to-use speci.cation language. To address the real-time reasoning challenge, we compile Bayesian networks into arithmetic circuits. Arithmetic circuit evaluation supports real-time diagnosis by being predictable and fast. In essence, we introduce a high-level EPS speci.cation language from which Bayesian networks that can diagnose multiple simultaneous failures are auto-generated, and we illustrate the feasibility of using arithmetic circuits, compiled from Bayesian networks, for real-time diagnosis on real-world EPSs of interest to NASA. The experimental system is a real-world EPS, namely the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) located at the NASA Ames Research Center. In experiments with the ADAPT Bayesian network, which currently contains 503 discrete nodes and 579 edges, we .nd high diagnostic accuracy in scenarios where one to three faults, both in components and sensors, were inserted. The time taken to compute the most probable explanation using arithmetic circuits has a small mean of 0.2625 milliseconds and standard deviation of 0.2028 milliseconds. In experiments with data from ADAPT we also show that arithmetic circuit evaluation substantially outperforms joint tree propagation and variable elimination, two alternative algorithms for diagnosis using Bayesian network inference.

  18. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, Rick; Hampton, Nigel; Perkel, Josh; Hernandez, JC; Elledge, Stacy; del Valle, Yamille; Grimaldo, Jose; Deku, Kodzo

    2015-07-25

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  19. Using a GeneticFuzzy Algorithm as a Computer Aided Breast Cancer Diagnostic Tool.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Abir; Tchier, F; Rashidi, Mm

    2016-01-01

    Computeraided diagnosis of breast cancer is an important medical approach. In this research paper, we focus on combining two major methodologies, namely fuzzy base systems and the evolutionary genetic algorithms and on applying them to the Saudi Arabian breast cancer diagnosis database, to aid physicians in obtaining an earlycomputerized diagnosis and hence prevent the development of cancer through identification and removal or treatment of premalignant abnormalities; early detection can also improve survival and decrease mortality by detecting cancer at an early stage when treatment is more effective. Our hybrid algorithm, the geneticfuzzy algorithm, has produced optimized systems that attain high classification performance, with simple and readily interpreted rules and with a good degree of confidence. PMID:27510026

  20. An inference engine for embedded diagnostic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Barry R.; Brewster, Larry T.

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of an inference engine for embedded diagnostic systems is described. The system consists of two distinct parts. The first is an off-line compiler which accepts a propositional logical statement of the relationship between facts and conclusions and produces data structures required by the on-line inference engine. The second part consists of the inference engine and interface routines which accept assertions of fact and return the conclusions which necessarily follow. Given a set of assertions, it will generate exactly the conclusions which logically follow. At the same time, it will detect any inconsistencies which may propagate from an inconsistent set of assertions or a poorly formulated set of rules. The memory requirements are fixed and the worst case execution times are bounded at compile time. The data structures and inference algorithms are very simple and well understood. The data structures and algorithms are described in detail. The system has been implemented on Lisp, Pascal, and Modula-2.

  1. On-line diagnostic system for power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skormin, V.A.; Goodenough, G.S.; Huber, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

  2. New mechanization equations for aided inertial navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. F.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    Inertial navigation equations are developed which use area navigation (RNAV) waypoints and runway references as coodinate centers. The formulation is designed for aided inertial navigation systems and gives a high numerical accuracy through all phases of flight. A new formulation of the error equations for inertial navigation systems is also presented. This new formulation reduces numerical calculations in the use of Kalman filters for aided inertial navigation systems.

  3. Thomson scattering diagnostic systems in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, M.; Andrew, P.; Kurskiev, G.; Mukhin, E.; Hatae, T.; Vayakis, G.; Yatsuka, E.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) is a proven diagnostic technique that will be implemented in ITER in three independent systems. The Edge TS will measure electron temperature Te and electron density ne profiles at high resolution in the region with r/a>0.8 (with a the minor radius). The Core TS will cover the region r/a<0.85 and shall be able to measure electron temperatures up to 40 keV . The Divertor TS will observe a segment of the divertor plasma more than 700 mm long and is designed to detect Te as low as 0.3 eV . The Edge and Core systems are primary contributors to Te and ne profiles. Both are installed in equatorial port 10 and very close together with the toroidal distance between the two laser beams of less than 600 mm at the first wall (~ 6° toroidal separation), a characteristic that should allow to reliably match the two profiles in the region 0.8systems installed, therefore substantial experience has been accumulated worldwide on practical methods for the optimization of the technique. However the ITER environment is imposing specific loads (e.g. gamma and neutron radiation, temperatures, disruption-induced stresses) and also access and reliability constraints that require new designs for many of the sub-systems. The challenges and the proposed solutions for all three TS systems are presented.

  4. System control module diagnostic Expert Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Luis M.; Hansen, Roger F.

    1990-01-01

    The Orbiter EXperiments (OEX) Program was established by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to accomplish the precise data collection necessary to support a complete and accurate assessment of Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter performance during all phases of a mission. During a mission, data generated by the various experiments are conveyed to the OEX System Control Module (SCM) which arranges for and monitors storage of the data on the OEX tape recorder. The SCM Diagnostic Expert Assistant (DEA) is an expert system which provides on demand advice to technicians performing repairs of a malfunctioning SCM. The DEA is a self-contained, data-driven knowledge-based system written in the 'C' Language Production System (CLIPS) for a portable micro-computer of the IBM PC/XT class. The DEA reasons about SCM hardware faults at multiple levels; the most detailed layer of encoded knowledge of the SCM is a representation of individual components and layouts of the custom-designed component boards.

  5. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    SciTech Connect

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-05-15

    as mathematical model of clustering technique have been widely used in developing the medical diagnostic systems. The selected features will be classified using mathematical models that embedded engineering theory such as artificial intelligence, support vector machine, neural network and fuzzy-neuro system. These classifiers will provide the diagnostic results without human intervention. Among many publishable researches, several prototypes have been developed namely NeuralPap, Neural Mammo, and Cervix Kit. The former system (NeuralPap) is an automatic intelligent diagnostic system for classifying and distinguishing between the normal and cervical cancerous cells. Meanwhile, the Cervix Kit is a portable Field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based cervical diagnostic kit that could automatically diagnose the cancerous cell based on the images obtained during sampling test. Besides the cervical diagnostic system, the Neural Mammo system is developed to specifically aid the diagnosis of breast cancer using a fine needle aspiration image.

  6. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-05-01

    as mathematical model of clustering technique have been widely used in developing the medical diagnostic systems. The selected features will be classified using mathematical models that embedded engineering theory such as artificial intelligence, support vector machine, neural network and fuzzy-neuro system. These classifiers will provide the diagnostic results without human intervention. Among many publishable researches, several prototypes have been developed namely NeuralPap, Neural Mammo, and Cervix Kit. The former system (NeuralPap) is an automatic intelligent diagnostic system for classifying and distinguishing between the normal and cervical cancerous cells. Meanwhile, the Cervix Kit is a portable Field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based cervical diagnostic kit that could automatically diagnose the cancerous cell based on the images obtained during sampling test. Besides the cervical diagnostic system, the Neural Mammo system is developed to specifically aid the diagnosis of breast cancer using a fine needle aspiration image.

  7. System integration of pattern recognition, adaptive aided, upper limb prostheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, J.; Freedy, A.; Solomonow, M.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for successful integration of a computer aided control system for multi degree of freedom artificial arms are discussed. Specifications are established for a system which shares control between a human amputee and an automatic control subsystem. The approach integrates the following subsystems: (1) myoelectric pattern recognition, (2) adaptive computer aiding; (3) local reflex control; (4) prosthetic sensory feedback; and (5) externally energized arm with the functions of prehension, wrist rotation, elbow extension and flexion and humeral rotation.

  8. An intelligent robotic aid system for human services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Bagchi, S.; Iskarous, M.; Pack, R. T.; Saad, A.

    1994-01-01

    The long term goal of our research at the Intelligent Robotic Laboratory at Vanderbilt University is to develop advanced intelligent robotic aid systems for human services. As a first step toward our goal, the current thrusts of our R&D are centered on the development of an intelligent robotic aid called the ISAC (Intelligent Soft Arm Control). In this paper, we describe the overall system architecture and current activities in intelligent control, adaptive/interactive control and task learning.

  9. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  10. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Vivek; Anil, Rahul; Aristy, Sary

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with complaints of rapid cognitive decline and new onset leukopenia. The patient had a 17-year history of refractory seizures. Detailed review of symptoms and investigations revealed the patient met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient had high titer ANA with a strongly positive dsDNA. Immunosuppressive therapy with hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil led to significant improvement in cognition and seizures. Neuropsychiatric SLE should be considered a potential differential diagnosis for patients presenting with seizures or cognitive decline. Moreover, neuropsychiatric manifestations especially seizures are an early event in the disease course of SLE. Hence, we believe that early diagnosis of SLE by neuropsychiatric manifestations will not only lead to better control of CNS symptoms but early immunosuppressive therapy could control the progression of the underlying autoimmune disease.

  11. PREFACE: Fourteenth International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2010-04-01

    The attached PDF contains, the full preface, a list of the scientific committee, former LAPD chairmen, local organizers, previous locations of LAPD meetings, participants email contacts and a list of the contributed papers. logo The Fourteenth International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD14), was held from 21-24 September 2009 in Castelbrando, Treviso, Italy. The series of LAPD symposia was originally started at Kyushu University in 1983, and since then it has been organized every two years alternately in Japan, Europe and the United States, traveling around the world five times. Each LAPD Symposium brings together scientists working in different disciplines all related to the diagnostics of any type of plasma by laser or similar techniques. Researchers working on nuclear fusion, industrial process, low temperature plasma chemistry, laser development and material science, are invited to present prominent new diagnostic developments, with the aim of synergetic discussions. The broad spectrum of contributions represents one of the strengths of this symposium, which is an important, unique and fruitful source of cross-fertilization between these fields and a forum of discussions. The scope of LAPD14 was very broad, including many techniques related to laser probing of plasmas: incoherent and coherent Thomson scattering, polarimetry, interferometry, reflectometry, laser induced fluorescence, laser absorption spectroscopy, laser photodetachment spectroscopy, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, Raman scattering, reflectometry, microwave diagnostics and related laser and hardware developments. LAPD14 was attended by 66 researchers, from 15 different countries who presented a total of 57 papers (13 general, 12 topical, 10 short talks and 23 poster contributions). It is a tradition of LAPD that the first lecture of each meeting, which is more general and aims to review prominent new developments, is called 'the Akazaki lecture' in honor of Professor Masanori

  12. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR systems....112 Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. Engines equipped with SCR systems using separate reductant.... This section does not apply for SCR systems using the engine's fuel as the reductant. (a)...

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Computer-Aided Assessment of Intranodal Vascularity in Distinguishing Different Causes of Cervical Lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Ying, Michael; Cheng, Sammy C H; Ahuja, Anil T

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is useful in assessing cervical lymphadenopathy. Advancement of computer science technology allows accurate and reliable assessment of medical images. The aim of the study described here was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computer-aided assessment of the intranodal vascularity index (VI) in differentiating the various common causes of cervical lymphadenopathy. Power Doppler sonograms of 347 patients (155 with metastasis, 23 with lymphoma, 44 with tuberculous lymphadenitis, 125 reactive) with palpable cervical lymph nodes were reviewed. Ultrasound images of cervical nodes were evaluated, and the intranodal VI was quantified using a customized computer program. The diagnostic accuracy of using the intranodal VI to distinguish different disease groups was evaluated and compared. Metastatic and lymphomatous lymph nodes tend to be more vascular than tuberculous and reactive lymph nodes. The intranodal VI had the highest diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing metastatic and tuberculous nodes with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 73%, positive predictive value of 91%, negative predictive value of 51% and overall accuracy of 68% when a cutoff VI of 22% was used. Computer-aided assessment provides an objective and quantitative way to evaluate intranodal vascularity. The intranodal VI is a useful parameter in distinguishing certain causes of cervical lymphadenopathy and is particularly useful in differentiating metastatic and tuberculous lymph nodes. However, it has limited value in distinguishing lymphomatous nodes from metastatic and reactive nodes. PMID:27131839

  14. AIDS and international security in the United Nations System.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Two assumptions underpin much of the literature that has examined the links between HIV/AIDS and security: (1) that HIV/AIDS is now firmly established as an international security issue; and (2) that Resolution 1308, adopted by the UN Security Council in July 2000, was the decisive moment in the securitization process. This article questions both of those assumptions. It argues that even within the Security Council, HIV/AIDS' status as a bona fide threat to international peace and security is not entirely secure. Despite the fact that the Resolution was adopted unanimously, there is considerable doubt over the extent to which the Council members were persuaded that HIV/AIDS is genuinely a threat to international peace and security. Furthermore, the Council's subsequent actions suggest a retreat from the issue. The article moves on to examine statements made in and by some of the other key UN System bodies grappling with HIV/AIDS. Focusing in particular on the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and UNAIDS, it is argued that the international security framing of HIV/AIDS has not generally achieved a great deal of traction within these bodies. Alternative framings, in particular international development and human rights, occur far more frequently. This raises issues for our understanding of both securitization theory and the global governance of HIV/AIDS. PMID:20961950

  15. Plague in a Pediatric Patient: Case Report and Use of Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Diagnostic Aid.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Wendi K; Nelson, Christina A; Fowler, Joe; Epson, Erin E; Mead, Paul S; Lawaczeck, Elisabeth W

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of bubonic plaque in a 7-year-old patient who presented with a core temperature of 107°F, seizures, vomiting, altered mental status, and septic shock. This case highlights the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic aid for rapid presumptive identification of Yersinia pestis as well as the importance of correlating PCR results with clinical data. We discuss the various manifestations of plague as they relate to infection control, postexposure prophylaxis, antimicrobial therapy, and treatment duration. PMID:26625461

  16. Evaluating Detection and Diagnostic Decision Support Systems for Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vandana; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Smith, Wendy M.; Szeto, Herbert; Schleinitz, Mark D.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. We performed a systematic review by searching relevant databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and Web sites for reports of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems that could be used during bioterrorism responses. We reviewed over 24,000 citations and identified 55 detection systems and 23 diagnostic decision support systems. Only 35 systems have been evaluated: 4 reported both sensitivity and specificity, 13 were compared to a reference standard, and 31 were evaluated for their timeliness. Most evaluations of detection systems and some evaluations of diagnostic systems for bioterrorism responses are critically deficient. Because false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised. We describe a framework for the design of future evaluations of such systems. PMID:15078604

  17. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  18. A diagnostic expert system for digital circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, R. W.; Wilson, J. D.

    1992-04-01

    A scheme is presented for a diagnostic expert system which is capable of troubleshooting a faulty digital circuit or producing a reduced test vector set for a non-faulty digital circuit. It is based on practical fault-finding logic and utilizes artificial intelligence techniques. The program uses expert knowledge comprised of two components: that which is contained within the program in the form of rules and heuristics, and that which is derived from the circuit under test in the form of specific device information. Using both forward and backward tracking algorithms, signal paths comprised of device and gate interconnections are identified from each output pin to the primary input pins which have effect on them. Beginning at the output, the program proceeds to validate each device in each signal path by forward propagating test values through the device to the output, and backward propagating the same values to the primary inputs. All devices in the circuit are monitored for each test applied and their performance is recorded. Device or gate validation occurs when the recorded history shows that a device has been toggled successfully through all necessary states. When run on a circuit which does not contain a fault, the program determines a reduced test vector set for that circuit.

  19. SOPROLIFE System: An Accurate Diagnostic Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouny, Mona; Feghali, Mireille; Nasr, Assaad; Abou-Samra, Philippe; Saleh, Nadine; Bourgeois, Denis; Farge, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate a light-emitting diode fluorescence tool, the SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator, and compare it to the international caries detection and assessment system-II (ICDAS-II) in the detection of occlusal caries. Methods. A total of 219 permanent posterior teeth in 21 subjects, with age ranging from 15 to 65 years, were examined. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was computed to assess the reliability between the two diagnostic methods. Results. The results showed a high reliability between the two methods (ICC = 0.92; IC = 0.901–0.940; P < 0.001). The SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence mode had a high sensitivity (87%) and a high specificity (99%) when compared to ICDAS-II. Conclusion. Compared to the most used visual method in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions, the finding from this study suggests that SOPROLIFE can be used as a reproducible and reliable assessment tool. At a cut-off point, categorizing noncarious lesions and visual change in enamel, SOPROLIFE shows a high sensitivity and specificity. We can conclude that financially ICDAS is better than SOPROLIFE. However SOPROLIFE is easier for clinicians since it is a simple evaluation of images. Finally in terms of efficiency SOPROLIFE is not superior to ICDAS but tends to be equivalent with the same advantages. PMID:25401161

  20. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.

  1. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  2. Measuring the Accuracy of Diagnostic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swets, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the relative operating characteristic analysis of signal detection theory as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Reports representative values of this measure in several fields. Compares how problems in these fields are handled. (CW)

  3. Computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisition/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined.

  4. REDEX - The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990s.

  5. REDEX: The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990's.

  6. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  7. A Complete Interactive Graphical Computer-Aided Instruction System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Steven Selby

    The use of interactive graphics in computer-aided instruction systems is discussed with emphasis placed on two requirements of such a system. The first is the need to provide the teacher with a useful tool with which to design and modify teaching sessions tailored to the individual needs and capabilities of the students. The second is the…

  8. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  9. User interface for integrated computer aided design systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was the development of a user interface and other appropriate tools to be used in Computer Aided Design systems which can integrate a wide variety of independently developed design and analysis tools. The interface was intended for the integration of programs to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace systems. A user's manual is included.

  10. A Model for Intelligent Computer-Aided Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Johan P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a model for intelligent computer-aided education systems that is based on cooperative learning, constructive problem-solving, object-oriented programming, interactive user interfaces, and expert system techniques. Future research is discussed, and a prototype for teaching mathematics to 10- to 12-year-old students is appended. (LRW)

  11. Aid For Simulating Digital Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    DIVERS translator is computer program to convert descriptions of digital flight-control systems (DFCS) into computer program. Language developed to represent design charts of DFCS. Translator converts DIVERS source code into easily transportable language, while minimizing probability that results are affected by interpretation of programmer. Final translated program used as standard of comparison to verify operation of actual flight-control systems. Applicable to simulation of other control systems; for example, electrical circuits and logic processes. Written in C.

  12. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  13. Interactive graphical computer-aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    System is used for design, layout, and modification of large-scale-integrated (LSI) metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) arrays. System is structured around small computer which provides real-time support for graphics storage display unit with keyboard, slave display unit, hard copy unit, and graphics tablet for designer/computer interface.

  14. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  15. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  16. Information and computer-aided system for structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrashevitch, Ju. G.; Nizametdinov, Sh. U.; Polkovnikov, A. V.; Rumjantzev, V. P.; Surina, O. N.; Kalinin, G. M.; Sidorenkov, A. V.; Strebkov, Ju. S.

    1992-09-01

    An information and computer-aided system for structural materials data has been developed to provide data for the fusion and fission reactor system design. It is designed for designers, industrial engineers, and material science specialists and provides a friendly interface in an interactive mode. The database for structural materials contains the master files: chemical composition, physical, mechanical, corrosion, technological properties, regulatory and technical documentation. The system is implemented on a PC/AT running the PS/2 operating system.

  17. Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roat, S. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a single input/single output feedback control system design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Uses a heat exchanger temperature control loop to illustrate the various applications of the program. (ML)

  18. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  19. Effectiveness of Air Drying and Magnification Methods for Detecting Initial Caries on Occlusal Surfaces Using Three Different Diagnostic Aids.

    PubMed

    Goel, Deepti; Sandhu, Meera; Jhingan, Pulkit; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objective-The aim of this study was to assess the effect of magnification and air-drying on detection of carious lesion. Study Design-44 human extracted premolars were selected with sound occlusal surfaces without frank cavitation. The Diagnostic techniques used were Unaided visual examination, Magnifying Loupes (4.2×) and Stereomicroscope (10×, before and after air-drying) and then the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and both the surfaces were examined under Stereomicroscope (50×) to assess the presence or absence of carious lesion in the pit and fissures. The scores were compared to obtain Cohen's kappa coefficient (Reproducibility) and subjected to the Friedman Test and Paired t test. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value used to assess accuracy. Results-On Statistical analysis, visual examination before and after air drying had highest specificity but lowest sensitivity compared to different diagnostic techniques. Magnifying loupes after air-drying had highest sensitivity and lowest specificity compared to other diagnostic techniques. Conclusion-Air drying combined with magnifying aids are cost-effective, reliable method for detection of early carious lesion. If used in pediatric clinical practice, any undesirable pain and discomfort to the patient due to invasive procedures and helps in employing preventive measures. PMID:27472570

  20. Integrated computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-05-01

    Successful retinal tracking subsystem testing results in vivo on rhesus monkeys using an argon continuous wave laser and an ultra-short pulse laser are presented. Progress on developing an integrated robotic retinal laser surgery system is also presented. Several interesting areas of study have developed: (1) 'doughnut' shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, (2) the optimal retinal field of view to achieve simultaneous tracking and lesion parameter control, and (3) a fully digital versus a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry integrated system implementation. These areas are investigated in detail in this paper. The hybrid system warrants a separate presentation and appears in another paper at this conference.

  1. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations. The traditional approach to climate model evaluation, which compares a single parameter at a time, identifies symptomatic model biases and errors but fails to diagnose the model problems. The model diagnosis process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. To address these challenges, we are developing a parallel, distributed web-service system that enables the physics-based multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks (i.e., Flask, Gunicorn, and Tornado). The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation and (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, and (4) the calculation of difference between two variables. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use

  2. Computer-aided identification of polymorphism sets diagnostic for groups of bacterial and viral genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Price, Erin P; Inman-Bamber, John; Thiruvenkataswamy, Venugopal; Huygens, Flavia; Giffard, Philip M

    2007-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes that exhibit presence/absence variation have provided informative marker sets for bacterial and viral genotyping. Identification of marker sets optimised for these purposes has been based on maximal generalized discriminatory power as measured by Simpson's Index of Diversity, or on the ability to identify specific variants. Here we describe the Not-N algorithm, which is designed to identify small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for user-specified subsets of known genetic variants. The algorithm does not treat the user-specified subset and the remaining genetic variants equally. Rather Not-N analysis is designed to underpin assays that provide 0% false negatives, which is very important for e.g. diagnostic procedures for clinically significant subgroups within microbial species. Results The Not-N algorithm has been incorporated into the "Minimum SNPs" computer program and used to derive genetic markers diagnostic for multilocus sequence typing-defined clonal complexes, hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes, and phylogenetic clades defined by comparative genome hybridization (CGH) data for Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica and Clostridium difficile. Conclusion Not-N analysis is effective for identifying small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for microbial sub-groups. The best results to date have been obtained with CGH data from several bacterial species, and HCV sequence data. PMID:17672919

  3. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  4. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  5. Precision analysis of passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years BD (BeiDou positioning system), an active satellite navigation system, has been widely applied in geodetic survey, precise engineering survey and GNC (guide, navigation and control system) of weapons because of its reliability and availability. However, it has several problems on the accuracy, anti-interference and active-positioning. A passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system is introduced in details in this paper. The configuration and the operating principle of system are presented. In analyzing the precision of location, one of the crucial aspects to be studied is how to determine the arrangement of the pseudolites to get the good GDOP, which is discussed in the different arrangements of the pseudolites in this paper. The simulation results show that the VDOP (vertical dilution of precision) of BD is improved due to introducing the pseudolites. The experiments indicate the validity of the methods and the improvement of the positioning precision in the BD aided pseudolite system.

  6. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S.

    1996-07-01

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests.

  7. Computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H.; Jerath, Maya R.; Lewis, R. Stephen; Dillard, Bryan C.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Biomedical Engineering Laser Laboratory and the U.S. Air Force Academy's Department of Electrical Engineering are developing a computer-assisted prototype retinal photocoagulation system. The project goal is to rapidly and precisely automatically place laser lesions in the retina for the treatment of disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears while dynamically controlling the extent of the lesion. Separate prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion parameters (diameter or depth) using lesion reflectance feedback and lesion placement using retinal vessels as tracking landmarks. Successful subsystem testing results in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser are presented. A prototype integrated system design to simultaneously control lesion parameters and placement at clinically significant speeds is provided.

  8. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. 1033.112 Section 1033.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.112 Emission diagnostics for SCR...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. 1033.112 Section 1033.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.112 Emission diagnostics for SCR...

  10. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  11. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  12. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Novak, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of a computer-aided personalized system of instruction program in two undergraduate psychology courses. The computer presented short essay tests and arranged for students who had completed various assignments satisfactorily to help evaluate other students' mastery of those assignments. Student response generally was…

  13. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  14. Aid effectiveness in rebuilding the Afghan health system: a reflection.

    PubMed

    Dalil, Suraya; Newbrander, William; Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Naeem, Ahmad Jan; Griffin, James; Salama, Peter; Momand, Faiz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The Paris Declaration defined five components of aid effectiveness: ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and mutual accountability. Afghanistan, which has received a high level of donor aid for health since 2002, has seen significant improvements in health indicators, expanded access to health services and an increased range of services. Do the impressive health outcomes in this fragile state mean that aid has been effectively utilised? The factors that contributed to the success of the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH)-donor partnership include as follows: Ownership: a realistic role for the MOPH as the steward of the health sector that was clearly articulated to all stakeholders; Donor alignment: donor coordination and collaboration initiated by the MOPH; Joint decisions: participatory decision-making by the MOPH and donors, such as the major decision to use contracts with nongovernmental organisations for health service delivery; Managing for results: basing programmes on available evidence, supplementing that evidence where possible and performance monitoring of health-sector activities using multiple data sources; Reliable aid flows: the availability of sufficient donor funding for more than 10 years for MOPH priorities, such as the Basic Package of Health Services, and other programmes that boosted system development and capacity building; Human factors: these include a critical mass of individuals with the right experience and expertise being deployed at the right time and able to look beyond agency mandates and priorities to support sector reform and results. These factors, which made aid to Afghanistan effective, can be applied in other countries. PMID:24922192

  15. Aid effectiveness in rebuilding the Afghan health system: A reflection

    PubMed Central

    Dalil, Suraya; Newbrander, William; Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Naeem, Ahmad Jan; Griffin, James; Salama, Peter; Momand, Faiz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The Paris Declaration defined five components of aid effectiveness: ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and mutual accountability. Afghanistan, which has received a high level of donor aid for health since 2002, has seen significant improvements in health indicators, expanded access to health services and an increased range of services. Do the impressive health outcomes in this fragile state mean that aid has been effectively utilised? The factors that contributed to the success of the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH)-donor partnership include as follows: Ownership: a realistic role for the MOPH as the steward of the health sector that was clearly articulated to all stakeholders; Donor alignment: donor coordination and collaboration initiated by the MOPH; Joint decisions: participatory decision-making by the MOPH and donors, such as the major decision to use contracts with nongovernmental organisations for health service delivery; Managing for results: basing programmes on available evidence, supplementing that evidence where possible and performance monitoring of health-sector activities using multiple data sources; Reliable aid flows: the availability of sufficient donor funding for more than 10 years for MOPH priorities, such as the Basic Package of Health Services, and other programmes that boosted system development and capacity building; Human factors: these include a critical mass of individuals with the right experience and expertise being deployed at the right time and able to look beyond agency mandates and priorities to support sector reform and results. These factors, which made aid to Afghanistan effective, can be applied in other countries. PMID:24922192

  16. [Diseases of digestive system in patients with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Brbmolić, B; Jevtović, Dj; Ranin, J; Salemović, D; Zerjav, S

    1992-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are common and may relate to opportunistic inections and tumors, diseases which are usual in the anti-HIV negative population also, and disease of unknown aethiology, such as wasting syndrome and recurrent diarrhoeal illness. Diarrhoea and weight loss are found in more than 50% of patients with AIDS. Gastrointestinal manifestations range in severity from the discomfort of oral and perianal infections, through life threatening diarrhoea due to intestinal cryptosporidiosis. The approach to the patient with AIDS and gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary disorders is oriented toward diagnosing treatable aethiologies and avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures. Although the final prognosis of full developed AIDS is poor, management of gastrointestinal disease may be improved by accurate diagnosis. PMID:18170973

  17. Built-In Diagnostics (BID) Of Equipment/Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granieri, Michael N.; Giordano, John P.; Nolan, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostician(TM)-on-Chip (DOC) technology identifies faults and commands systems reconfiguration. Smart microcontrollers operating in conjunction with other system-control circuits, command self-correcting system/equipment actions in real time. DOC microcontroller generates commands for associated built-in test equipment to stimulate unit of equipment diagnosed, collects and processes response data obtained by built-in test equipment, and performs diagnostic reasoning on response data, using diagnostic knowledge base derived from design data.

  18. Towards brain first-aid: a diagnostic device for conscious awareness.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Ryan C N; Hajra, Sujoy Ghosh; Liu, Careesa; Sculthorpe, Lauren D; Weaver, Donald F

    2011-03-01

    When the brain is damaged, evaluating an individual's level of awareness can be a major diagnostic challenge (Is he or she in there?). Existing tests typically rely on behavioral indicators, which are incorrect in as many as one out of every two cases. The current paper presents a diagnostic device that addresses this problem. The technology circumvents behavioral limitations through noninvasive brain wave measurements (electroencephalography, or EEG). Unlike traditional EEG, the device is designed for point-of-care use by incorporating a portable, user-friendly, and stable design. It uses a novel software algorithm that automates subject stimulation, data acquisition/analysis, and the reporting of results. The test provides indicators for five identifiable levels of neural processing: sensation, perception, attention, memory, and language. The results are provided as rapidly obtained diagnostic, reliability, validity, and prognostic scores. The device can be applied to a wide variety of patients across a host of different environments. The technology is designed to be wireless-enabled for remote monitoring and assessment capabilities. In essence, the device is developed to scan for conscious awareness in order to optimize subsequent patient care. PMID:21075716

  19. Qualitative model-based diagnostics for rocket systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Jankovsky, Amy; Fulton, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    A diagnostic software package is currently being developed at NASA LeRC that utilizes qualitative model-based reasoning techniques. These techniques can provide diagnostic information about the operational condition of the modeled rocket engine system or subsystem. The diagnostic package combines a qualitative model solver with a constraint suspension algorithm. The constraint suspension algorithm directs the solver's operation to provide valuable fault isolation information about the modeled system. A qualitative model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's oxidizer supply components was generated. A diagnostic application based on this qualitative model was constructed to process four test cases: three numerical simulations and one actual test firing. The diagnostic tool's fault isolation output compared favorably with the input fault condition.

  20. A computer aided engineering tool for ECLS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, Michal E.; Reuter, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis tool used by NASA for environmental control and life support system design studies is capable of simulating atmospheric revitalization systems, water recovery and management systems, and single-phase active thermal control systems. The designer/analysis interface used is graphics-based, and allows the designer to build a model by constructing a schematic of the system under consideration. Data management functions are performed, and the program is translated into a format that is compatible with the solution routines.

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2007-03-01

    Multislice CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multislice CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. Moreover, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by using a lung cancer screening algorithm built into mobile helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening done in the region without the hospital. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  2. Diagnostic for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Etch Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    In order to meet NASA's requirements for the rapid development and validation of future generation electronic devices as well as associated materials and processes, enabling technologies ion the processing of semiconductor materials arising from understanding etch chemistries are being developed through a research collaboration between Stanford University and NASA-Ames Research Center, Although a great deal of laboratory-scale research has been performed on many of materials processing plasmas, little is known about the gas-phase and surface chemical reactions that are critical in many etch and deposition processes, and how these reactions are influenced by the variation in operating conditions. In addition, many plasma-based processes suffer from stability and reliability problems leading to a compromise in performance and a potentially increased cost for the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Such a lack of understanding has hindered the development of process models that can aid in the scaling and improvement of plasma etch and deposition systems. The research described involves the study of plasmas used in semiconductor processes. An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source in place of the standard upper electrode assembly of the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) radio-frequency (RF) Reference Cell is used to investigate the discharge characteristics and chemistries. This ICP source generates plasmas with higher electron densities (approximately 10(exp 12)/cu cm) and lower operating pressures (approximately 7 mTorr) than obtainable with the original parallel-plate version of the GEC Cell. This expanded operating regime is more relevant to new generations of industrial plasma systems being used by the microelectronics industry. The motivation for this study is to develop an understanding of the physical phenomena involved in plasma processing and to measure much needed fundamental parameters, such as gas-phase and surface reaction rates. species

  3. Laboratory Information Systems in Molecular Diagnostics: Why Molecular Diagnostics Data are Different.

    PubMed

    Lee, Roy E; Henricks, Walter H; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont J

    2016-03-01

    Molecular diagnostic testing presents new challenges to information management that are yet to be sufficiently addressed by currently available information systems for the molecular laboratory. These challenges relate to unique aspects of molecular genetic testing: molecular test ordering, informed consent issues, diverse specimen types that encompass the full breadth of specimens handled by traditional anatomic and clinical pathology information systems, data structures and data elements specific to molecular testing, varied testing workflows and protocols, diverse instrument outputs, unique needs and requirements of molecular test reporting, and nuances related to the dissemination of molecular pathology test reports. By satisfactorily addressing these needs in molecular test data management, a laboratory information system designed for the unique needs of molecular diagnostics presents a compelling reason to migrate away from the current paper and spreadsheet information management that many molecular laboratories currently use. This paper reviews the issues and challenges of information management in the molecular diagnostics laboratory. PMID:26849819

  4. Target Diagnostic Control System Implementation for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R T; Kamperschroer, J H; Lagin, L J; Nelson, J R; O'Brien, D W

    2010-05-12

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  5. Resilient Actions in the Diagnostic Process and System Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael W.; Giardina, Traber Davis; Murphy, Daniel R.; Laxmisan, Archana; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic issues can adversely affect the diagnostic process. Many system-related barriers can be masked by ‘resilient’ actions of frontline providers (ie, actions supporting the safe delivery of care in the presence of pressures that the system cannot readily adapt to). We explored system barriers and resilient actions of primary care providers (PCPs) in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of interviews of PCPs involved in diagnostic evaluation of 29 lung and colorectal cancer cases. Cases covered a range of diagnostic timeliness and were analyzed to identify barriers for rapid diagnostic evaluation, and PCPs’ actions involving elements of resilience addressing those barriers. We rated these actions according to whether they were usual or extraordinary for typical PCP work. Results Resilient actions and associated barriers were found in 59% of the cases, in all ranges of timeliness, with 40% involving actions rated as beyond typical. Most of the barriers were related to access to specialty services and coordination with patients. Many of the resilient actions involved using additional communication channels to solicit cooperation from other participants in the diagnostic process. Discussion Diagnostic evaluation of cancer involves several resilient actions by PCPs targeted at system deficiencies. PCPs’ actions can sometimes mitigate system barriers to diagnosis, and thereby impact the sensitivity of ‘downstream’ measures (eg, delays) in detecting barriers. While resilient actions might enable providers to mitigate system deficiencies in the short run, they can be resource intensive and potentially unsustainable. They complement, rather than substitute for, structural remedies to improve system performance. Measures to detect and fix system performance issues targeted by these resilient actions could facilitate diagnostic safety. PMID:23813210

  6. FTDD973: A multimedia knowledge-based system and methodology for operator training and diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hekmatpour, Amir; Brown, Gary; Brault, Randy; Bowen, Greg

    1993-01-01

    FTDD973 (973 Fabricator Training, Documentation, and Diagnostics) is an interactive multimedia knowledge based system and methodology for computer-aided training and certification of operators, as well as tool and process diagnostics in IBM's CMOS SGP fabrication line (building 973). FTDD973 is an example of what can be achieved with modern multimedia workstations. Knowledge-based systems, hypertext, hypergraphics, high resolution images, audio, motion video, and animation are technologies that in synergy can be far more useful than each by itself. FTDD973's modular and object-oriented architecture is also an example of how improvements in software engineering are finally making it possible to combine many software modules into one application. FTDD973 is developed in ExperMedia/2; and OS/2 multimedia expert system shell for domain experts.

  7. Development of Diagnostic Criteria for Serious Non-AIDS Events in HIV Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lifson, Alan R.; Belloso, Waldo H.; Davey, Richard T.; Duprez, Daniel; Gatell, Jose M.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Krum, Eric A.; Nelson, Ray; Pedersen, Court; Perez, George; Price, Richard W.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Rhame, Frank S.; Sampson, James H.; Worley, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Serious non-AIDS (SNA) diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the HAART era. We describe development of standard criteria for 12 SNA events for Endpoint Review Committee (ERC) use in START, a multicenter international HIV clinical trial. Methods SNA definitions were developed based upon the following: (1) criteria from a previous trial (SMART), (2) review of published literature, (3) an iterative consultation and review process with the ERC and other content experts, and (4) evaluation of draft SNA criteria using retrospectively collected reports in another trial (ESPRIT). Results Final criteria are presented for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease requiring drug treatment, coronary revascularization, decompensated liver disease, deep vein thrombosis, diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, non-AIDS cancer, peripheral arterial disease, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Of 563 potential SNA events reported in ESPRIT and reviewed by an ERC, 72% met “confirmed” and 13% “probable” criteria. Twenty-eight percent of cases initially reviewed by the ERC required follow-up discussion (adjudication) before a final decision was reached. Conclusion HIV clinical trials that include SNA diseases as clinical outcomes should have standardized SNA definitions to optimize event reporting and validation and should have review by an experienced ERC with opportunities for adjudication. PMID:20974576

  8. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diagnostic system must monitor reductant quality and tank levels and alert operators to the need to refill... computer memory all incidents of engine operation with inadequate reductant injection or reductant...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diagnostic system must monitor reductant quality and tank levels and alert operators to the need to refill... computer memory all incidents of engine operation with inadequate reductant injection or reductant...

  10. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-04-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  11. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  13. Improving diagnostic capability for HPV disease internationally within the NIH-NIAID-Division of AIDS Clinical Trial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Catherine C.; Michelow, Pamela M.; Godard, Mandana; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Darden, Janice; Firnhaber, Cynthia S.; Wetherall, Neal T.; Bremer, James; Coombs, Robert W.; Wilkin, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate an external quality assurance (EQA) program for the laboratory diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease that was established to improve international research capability within the Division of AIDS at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease–supported Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group network. Methods A three-component EQA scheme was devised comprising assessments of diagnostic accuracy of cytotechnologists and pathologists using available EQA packages, review of quality and accuracy of clinical slides from local sites by an outside expert, and HPV DNA detection using the commercially available HPV test kit. Results Seven laboratories and 17 pathologists in Africa, India, and South America participated. EQA scores were suboptimal for standard packages in three of seven laboratories. There was good agreement between the local laboratory and the central reader 70% of the time (90% confidence interval, 42%-98%). Performance on the College of American Pathologists’ HPV DNA testing panel was successful in all laboratories tested. Conclusions The prequalifying EQA round identified correctable issues that will improve the laboratory diagnosis of HPV related cervical disease at the international sites and will provide a mechanism for ongoing education and continuous quality improvement. PMID:24225757

  14. A review of HIV/AIDS system-level interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Tross, Susan; Ehrhardt, Anke A.

    2010-01-01

    The escalating HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide demands that on-going prevention efforts be strengthened, disseminated, and scaled-up. System-level interventions refer to programs aiming to improve the functioning of an agency as well as the delivery of its services to the community. System-level interventions are a promising approach to HIV/AIDS prevention because they focus on (a) improving the agency’s ability to adopt evidence-based HIV prevention and care programs; (b) develop and establish policies and procedures that maximize the sustainability of on-going prevention and care efforts; and (c) improve decision-making processes such as incorporating the needs of communities into their tailored services. We reviewed studies focusing on system-level interventions by searching multiple electronic abstracting indices, including PsycInfo, PubMed, and ProQuest. Twenty-three studies out of 624 peer-reviewed studies (published from January 1985 to February 2007) met study criteria. Most of the studies focused on strengthening agency infrastructure, while other studies included collaborative partnerships and technical assistance programs. Our findings suggest that system-level interventions are promising in strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment efforts. Based on our findings, we propose recommendations for future work in developing and evaluating system-level interventions. PMID:18369722

  15. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  16. Program Aids Design Of Fluid-Circulating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, Allen; Dalee, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Computer Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) program is interactive software tool for trade study and analysis, designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. Graphics-based command-driven software package provides user-friendly computing environment in which engineer analyzes performance and interface characteristics of ECLS/ATC system. Useful during all phases of spacecraft-design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight analysis of anomalies. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  17. Developing a self-diagnostic system for piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Atherton, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement techniques for developing a self-diagnostic system for piezoelectric sensors are presented. The self-diagnostic system uses two types of measurement techniques based on passive and active evaluation of the piezoelectric element. Both hard and soft failures can be detected by this system. Hard failures such as loss of sensor signal and change in sensor output resistance are determined by monitoring the sensor's output resistance, voltage or current. These are passive measurements of the sensor's output condition. Soft failures include changes in sensor calibration and mounting conditions. Soft failures are detected by measuring structural/electrical impedance of the piezoelectric sensor. Active measurement techniques are used to calculate changes in piezoelectric element properties related to soft failures. This paper describes the general operating principles of a self-diagnostic system and discusses the design of an active/passive measurement technique required for this system to function. Experimental results using two types of piezoelectric accelerometers are presented.

  18. System diagnostic builder: a rule-generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

    1993-03-01

    The system diagnostic builder (SDB) is an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state- of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB uses an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert (SME). Thus, data is captured from the subject system, classified by an expert, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule-bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The rule-bases can be used in any knowledge based system which monitors or controls a physical system or simulation. The SDB has demonstrated the utility of using inductive machine learning technology to generate reliable knowledge bases. In fact, we have discovered that the knowledge captured by the SDB can be used in any number of applications. For example, the knowledge bases captured from the SMS can be used as black box simulations by intelligent computer aided training devices. We can also use the SDB to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production, or oil and gas production. These knowledge bases can be used in automated advisory systems to ensure safety, productivity, and consistency.

  19. [Computer-assisted phonetography as a diagnostic aid in functional dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Airainer, R; Klingholz, F

    1991-07-01

    A total of 160 voice-trained and untrained subjects with functional dysphonia were given a "clinical rating" according to their clinical findings. This was a certain value on a scale that recorded the degree of functional voice disorder ranging from a marked hypofunction to an extreme hyperfunction. The phonetograms of these patients were approximated by ellipses, whereby the definition and quantitative recording of several phonetogram parameters were rendered possible. By means of a linear combination of phonetogram parameters, a "calculated assessment" was obtained for each patient that was expected to tally with the "clinical rating". This paper demonstrates that a graduation of the dysphonic clinical picture with regard to the presence of hypofunctional or hyperfunctional components is possible via computerised phonetogram evaluation. In this case, the "calculated assessments" for both male and female singers and non-singers must be computed using different linear combinations. The method can be introduced as a supplementary diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of functional dysphonia. PMID:1910366

  20. Multifractal analysis as an aid in the diagnostics of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Slezin, V B; Korsakova, E A; Dytjatkovsky, M A; Schultz, E A; Arystova, T A; Siivola, J R

    2007-01-01

    The digitalization of EEGs (electroencephalogram) has showed new possibilities for analyzing electrical activity of brain. This has offered new methods, e.g. multifractal analysis of 1/f(beta) EEG rhythms fluctuations. It is one of highly mathematical methods feasible in routine practice now that modern personal computers (PCs) have reached sufficient computing power. In this study, we applied the multifractal analysis of 1/f(beta) EEG rhythms fluctuations in 33 patients suffering from schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like syndromes, and we had 23 healthy controls. Our results indicated that the patients suffering from schizophrenia have statistically different values compared with the controls. This method is rather easy and quick to perform when using a standard PC. It may have the potential to become an important tool in the diagnostics and analysis of the patients with schizophrenia and schizophreniformic psychoses. It can help to understand the quasi-chaotic processes in neural processing and narrow the gap between the phenomenological psychiatry and bio-psychiatry. PMID:17990194

  1. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  2. Benchmarking Diagnostic Algorithms on an Electrical Power System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Narasimhan, Sriram; Poll, Scott; Garcia, David; Wright, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic algorithms (DAs) are key to enabling automated health management. These algorithms are designed to detect and isolate anomalies of either a component or the whole system based on observations received from sensors. In recent years a wide range of algorithms, both model-based and data-driven, have been developed to increase autonomy and improve system reliability and affordability. However, the lack of support to perform systematic benchmarking of these algorithms continues to create barriers for effective development and deployment of diagnostic technologies. In this paper, we present our efforts to benchmark a set of DAs on a common platform using a framework that was developed to evaluate and compare various performance metrics for diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is an electrical power system, namely the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) developed and located at the NASA Ames Research Center. The paper presents the fundamentals of the benchmarking framework, the ADAPT system, description of faults and data sets, the metrics used for evaluation, and an in-depth analysis of benchmarking results obtained from testing ten diagnostic algorithms on the ADAPT electrical power system testbed.

  3. Expert systems to aid in wind farm operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schluter, L. L.; Nateghian, F.; Luger, G. F.

    1991-12-01

    An expert system is a knowledge-based program that provides solutions to problems in a specific domain by mimicking the behavior of a human expert. Expert systems can have several advantages over traditional programming methods; however, developing an expert system generally involves a considerable amount of time and money. Therefore, careful investigation must be done to ensure that a problem is suited for an expert system application. This paper examines several areas where an expert system may help wind farm operators lower their operational costs. Justifications for using expert systems rather than traditional programming methods are given. This paper also discusses some of the design decisions that were made in developing an expert system for US Windpower that will aid in diagnosing wind turbine failures.

  4. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  5. Application of Vestibular Spontaneous Response as a Diagnostic Aid for Meniere's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dastgheib, Z A; Lithgow, B; Blakely, B; Moussavi, Z

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report on a new method for assisting in Meniere's disease diagnosis. An accurate diagnosis of Meniere's is challenging, and requires an expert opinion after observing several clinical assessments and tests over a period of time. Our proposed method is based on the analysis of the spontaneous and driven ear evoked responses recorded using Electrovestibulography (EVestG). We used the EVestG signals of 35 individuals suspected of Meniere's and 26 age-matched healthy controls, out of which data of 14 patients with Meniere's and 16 healthy controls were used for developing the diagnostic algorithm (training set) and the rest for testing. While recording and analyzing the test dataset, the researchers were only aware the patients suffered some dizziness, and were kept blind to the exact diagnoses till the end of study. EVestG field potentials (FPs) and their firing pattern, in response to several whole body tilt stimuli from both left and right ears were extracted. We investigated several features of the extracted FPs in response to each of side, back/forward, rotation, up/down, supine rotation, and supine up/down tilt stimulations, and selected the top five features showing the most significant differences between of the groups of the training set for every tilt. An ad-hoc average voting classifier was designed based on building five single-feature classifiers (using Linear Discriminant analysis) and taking the average of the single-feature classifiers' votes. The results showed the side tilt data were best for the purpose of Meniere's diagnosis; it resulted in 78% and 90% sensitivity and specificity for test dataset, respectively. The second best accuracy was achieved using back/forward tilt. The results and their implications are discussed. Overall, the EVestG side tilt results encourage the use of vestibular response as a non-invasive, robust and quick screening for Meniere's and separating it from other types of dizziness. PMID:26334355

  6. Performance of fault-tolerant diagnostics in the hypercube systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafoor, A.; Sole, P.

    1989-08-01

    In this paper, they introduce the concept of fault-tolerant self-diagnosis for distributed systems and show that there exists a performance tradeoff between the complexity of a self-diagnostic algorithm and the level of fault tolerance inherited by the algorithm. For the study, they select hypercube systems and show that designing an optimal algorithm for such systems has an equivalent coding theory formulation which belongs to the class of NP-hard problems. Subsequently, they propose an ''efficient'' diagnostic scheme for these systems and study the performance tradeoff of the proposed algorithm which is based on a combinatorial structure called Hadamard matrix. The authors make an essential use of its properties of symmetrical partitioning and covering in hypercube networks. Using known translate weight distributions, they evaluated the tradeoff between the fault tolerance and traffic complexity of the proposed diagnostic algorithm for hypercubes of small sizes. An interesting compromise is exhibited for the hypercube with an arbitrary size.

  7. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Ahad S.; Durand, Robert; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Early disease detection is not only vital to reduce disease severity and prevent complications, but also critical to increase success rate of therapy. Saliva has been studied extensively as a potential diagnostic tool over the last decade due to its ease and non-invasive accessibility along with its abundance of biomarkers, such as genetic material and proteins. This review will update the clinician on recent advances in salivary biomarkers to diagnose autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, cystic fibrosis), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, HIV, oral cancer, caries and periodontal diseases. Considering their accuracy, efficacy, ease of use and cost effectiveness, salivary diagnostic tests will be available in dental offices. It is expected that the advent of sensitive and specific salivary diagnostic tools and the establishment of defined guidelines and results following rigorous testing will allow salivary diagnostics to be used as chair-side tests for several oral and systemic diseases in the near future. PMID:26937373

  8. Electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) diagnostic system on TMX

    SciTech Connect

    Coffield, F.E.; Griffin, D.H.

    1981-10-20

    The ECRH diagnostics system monitors the net power delivered to the plasma by four 200-kW gyrotron oscillators, the frequency of each gyrotron, and some operating parameters of the gyrotron power supply system. The combination CAMAC- and GPIB-based data acquisition system is under desktop computer control that provides the capability for data conversion and display. The data acquisition system is also interfaced to the main computer system that acquires and archives the data.

  9. Effect of image variation on computer-aided detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, S. P.; Maduskar, P.; Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Hogeweg, L.; van Ginneken, B.

    2014-03-01

    As the importance of Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems application is rising in medical imaging field due to the advantages they generate; it is essential to know their weaknesses and try to find a proper solution for them. A common possible practical problem that affects CAD systems performance is: dissimilar training and testing datasets declines the efficiency of CAD systems. In this paper normalizing images is proposed, three different normalization methods are applied on chest radiographs namely (1) Simple normalization (2) Local Normalization (3) Multi Band Local Normalization. The supervised lung segmentation CAD system performance is evaluated on normalized chest radiographs with these three different normalization methods in terms of Jaccard index. As a conclusion the normalization enhances the performance of CAD system and among these three normalization methods Local Normalization and Multi band Local normalization improve performance of CAD system more significantly than the simple normalization.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  11. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  12. DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase 1 of this research, we will identify existing tools, methods, and models available to support establishment of cause-effect relationships. In Phase 2, we will investigate existing decision support systems and produce an appropriate decision support system design. Based ...

  13. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  14. SA-SVM based automated diagnostic system for skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis of skin cancer is one of the greatest challenges due to lack of experience of general practitioners (GPs). This paper presents a clinical decision support system aimed to save time and resources in the diagnostic process. Segmentation, feature extraction, pattern recognition, and lesion classification are the important steps in the proposed decision support system. The system analyses the images to extract the affected area using a novel proposed segmentation method H-FCM-LS. The underlying features which indicate the difference between melanoma and benign lesions are obtained through intensity, spatial/frequency and texture based methods. For classification purpose, self-advising SVM is adapted which showed improved classification rate as compared to standard SVM. The presented work also considers analyzed performance of linear and kernel based SVM on the specific skin lesion diagnostic problem and discussed corresponding findings. The best diagnostic rates obtained through the proposed method are around 90.5 %.

  15. Novel optical spectroscopy system for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Natalia; Turchin, Ilya; Kamensky, Vladislav; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Golubyatnikov, German; Da Silva, Luiz; Kasthuri, Usha; Pavlycheva, Irina; Smetanina, Svetlana; Artifeksova, Anna; Belkov, Sergey; Kochemasov, Gennady

    2007-02-01

    We report on development of minimally invasive system for immediate diagnostics of breast cancer and on the results of its pilot clinical testing. The system designed by BioTelligent Inc is based on analysis of optical diffusion spectra (ODS) measured by a probe inserted into breast tissue during standard punch biopsy. Analysis of scattered spectra aimed to distinction of benign tumors from malignant ones is done by original procedure of data processing. Clinical testing of the created diagnostic system has been performed by classification of spectra collected from 146 patients with previously detected mammary neoplasms. The data of ODS study in each patient have been compared to the results of histology. The proposed technique has to date demonstrated sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 80% and diagnostic accuracy of 88%. These values are expected to improve as the data sets continue to grow and more sophisticated data processing is employed.

  16. Fault diagnostic system for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikam, Umesh; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a robot fault diagnosis system (RFDS). Though designed ostensibly for the University of Cincinnati's autonomous, unmanned, mobile robot for a national competition, it has the flexibility to be adapted for industrial applications as well. Using a top-down approach the robot is sub-divided into different functional units, such as the vision guidance system, the ultrasonic obstacle avoidance system, the steering mechanism, the speed control system, the braking system and the power unit. The techniques of potential failure mode and effects analysis (PFMEA) are used to analyze faults, their visible symptoms, and probable causes and remedies. The relationships obtained therefrom are mapped in a database framework. This is then coded in a user-friendly interactive Visual BasicTM program that guides the user to the likely cause(s) of failure through a question-answer format. A provision is made to ensure better accuracy of the system by incorporating historical data on failures as it becomes available. The RFDS thus provides a handy trouble-shooting tool that cuts down the time involved in diagnosing failures in the complex robot consisting of mechanical, electric, electronic and optical systems. This has been of great help in diagnosing failures and ensuring maximum performance from the robot during the contest in the face of pressure of the competition and the outdoor conditions.

  17. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-05-07

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights.

  18. Integrated real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D

    1983-01-01

    The use of an integrated, real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system for the control of the fracturing treatment during massive hydraulic fracturing is proposed. The proposed system consists of four subsystems: an internal-fracture-pressure measurement system, a fluid-flow measurement system, a borehole seismic system, and a surface-electric-potential measurement system. This use of borehole seismic and surface-electric-potential measurements, which are essentially away-from-the-wellbore measurements, in conjunction with the use of the more commonly used types of measurements, i.e., at-the-wellbore pressure and fluid-flow measurements, is a distinctive feature of the composite real-time diagnostics system. Currently, the real-time capabilities of the individual subsystems are being developed, and the problems associated with their integration into a complete, computer-linked instrumentation system are being addressed. 2 figures.

  19. Reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Walsh, M. ); Humenik, K.E. )

    1990-01-01

    In order to reliably and safely operate a nuclear power plant, it is necessary to continuously monitor the performance of numerous subsystems to confirm that the plant state is within its prescribed limits. An important function of a properly designed monitoring system is the detection of incipient faults in all subsystems (with the avoidance of false alarms) coupled with an information system that provides the operators with fault diagnosis, prognosis of fault progression and recommended (either automatic or prescriptive) corrective action. In this paper, such a system is described that has been applied to reactor coolant pumps. This system includes a sensitive pattern-recognition technique based upon the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) that detects incipient faults from validated signals, an expert system embodying knowledge bases on pump and sensor performance, extensive hypertext files containing operating and emergency procedures as well as pump and sensor information and a graphical interface providing the operator with easily perceived information on the location and character of the fault as well as recommended corrective action. This system is in the prototype stage and is currently being validated utilizing data from a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (EBR-II). 3 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  1. Miniature spectrometer and multispectral imager as a potential diagnostic aid in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey; Palcic, Branko

    1995-04-01

    A miniature spectrometer system has been constructed for both reflectance and autofluorescence spectral measurements of skin. The system is based on PC plug-in spectrometer, therefore, it is miniature and easy to operate. The spectrometer has been used clinically to collect spectral data from various skin lesions including skin cancer. To date, 48 patients with a total of 71 diseased skin sites have been measured. Analysis of these preliminary data suggests that unique spectral characteristics exist for certain types of skin lesions, i.e. seborrheic keratosis, psoriasis, etc.. These spectral characteristics will help the differential diagnosis in Dermatology practice. In conjunction with the spectral point measurements, we are building and testing a multispectral imaging system to measure the spatial distribution of skin reflectance and autofluorescence. Preliminary results indicate that a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma has a weak autofluorescence signal at the edge of the lesion, but a higher autofluorescence signal in the central area.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  3. A sequential decision-theoretic model for medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Aiping; Jin, Songchang; Zhang, Lumin; Jia, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Although diagnostic expert systems using a knowledge base which models decision-making of traditional experts can provide important information to non-experts, they tend to duplicate the errors made by experts. Decision-Theoretic Model (DTM) is therefore very useful in expert system since they prevent experts from incorrect reasoning under uncertainty. For the diagnostic expert system, corresponding DTM and arithmetic are studied and a sequential diagnostic decision-theoretic model based on Bayesian Network is given. In the model, the alternative features are categorized into two classes (including diseases features and test features), then an arithmetic for prior of test is provided. The different features affect other features weights are also discussed. Bayesian Network is adopted to solve uncertainty presentation and propagation. The model can help knowledge engineers model the knowledge involved in sequential diagnosis and decide evidence alternative priority. A practical example of the models is also presented: at any time of the diagnostic process the expert is provided with a dynamically updated list of suggested tests in order to support him in the decision-making problem about which test to execute next. The results show it is better than the traditional diagnostic model which is based on experience. PMID:26410326

  4. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic aid for synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, J.; Crew, J.; Birdsall, S.; Gill, S.; Clark, J.; Fisher, C.; Kelsey, A.; Nojima, T.; Sonobe, H.; Cooper, C.; Gusterson, B.

    1996-01-01

    Identification of the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) that is associated with a high proportion of synovial sarcoma can be a useful diagnostic aid. The translocation results in fusion of the SYT gene on chromosome 18 to either the SSX1 or the SSX2 gene, two homologous genes within Xp11.2. Two-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were assessed as approaches to identify the rearrangement in well characterized cases. The presence of the translocation, and the specific chromosome X gene disrupted, were inferred from the configuration of signals from chromosome-specific centromere probes, paints, and markers flanking each gene in preparations of interphase nuclei. Rearrangement was found in two cell lines and eight of nine tumor samples, including analysis of five touch imprints. This was consistent with cytogenetic data in four cases and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis using primers known to amplify both SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2 transcripts. The transcripts were distinguished by restriction with LspI and SmaI. Contrary to previous suggestions, there was no obvious correlation between histological subtype and involvement of the SSX1 or SSX2 gene. These approaches could also be applied to the identification of tumor-free margins and metastatic disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8579118

  5. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  6. Progress of development of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bilkova, P.; Melich, R.; Aftanas, M.; Boehm, P.; Sestak, D.; Jares, D.; Weinzettl, V.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Walsh, M. J.

    2010-10-15

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostic system has been designed and is being built now on the COMPASS tokamak at the Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR in Prague (IPP Prague) in the Czech Republic. This contribution focuses on design, development, and installation of the light collection and detection system. High spatial resolution of 3 mm will be achieved by a combination of design of collection optics and connected polychromators. Imaging characteristics of both core and edge plasma collection objectives are described and fiber backplane design is presented. Several calibration procedures are discussed. The operational deployment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic is planned by the end of 2010.

  7. The oral-systemic connection: role of salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Utilizing saliva instead of blood for diagnosis of both local and systemic health is a rapidly emerging field. Recognition of oral-systemic interrelationships for many diseases has fostered collaborations between medicine and dentistry, and many of these collaborations rely on salivary diagnostics. The oral cavity is easily accessed and contains most of the analytes present in blood. Saliva and mucosal transudate are generally utilized for oral diagnostics, but gingival crevicular fluid, buccal swabs, dental plaque and volatiles may also be useful depending on the analyte being studied. Examples of point-of-care devices capable of detecting HIV, TB, and Malaria targets are being developed and discussed in this overview.

  8. Diagnostic system monitors gearboxes at hydro plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how, by applying real-time, tooth-by-tooth vibration ``imaging,`` this system detects gear-tooth defects -- such as pitting and cracking. To keep Swan Falls hydroelectric generating station in service, Idaho Power Co constructed a new two-unit, open-pit-turbine powerhouse. Swan Falls, Kuna, Idaho, the oldest on the Snake River, services southern Idaho and parts of Oregon -- one of 17 hydroelectric plants maintained by the utility. The hydro units use speed increasers (gearboxes) so higher-speed generators are possible. To monitor these gearboxes, engineers at Swan Falls required a continuous on-line predictive maintenance system. The system monitors the planetary step-up gearboxes in the two main 12.5-MW pit turbine/generators. In some Idaho Power plants with a similar hydro turbine/generator design, the gearboxes have experienced major failures, leading to hundreds of thousands of dollars in collateral damage.

  9. Automatic system for corneal ulcer diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; de Sousa, Sidney J. F.

    1997-05-01

    Corneal Ulcer is a very common disease in agricultural countries and it is responsible for 10% of the blindness causes. One of the main aspects to be observed in these cases is the increasing or decreasing of the affected area. We have been developing an automatic optical system in order to evaluate the affected area (the ulcer) to be implemented in a public hospital (400 patients per week are analyzed). The optical system is implemented in a Slit Lamp and connected to a CCD detector. The image is displayed in a PC monitor by a commercial frame grabber and a dedicated software for determining the area of the ulcer has been developed.

  10. Ureteral stones due to systemic mastocytosis: diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Molderings, Gerhard J; Solleder, Gerold; Kolck, Ulrich W; Homann, Jürgen; Schröder, Detlev; von Kügelgen, Ivar; Vorreuther, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Urolithiasis is expected to cause a considerable complication in patients with systemic mastocytosis. The aim of the present report is to demonstrate that due to pathological activation and irritability of mast cells, special features in the diagnostic investigation and therapy of urolithiasis have to be considered in patients with systemic mastocytosis. The clinical presentation, diagnostic investigation and therapeutic procedure of urolithiasis in a patient with systemic mastocytosis are described. Urolithiasis may be a significant complication of systemic mastocytosis. Non-contrast CT is the main tool for diagnosing urolithiasis after a detailed history and clinical exam. Patients with systemic mastocytosis should receive a premedication composed of a glucocorticoid and H(1)- and H(2)-histamine receptor antagonists. An increased vulnerability of mucosal tissues is expected in patients with systemic mastocytosis that may limit the options of operative and postoperative therapy. Opioids should be used cautiously for analgesia in patients with systemic mastocytosis. PMID:19513706

  11. Chapter 8: The Diagnostic Systems in the FTU

    SciTech Connect

    Tudisco, O.; Apruzzese, G.M.; Buratti, P.; Cantarini, L.; Canton, A.; Carraro, L.; Cocilovo, V.; Angelis, R. de; Benedetti, M. de; Esposito, B.; Gabellieri, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, L.A.; Grosso, G.; Innocente, P.; Kroegler, H.; Leigheb, M.; Monari, G.; Pacella, D.; Panaccione, L.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Pizzicaroli, G.; Podda, S.; Puiatti, M.E.; Rocchi, G.; Sibio, A.; Simonetto, A.; Smeulders, P.; Tartari, U.; Tartoni, N.; Tilia, B.; Valisa, M.; Zanza, V.; Zerbini, M.

    2004-05-15

    The design of diagnostics for the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is challenging because of the compactness of the machine (8-cm-wide ports) and the low operating temperatures requiring the presence of a cryostat. Nevertheless, a rather complete diagnostic system has been progressively installed. The basic systems include a set of magnetic probes, various visible and ultraviolet spectrometers, electron cyclotron emission (ECE) for electron temperature profiles measurements and electron tails monitoring, far-infrared and CO{sub 2} interferometry, X-ray (soft and hard) measurements, a multichord neutron diagnostics (with different type detectors), and a Thomson scattering system. Some diagnostics specific to the FTU physics program have been used such as microwave reflectometry for turbulence studies, edge-scanning Langmuir probes for radio-frequency coupling assessment, oblique ECE, and a fast electron bremsstrahlung (FEB) camera for lower hybrid current drive-induced fast electron tails.These systems are briefly reviewed in this paper. Further developments including a scanning CO{sub 2} laser two-color interferometer, two FEB cameras for tomographic analysis, a motional Stark effect system, and a collective Thomson scattering system are also described.

  12. STATUS OF VARIOUS SNS DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Purcell, J David; Patton, Jeff; Pelaia II, Tom; Sundaram, Madhan; Pennisi, Terry R

    2007-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems are ramping up to deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. Enhancements or additions have been made to several instrument systems to support the ramp up in intensity, improve reliability, and/or add functionality. The Beam Current Monitors now support increased rep rates, the Harp system now includes charge density calculations for the target, and a new system has been created to collect data for the beam accounting and present the data over the web and to the operator consoles. The majority of the SNS beam instruments are PC-based and their configuration files are now managed through the Oracle relational database. A new version for the wire scanner software was developed to add features to correlate the scan with beam loss, parking in the beam, and measuring the longitudinal beam current. This software is currently being tested. This paper also includes data from the selected instruments.

  13. Computer-aided reliability estimation. [for fault-tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiffler, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-aided reliability estimation (CARE) programs are developed to improve the tools available for estimating the reliability of fault-tolerant systems. A description is presented of a program, called CARE II, which was developed after the first program reported by Mathur (1971). Attention is given to the CARE II reliability model, the CARE II coverage model, and CARE II limitations which are to be rectified in CARE III. It is pointed out that the present coverage model in CARE II is extremely versatile. The major limitation is related to the burden placed on the user to determine the basic parameters from which the coverage calculations are made.

  14. Ontology-oriented diagnostic system for traditional Chinese medicine based on relation refinement.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Huajun; Yu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Although Chinese medicine treatments have become popular recently, the complicated Chinese medical knowledge has made it difficult to be applied in computer-aided diagnostics. The ability to model and use the knowledge becomes an important issue. In this paper, we define the diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as discovering the fuzzy relations between symptoms and syndromes. An Ontology-oriented Diagnosis System (ODS) is created to address the knowledge-based diagnosis based on a well-defined ontology of syndromes. The ontology transforms the implicit relationships among syndromes into a machine-interpretable model. The clinical data used for feature selection is collected from a national TCM research institute in China, which serves as a training source for syndrome differentiation. The ODS analyzes the clinical cases to obtain a statistical mapping relation between each syndrome and associated symptom set, before rechecking the completeness of related symptoms via ontology refinement. Our diagnostic system provides an online web interface to interact with users, so that users can perform self-diagnosis. We tested 12 common clinical cases on the diagnosis system, and it turned out that, given the agree metric, the system achieved better diagnostic accuracy compared to nonontology method-92% of the results fit perfectly with the experts' expectations. PMID:23533534

  15. A large distributed digital camera system for accelerator beam diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Honkavaara, K.

    2005-07-01

    Optical diagnostics, providing images of accelerated particle beams using radiation emitted by particles impinging a radiator, typically a fluorescent screen, has been extensively used, especially on electron linacs, since the 1970's. Higher intensity beams available in the last decade allow extending the use of beam imaging techniques to perform precise measurements of important beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and energy spread using optical transition radiation (OTR). OTR-based diagnostics systems are extensively used on the superconducting TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac driving the vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (VUV-FEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron facility. Up to 30 optical diagnostic stations have been installed at various positions along the 250-m-long linac, each equipped with a high-performance digital camera. This paper describes the new approach to the design of the hardware and software setups required by the complex topology of such a distributed camera system.

  16. A specialized framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems.

    PubMed Central

    Lanzola, G.; Stefanelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    To have a knowledge based system (KBS) exhibiting an intelligent behavior, it must be endowed even with knowledge able to represent the expert's strategies, other than with domain knowledge. The elicitation task is inherently difficult for strategic knowledge, because strategy is often tacit, and, even when it has been made explicit, it is not an easy task to describe it in a form that may be directly translated and implemented into a program. This paper describes a Specialized Framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems able to help an expert in the process of building KBSs in a medical domain. The framework is based on an epistemological model of diagnostic reasoning which has proved to be helpful in describing the diagnostic process in terms of the tasks by which it is composed of. PMID:1807566

  17. Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

    The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are

  18. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  19. Automatic system for corneal ulcer diagnostic: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    1998-06-01

    Corneal Ulcer is a deepithelization of the cornea and it is a very common disease in agricultural countries. The clinician most used parameter in order to identify a favorable ulcer evolution is the regress of the affected area. However, this kind of evaluation is subjective, once just the horizontal and vertical axes are measured based on a graduated scale and the affected area is estimated. Also, the registration of the disease is made by photographs. In order to overcome the subjectiveness and to register the images in a more accessible way (hard disks, floppy disks, etc.), we have developed an automatic system in order to evaluate the affected area (the ulcer). An optical system is implemented in a Slit Lamp (SL) and connected to a CCD detector. The image is displayed in PC monitor by a commercial frame grabber and a dedicated software for determining the area of the ulcer (precision of 20 mm) has been developed.

  20. Comparison of emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-04-06

    Diagnostic software tools for large commercial buildings are being developed to help detect and diagnose energy and other performance problems with building operations. These software applications utilize energy management control system (EMCS) trend log data. Due to the recent development of diagnostic tools, there has been little detailed comparison among the tools and a limited awareness of tool capabilities by potential users. Today, these diagnostic tools focus mainly on air handlers, but the opportunity exists for broadening the scope of the tools to include all major parts of heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in more detail. This paper compares several tools in the following areas: (1) Scope, intent, and background; (2) Data acquisition, pre-processing, and management; (3) Problems detected; (4) Raw data visualization; (5) Manual and automated diagnostic methods and (6) Level of automation. This comparison is intended to provide practitioners and researchers with a picture of the current state of diagnostic tools. There is tremendous potential for these tools to help improve commercial building energy and non-energy performance.

  1. Alignment and diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, E S; Boege, S J; Boyd, B; Demaret, R D; Feldman, M; Gates, A J; Holdener, F R; Hollis, J; Knopp, C F; McCarville, T J; Miller-Kamm; Rivera, W E; Salmon, J T; Severyn, J R; Thompson, C E; V J; Wang, D Y; Zacharias, R A

    1999-07-01

    The NIF laser system will be capable of delivering 1.8MJ of 351nm energy in 192 beams. Diagnostics instruments must measure beam energy, power vs. time, wavefront quality, and beam intensity profile to characterize laser performance. Alignment and beam diagnostics are also used to set the laser up for the high power shots and to isolate problems when performance is less than expected. Alignment and beam diagnostics are multiplexed to keep the costs under control. At the front-end the beam is aligned and diagnosed in an input sensor package. The output 1053nm beam is sampled by collecting a 0.1% reflection from an output beam sampler and directing it to the output sensor package (OSP). The OSP also gets samples from final focus lens reflection and samples from the transport spatial filter pinhole plane. The output 351nm energy is measured by a calorimeter collecting the signal from an off-axis diffractive beam-sampler. Detailed information on the focused beam in the high-energy target focal plane region is gathered in the precision diagnostics. This paper describes the design of the alignment and diagnostics on the NIF laser system.

  2. A method for knowledge acquisition in diagnostic expert system.

    PubMed

    Li, Weishi; Li, Aiping; Li, Shudong

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition plays very important role in the diagnostic expert system. It usually takes a long period to acquire disease knowledge using the traditional methods. To solve this problem, this paper describes relations between rough set theory and rule-based description of diseases, which corresponds to the process of knowledge acquisition of diagnostic expert system. Then the exclusive rules, inclusive rules and disease images of disease are built based on the PDES diagnosis model, and the definition of probability rule is put forward. At last, the paper presents the rule-based automated induction reasoning method, including exhaustive search, post-processing procedure, estimation for statistic test and the bootstrap and resampling methods. We also introduce automated induction of the rule-based description, which is used in our diseases diagnostic expert system. The experimental results not only show that rough set theory gives a very suitable framework to represent processes of uncertain knowledge extraction, but also that this method induces diagnostic rules correctly. This method can act as the assistant tool for development of diagnosis expert system, and has an extensive application in intelligent information systems. PMID:26410329

  3. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  4. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Cheng Y.; Morris, William S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  5. Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

  6. Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

  7. Progress of neutral-beam-aided diagnostics on the HL-2A tokamak.

    PubMed

    Yu, D L; Wei, Y L; Liu, L; Cao, J Y; Ma, Q; Chen, W J; Liu, Y; Yan, L W; Yang, Q W; Duan, X R

    2014-11-01

    A 32/64-channel Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) and a 7-channel motional Stark effect (MSE) polarimeter have been developed on the HL-2A tokamak. To extract the maximum time resolution of the system, the incidence fibers of the spectrometer are pitch-controlled; and the double-slit fiber bundle can increase the spatial channels with one charge-coupled device detector. The ion temperature and plasma rotation with time and spatial resolutions up to 5 ms and 1 cm are obtained. Sawtooth oscillation, transition from intermediate phase (I phase) to high confinement mode (H mode) can be clearly observed by the CXRS. The spectrometer can be utilized as the main component of the MSE polarimeter, which can effectively overcome the weak Stark effect. The pitch angles of magnetic field are obtained for 7 spatial points covering 24 cm along major radius with time resolution of 40 ms. PMID:25430309

  8. Progress of neutral-beam-aided diagnostics on the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D. L. Wei, Y. L.; Liu, L.; Cao, J. Y.; Ma, Q.; Chen, W. J.; Liu, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2014-11-15

    A 32/64-channel Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) and a 7-channel motional Stark effect (MSE) polarimeter have been developed on the HL-2A tokamak. To extract the maximum time resolution of the system, the incidence fibers of the spectrometer are pitch-controlled; and the double-slit fiber bundle can increase the spatial channels with one charge-coupled device detector. The ion temperature and plasma rotation with time and spatial resolutions up to 5 ms and 1 cm are obtained. Sawtooth oscillation, transition from intermediate phase (I phase) to high confinement mode (H mode) can be clearly observed by the CXRS. The spectrometer can be utilized as the main component of the MSE polarimeter, which can effectively overcome the weak Stark effect. The pitch angles of magnetic field are obtained for 7 spatial points covering 24 cm along major radius with time resolution of 40 ms.

  9. [Diagnostic imaging of central nervous system vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Hajime; Yamada, Kei

    2015-03-01

    Vasculitis involving the central nervous system presents with infarction and hemorrhage, which are often nonspecific findings. Laboratory examinations are essential for diagnosis of vasculitis in addition to comprehensive and systematic review of the clinical course. Although most findings tend to be nonspecific, enhancement and thickening of the vascular wall indicate vasculitis. Visualization of the vascular wall requires selection of the appropriate imaging modality and mode of image acquisition. Contrast-enhanced CT, MRI, and FDG-PET are useful for visualizing large vessel vasculitis, while CT, MRI, and angiography are effective for medium vessel vasculitis. The use of ultrasound is limited to evaluating vessels on the body surface. Although relatively thick vessels can be demonstrated by angiography, complete survey of small vessels is difficult. Here, we summarize the characteristics of each imaging modality and imaging findings of typical vasculitides-Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, Behçet's disease, primary angiitis of the CNS, and vasculitis associated with systemic disease. Differential diagnoses are also shown, including infective endocarditis, tuberculous meningitis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. PMID:25846439

  10. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  11. A computer-aided MFCC-based HMM system for automatic auscultation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sunita; Wang, Ping; Sing Lim, Chu; Anantharaman, V

    2008-02-01

    Auscultation, the act of listening to the sounds of internal organs, is a valuable medical diagnostic tool. Auscultation methods provide the information about a vast variety of internal body sounds originated by various organs such as heart, lungs, bowel, vascular disorders, etc. In this study, a cardiac sound registration system has been designed incorporating functions such as heart signals segmentation, classification and characterization for automated identification and ease of interpretation by the users. Considering a synergy with the domain of speech analysis, the authors introduced Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) to extract representative features and develop hidden Markov model (HMM) for signal classification. This system was applied to 1381 data sets of real and simulated, normal and abnormal domains. Classification rates for normal and abnormal heart sounds were found to be 95.7% for continuous murmurs, 96.25% for systolic murmurs and 90% for diastolic murmurs by a probabilistic comparison approach. This implies a high potential for the system as a diagnostic aid for primary health-care sectors. PMID:18045582

  12. The Feasibility of a Diagnostic Media Test System Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Alfred V.

    Research investigated the feasibility of a diagnostic media test system. Two distinct tests were developed for sixth grade and university populations, each having: 1) a main phase with three specific teaching sequences, one for each media form; 2) test items for each teaching sequence; and 3) a validation phase with one teaching sequence…

  13. Mechanical considerations for MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Wells, C.W.

    1981-10-19

    The reconfiguration of MFTF to a tandem mirror machine with thermal barriers has caused a significant expansion in the physical scope of plasma diagnostics. From a mechanical perspective, it complicates the plasma access, system interfaces, growth and environmental considerations. Conceptual designs characterize the general scope of the design and fabrication which remains to be done.

  14. The Brain in AIDS: Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection and AIDS Dementia Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the complicated infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in its late stages of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. Explains the syndrome's development of abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. (TW)

  15. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  16. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The

  17. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 "gold-standard" interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The

  18. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated

  19. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  20. Sensor applications for structural diagnostics and prognostics in aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Anindya; Ayers, James T.; Haile, Mulugeta; Shiao, Michael; Le, Dy D.

    2012-04-01

    There are emerging sensor technologies that will be deployed in future rotorcraft or retrofitted to existing rotorcraft and aircraft for structural diagnostics and prognostics. The vehicle health management system is likely to contain heterogeneous sensor arrays. Thus the structural state awareness may require information data fusion from dissimilar sensor (heterogeneous) system. This paper reviews the state of the art commercial of the shelf (COTS) and emerging sensor technologies for structural damage monitoring of rotorcraft and aircraft health.

  1. New Diagnostic Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Space Stat-30 is a compact instrument which determines the sodium and potassium levels of a blood sample in just 48 seconds. It is a spinoff from NASA technology developed to monitor health of astronauts on long-duration missions.

  2. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  3. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  4. ISHM-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics for avionics based on a distributed intelligent agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Zhong, Zhengqiang; Xu, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated system health management-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics and model for avionics is proposed. With avionics becoming increasingly complicated, precise and comprehensive avionics fault diagnostics has become an extremely complicated task. For the proposed fault diagnostic system, specific approaches, such as the artificial immune system, the intelligent agents system and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, are used to conduct deep fault avionics diagnostics. Through this proposed fault diagnostic system, efficient and accurate diagnostics can be achieved. A numerical example is conducted to apply the proposed hybrid diagnostics to a set of radar transmitters on an avionics system and to illustrate that the proposed system and model have the ability to achieve efficient and accurate fault diagnostics. By analyzing the diagnostic system's feasibility and pragmatics, the advantages of this system are demonstrated.

  5. Optical diagnostics integrated with laser spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-09-02

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  6. A computerized data base system for medical diagnostic studies (Diastu).

    PubMed

    Rosen, I I; Hall, T C; Mettler, F; Wicks, J; Kelsey, C A; Gustafson, D E

    1980-12-01

    A computerized database system (DIASTU) has been developed for the storage and selective retrieval of the results of medical diagnostic studies. The system is being used to analyze the disease process and the efficacy and yield of selected diagnostic studies. The system runs on a DEC PDP-11/60 computer. It consists of three FORTRAN IV programs linked to a general-purpose assembly language database handler. One program, DSENT, interactively modifies the information in the database. The second, DSLIST, prints all or portions of the database. The third program, DSTAT, interactively assembles the parameters for selective searches of the database and executes them. A query language is used that allows the use of time and size specifications and Boolean operators in nested loops. PMID:7249603

  7. A CLIPS based personal computer hardware diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Often the person designated to repair personal computers has little or no knowledge of how to repair a computer. Described here is a simple expert system to aid these inexperienced repair people. The first component of the system leads the repair person through a number of simple system checks such as making sure that all cables are tight and that the dip switches are set correctly. The second component of the system assists the repair person in evaluating error codes generated by the computer. The final component of the system applies a large knowledge base to attempt to identify the component of the personal computer that is malfunctioning. We have implemented and tested our design with a full system to diagnose problems for an IBM compatible system based on the 8088 chip. In our tests, the inexperienced repair people found the system very useful in diagnosing hardware problems.

  8. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases. PMID:27475558

  9. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  10. Hazard analysis of a computer based medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, M F

    1994-07-01

    Medical screening of sectors of the population is now a routine and vital part of health care: an example is cervical smear testing. There is currently significant interest in the possible introduction of semi-automated microscopy systems for cervical cytology and one such experimental system is now undergoing laboratory trials. A collaborative project has been set up to demonstrate the benefits and constraints that arise from applying safety-critical methods developed in other domains to such a diagnostic system. We have carried out a system hazard analysis, successfully using the HAZOP technique adapted from the petrochemical industry. PMID:7988111

  11. Computer-aided diagnosis system for lung tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Inaoka, Noriko; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a computerized system of tumor detection for lung cancer diagnosis. Through the ten years study, we developed some key algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis. The most important algorithm is a filter to detect suspicious shadows of tumor on a plain chest x-ray image. The filter is named directional contrast filter for nodule (DCF-N). The DCF-N is highly sensitive to ambiguous shadows such as malignant tumors. And we developed a rule- based system to eliminate false-positive shadows. In our study, the system was effective to eliminate shadows of blood vessels and ribs which were primary groups of false-positives. Our current research is focusing on the development of the automatic tumor detection system for lung cancer examination by using CT images. In this paper, we discuss whether the system for plain chest x-ray images can apply to spiral CT images within a malignant tumor, which are reconstructed at 2 mm or 5 mm slice thickness. About a trial case, although the DCF-N can detect the malignant tumor, some false-positives are also detected. As to the analysis of the shadows, which are detected by the DCF-N, the major false-positives are blood vessels shadows. Therefore, the rule to eliminate blood vessels shadows in the rule-base for plain x- ray images is also effective for the CT images.

  12. A Computer-Aided Detection System for Digital Chest Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; García-Mateos, Ginés; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Hernández-Hernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided detection systems aim at the automatic detection of diseases using different medical imaging modalities. In this paper, a novel approach to detecting normality/pathology in digital chest radiographs is proposed. The problem tackled is complicated since it is not focused on particular diseases but anything that differs from what is considered as normality. First, the areas of interest of the chest are found using template matching on the images. Then, a texture descriptor called local binary patterns (LBP) is computed for those areas. After that, LBP histograms are applied in a classifier algorithm, which produces the final normality/pathology decision. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal, with success rates above 87% in the best cases. Moreover, our technique is able to locate the possible areas of pathology in nonnormal radiographs. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are described in the Conclusions. PMID:27372536

  13. Quicklist: The basis for a computer aided logic design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lushbaugh, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Quicklist, a preprocessor for an existing wire list program that cuts the description of the wire list by about 67 percent over previous methods, is described. Quicklist uses two different methods to shorten the input data. The first of these is the use of parentheses to allow a compact way of describing signal names which increment (or decrement) by one, i.e., typical signal names in a bus. The other method used is the equal sign. Using this symbol in a signal list says that the rest of the signals on that chip are the same as those on the previous chip described. Quicklist is intended to be the basis of a computer aided logic design system.

  14. System Diagnostic Builder - A rule generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation. [applied to Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph; Burke, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the System Diagnostic Builder (SDB), an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state-of-the-art AI technologies. The SDB employs an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert. Thus, data are captured from the subject system, classified, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The knowledge bases captured from the Shuttle Mission Simulator can be used as black box simulations by the Intelligent Computer Aided Training devices. The SDB can also be used to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production or oil and gas production.

  15. Deep-reasoning fault diagnosis - An aid and a model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Wan Chul; Hammer, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The design and evaluation are presented for the knowledge-based assistance of a human operator who must diagnose a novel fault in a dynamic, physical system. A computer aid based on a qualitative model of the system was built to help the operators overcome some of their cognitive limitations. This aid differs from most expert systems in that it operates at several levels of interaction that are believed to be more suitable for deep reasoning. Four aiding approaches, each of which provided unique information to the operator, were evaluated. The aiding features were designed to help the human's casual reasoning about the system in predicting normal system behavior (N aiding), integrating observations into actual system behavior (O aiding), finding discrepancies between the two (O-N aiding), or finding discrepancies between observed behavior and hypothetical behavior (O-HN aiding). Human diagnostic performance was found to improve by almost a factor of two with O aiding and O-N aiding.

  16. Needs assessment for diagnostic decision support systems (DDSS).

    PubMed Central

    Berner, E. S.; Shugerman, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic decision support systems are often developed without a clear idea of how well the system will meet the needs of its users. The present study was designed to assess the information needs of clinicians. A set of questions submitted to an information service by family physicians was used to determine how much need there was for diagnostic decision support, the types of support needed, and the general content areas of their questions. Results showed that less than half of the questions were related to diagnosis and that most of those were requests for general information about a given condition. In addition, the fewest diagnosis questions were for conditions that were seen frequently in ambulatory care in a survey of family practitioners. PMID:1807674

  17. Programmable bio-nano-chip system for saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Nicolaos; De La Garza, Richard; Simmons, Glennon W.; McRae, Michael P.; Wong, Jorge; Kosten, Thomas R.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; McDevitt, John

    2014-06-01

    This manuscript describes programmable Bio-Nano-Chip (p-BNC) approach that serves as miniaturized assay platform designed for the rapid detection and quantitation of multiple analytes in biological fluids along with the specific applications in salivary diagnostics intended for the point of need (PON). Included here are oral fluid-based tests for local periodontal disease, systemic cardiac disease and multiplexed tests for drugs of abuse.

  18. ISABELLE accelerator software, control system, and beam diagnostic philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M.; Humphrey, J.W.; Niederer, J.; Poole, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The ISABELLE Project combines two large proton accelerators with two storage rings in the same facility using superconducting magnet technology. This combination leads to severe constraints on beam loss in magnets and involves complex treatment of magnetic field imperfections and correction elements. The consequent demands placed upon beam diagnostics, accelerator model programs, and the computer oriented control system are discussed in terms of an illustrative operation scenario.

  19. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    plate aperture produces diffraction patterns that change the shape of the focal blur pattern. When used as an aperture, the Fresnel zone plate produces multiple focal planes in the scene. The interference between the multiple focal planes produce changes in the aperture that can be observed both between the focal planes and beyond the most distant focal plane. The Fresnel zone plate aperture and lens may be designed to change in the focal blur pattern at greater depths, thereby improving measurement performance of the coded aperture system. This research provides an in-depth study of the Fresnel zone plate used as a coded aperture, and the performance improvement obtained by augmenting a single camera vision aided inertial navigation system with a Fresnel zone plate coded aperture. Design and analysis of a generalized coded aperture is presented and demonstrated, and special considerations for the Fresnel zone plate are given. Also techniques to determine a continuous depth measurement from a coded image are presented and evaluated through measurement. Finally the measurement results from different aperture configurations are statistically modeled and compared with a simulated vision aided navigation environment to predict the change in performance of a vision aided inertial navigation system when augmented with a coded aperture.

  20. Radial diagnostics in the system of ecological monitoring in trauma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siniakova, Olga G.; Ishmuhametov, Airat I.; Proscurina, Gulnar B.; Sharifullin, Faad A.

    1997-08-01

    Both creating of effective identification and evaluation mechanisms of environmental factors hazardous for health, and revealing their influence degree on the human health play an important role in ecological monitoring. The grate importance in a solution of many ecological problems belongs to medicine, first of all, to its social-preventive brunch. In this reference trauma remains the extremely important problem. Annually more than 10 million persons sustain traumas. Alongside with occupational, transport trauma, a significant number of trauma cases occur due to the impact of various ecological factors, including natural disasters, mass poisonings and other reasons. Trauma results in severe changes in human body organs and systems; the timely detection and correct evaluation of these changes are the key points for the choice of treatment. Among diagnostic methods used for this purpose, the methods of radial diagnostics play an important role. Various radial methods-- x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasonic, magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography (CT)--are used to detect the functional and structural changes of vital organs and systems in trauma. Each of these methods has its advantages and shortages. The reported study was devoted to the analysis of using the photon systems (gamma-camera and computer tomography) in application of radionuclide and CT methods of radial diagnostics in trauma.

  1. Spontaneous Raman Scattering Diagnostics: Applications in Practical Combustion Systems. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Viet-Nguyen, Quang; Lackner, Maximilian (Editor); Winter, Franz (Editor); Agarwal, Avinash (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent advancements and practical aspects of laser SRS diagnostics have been reviewed wi til regards to applications in practical combustion systems. Clearly, SRS represents a theoretically and experimentally mature diagnostic technology that has become an essential tool for multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion at elevated pressures. Today, time-, space-, spectrally, and even polarization-resolved S RS diagnostics is at hand, with aid from recent innovations in theoretical and technological developments on electro-optical or electromechanical devices. Whilst a linear increase in SRS signals can be expected in high-pressure systems (this is perhaps one of the most important advantages for using SRS in high-pressure systems), there are practical (often severe) restrictions associated with pressurized vessels, due mainly to the limited degree of optical access. This narrows ti,e available choice of diagnostics that can be employed at any given time. Point-wise SRS diagnostics provides the highest accuracy on the chemical species and temperature measurements, and will continue to remain a vital approach for the study in such harsh environments. The practical design considerations and hands-on set-up guide for SRS diagnostics provided in this chapter are rarely presented elsewhere. Although the second-harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser (532 nm), combined with pulse-stretching optics or the recently introduced White Cell-based laser, seems to be the most favored excitation source of choice by the research community, UV excitation will undoubtedly continue to be used on many occasions, and especially in sooting flames. Detection methods may be divided into ICCD-based nanosecond-gate detection or a rotary-chopper electromechanical shutter-based CCD array detection, and the levels of background flame emission in individual cases would determine this critical design choice. Here, a process of Raman signal calibration based on ti,e crosstalk matrix

  2. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, Meg . E-mail: meg.keen@anu.edu.au; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-08-15

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience.

  3. Diagnostic reasoning in digital systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thearling, Kurt Henry

    1987-01-01

    Described is an efficient method for fault diagnosis in digital systems based on the technique of reasoning. The methodology operates on the observed erroneous behavior and the structure of the system. The behavior consists of the error(s) observed on the circuit's output lines and specific values on the circuit's input lines. The techniques described improve on previously published research on diagnostic reasoning in two ways. Previous work has stressed system independent techniques which could be used to diagnose any faulty system whose structure can be represented. By concentrating on the specific case of diagnosing faulty digital circuits, it is possible to simplify the representation of the structure of the system. This representation, in the form of an AND/OR fault tree, efficiently abstracts the structure of a faulty digital system. More importantly, a method for partitioning the digital system is introduced which can considerably reduce the runtime complexity of a diagnosis.

  4. Improving Aid Effectiveness or Transforming the Global Capitalist System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the introduction to his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Klees (2010) poses the question, has the "hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid... loaned to [or otherwise targeted to "assist"] developing countries through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms... helped?" He then posits the question to be "too complicated to…

  5. Assessment of Alternative Student Aid Delivery Systems: Preliminary Specification of the Current System with Program Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Specifications of the current delivery systems of the Pell Grant program, the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program, and campus-based aid programs are provided. The relationship between features of the programs and delivery systems is also examined. The campus-based programs include the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (SEOG) Program,…

  6. The Holistic Application of High Technology for Conversation, Writing, and Computer Access Aid Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Barry L.

    The principal thesis of this paper is that successful use of high technology for conversation, writing, and computer access aid systems requires a holistic perspective. A holistic approach is one in which all the components of the support system needed to use high technology effectively are in place. Recognizing that aid systems are tools helps…

  7. Vision-aided inertial navigation system for robotic mobile mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-04-01

    A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.

  8. Commissioning results of the APS storage ring diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Initial commissionings of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring and its diagnostics systems have been done. Early studies involved single-bunch measurements for beam transverse size ({sigma}{sub x} {approx} 150 {mu}m, {sigma}{sub y} {approx} 50 {mu}m), current, injection losses, and bunch length. The diagnostics have been used in studies related to the detection of an extra contribution to beam jitter at {approximately} 6.5 Hz frequency; observation of bunch lengthening ({sigma} {approx} 30 to 60 ps) with single-bunch current; observation of an induced vertical, head-tail instability; and detection of a small orbit change with insertion device gap position. More recently, operations at 100-mA stored-beam current, the baseline design goal, have been achieved with the support of beam characterizations.

  9. Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark A; Burda, Joshua E; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O'Shea, Timothy M; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S; Deming, Timothy J; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2016-04-14

    Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system. Astrocytic scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or ablating chronic astrocytic scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. By contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocytic scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  10. Evaluation of the NDP (neutron diagnostic probe) system

    SciTech Connect

    Pentaleri, E.A.; Eisen, Y.Y.

    1990-12-01

    The neutron diagnostic probe (NDP), an explosive detection system developed by Consolidated Controls Corporation and based on the associated-alpha-particle technique, was evaluated. Although many problems were found with the prototype system that make it useless for most practical applications, the NDP system may be considered a successful proof-of-principle for the basic explosive detection system design. In addition to evaluating the design and performance of the present system, models were developed to estimate the performance that might reasonably be expected from full scale systems of different conceptual design. Specific examples involved various types of bulk and sheet explosives contained in a suitcase and a large crate. Also considered were the effects of innocuous materials surrounding explosives in different scenarios, including the deliberate use of shielding materials as a countermeasure to detection. 11 refs., 46 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Optical real-time defect-enhancement diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, C J; Mitchell, P V; Pepper, D M

    1992-12-15

    We have demonstrated an all-optical diagnostic system that enhances the observation of defects in periodic structures. This real-time technique employs a spatial light modulator as a smart-pixel array for information processing in the Fourier transform plane of a lens. The system also includes a phase-conjugate mirror for autoalignment and for correction of optical wave-front aberrations that are imparted on the object light by the smart-pixel processor and its associated optical train. PMID:19798320

  12. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  13. Model-Based Diagnostics for Propellant Loading Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew John; Foygel, Michael; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    The loading of spacecraft propellants is a complex, risky operation. Therefore, diagnostic solutions are necessary to quickly identify when a fault occurs, so that recovery actions can be taken or an abort procedure can be initiated. Model-based diagnosis solutions, established using an in-depth analysis and understanding of the underlying physical processes, offer the advanced capability to quickly detect and isolate faults, identify their severity, and predict their effects on system performance. We develop a physics-based model of a cryogenic propellant loading system, which describes the complex dynamics of liquid hydrogen filling from a storage tank to an external vehicle tank, as well as the influence of different faults on this process. The model takes into account the main physical processes such as highly nonequilibrium condensation and evaporation of the hydrogen vapor, pressurization, and also the dynamics of liquid hydrogen and vapor flows inside the system in the presence of helium gas. Since the model incorporates multiple faults in the system, it provides a suitable framework for model-based diagnostics and prognostics algorithms. Using this model, we analyze the effects of faults on the system, derive symbolic fault signatures for the purposes of fault isolation, and perform fault identification using a particle filter approach. We demonstrate the detection, isolation, and identification of a number of faults using simulation-based experiments.

  14. Optical Diagnostic System for Solar Sails: Phase 1 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Blandino, Joseph R.; Caldwell, Douglas W.; Carroll, Joseph A.; Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Pollock, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion program recently selected AEC-ABLE Engineering and L'Garde, Inc. to develop scale-model solar sail hardware and demonstrate its functionality on the ground. Both are square sail designs with lightweight diagonal booms (<100 g/m) and ultra-thin membranes (<10 g/sq m). To support this technology, the authors are developing an integrated diagnostics instrumentation package for monitoring solar sail structures such as these in a near-term flight experiment. We refer to this activity as the "Optical Diagnostic System (ODS) for Solar Sails" project. The approach uses lightweight optics and photogrammetric techniques to measure solar sail membrane and boom shape and dynamics, thermography to map temperature, and non-optical sensors including MEMS accelerometers and load cells. The diagnostics package must measure key structural characteristics including deployment dynamics, sail support tension, boom and sail deflection, boom and sail natural frequencies, sail temperature, and sail integrity. This report summarizes work in the initial 6-month Phase I period (conceptual design phase) and complements the final presentation given in Huntsville, AL on January 14, 2004.

  15. The OMEGA Gas Sampling System and Radiochemical Diagnostics for NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyer, Mark; Sangster, Craig; Hudson, Bryant; Lougheed, Ron; Freeman, Charlie; Schwartz, Brook-Eden; Olsen, Michele

    2000-10-01

    Radiochemical diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will address important issues such as shell rho-R, mix and charged particle production in ignition and near-ignition capsules. Development of key tools for these diagnostics has been progressing on NOVA and OMEGA laser systems. A limitation of the sample collection techniques currently being used is the solid angle for collection of post-shot debris, which is maximally about 1collections at NOVA. Because of the large standoff for NIF (5 m), the solid angle subtended would be expected to be much less without development of expandable foil collection schemes. Many reaction products from charged particle reactions are noble gases. A gas sampling system for obtaining radiochemical samples following OMEGA shots is currently being assembled at LLNL. Results of benchtop tests with such a system will be discussed. A primary goal is to demonstrate reproducible collection efficiencies for this new technical capability of near 100Secondary goals include measuring collection efficiencies for certain reaction processes and to test the collection scheme for other low energy reaction products. Should high collection efficiencies be demonstrated, test reactions of 18O(alpha,n)21Ne and 79Br(p,n)79Kr will be investigated at OMEGA as mix-diagnostics for NIF. Note that it may be possible to use the 18O or Br already in most capsules, circumventing some target development issues. The gas sampling system will be designed in such a way as to not preclude the addition of carrier gas to the target chamber following an experiment for "flushing" of other, perhaps non-gaseous, reaction products.

  16. Selegiline Transdermal System (STS) as an Aid for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Gorgon, Liza; Jones, Karen; McSherry, Frances; Glover, Elbert D.; Anthenelli, Robert M.; Jackson, Thomas; Williams, Jill; Murtaugh, Cristin; Montoya, Ivan; Yu, Elmer; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the efficacy and safety of selegiline transdermal system (STS) and brief repeated behavioral intervention (BRBI) for smoking cessation in heavy smokers. We hypothesized that the quit rate of subjects who received STS and BRBI would be significantly greater than that of those who received placebo patch and BRBI. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study in which 246 men and women were randomized to receive either STS (n = 121) or placebo patch (n =125) for 9 weeks. Recruitment targeted heavy smokers, defined as individuals with self-reported use of ≥15 cigarettes/day in the 30 days prior to enrollment, who had smoked cigarettes for the past 5 years, and had an expired CO level ≥9 ppm during screening. Results: Although STS was well tolerated, the overall results indicated that STS with BRBI was not more effective than placebo plus BRBI for smoking cessation (p = .58). Conclusions: The results are discussed in relation to interventions for heavy smokers. Although 2 trials using oral selegiline both showed trends toward improved abstinence, these results indicate that STS with BRBI was not an effective aid for smoking cessation at the end of treatment (10 weeks), 14, or 26 weeks. PMID:21846661

  17. An Author Management System and Other Computer-Based Aids to ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, A. F.

    A brief review of some of the more important needs imposed by current and projected Department of Defense training problems is followed by descriptions of such automated aids as the LAMPS MARK III Weapons System and the Air Force's F-16 Instructional System Development (ISD) effort. These aids have been designed and developed in response to the…

  18. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-12-17

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ``identical`` values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs.

  19. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically "identical" values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic.

  20. The Diagnostic Value of Skin Disease Diagnosis Expert System

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Arabfard, Masoud; Arabkermany, Zahra; Gilasi, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluation is a necessary measure to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of all systems, including expert systems. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of expert system for diagnosis of complex skin diseases. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 2015 to determine the diagnostic value of an expert system. The study population included patients who were referred to Razi Specialized Hospital, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from patients without the selected skin diseases. Data collection tool was a checklist of clinical signs of diseases including pemphigus vulgaris, lichen planus, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and scabies. The sample size formula estimated 400 patients with skin diseases selected by experts and 200 patients without the selected skin diseases. Patient selection was undertaken with randomized stratified sampling and their sign and symptoms were logged into the system. Physician’s diagnosis was determined as the gold standard and was compared with the diagnosis of expert system by SPSS software version 16 and STATA. Kappa statistics, indicators of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and confidence intervals were calculated for each disease. An accuracy of 90% was considered appropriate. Results: Comparing the results of expert system and physician’s diagnosis at the evaluation stage showed an accuracy of 97.1%, sensitivity of 97.5% and specificity of 96.5% The Kappa test indicated a high agreement of 93.6%. Conclusion: The expert system can diagnose complex skin diseases. Development of such systems is recommended to identify all skin diseases. PMID:27046943

  1. Monitoring and diagnostics systems for nuclear power plant operating regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Abagyan, A.A.; Dmitriev, V.M.; Klebanov, L.A.; Kroshilin, A.E.; Larin, E.P.; Morozov, S.K.

    1988-05-01

    The development of new monitoring and diagnostics systems for Soviet reactors is discussed. An experimental test station is described where industrial operation of new experimental systems can be conducted for purposes of bringing their performance to the level of standard Soviet systems for monitoring reactor operation regimes and equipment resources. The requirements and parameters of the systems are described on a unit-by-unit basis, including the sensor reading monitoring unit, the vibroacoustic monitoring unit, the noise monitoring unit, the accident regime identification unit, and the nonstationary regime monitoring unit. Computer hardware and software requirements are discussed. The results of calculational and experimental research on two complex nonstationary regimes of reactor operation are given. The accident regimes identification unit for the VVER-1000 is analyzed in detail.

  2. F100 engine diagnostic system status to date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyless, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    An engine diagnostic system, proposed for the F100 engine, was tested in five specially modified Tactical Air Command F-15 aircraft during a 16-month flight evaluation. After more than 3300 engine operating hours encompassing almost 900 flights during the flight evaluation, these aircraft provided a data base, still being analyzed, that has shown successful demonstration of the original functional characteristics. Four general design requirements, recording engine operating time/low cycle fatigue event detection, engine trim, and trend and performance data collection were demonstrated. Also, validation of maintenance actions taken and indicated needed maintenance were successfully demonstrated.

  3. Optical system design for high-energy particle beam diagnostics.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B. X. Y.

    2002-08-29

    Radiation generated by high-energy particle beams is widely used to characterize the beam properties. While the wavelengths of radiation may vary from visible to x-rays, the physics underlying the engineering designs are similar. In this tutorial, we discuss the basic considerations for the optical system design in the context of beam instrumentation and the constraints applied by high-radiation environments. We cover commonly used optical diagnostics: fluorescence flags, visible and x-ray synchrotron radiation imaging. Emphases will be on achieving desired resolution, accuracy, and reproducibility.

  4. Flight Test of Propulsion Monitoring and Diagnostic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabel, Steve; Elgersma, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform flight tests of the propulsion monitoring and diagnostic system (PMDS) technology concept developed by Honeywell under the NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiment (AGATE) program. The PMDS concept is intended to independently monitor the performance of the engine, providing continuous status to the pilot along with warnings if necessary as well as making the data available to ground maintenance personnel via a special interface. These flight tests were intended to demonstrate the ability of the PMDS concept to detect a class of selected sensor hardware failures, and the ability to successfully model the engine for the purpose of engine diagnosis.

  5. Neural network diagnostic system for dengue patients risk classification.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Tarig; Taib, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2012-04-01

    With the dramatic increase of the worldwide threat of dengue disease, it has been very crucial to correctly diagnose the dengue patients in order to decrease the disease severity. However, it has been a great challenge for the physicians to identify the level of risk in dengue patients due to overlapping of the medical classification criteria. Therefore, this study aims to construct a noninvasive diagnostic system to assist the physicians for classifying the risk in dengue patients. Systematic producers have been followed to develop the system. Firstly, the assessment of the significant predictors associated with the level of risk in dengue patients was carried out utilizing the statistical analyses technique. Secondly, Multilayer perceptron neural network models trained via Levenberg-Marquardt and Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithms was employed for constructing the diagnostic system. Finally, precise tuning for the models' parameters was conducted in order to achieve the optimal performance. As a result, 9 noninvasive predictors were found to be significantly associated with the level of risk in dengue patients. By employing those predictors, 75% prediction accuracy has been achieved for classifying the risk in dengue patients using Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithm while 70.7% prediction accuracy were achieved by using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. PMID:20703665

  6. Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.; Haves, Philip; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-05-30

    Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models are imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.

  7. A novel AIDS/HIV intelligent medical consulting system based on expert systems

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stages include: Business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation and deployment. C5.0 Tree classification algorithm is used for modelling. Also, rational unified process (RUP) is used to develop the web-based medical consulting software. Stages of RUP are as follows: Inception, elaboration, construction and transition. The intelligent developed model has been used in the infrastructure of the software and based on client's inquiry and keywords related FAQs are displayed to the client, according to the rank. FAQs’ ranks are gradually determined considering clients reading it. Based on displayed FAQs, test and entertainment links are also displayed. Result: The accuracy of the AIDS/HIV intelligent web-based medical consulting system is estimated to be 78.76%. Conclusion: AIDS/HIV medical consulting systems have been developed using intelligent infrastructure. Being equipped with an intelligent model, providing consulting services on systematic textual data and providing side services based on client's activities causes the implemented system to be unique. The research has been approved by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for being practical. PMID:24251290

  8. Peripheral Vascular Diagnostic Laboratory Record, Office Accounting and Research System

    PubMed Central

    Lofink, Raymond M.; Wolfson, Sidney K.; Lahoda, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized Record, Office Accounting, and Research system (“ROAR”) has been developed for use in the Peripheral Vascular Diagnostic Laboratory of Montefiore Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The interactive, menu-driven system utilizes an in-office microcomputer for maintaining patient records with a dial-up link to a time-sharing system at the University of Pittsburgh for performing research activities. Formats for internal storage, screen editing, and printed reports are easily specified to permit additions of new forms and upward-compatible versions of old forms. An on-line patient directory and an expandable library of floppy diskettes provide a large capacity of storage for permanent patient records. An interestingly simple, cost-effective, but powerful combination of three processors using commercial and custom-written software is presented.

  9. Diagnostics of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-dc discharge with metal and liquid anodes by multiple laser-aided methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Shirai, Naoki; Tomita, Kentaro; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki

    2016-08-01

    The density and temperature of electrons and key heavy particles were measured in an atmospheric-pressure pulsed-dc helium discharge plasma with a nitrogen molecular impurity generated using system with a liquid or metal anode and a metal cathode. To obtain these parameters, we conducted experiments using several laser-aided methods: Thomson scattering spectroscopy to obtain the spatial profiles of electron density and temperature, Raman scattering spectroscopy to obtain the neutral molecular nitrogen rotational temperature, phase-modulated dispersion interferometry to determine the temporal variation of the electron density, and time-resolved laser absorption spectroscopy to analyze the temporal variation of the helium metastable atom density. The electron density and temperature measured by Thomson scattering varied from 2.4  ×  1014 cm‑3 and 1.8 eV at the center of the discharge to 0.8  ×  1014 cm‑3 and 1.5 eV near the outer edge of the plasma in the case of the metal anode, respectively. The electron density obtained with the liquid anode was approximately 20% smaller than that obtained with the metal anode, while the electron temperature was not significantly affected by the anode material. The molecular nitrogen rotational temperatures were 1200 K with the metal anode and 1650 K with the liquid anode at the outer edge of the plasma column. The density of helium metastable atoms decreased by a factor of two when using the liquid anode.

  10. A semantically-aided architecture for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kolias, Vassileios D; Stamou, Giorgos; Golemati, Spyretta; Stoitsis, Giannis; Gkekas, Christos D; Liapis, Christos D; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2015-08-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and its clinical diagnosis depends on the evaluation of heterogeneous clinical data, such as imaging exams, biochemical tests and the patient's clinical history. The lack of interoperability between Health Information Systems (HIS) does not allow the physicians to acquire all the necessary data for the diagnostic process. In this paper, a semantically-aided architecture is proposed for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis that is able to gather and unify heterogeneous data with the use of an ontology and to create a common interface for data access enhancing the interoperability of HIS. The architecture is based on an application ontology of carotid atherosclerosis that is used to (a) integrate heterogeneous data sources on the basis of semantic representation and ontological reasoning and (b) access the critical information using SPARQL query rewriting and ontology-based data access services. The architecture was tested over a carotid atherosclerosis dataset consisting of the imaging exams and the clinical profile of 233 patients, using a set of complex queries, constructed by the physicians. The proposed architecture was evaluated with respect to the complexity of the queries that the physicians could make and the retrieval speed. The proposed architecture gave promising results in terms of interoperability, data integration of heterogeneous sources with an ontological way and expanded capabilities of query and retrieval in HIS. PMID:26736524

  11. Impact of Computer-Aided Detection Systems on Radiologist Accuracy With Digital Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Elodia B.; Zhang, Zheng; Marques, Helga S.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Yaffe, Martin J.; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems on the performance of radiologists with digital mammograms acquired during the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST). MATERIALS AND METHODS Only those DMIST cases with proven cancer status by biopsy or 1-year follow-up that had available digital images were included in this multireader, multicase ROC study. Two commercially available CAD systems for digital mammography were used: iCAD SecondLook, version 1.4; and R2 ImageChecker Cenova, version 1.0. Fourteen radiologists interpreted, without and with CAD, a set of 300 cases (150 cancer, 150 benign or normal) on the iCAD SecondLook system, and 15 radiologists interpreted a different set of 300 cases (150 cancer, 150 benign or normal) on the R2 ImageChecker Cenova system. RESULTS The average AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66–0.76) without and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.67–0.77) with the iCAD system (p = 0.07). Similarly, the average AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66–0.76) without and 0.72 (95% CI 0.67–0.77) with the R2 system (p = 0.08). Sensitivity and specificity differences without and with CAD for both systems also were not significant. CONCLUSION Radiologists in our studies rarely changed their diagnostic decisions after the addition of CAD. The application of CAD had no statistically significant effect on radiologist AUC, sensitivity, or specificity performance with digital mammograms from DMIST. PMID:25247960

  12. GIS diagnostics: thermal imaging systems used for poor contact detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avital, Doron; Brandenbursky, V.; Farber, A.

    2004-04-01

    The reliability of GIS is very high but any failure that occurs can cause extensive damage result and the repair times are considerably long. The consequential losses to system security and economically can be high, especially if the nominal GIS voltage is 420 kV and above. In view of these circumstances, increasing attention is being given to diagnostic techniques for in-service maintenance undertaken to improve the reliability and availability of GIS. Recently considerable progress has been made in diagnostic techniques and they are now used successfully during the service life of the equipment. These diagnostic techniques in general focus on the GIS insulation system and are based on partial discharge (PD) measurements in GIS. There are three main methods for in-service PD detection in GIS: - the chemical method that rely on the detection of cracked gas caused by PD, the acoustic method designed to detect the acoustic emission excited by PD, and, the electrical method which is based on detection of electrical resonance at ultra high frequencies (UHF) up to 1.5 GHz caused by PD excitation in GIS chambers (UHF method). These three dielectric diagnostic methods cannot be used for the detection of poor current carrying contacts in GIS. This problem does not always produce partial discharges and at early stages it does not cause gas cracking. An interesting solution to use two techniques - the current unbalance alarm scheme and partial discharge monitoring was advised by A. Salinas from South California Edison Co. Unfortunately this way is complicated and very expensive. The investigations performed in Japan on standing alone SF6 breaker showed that joule heating of the contact accompanied by released power of 1600 Watt produce temperature difference on the enclosure up to 7 degrees centigrade that could be detected by infra-red Thermal Imaging System. According to CIGRE Joint Working Group 33/23.12 Report, 11% of all GIS failures are due to poor current carrying

  13. Don't Fix the Student-Aid System. Kill It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronstadt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The American student-aid system has long been based on a tacit promise to provide students with the means to complete their college education and ensure that money is not a barrier to getting a degree. Unfortunately, says the writer, student aid has become little more than a marketing mechanism that permits colleges to maximize tuition dollars…

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of an ultrasonic multiple transducer cardiac imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, R. L.; Brown, O. R.; Harrison, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic multiple-transducer imaging system for intracardiac structure visualization is developed in order to simplify visualization of the human heart in vivo without radiation hazard or invasion of the body. Results of the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the devised system in a clinical setting for adult patients are presented and discussed. Criteria are presented for recognition of mitral valva prolapse, mitral stenosis, pericardial effusion, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular dyssynergy. The probable cause for false-positive and false-negative diagnoses is discussed. However, hypertrophic myopathy and congestive myopathy were unable to be detected. Since only qualitative criteria were used, it was not possible to differentiate patients with left ventricular volume overload from patients without cardiac pathology.

  15. Mach-Zehnder recording systems for pulsed power diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E. K.; Abbott, R. Q.; McKenna, I.; Macrum, G.; Baker, D.; Tran, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Kaufman, M. I.; Tibbits, A.; Silbernagel, C. T.; Waltman, T. B.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Caldwell, S. E.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Stoeffl, W.; Grafil, E.; and others

    2012-10-15

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as the Z accelerator at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at the OMEGA laser and at NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  16. Mach-Zehnder Recording Systems for Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E K; McKenna, I; Macrum, G; Baker, D; Tran, V; Rodriguez, E; Kaufman, M I; Tibbits, A; Silbernagel, C T; Waltman, T B; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedillo, T J; Stoeffl, W; Grafil, E; Liebman, J; Beeman, B; Watts, P; Carpenter, A; Horsfied, C J; Rubery, M S; Chandler, G A; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M

    2012-10-01

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as Z-R at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at OMEGA and NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  17. Mach-Zehnder recording systems for pulsed power diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miller, E K; Abbott, R Q; McKenna, I; Macrum, G; Baker, D; Tran, V; Rodriguez, E; Kaufman, M I; Tibbits, A; Silbernagel, C T; Waltman, T B; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedillo, T J; Stoeffl, W; Grafil, E; Liebman, J; Beeman, B; Watts, P; Carpenter, A; Horsfied, C J; Rubery, M S; Chandler, G A; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M

    2012-10-01

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as the Z accelerator at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic at the OMEGA laser and at NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments. PMID:23126893

  18. Intelligent, Self-Diagnostic Thermal Protection System for Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert W.; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Pepyne, David; Hanlon, Alaina B.; Deshmukh, Abhijit

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to provide self-diagnostic capabilities to the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future spacecraft. Self-diagnosis is especially important in thermal protection systems (TPS), where large numbers of parts must survive extreme conditions after weeks or years in space. In-service inspections of these systems are difficult or impossible, yet their reliability must be ensured before atmospheric entry. In fact, TPS represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission. The concepts and much of the technology would be applicable not only to the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), but also to ablative thermal protection for aerocapture and planetary exploration. Monitoring a thermal protection system on a Shuttle-sized vehicle is a daunting task: there are more than 26,000 components whose integrity must be verified with very low rates of both missed faults and false positives. The large number of monitored components precludes conventional approaches based on centralized data collection over separate wires; a distributed approach is necessary to limit the power, mass, and volume of the health monitoring system. Distributed intelligence with self-diagnosis further improves capability, scalability, robustness, and reliability of the monitoring subsystem. A distributed system of intelligent sensors can provide an assurance of the integrity of the system, diagnosis of faults, and condition-based maintenance, all with provable bounds on errors.

  19. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  20. Auricular diagnostics used in the system of screening surveys.

    PubMed

    Ishchenko, A N; Kozlova, V P; Shev'yev, P P

    1991-01-01

    Specific features of the automated computerized diagnostic complex based on electrometric methods and used for the auricular diagnostics have been considered. A functional scheme of the complex is given. Biophysical aspects of measuring the skin conductivity in acupuncture zones of the auricle are discussed. Special attention is paid to the diagnostic algorithms and to the control for their efficiency. PMID:1832479

  1. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  2. eWorkbook: A Computer Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costagliola, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Filomena; Fuccella, Vittorio; Oliveto, Rocco

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment (CAA) tools are more and more widely adopted in academic environments mixed to other assessment means. In this article, we present a CAA Web application, named eWorkbook, which can be used for evaluating learner's knowledge by creating (the tutor) and taking (the learner) on-line tests based on multiple choice, multiple…

  3. Diagnostic Reasoning using Prognostic Information for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Kulkarni, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    With increasing popularity of unmanned aircraft, continuous monitoring of their systems, software, and health status is becoming more and more important to ensure safe, correct, and efficient operation and fulfillment of missions. The paper presents integration of prognosis models and prognostic information with the R2U2 (REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, and UNOBTRUSIVE Unit) monitoring and diagnosis framework. This integration makes available statistically reliable health information predictions of the future at a much earlier time to enable autonomous decision making. The prognostic information can be used in the R2U2 model to improve diagnostic accuracy and enable decisions to be made at the present time to deal with events in the future. This will be an advancement over the current state of the art, where temporal logic observers can only do such valuation at the end of the time interval. Usefulness and effectiveness of this integrated diagnostics and prognostics framework was demonstrated using simulation experiments with the NASA Dragon Eye electric unmanned aircraft.

  4. System Modeling and Diagnostics for Liquefying-Fuel Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Ou, Jeremy; Sanderfer, Dwight; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) was recently built at NASA Ames Research Center to study the combustion properties of a new fuel formulation that burns approximately three times faster than conventional hybrid fuels. Researchers at Ames working in the area of Integrated Vehicle Health Management recognized a good opportunity to apply IVHM techniques to a candidate technology for next generation launch systems. Five tools were selected to examine various IVHM techniques for the HCF. Three of the tools, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), L2 (Livingstone2), and RODON, are model-based reasoning (or diagnostic) systems. Two other tools in this study, ICS (Interval Constraint Simulator) and IMS (Inductive Monitoring System) do not attempt to isolate the cause of the failure but may be used for fault detection. Models of varying scope and completeness were created, both qualitative and quantitative. In each of the models, the structure and behavior of the physical system are captured. In the qualitative models, the temporal aspects of the system behavior and the abstraction of sensor data are handled outside of the model and require the development of additional code. In the quantitative model, less extensive processing code is also necessary. Examples of fault diagnoses are given.

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

  6. Diagnostics and performance evaluation of neutron monitoring system detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kniss, T.; Doyle, J.

    2006-07-01

    Neutron monitoring detectors used in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) power range monitoring control systems are typically miniature fission chambers that remain in the core for many years. Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) also utilize movable miniature fission chambers for neutron flux mapping during power operations. The baseline performance of the detectors must be established at the time of installation and retested periodically during the life of the detector to evaluate its suitability for continued use. This paper reports on the characteristics that the power range detectors typically exhibit at the beginning of life and describes the normal changes in characteristics that are expected to occur as the detector ages in the in-core environment. Deviations from the normal aging effects that may be revealed through periodic testing are described. Possible root causes for some deviations from the expected performance are discussed. In addition to the power range monitoring detectors, the neutron monitoring system also utilizes other fission chambers for source range or intermediate range neutron monitoring during startup, and neutron or gamma detectors for periodic sensitivity re-calibration of the power range monitoring detectors. Each of the detectors has function specific requirements that call for additional diagnostic testing methods to evaluate performance. Diagnostic tests such as Time Domain Reflectometry and Current vs. Voltage (IV) characterization provide useful information about the condition of the detector and the signal path that links the detector to the reactor monitoring and control system. Typical test results of properly functioning detectors are described and the significance of deviations from a normal result is discussed. (authors)

  7. MICE: The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment: Diagnostic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan D.; Hart, Terrence Lee; /IIT, Chicago

    2008-06-24

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment will make detailed measurements of muon ionization cooling using a new constructed low-energy muon beam at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The experiment is a single-particle experiment and utilizes many detector techniques from high energy physics experiments. To characterize and monitor the muon beamline, newly developed scintillating fiber profile monitors and scintillator paddle rate monitors are employed. In order to monitor the purity of the beam and tag the arrival time of individual muons, a dual aerogel Cherenkov system is used, and a plastic scintillator time-of-flight system will be used. The phase-space vectors of the muons will be measured by two identical spectrometer systems (one before and one after the cooling apparatus) which employ a fiber tracker system, and electron and muon calorimeters are used to tag outgoing muons. We will discuss the design of the MICE diagnostic systems, the operation, and give the first results from beam measurements in the MICE experimental hall.

  8. UAS-Systems Integration, Validation, and Diagnostics Simulation Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Catherine W.; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Phase 1 efforts of NASA's UAS-in-the-NAS Project a task was initiated to explore the merits of developing a system simulation capability for UAS to address airworthiness certification requirements. The core of the capability would be a software representation of an unmanned vehicle, including all of the relevant avionics and flight control system components. The specific system elements could be replaced with hardware representations to provide Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWITL) test and evaluation capability. The UAS Systems Integration and Validation Laboratory (UAS-SIVL) was created to provide a UAS-systems integration, validation, and diagnostics hardware-in-the-loop simulation capability. This paper discusses how SIVL provides a robust and flexible simulation framework that permits the study of failure modes, effects, propagation paths, criticality, and mitigation strategies to help develop safety, reliability, and design data that can assist with the development of certification standards, means of compliance, and design best practices for civil UAS.

  9. Altronic`s latest ignition system features secondary diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Few issues continue to cause more distress for operators of gas engines and integral compressors than spark plug life. Altronic`s new CPU-95 ignition system was developed for use on medium and high-speed gas-fueled engines driving compressors, generators and pumps. In addition to the new secondary prognostic capability, the 24 V dc-powered CPU-95 system is designed to handle all the functions of a modern digital ignition. This includes spark characteristic control, global and individual cylinder timing adjustments, and extensive user display and serial communications capabilities. But the most revolutionary feature of the CPU-95 system is its built-in secondary ignition diagnosis capabilities, which provide a prognosis of spark plug life. The system displays a number that is an indicator of how much voltage is required at each cylinder. As the spark plug gap erodes the number increases. In addition to displaying and alarming relative voltage demand, the secondary-side diagnosis can also alarm for high or low spark voltage (by cylinder), or no secondary spark. Primary-side diagnostic capabilities (also annunciated by cylinder) include open or shorted circuits. The system can also diagnose for faults in the gear tooth pickup, reset pickup, four-cycle pickup, ring gear, microprocessor, current loop, EEPROM checksum, analog timing input (4-20 mA) being out of range, and a failure to charge the capacitor.

  10. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  11. Physics Design Considerations for Diagnostic X Beam Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-J; Paul, A C

    2000-08-01

    Diagnostic X (D-X) transport system would extract the beam from the downstream transport line of the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-II[1]) and transport this beam to the D-X firing point via four branches of the beamline in order to provide four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal is to generate four DARHT-II-like x-ray pulses on each line of sight. In this paper, we discuss several potential beam quality degradation processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the D-X beamline design parameters, such as the background pressure, the pipe size, and the pipe material.

  12. Mission Evaluation Room Intelligent Diagnostic and Analysis System (MIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Falgout, Jane; Barcio, Joseph; Shnurer, Steve; Wadsworth, David; Flores, Louis

    1994-01-01

    The role of Mission Evaluation Room (MER) engineers is to provide engineering support during Space Shuttle missions, for Space Shuttle systems. These engineers are concerned with ensuring that the systems for which they are responsible function reliably, and as intended. The MER is a central facility from which engineers may work, in fulfilling this obligation. Engineers participate in real-time monitoring of shuttle telemetry data and provide a variety of analyses associated with the operation of the shuttle. The Johnson Space Center's Automation and Robotics Division is working to transfer advances in intelligent systems technology to NASA's operational environment. Specifically, the MER Intelligent Diagnostic and Analysis System (MIDAS) project provides MER engineers with software to assist them with monitoring, filtering and analyzing Shuttle telemetry data, during and after Shuttle missions. MIDAS off-loads to computers and software, the tasks of data gathering, filtering, and analysis, and provides the engineers with information which is in a more concise and usable form needed to support decision making and engineering evaluation. Engineers are then able to concentrate on more difficult problems as they arise. This paper describes some, but not all of the applications that have been developed for MER engineers, under the MIDAS Project. The sampling described herewith was selected to show the range of tasks that engineers must perform for mission support, and to show the various levels of automation that have been applied to assist their efforts.

  13. MFTF-B plasma-diagnostics-system instrumentation and data-acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.; Lau, N.H.C.; Mead, J.E.; Throop, A.L.

    1981-10-21

    The change of scope for MFTF from a simple mirror to a tandem mirror configuration utilizing thermal barriers has expanded the range of plasma parameters and increased the requirements of the plasma diagnostics system. The instrument set that is needed for start-up operation has been identified and conceptual design work is proceeding. This paper describes the diagnostic instrumentation as presently envisioned for start-up operation, with a summary of the detectors and data channels. Also presented is an overview of the current conceptual design for the Local Control and Data Acquisition System and the Data Processing and Display system. As more detailed design is done, the exact number and nature of instruments may change, but overall, the system described here is one expected to satisfy the requirements for start-up and be expandable to the basic set of diagnostics.

  14. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-11-23

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

  15. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

  16. Development of a diagnostic polymersome system for potential imaging delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chia; Chen, Yung-Chu; Hsu, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Chiu, Hsin-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    In order to enhance visualization of soft tissues, a dual-imaging diagnostic polymersome system featured with highly hydrated multilamellar wall structure capable of simultaneously embedding a hydrophobic near-infrared fluorophore, Cy5.5, and a paramagnetic probe, gadolinium (Gd(III)) cations was developed. The polymersomes were obtained from the self-assembly of lipid-containing copolymer, poly(acrylic acid-co-distearin acrylate), in aqueous solution. The Cy5.5 and Gd(III) species were loaded into polymersomes via hydrophobic association (loading efficiency of Cy5.5 ca 74%) and electrostatic complexation (Gd(III) 83%), respectively. The Cy5.5/Gd(III)-loaded polymersomes (CGLPs) have shown excellent payload confinement, reduced dilution effect on assembly dissociation and decreased protein/salt-induced colloidal aggregation. Owing to the highly hydrated structure of vesicular membrane, the superior contrast enhancement of CGLPs in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was obtained as a result of prolonged rotational correlation time of Gd(III) cations and fast water exchange from Gd(III) to bulk solution. The CGLPs exhibit a 15-fold higher longitudinal relaxivity value (ca 60 mM(-1) s(-1)) than that (4 mM(-1) s(-1)) of the commercial contrast agent, Magnevist, in phosphate buffered saline. The in vivo characterization demonstrates that CGLPs exhibit a signal-to-noise ratio in T1-weighted MR image contrast similar to that of Magnevist, yet with a Gd dose 5-fold lower. An excellent contrast in NIR imaging at tumor site was attained following the intravenous injection of GGLPs into Tramp-C1 tumor-bearing mice (C57BL/6). Along with their non-toxicity at the dose used, these results demonstrate the great potential of the CGLPs as an advanced diagnostic nanodevice. PMID:25731095

  17. SEALED COMBUSTION SYSTEM WITH DIAGNOSTIC SELF-TUNING.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2004-09-30

    This task grew out of a proposal to develop a ''concept'' oil-fired heating system that would incorporate advanced technologies available and suitable for a residential system. Discussions among the program and project personnel resulted in the identification of a sealed combustion system as of programmatic interest and the objective was to develop an approach to a sealed system with diagnostic self-tuning. The major conclusion with regard to the specific objective for this task is that a measurement of the static pressure in the input pipe can be used to provide a measure of the excess air for a limit control. Its implementation would require a suitable pressure sensor, and a circuit to combine its output signal, at the appropriate time in the operating cycle, to the burner control. The sensor and control combination will also have to be tested successfully under all conceivable contingencies that can cause the airflow to decrease. It could also be implemented, possibly even more reliably, if a mass flow sensor, such as is used in automobile engines and hence may be cheap, could be used. The pressure measurements reported here, both steady and transient, represent only the subset of a much larger set that gave a useful answer to meet the objective. These measurements suggest that they can provide useful insights into both the combustion and gas flow performance of the system. Of course, this could be extended to other types of heating systems, such as those with natural draft, those with different burners, burners with different atomization schemes (air atomization etc.), blue flame burners etc.

  18. The Early Days of Computer Aided Newspaper Production Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enlund, Nils; Andersin, Hans E.

    During the years 1970-1973, the Laboratory of Information Processing Science at the Helsinki Uni versity of Technology carried out the Computer Graph ics Pro ject (CGP). The activities foc us ed on the problems of producing news paper text, ad vert isements, and com plete pages using inter act ive computer graphics. The project and its commercial spin-off, Typlan, as well as the BUNPAPS continuation project 1973-1975, cre ated a num ber of innovative, pioneering solutions for computer aided news pap er production, laying the found at ion for the digitalization of media production.

  19. Non-invasive endodontic management of fused mandibular second molar and a paramolar, using cone beam computed tomography as an adjunctive diagnostic aid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ghogre, Priyanka; Gurav, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Tooth fusion is a developmental anomaly characterized by the union between the dentin and/or enamel of at least two separately developing teeth. Fusion is a rare occurrence, with overall prevalence to be approximately 0.5% in deciduous teeth and 0.1% in permanent dentition. The significance of this particular case was that the unilateral fusion occurred in a permanent mandibular second molar with a paramolar and successful endodontic management was done. The rarity with which this entity appears, along with its complex characteristics, often makes it difficult to treat. In this case, a new advanced three-dimensional imaging Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was used as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to differentiate between fusion occurred before or after root formation and help to reach the correct diagnosis. PMID:25298654

  20. Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Malamud, Daniel; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Here, we critically review the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed. PMID:21094724

  1. Expert Systems in Education and Training: Automated Job Aids or Sophisticated Instructional Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romiszowski, Alexander J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status and limitations of expert systems, and explores the possible applications of such systems in education and training. The use of expert systems as tutors, as job aids, and as a vehicle for students to develop their own expert systems on specific topics are discussed. (40 references) (CLB)

  2. ITER diagnostic systems in development in Ioffe Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.; Afanasyev, V.; Petrov, S.; Mironov, M.; Mukhin, E.; Tolstyakov, S.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.

    2014-08-21

    Three diagnostic systems are being developed in Ioffe Institute for ITER. Those are Neutral Particle Analysis (NPA), Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) and Gamma Spectroscopy (GS). The main objective of NPA in ITER is to measure D/T fuel ration in plasma on the basis of measurement of neutralized fluxes of D and T ions [1]. Fuel ratio is one of the key parameters needed by ITER control system to provide the optimal conditions in plasma and the most effective plasma burning. Another objective is to measure the distribution function of fast ions (including alpha particles) generated as a result of the additional heating and nuclear fusion reactions. Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) [2] will be used to measure electron temperature and density in the scrape-off layer in outer leg of ITER divertor. The main task of TSD is to protect the machine from divertor overloading. Gamma Spectroscopy (GS) [3] is based on the measurement of spectral lines of MeV range gammas generated in nuclear reactions in plasma. 2-D gamma-ray emission measurements give valuable information on the confined alpha particles in DT plasma. They also provide important information on the location of MeV range runaway electron beams in ITER plasma. For all three cases the physical basis and instrumentation are presented. The simple NPA version for measurements of D/T ratio in DEMO is also briefly described.

  3. The OMEGA Gas Sampling System and Radiochemical Diagnostic Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyer, Mark; Hudson, Bryant; Sangster, Craig; Freeman, Charlie; Schwartz, B.; Olsen, M.

    2001-10-01

    Radiochemical diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will address important issues such as shell rho-R, mix and charged particle production in ignition and near-ignition capsules. Many reaction products from charged particle reactions are noble gases. A gas sampling system for obtaining radiochemical samples following OMEGA shots has been assembled at LLNL and is being installed on the target chamber at OMEGA. Results of benchtop tests and possibly target chamber background collections with such a system will be discussed. A primary goal is to demonstrate reproducible collection efficiencies for this new technical capability of near 100include measuring collection efficiencies for certain reaction processes and to test the collection scheme for other low energy reaction products. Should high collection efficiencies be demonstrated, and the background be low and well-characterized, test reactions of 18O(alpha,n)21Ne or 80Kr(n,2n)79Kr and 38Ar(n,2n)37Ar will be investigated at OMEGA. In addition, other collection schemes are being considered for reactions that do not result in a noble gas isotope. Some simulations of expected activations from several capsule designs will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  4. An expert systems approach to automated fault diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Malin, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The implementation of the life support function on the Space Station will probably have to be based on regenerative life support techniques. It is essential that the regenerative subsystems operate with minimum attendance from the crew. However, the results of extensive testing show that uninterrupted subsystem operation over long periods of time (e.g., months) is not easy to achieve. In order to achieve longer periods of time on line for these subsystems, it is necessary that the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designers focus their attention on technologies which will permit both increasing the mean time between shutdowns and decreasing the time for which a subsystem is down for fault diagnosis and maintenance. With the aim to be able to perform the fault diagnosis on line rather than after the subsystem has shut down, an expert systems approach to automated fault diagnostics is considered. A description is given of a program, designated CS-1 'FIXER' for fault isolation expert to enhance reliability.

  5. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  6. GPS aiding of ocean current determination. [Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The navigational accuracy of an oceangoing vessel using conventional GPS p-code data is examined. The GPS signal is transmitted over two carrier frequencies in the L-band at 1575.42 and 1227.6 MHz. Achievable navigational uncertainties of differenced positional estimates are presented as a function of the parameters of the problem, with particular attention given to the effect of sea-state, user equivalent range error, uncompensated antenna motion, varying delay intervals, and reduced data rate examined in the unaided mode. The unmodeled errors resulting from satellite ephemeris uncertainties are shown to be negligible for the GPS-NDS (Navigation Development) satellites. Requirements are met in relatively calm seas, but accuracy degradation by a factor of at least 2 must be anticipated in heavier sea states. The aided mode of operation is examined, and it is shown that requirements can be met by using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to aid the GPS receiver operation. Since the use of an IMU would mean higher costs, direct Doppler from the GPS satellites is presented as a viable alternative.

  7. TROUBLE 3: A fault diagnostic expert system for Space Station Freedom's power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Designing Space Station Freedom has given NASA many opportunities to develop expert systems that automate onboard operations of space based systems. One such development, TROUBLE 3, an expert system that was designed to automate the fault diagnostics of Space Station Freedom's electric power system is described. TROUBLE 3's design is complicated by the fact that Space Station Freedom's power system is evolving and changing. TROUBLE 3 has to be made flexible enough to handle changes with minimal changes to the program. Three types of expert systems were studied: rule-based, set-covering, and model-based. A set-covering approach was selected for TROUBLE 3 because if offered the needed flexibility that was missing from the other approaches. With this flexibility, TROUBLE 3 is not limited to Space Station Freedom applications, it can easily be adapted to handle any diagnostic system.

  8. Overview of Core Diagnostics for TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, A.J.H.; Bock, M.F.M. de; Classen, I.G.J.

    2005-02-15

    The diagnostic system of TEXTOR comprises about 50 individual diagnostic devices. Since the start of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster collaboration, part of the emphasis in the experimental program has shifted toward the study of physics processes in the plasma core. To aid these studies several new and advanced core diagnostics have been implemented, whereas a number of other core diagnostics have been upgraded to higher resolution, more channels, and better accuracy. In this paper a brief overview is given of the present set of plasma core diagnostics at TEXTOR.

  9. A Genetically Optimized Predictive System for Success in General Chemistry Using a Diagnostic Algebra Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Cameron I.; Pearson, Paul T.

    2012-02-01

    In higher education, many high-enrollment introductory courses have evolved into "gatekeeper" courses due to their high failure rates. These courses prevent many students from attaining their educational goals and often become graduation roadblocks. At the authors' home institution, general chemistry has become a gatekeeper course in which approximately 25% of students do not pass. This failure rate in chemistry is common, and often higher, at many other institutions of higher education, and mathematical deficiencies are perceived to be a large contributing factor. This paper details the development of a highly accurate predictive system that identifies students at the beginning of the semester who are "at-risk" for earning a grade of C- or below in chemistry. The predictive accuracy of this system is maximized by using a genetically optimized neural network to analyze the results of a diagnostic algebra test designed for a specific population. Once at-risk students have been identified, they can be helped to improve their chances of success using techniques such as concurrent support courses, online tutorials, "just-in-time" instructional aides, study skills, motivational interviewing, and/or peer mentoring.

  10. SSME HPOTP post-test diagnostic system enhancement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy W.

    1995-01-01

    An assessment of engine and component health is routinely made after each test or flight firing of a space shuttle main engine (SSME). Currently, this health assessment is done by teams of engineers who manually review sensor data, performance data, and engine and component operating histories. Based on review of information from these various sources, an evaluation is made as to the health of each component of the SSME and the preparedness of the engine for another test or flight. The objective of this project is to further develop a computer program which automates the analysis of test data from the SSME high-pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) in order to detect and diagnose anomalies. This program fits into a larger system, the SSME Post-Test Diagnostic System (PTDS), which will eventually be extended to assess the health and status of most SSME components on the basis of test data analysis. The HPOTP module is an expert system, which uses 'rules-of-thumb' obtained from interviews with experts from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to detect and diagnose anomalies. Analyses of the raw test data are first performed using pattern recognition techniques which result in features such as spikes, shifts, peaks, and drifts being detected and written to a database. The HPOTP module then looks for combination of these features which are indicative of known anomalies, using the rules gathered from the turbomachinery experts. Results of this analysis are then displayed via a graphical user interface which provides ranked lists of anomalies and observations by engine component, along with supporting data plots for each.

  11. Investment in HIV/AIDS programs: Does it help strengthen health systems in developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongbao; Souteyrand, Yves; Banda, Mazuwa A; Kaufman, Joan; Perriëns, Joseph H

    2008-01-01

    Background There is increasing debate about whether the scaled-up investment in HIV/AIDS programs is strengthening or weakening the fragile health systems of many developing countries. This article examines and assesses the evidence and proposes ways forward. Discussion Considerably increased resources have been brought into countries for HIV/AIDS programs by major Global Health Initiatives. Among the positive impacts are the increased awareness of and priority given to public health by governments. In addition, services to people living with HIV/AIDS have rapidly expanded. In many countries infrastructure and laboratories have been strengthened, and in some, primary health care services have been improved. The effect of AIDS on the health work force has been lessened by the provision of antiretroviral treatment to HIV-infected health care workers, by training, and, to an extent, by task-shifting. However, there are reports of concerns, too – among them, a temporal association between increasing AIDS funding and stagnant reproductive health funding, and accusations that scarce personnel are siphoned off from other health care services by offers of better-paying jobs in HIV/AIDS programs. Unfortunately, there is limited hard evidence of these health system impacts. Because service delivery for AIDS has not yet reached a level that could conceivably be considered "as close to Universal Access as possible," countries and development partners must maintain the momentum of investment in HIV/AIDS programs. At the same time, it should be recognized that global action for health is even more underfunded than is the response to the HIV epidemic. The real issue is therefore not whether to fund AIDS or health systems, but how to increase funding for both. Summary The evidence is mixed – mostly positive but some negative – as to the impact on health systems of the scaled-up responses to HIV/AIDS driven primarily by global health partnerships. Current scaled-up responses

  12. Updated Diagnostic Criteria and Staging System for Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2016-01-01

    There has been remarkable progress made in the diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The median survival of the disease has doubled as a result of several new active drugs. These advances have necessitated a revision of the disease definition and staging of MM. Until recently, MM was defined by the presence of end-organ damage, specifically hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions (CRAB features) that can be attributed to the clonal process. In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) updated the diagnostic criteria for MM to add three specific biomarkers that can be used to diagnose the disease in patients who did not have CRAB features: clonal bone marrow plasma cells greater than or equal to 60%, serum free light chain (FLC) ratio greater than or equal to 100 provided involved FLC level is 100 mg/L or higher, or more than one focal lesion on MRI. In addition, the definition was revised to allow CT and PET-CT to diagnose MM bone disease. These changes enable early diagnosis and allow the initiation of effective therapy to prevent the development of end-organ damage for patients who are at the highest risk. A new staging system has been developed that incorporates high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities in addition to standard laboratory markers of prognosis. PMID:27249749

  13. Asynchronous compressed beamformer for portable diagnostic ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Hoyos, Sebastian; Sadler, Brian

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art portable ultrasound imaging systems employ a small transducer array and a low carrier frequency to fit stringent constraints on power and form factor, and this tends to compromise the ultrasound imaging quality. In this paper, we present a low-complexity low-power asynchronous compressed beamformer (ACB) for portable diagnostic ultrasound. The proposed ACB integrates asynchronous sampling and compressive sensing (CS), and is capable of reducing data conversion power and handling a large data volume at the mixed-signal interface. A high-rate continuoustime ternary encoding (CT-TE) scheme eliminates the need for interpolation filters and coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) units typically used in a conventional architecture. A split-projection least squares (SPLS) signal reconstruction algorithm is applied that replaces high-cost nonlinear signal recovery with a series of low-complexity and independent linear problems. Experiments with measured ultrasound data demonstrate the proposed ACB architecture, and the SPLS reconstruction algorithm achieves 9-fold data compression compared with Nyquist sampling. PMID:25389158

  14. Physics Design Considerations for Diagnostic X Electron Beam Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-J

    2000-04-10

    The Diagnostic X (D-X) beamlines will transport the DARHT-II beam from the end of the accelerator to the Diagnostic X firing point providing four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal for the Diagnostic X beamline is to deliver four x-ray pulses with the DARHT-II dose format and time integrated spot size on each line of sight. The D-X beamline's final focus should be compatible with a range of first conjugates from 1 m-5 m. Furthermore, the D-X beamline operational parameters and the beamline layout should not preclude a possible upgrade to additional lines of sight. The DARHT-II accelerator is designed to deliver beams at a rate of 1 pulse per minute or less. Tuning the D-X beamline with several hundred optical elements would be time consuming. Therefore, minimizing the required number of tuning shots for the D-X beamline is also an important design goal. Many different beamline configurations may be able to accomplish these design objectives, and high beam quality (i.e., high current and low emittance) must be maintained throughout the chosen beamline configuration in order to achieve the DARHT-II x-ray dose format. In general, the longer the distance a beam travels, the harder it is to preserve the beam quality. Therefore, from the point of view of maintaining beam quality, it is highly desirable to minimize the beamline length. Lastly, modification to the DARHT-II building and the downstream transport should be minimized. Several processes can degrade beam quality by increasing the beam emittance, increasing the time-varying transverse beam motion, creating a beam halo, or creating a time-varying beam envelope. In this report, we consider those processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the beamline design. The physics design considerations for the active components such as the kicker system will be discussed in Ref. 2. In Sec. I, we discuss how beam emittance affects the x-ray forward dose. We also

  15. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 5: Current system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, costs, organization and other characteristics of both the manual system and AIDS 2 were used to establish a baseline case. The results of the evaluation are to be used to determine the feasibility of the AIDS 3 System, as well as provide a basis for ranking alternative systems during the second phase of the JPL study. The results of the study were tabulated by subject, scope and methods, providing a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the current operating systems employed by the FBI Identification Division.

  16. Computer-aided designing of automatic process control systems for thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, A. V.

    2009-10-01

    The structure of modern microprocessor systems for automated control of technological processes at cogeneration stations is considered. Methods for computer-aided designing of the lower (sensors and actuators) and upper (cabinets of computerized automation equipment) levels of an automated process control system are proposed. The composition of project documents, the structures of a project database and database of a computer-aided design system, and the way they interact with one another in the course of developing the project of an automated process control system are described. Elements of the interface between a design engineer and computer program are shown.

  17. The state of PC-based CADD (computer-aided design and drafting) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, G.L.; Bowers, J.M.; Gorman, T.S.; Taylor, L.E.

    1988-07-11

    This report provides an overview of the state of the art of personal computer (PC)-based computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems for mechanical engineering applications. It presents the results of an evaluation performed on seven systems during October 1987 to March 1988 and summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the systems.

  18. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  19. [Systems analytical investigation of the effect of countermeasures against the AIDS epidemic among homosexuals].

    PubMed

    Morio, S; Soda, K; Hashimoto, S; Fukutomi, K; Nakayama, H

    1991-12-01

    In Japan, the AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) epidemic among haemophiliacs has been the most urgent issue, because of the large number of haemophiliacs with AIDS. However, after governmental approval of the production of heated coagulating agents in 1985 and 1986, the prime object of prevention against the AIDS epidemic shifted from transmission through coagulation agents to that through sexual contacts. In order to investigate the most appropriate countermeasures against the AIDS epidemic among homosexuals in Japan, the numbers of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)-infected cases and AIDS cases in the future were estimated, and changes of the future numbers of HIV-infected persons and AIDS cases by behavior of homosexuals were compared using a systems analytical method. The methods of estimation and comparison are similar to those of R. M. Anderson and others, using numerical analysis of a mathematical model consisting of differential equations. They assumed a closed homosexual group whose members seldom have contact with members of other homosexual groups, but we assumed an open homosexual group whose members are being infected by other groups, because this assumption was more appropriate to the situation of homosexual society in Japan. The results showed that the prevalence number of HIV-infected cases would be about 1,800, that the prevalence number of AIDS cases would be about 100 among 100,000 homosexuals at 20 years after the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, and that the most effective countermeasure was reducing the frequency of sexual contacts among members or taking prophylactic measures during sexual contacts. These prevalence numbers of HIV-infected cases and AIDS cases would be reduced to between 1/4 and 1/2 of the above-mentioned calculated values by promotion of that countermeasure. PMID:1779479

  20. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2014-07-29

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  1. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2015-08-11

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  2. An Intelligent Computer-aided Training System (CAT) for Diagnosing Adult Illiterates: Integrating NASA Technology into Workplace Literacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the-art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) to develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and development phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. From these descriptions, scripts are being generated which define the interaction between the student, an on-screen guide and the simulated literacy environment.

  3. The Microcomputer as an Aid in Teaching Dynamic Systems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Describes the major aspects of a 20-lecture introductory course for environmental science students, showing how microcomputers can help teach dynamic systems concepts. Also discusses the continuous stirred tank reactor as a simple dynamic system, higher order systems, frequency response, nonlinear systems, and feedback control. (JN)

  4. Diagnostic spectroscopic and computer-aided evaluation of malignancy from UV/VIS spectra of clear pleural effusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevtić, Dubravka R.; Avramov Ivić, Milka L.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.; Plavec, Goran I.; Petrović, Slobodan D.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.

    2014-06-01

    The automated, computer-aided method for differentiation and classification of malignant (M) from benign (B) cases, by analyzing the UV/VIS spectra of pleural effusions is described. It was shown that by two independent objective features, the maximum of Katz fractal dimension (KFDmax) and the area under normalized UV/VIS absorbance curve (Area), highly reliable M-B classification is possible. In the Area-KFDmax space M and B samples are linearly separable permitting thus the use of linear support vector machine as a classification tool. By analyzing 104 samples of UV/VIS spectra of pleural effusions (88 M and 16 B) collected from patients at the Clinic for Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, the accuracy of 95.45% for M cases and 100% for B cases are obtained by using the proposed method. It was shown that by applying some modifications, which are suggested in the paper, the accuracy of 100% for M cases can be reached.

  5. Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnosis: Fundamentals and Technical Solutions - X-Ray Diagnostics- Computed Tomography - Nuclear Medical Diagnostics - Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Ultrasound Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krestel, Erich

    1990-10-01

    Erick Krestel, Editor Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnostics This book provides physicians and clinical physicists with detailed information on todya's imaging modalities and assists them in selecting the optimal system for each clinical application. Physicists, engineers and computer specialists engaged in research and development and sales departments will also find this book to be of considerable use. It may also be employed at universities, training centers and in technical seminars. The physiological and physical fundamentals are explained in part 1. The technical solutions contained in part 2 illustrate the numerous possibilities available in x-ray diagnostics, computed tomography, nuclear medical diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging, sonography and biomagnetic diagnostics. Overview of Contents Physiology of vision Image quality X-ray and gamma radiation X-ray diagnostics Computed tomography Nuclear medical diagnostics Magnetic resonance imaging Sonography Biomagnetic diagnostics

  6. Autonomous power expert fault diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom electrical power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Walters, Jerry L.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Quinn, Todd M.; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) testbed being developed and demonstrated at NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, to craft knowledge-based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces for power systems, and to interface and integrate knowledge-based systems with conventional controllers. The Autonomous Power EXpert (APEX) portion of the APS program will integrate a knowledge-based fault diagnostic system and a power resource planner-scheduler. Then APEX will interface on-line with the SSF/EPS testbed and its Power Management Controller (PMC). The key tasks include establishing knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation analysis, on-line information accessing through PMC, enhanced data management, and multiple-level, object-oriented operator displays. The first prototype of the diagnostic expert system for fault detection and isolation has been developed. The knowledge bases and the rule-based model that were developed for the Power Distribution Control Unit subsystem of the SSF/EPS testbed are described. A corresponding troubleshooting technique is also described.

  7. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) Systems for Mammography and the Use of GRID in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauria, Adele

    It is well known that the most effective way to defeat breast cancer is early detection, as surgery and medical therapies are more efficient when the disease is diagnosed at an early stage. The principal diagnostic technique for breast cancer detection is X-ray mammography. Screening programs have been introduced in many European countries to invite women to have periodic radiological breast examinations. In such screenings, radiologists are often required to examine large numbers of mammograms with a double reading, that is, two radiologists examine the images independently and then compare their results. In this way an increment in sensitivity (the rate of correctly identified images with a lesion) of up to 15% is obtained.1,2 In most radiological centres, it is a rarity to find two radiologists to examine each report. In recent years different Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems have been developed as a support to radiologists working in mammography: one may hope that the "second opinion" provided by CAD might represent a lower cost alternative to improve the diagnosis. At present, four CAD systems have obtained the FDA approval in the USA. † Studies3,4 show an increment in sensitivity when CAD systems are used. Freer and Ulissey in 2001 5 demonstrated that the use of a commercial CAD system (ImageChecker M1000, R2 Technology) increases the number of cancers detected up to 19.5% with little increment in recall rate. Ciatto et al.,5 in a study simulating a double reading with a commercial CAD system (SecondLook‡), showed a moderate increment in sensitivity while reducing specificity (the rate of correctly identified images without a lesion). Notwithstanding these optimistic results, there is an ongoing debate to define the advantages of the use of CAD as second reader: the main limits underlined, e.g., by Nishikawa6 are that retrospective studies are considered much too optimistic and that clinical studies must be performed to demonstrate a statistically

  8. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  9. A potential new diagnostic tool to aid DNA analysis from heat compromised bone using colorimetry: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Jamie D; Ringrose, Trevor J; Dicken, Anthony; Williams, Anna; Bennett, Phil

    2015-03-01

    Extracting viable DNA from many forensic sample types can be very challenging, as environmental conditions may be far from optimal with regard to DNA preservation. Consequently, skeletal tissue can often be an invaluable source of DNA. The bone matrix provides a hardened material that encapsulates DNA, acting as a barrier to environmental insults that would otherwise be detrimental to its integrity. However, like all forensic samples, DNA in bone can still become degraded in extreme conditions, such as intense heat. Extracting DNA from bone can be laborious and time-consuming. Thus, a lot of time and money can be wasted processing samples that do not ultimately yield viable DNA. We describe the use of colorimetry as a novel diagnostic tool that can assist DNA analysis from heat-treated bone. This study focuses on characterizing changes in the material and physical properties of heated bone, and their correlation with digitally measured color variation. The results demonstrate that the color of bone, which serves as an indicator of the chemical processes that have occurred, can be correlated with the success or failure of subsequent DNA amplification. PMID:25753998

  10. Complex interferometry potential in case of sufficiently stable diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalal, M.

    2016-06-01

    Classical interferometry is one of the key methods among active optical diagnostics. Its more advanced version, which allows recording and subsequent reconstruction of up to three sets of data using just one data object —a complex interferogram—was developed in the past and became known as complex interferometry. Employing this diagnostics, not only the usual phase shift, but also the amplitude of the probing beam as well as the fringe contrast (leading directly to the phase shift time derivative) can be reconstructed simultaneously from such a complex interferogram. In this paper it will be demonstrated that even in the case of a not particularly good diagnostic beam quality these three quantities can be reconstructed with a high degree of accuracy provided both the diagnostic beam as well as the corresponding optical line feature a reasonable stability. Such stability requirement is important as in an ideal case four shots need to be gradually recorded (one by one): the signal complex interferogram, the reference interferogram as well as the intensity structures of the signal and reference part of the diagnostic beam. Two examples of complex interferograms obtained in experiments will be analyzed: the laser produced plasma (spark in the air) and the high pressure gas jet. A general ray-tracing based iterative algorithm will be outlined in order to increase a precision of the index of refraction spatial profile taking into account refraction effects (omitted in the Abel inversion) and employing the original reconstructed phase shift and amplitude.

  11. A comparative study of the audiological outcomes with Retro-X (semi-implantable hearing aid system) and conventional open fitting hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas; Stieve, Martin; Winter, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of hearing augmentation with the Retro-X semi-implantable hearing aid to a conventional non-implantable open canal hearing aid using the same software technology (Titan-X, auric Hearing Systems, HiKaNo.:13.20.03.0047). Nineteen subjects (20 ears) with mild to moderate high-frequency sensory-neural hearing loss were included in this clinical study. All the subjects were first fitted with a conventional open canal hearing aid (Titan-X). After a period of 4-6 weeks audiological evaluations were performed using standardized speech tests in quiet and noise. Subjective evaluation was performed with the help of standardized questionnaires. After this phase the patients received the semi-implantable Retro-X device under local anaesthesia and 4 weeks later were fitted with a hearing module with the same software technology as the conventional Titan-X hearing aid. Four weeks following the first fitting the same audiological evaluations were performed under similar conditions and the patients were evaluated again using the same questionnaires in order to compare the results of the Retro-X semi-implantable system with the conventional open canal hearing aid. Audiological evaluations revealed better results with the semi-implantable Retro-X in the adaptive speech in noise test; however, the results of the monosyllabic word test in quiet were similar for the Retro-X and conventional open canal hearing aid. The patients subjectively preferred the improved wearing comfort of the semi-implantable device. The Retro-X semi-implantable hearing aid provides better speech perception in noise and higher wearing comfort in comparison to the conventional open canal hearing aids. Considering the simple implantation procedure under local anaesthesia with low complication rate, Retro-X is an alternative to the conventional open canal hearing aids in patients with mild to moderate high frequency sensory-neural hearing loss. PMID:18365229

  12. CAMRAD - COMPUTER AIDED MATERIAL REVIEW AUTOMATED DISPOSITION SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The basic function of a manufacturer's production support engineering unit is to identify, document, and dispose of hardware that does not conform to drawing requirements. CAMRAD, a program designed for rapid input and retrieval of all data used in engineering-to-manufacturing support operations, aids the engineer by automating the material review disposition process. Before CAMRAD, material review record searches were manual. The time spent searching through old documents precluded the timely disposition of new material reviews. CAMRAD facilitates the research of material review histories and provides for the efficient processing of material review documents. Three SmartWare project files control the operation of CAMRAD. The project file CAMRAD initializes variables for the other project files and specifies the pathing of the CAMRAD program, database files, and document files. The project file DATARAD controls all data management functions. The database consists of individual files containing all records of specific hardware discrepancies for a given part number. There are four basic avenues for records searches: part serial number, feature, Material Review (MR) number, and non-conformance. WORDRAD is the project file which controls the management of document files created when processing a material review disposition. Given a material review report identifying a defective hardware item, the production support engineer can use CAMRAD to quickly search the database for any history of the same problem, find out how well the problem has been documented, and create appropriate documentation for this latest occurrence. CAMRAD is written in the Smart Programming Language and is designed to run on IBM PC compatibles with the SmartWare v. 3.1 software package available from Informix Software. CAMRAD was developed in 1987. SmartWare is a registered trademark of Informix Software, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

  13. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  14. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint.

  15. Two-dimensional layout computer-aided system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tong; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Xiong

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a computer software system for an often encountered 2D layout problem in the shipbuilding and manufacture industries. For an ordered set of irregular as well as rectangular pieces, the system produces rectangles called modules for the pieces at first, and then places these modules into given rectangular sheets of fixed dimensions such that the number of sheets used is minimized. The system also provides the user with an interaction procedure in order to make itself as flexible as possible. This system has been implemented on IBM PC/AT 486 and compatible computers and is supported by AutoCAD system.

  16. Nanostructured Delivery Systems: Augmenting the Delivery of Antiretroviral Drugs for Better Management of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S; Mustafa, Sanaul

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, HIV-1, the retrovirus associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is globally one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, existing approaches for interventions are not able to suppress the progression of infection due to this virus. Of the many obstacles, viral entry into the mono-nuclear phagocyte system encompassing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells is a major concern. Viral infection is also responsible for the subsequent distribution of the virus into various tissues throughout the organism. Tremendous progress has been made during the past few years to diagnose and treat patients with HIV/AIDS infection, yet much remains to be done. Recommended treatment involves long-term and multiple drug therapy that causes severe side effects. With almost 12% of the world population suffering from HIV/AIDS, better management of this global threat is highly desired. Nanostructured delivery systems hold promise for improving the situation. Such systems can facilitate the uptake of antiretroviral drugs, causing a considerable improvement in HIV/AIDS therapy. Nanoscale systems have intriguing potential to drastically improve existing HIV/AIDS diagnosis and treatment platforms. Nanosystems constitute a wide range of systems varying from polymeric nanoparticles, to solid-lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, micro- and nanoemulsions, dendrimers, and self-nanoemulsifying systems. Improved bioavailability, solubility, stability, and biocompatibility make them an ideal choice for delivery of antiretroviral drugs. The present review initially describes an updated bird's-eye view account of the literature. Then, we provide a relatively sententious overview on updated patents of recent nanostructured delivery systems for antiretroviral drugs. Finally, we discuss low-cost therapy (such as antioxidants and immune modulators) for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. PMID:26559551

  17. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Aided Speech-to-Print Transcription System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Technical Inst. for the Deaf, Rochester, NY.

    This final report describes the development and evaluation of C-Print, a system for transcription of computer-aided speech to print. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the 3-year federally supported project. Chapter 2 provides background information on current speech-to-print systems. Chapter 3 focuses on needed improvements in C-Print, especially…

  19. The Shifting Financial Aid System in Spanish University: Grant-Recipients' Experiences and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Río-Ruiz, Manuel Ángel; Jiménez-Rodrigo, María Luisa; Caro-Cabrera, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Spain inaugurated a reform of its higher education financial aid system inspired by three principles: cost-sharing, increasing academic performance and school efficiency. This reform has shifted the aim of the system from equality of access to a type of meritocracy that can be defined as class-biased, as it is only applied to low-income…

  20. Functional Specifications for Computer Aided Training Systems Development and Management (CATSDM) Support Functions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John; And Others

    This report provides a description of a Computer Aided Training System Development and Management (CATSDM) environment based on state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, and including recommendations for off the shelf systems to be utilized as a starting point in addressing the particular systematic training and instruction design and…

  1. Wireless Hearing Aid System Simulations using Advanced Design System™: A Behavioral Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Singh Rana, Ram; Bin, Tang; Liang, Zhang; Hari Krishna, Garg; De Yun, Wang

    2005-01-01

    The stringent requirements on size and power consumption constrain the conventional hearing aid devices from providing the patients an economic and user friendly solution, specifically for better noise cancellation. With the advancements in technologies such as integrated circuits design, wireless communications and digital signal processing techniques, the wireless hearing aids having multi-microphones, analog, digital and mixed signals and radio frequency signals processing circuits, DSP and programmable units seem to be promising to provide enhanced performance. The focus of this paper is about the system simulation of a typical wireless hearing aid using Agilent Advanced Design System™. The behavioral modeling features are exploited to enable the whole system simulations including electro-acoustic transducers. A few system level simulation results are included. PMID:17282359

  2. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems. PMID:22346596

  3. Ultrasonic sensors in urban traffic driving-aid systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems. PMID:22346596

  4. NIST System for Measuring the Directivity Index of Hearing Aids under Simulated Real-Ear Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Randall P

    2013-01-01

    The directivity index is a parameter that is commonly used to characterize the performance of directional hearing aids, and is determined from the measured directional response. Since this response is different for a hearing aid worn on a person as compared to when it is in a free field, directivity index measurements of hearing aids are usually done under simulated real-ear conditions. Details are provided regarding the NIST system for measuring the hearing aid directivity index under these conditions and how this system is used to implement a standardized procedure for performing such measurements. This procedure involves a sampling method that utilizes sound source locations distributed in a semi-aligned zone array on an imaginary spherical surface surrounding a standardized acoustical test manikin. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated over the frequency range of one-third-octave bands with center frequencies from 200 Hz to 8000 Hz through NIST participation in an interlaboratory comparison. This comparison was conducted between eight different laboratories of members of Working Group S3/WG48, Hearing Aids, established by Accredited Standards Committee S3, Bioacoustics, which is administered by the Acoustical Society of America and accredited by the American National Standards Institute. Directivity measurements were made for a total of six programmed memories in two different hearing aids and for the unaided manikin with the manikin right pinna accompanying the aids. Omnidirectional, cardioid, and bidirectional response patterns were measured. Results are presented comparing the NIST data with the reference values calculated from the data reported by all participating laboratories. PMID:26401425

  5. NIST System for Measuring the Directivity Index of Hearing Aids under Simulated Real-Ear Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Randall P

    2013-01-01

    The directivity index is a parameter that is commonly used to characterize the performance of directional hearing aids, and is determined from the measured directional response. Since this response is different for a hearing aid worn on a person as compared to when it is in a free field, directivity index measurements of hearing aids are usually done under simulated real-ear conditions. Details are provided regarding the NIST system for measuring the hearing aid directivity index under these conditions and how this system is used to implement a standardized procedure for performing such measurements. This procedure involves a sampling method that utilizes sound source locations distributed in a semi-aligned zone array on an imaginary spherical surface surrounding a standardized acoustical test manikin. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated over the frequency range of one-third-octave bands with center frequencies from 200 Hz to 8000 Hz through NIST participation in an interlaboratory comparison. This comparison was conducted between eight different laboratories of members of Working Group S3/WG48, Hearing Aids, established by Accredited Standards Committee S3, Bioacoustics, which is administered by the Acoustical Society of America and accredited by the American National Standards Institute. Directivity measurements were made for a total of six programmed memories in two different hearing aids and for the unaided manikin with the manikin right pinna accompanying the aids. Omnidirectional, cardioid, and bidirectional response patterns were measured. Results are presented comparing the NIST data with the reference values calculated from the data reported by all participating laboratories. PMID:26401425

  6. Development and testing of a diagnostic system for intelligen distributed control at EBR-2

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Ruhl, D.W.; Klevans, E.H.; Robinson, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic system is under development for demonstration of Intelligent Distributed Control at the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR--II). In the first phase of the project a diagnostic system is being developed for the EBR-II steam plant based on the DISYS expert systems approach. Current testing uses recorded plant data and data from simulated plant faults. The dynamical simulation of the EBR-II steam plant uses the Babcock and Wilcox (B W) Modular Modeling System (MMS). At EBR-II the diagnostic system operates in the UNIX workstation and receives live plant data from the plant Data Acquisition System (DAS). Future work will seek implementation of the steam plant diagnostic in a distributed manner using UNIX based computers and Bailey microprocessor-based control system. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.

    2015-11-01

    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  8. Computer aided analysis and optimization of mechanical system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose is to outline a computational approach to spatial dynamics of mechanical systems that substantially enlarges the scope of consideration to include flexible bodies, feedback control, hydraulics, and related interdisciplinary effects. Design sensitivity analysis and optimization is the ultimate goal. The approach to computer generation and solution of the system dynamic equations and graphical methods for creating animations as output is outlined.

  9. Web-Based Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Schnerch, Gabriel J.; Silva, Kathleen M.; Svenningsen, Louis; Lambert, Jody

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a proliferation of Web-based course-management systems designed to facilitate postsecondary teaching (for example, WebCT, Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Moodle). In general, these systems provide analogs for delivering lectures, holding class discussions, giving quizzes and examinations (typically multiple…

  10. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  11. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bifano, W.J.; DeLombard, R.; Ratajczak, A.F.; Scudder, L.R.

    1984-05-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PVpowered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  12. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  13. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290

  14. A Tone-Aided/Dual Vestigial Sideband (TA/DVSB) system for mobile satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Millar, Gilbert M.; Depaolo, Anthony D.

    1990-01-01

    Tone-aided modulation is one way of combatting the effects of multipath fading and Doppler frequency shifts. A new tone-aided modulation format for M-ary phase-shift keyed signals (MPSK) is discussed. A spectral null for the placement of the tone is created in the center of the MPSK signal by translating the upper sideband upwards in frequency by the same amount. The key element of the system is the algorithm for recombining the data sidebands in the receiver, a function that is performed by a specialized phase-locked loop (PLL). The system structure is discussed and simulation results showing the PLL acquisition performance are presented.

  15. Guidelines for the Development of an Effective Diagnostic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreau, Lanny; And Others

    Described is the diagnostic teaching model developed by the Illinois Regional Resource Center to provide assessment and programing for children with unexplained handicaps. The model is explained to involve a multidisciplinary approach and to include six basic components: referals, information gathering, diagnosis, prescription, consultation, and…

  16. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  17. Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: The Selection of Students at Risk of Academic Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolkowski, Keith; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic tools can help schools more consistently and fairly match instructional resources to the needs of their students. To ensure the best educational outcome for each child, diagnostic decision-making systems seek to balance time, clarity, and accuracy. However, recent research notes that many educational decisions tend to be made using…

  18. A hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic system for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin; Kumar, Amrita; Zhang, Chang; Gonzalez, Ignacio F.; Guo, Guangping; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2005-06-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic system has been developed for quick non-destructive evaluation and long term health monitoring of aerospace vehicles and structures. The hybrid diagnostic system uses piezoelectric actuators to input a controlled excitation to the structure and fiber optic sensors to capture the corresponding structural response. The system consists of three major parts: a diagnostic layer with a network of piezoelectric elements and fiber gratings to offer a simple and efficient way to integrate a large network of transducers onto a structure; diagnostic hardware consisting of an arbitrary waveform generator and a high speed fiber grating demodulation unit together with a high speed data acquisition card to provide actuation input, data collection, and information processing; and diagnostic software to determine the condition of the structure. This paper presents key development issues related to the manufacturing of the hybrid piezoelectric/fiber optic diagnostic layer and integration of a highly portable diagnostic hardware. Validation and proof testing of this integrated diagnostic system are also presented.

  19. Diagnoses and Presenting Symptoms in an Infant Psychiatry Clinic: Comparison of Two Diagnostic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Karen A.; Boyum, Lisa A.; Harmon, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present data from a general infant psychiatry clinic, including range and frequency of presenting symptoms, relationship between symptoms and diagnoses, and comparison of two diagnostic systems, DSM-IV and Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0-3). Method: A…

  20. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  1. Flight evaluation of differential GPS aided inertial navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, B. David; Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Warner, David N., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are described for integration of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data with Inertial Navigation System (INS) data to provide an integrated DGPS/INS navigation system. The objective is to establish the benefits that can be achieved through various levels of integration of DGPS with INS for precision navigation. An eight state Kalman filter integration was implemented in real-time on a twin turbo-prop transport aircraft to evaluate system performance during terminal approach and landing operations. A fully integrated DGPS/INS system is also presented which models accelerometer and rate-gyro measurement errors plus position, velocity, and attitude errors. The fully integrated system was implemented off-line using range-domain (seventeen-state) and position domain (fifteen-state) Kalman filters. Both filter integration approaches were evaluated using data collected during the flight test. Flight-test data consisted of measurements from a 5 channel Precision Code GPS receiver, a strap-down Inertial Navigation Unit (INU), and GPS satellite differential range corrections from a ground reference station. The aircraft was laser tracked to determine its true position. Results indicate that there is no significant improvement in positioning accuracy with the higher levels of DGPS/INS integration. All three systems provided high-frequency (e.g., 20 Hz) estimates of position and velocity. The fully integrated system provided estimates of inertial sensor errors which may be used to improve INS navigation accuracy should GPS become unavailable, and improved estimates of acceleration, attitude, and body rates which can be used for guidance and control. Precision Code DGPS/INS positioning accuracy (root-mean-square) was 1.0 m cross-track and 3.0 m vertical. (This AGARDograph was sponsored by the Guidance and Control Panel.)

  2. Computer aided differential diagnosis in emergency situations (CADDIES) system

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-03-01

    This report presents an idea for a portable computerized differential diagnosis tool that could be utilized by a health care provider during an emergency situation. This radio frequency, networked, menu driven system would analyze various patient assessment parameters and make recommendations regarding possible diagnoses/treatment options outside the scope of suspicion of the health care provider. This system would serve as a repository for initial epidemiological data and assist the health care provider with spotting emerging trends.

  3. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  4. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  5. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  6. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  7. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  8. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  9. Computer-aided prototype system for nose surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, T Y; Lin, C H; Lin, H Y

    2001-12-01

    Rhinoplasty, or surgery to reshape the nose, is one of the most common of all plastic-surgery procedures. Rhinoplasty can enhance a patient's appearance and self-confidence, may also correct a birth defect or injury, or help relieve some breathing problem. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional (3-D) surgical simulation system, which can assist surgeons in planning rhinoplasty procedures. This system employs computer graphics and image-processing techniques for the simulation of a rhinoplasty. Although the presented algorithms themselves are not new, the proposed system exploits the new idea to apply 3-D morphing for rhinoplasty, and simulation results are useful for the physicians. According to patients' expectation of what they would like their noses to look like, our system simulates expected results. Our tools provide quantitative measurements of a nose structure. Using these quantitative results, surgeons can arrange appropriate preoperative plans for patients. Finally, experimental results and experiences are reported to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed system. PMID:11759833

  10. Medical diagnostic decision support systems--past, present, and future: a threaded bibliography and brief commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R A

    1994-01-01

    Articles about medical diagnostic decision support (MDDS) systems often begin with a disclaimer such as, "despite many years of research and millions of dollars of expenditures on medical diagnostic systems, none is in widespread use at the present time." While this statement remains true in the sense that no single diagnostic system is in widespread use, it is misleading with regard to the state of the art of these systems. Diagnostic systems, many simple and some complex, are now ubiquitous, and research on MDDS systems is growing. The nature of MDDS systems has diversified over time. The prospects for adoption of large-scale diagnostic systems are better now than ever before, due to enthusiasm for implementation of the electronic medical record in academic, commercial, and primary care settings. Diagnostic decision support systems have become an established component of medical technology. This paper provides a review and a threaded bibliography for some of the important work on MDDS systems over the years from 1954 to 1993. PMID:7719792

  11. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  12. A Computer-Aided Large Scale Pacemaker Surveillance System*

    PubMed Central

    Covvey, H.D.; MacGregor, D.C.; Noble, E.J.; Goldman, B.S.; Wigle, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Beginning in 1972 with a small PDP-8 based system, our Pacemaker Center has continued a commitment to the implementation of computer-based systems to reduce the cost and increase the safety of patient follow-up. Recently we brought into operation a new version of our patient surveillance system on our shared database management computer, the Sperry-Univac V-76. A complete set of optical mark readable forms has been developed to capture pacemaker data. A variety of operational support reports are produced. Pre-clinic and pre-telephone follow-up reports summarize patient status and serve as a basis for comparing the patient's current state to his history of encounters. Post-clinic and post-transtelephone reports document the encounter and are used as reports to the referring physician and for inclusion in the patient's chart. The surgical form set is used to generate a detailed operative note.

  13. Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.

  14. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular Incisor Exhibiting Concurrence of Fusion, Talon Cusp and Dens Invaginatus using CBCT as a Diagnostic Aid

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varun

    2016-01-01

    Teeth with aberrant anatomy present a challenge to the endodontist. Advanced tools like cone beam computed tomography aid in exploring the details of endodontic architecture in such cases. The aim of this case report is to highlight the advantage of CBCT in endodontic management of teeth with multiple dental anomalies. A mandibular lateral incisor associated with an extraoral sinus tract revealed unusual clinical anatomy. A provisional diagnosis of type III dens in dente was made based on radiographic findings. Considering the complex anatomy, CBCT was advised to get a confirmatory diagnosis. The anatomic details revealed by CBCT differed significantly from the provisional diagnosis. A final diagnosis of concurrence of fusion with a supernumerary tooth, talon cusp and type II dens invaginatus was established and endodontic treatment of the concerned tooth was carried out. Non-surgical endodontic treatment resulted in successful resolution of the sinus tract and healing of the periapical lesion. CBCT, thus proves to be an excellent diagnostic tool for management of teeth with unusual anatomy, paving way for a conservative treatment free of endodontic mishaps. PMID:27042591

  15. A Hypermedia Computer-Aided Parasitology Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili

    A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…

  16. A PC-aided optical foetal heart rate detection system.

    PubMed

    Oweis, Rami J; As'ad, Hala; Aldarawsheh, Amany; Al-Khdeirat, Rawan; Lwissy, Kaldoun

    2014-01-01

    Safe monitoring of foetal heart rate is a valuable tool for the healthy evolution and wellbeing of both foetus and mother. This paper presents a non-invasive optical technique that allows for foetal heart rate detection using a photovoltaic infrared (IR) detector placed on the mother's abdomen. The system presented here consists of a photoplethysmography (PPG) circuit, abdomen circuit and a personal computer equipped with MATLAB. A near IR beam having a wavelength of 880 nm is transmitted through the mother's abdomen and foetal tissue. The received abdominal signal that conveys information pertaining to the mother and foetal heart rate is sensed by a low noise photodetector. The PC receives the signal through the National Instrumentation Data Acquisition Card (NIDAQ). After synchronous detection of the abdominal and finger PPG signals, the designed MATLAB-based software saves, analyses and extracts information related to the foetal heart rate. Extraction is carried out using recursive least squares adaptive filtration. Measurements on eight pregnant women with gestational periods ranging from 35-39 weeks were performed using the proposed system and CTG. Results show a correlation coefficient of 0.978 and a correlation confidence interval between 88-99.6%. The t test results in a p value of 0.034, which is less than 0.05. Low power, low cost, high signal-to-noise ratio, reduction of ambient light effect and ease of use are the main characteristics of the proposed system. PMID:24195701

  17. Computer-aided-engineering system for modeling and analysis of ECLSS integration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepahban, Sonbol

    1987-01-01

    The accurate modeling and analysis of two-phase fluid networks found in environmental control and life support systems is presently undertaken by computer-aided engineering (CAE) techniques whose generalized fluid dynamics package can solve arbitrary flow networks. The CAE system for integrated test bed modeling and analysis will also furnish interfaces and subsystem/test-article mathematical models. Three-dimensional diagrams of the test bed are generated by the system after performing the requisite simulation and analysis.

  18. A study on spatial decision support systems for HIV/AIDS prevention based on COM GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Luo, Huasong; Peng, Shungyun; Xu, Quanli

    2007-06-01

    Based on the deeply analysis of the current status and the existing problems of GIS technology applications in Epidemiology, this paper has proposed the method and process for establishing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention by integrating the COM GIS, Spatial Database, GPS, Remote Sensing, and Communication technologies, as well as ASP and ActiveX software development technologies. One of the most important issues for constructing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention is how to integrate the AIDS spreading models with GIS. The capabilities of GIS applications in the AIDS epidemic prevention have been described here in this paper firstly. Then some mature epidemic spreading models have also been discussed for extracting the computation parameters. Furthermore, a technical schema has been proposed for integrating the AIDS spreading models with GIS and relevant geospatial technologies, in which the GIS and model running platforms share a common spatial database and the computing results can be spatially visualized on Desktop or Web GIS clients. Finally, a complete solution for establishing the decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention has been offered in this paper based on the model integrating methods and ESRI COM GIS software packages. The general decision support systems are composed of data acquisition sub-systems, network communication sub-systems, model integrating sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial database sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information querying and statistical analysis sub-systems, AIDS epidemic dynamic surveillance sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial analysis and decision support sub-systems, as well as AIDS epidemic information publishing sub-systems based on Web GIS.

  19. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  4. Operation of a computer aided drafting system: improvements, results and hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Millaud, J.; Goulding, F.; Salz, P.; Shimada, K.

    1983-10-01

    A two workstation Computer Aided Drafting system has been in operation since September 1982 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Department of Instrument Science and Engineering. Improvements made to the original hardware and software configuration are described. Benefits from this installation are reported and future developments are outlined.

  5. Colorado Community College System Financial Aid Services: Cost Analyses and Cost Efficiency Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Dale

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in two phases. One, the Cost Analysis, reports on inventory and analysis of actual estimated costs for delivering financial aid services to students and potential students in thirteen Colorado Community College System (CCCS) community colleges in Fiscal Year 2003. Additionally, an assessment of services and functions is…

  6. COMPUTER-AIDED SYNTHESIS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SLUDGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided design procedure for the preliminary synthesis of wastewater treatment and sludge disposal systems is developed. It selects the components in the wastewater treatment and sludge disposal trains from a list of candidate process units with fixed design characterist...

  7. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  8. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) and Farm Service Agency (FSA) are seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection for the Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES). FSA and CCC procure various processed foods and commodities to be exported and donated for......

  9. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Mandarin Phonemes Training System for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2005-01-01

    A computer-aided Mandarin phonemes training (CAMPT) system was developed and evaluated for training hearing-impaired students in their pronunciation of Mandarin phonemes. Deaf or hearing-impaired people have difficulty hearing their own voice, hence most of them cannot learn how to speak. Phonemes are the basis for learning to read and speak in…

  11. Development of a Computer-Aided Evaluation System for Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; Roegge, Chris A.

    1989-01-01

    The computer-aided self-evaluation system for vocational education programs involves three stages: vital sign assessment, in-depth analysis, and program improvement planning. The six vital signs that give an overall picture of program quality are placement/continuing education, enrollment, employer satisfaction, student satisfaction, employability…

  12. Performance Measures in Courses Using Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, C. R.; Pear, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Archived data from four courses taught with computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI)--an online, self-paced, instructional program--were used to explore the relationship between objectively rescored final exam grades, peer reviewing, and progress rate--i.e., the rate at which students completed unit tests. There was a strong…

  13. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction for the Virtual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, W.; Pear, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) and its implementations for both on-campus and off-campus teaching at the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student reactions, the use of data that are saved throughout the course, and future possibilities. (Author/LRW)

  14. Experience gained at ZAO Ural Turbine Works with the use of computer-aided design systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenko, V. V.; Valamin, A. E.; Shanturov, D. N.; Sokolov, E. V.; Toibich, S. V.; Glushchenko, A. N.

    2008-08-01

    The results of work accomplished in the field of computer-aided design at ZAO Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) are presented. A concept is described following which the tasks for a specialist’s workstations being developed at the UTZ are solved. Results from solution of problems with the use of modern numerical simulation computer programs for analyzing gas dynamic processes, casting, welding, and strength of complex structures are given. An example is given to show efficient use of a computer-aided design system for shifting an enterprise to a modern level of automation.

  15. Development of the on-line operator aid system OASYS using a rule-based expert system and fuzzy logic for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.H.; Kang, K.S.; Choi, S.S.; Kim, H.G.; Jeong, H.K.; Yi, C.U.

    1995-11-01

    The On-line Operator Aid SYStem (OASYS) has been developed to support the operator`s decision making process and to ensure the safety of a nuclear power plant by providing operators with proper guidelines in a timely manner, according to the plant operation mode. The OASYS consists of four systems such as a signal validation and management system (SVMS), a plant monitoring system (PMS), an alarm filtering and diagnostic system (AFDS), and a dynamic emergency procedure tracking system (DEPTS). The SVMS and the PMS help operators to maintain a plant in a condition to withstand the adverse events during a normal operation condition. The AFDS covers the abnormal events until it exceeds the limit range of reactor trip signals, while after a reactor trip, the DEPTS aids operators with proper guidelines so as to shut down safely. The OASYS uses a rule-based expert system and fuzzy logic. The rule-based expert system is used to classify the predefined events and track the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) through data processing, and the fuzzy logic is used to generate the conceptual high-level alarms for the prognostic diagnosis and to evaluate the qualitative fuzzy criteria used in the EOPs. Evaluation results show that the OASYS is capable of diagnosing plant abnormal conditions and providing operators appropriate guidelines with fast response time and consistency. The proposed system is implemented on a SUN-4/75 workstation using C language and Quintus prolog language. Currently, the OASYS is installed in the real-time full scope simulator for validation.

  16. Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B.; Gutwein, J. M.; Vollmers, R.; Wammer, D.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of Sarsat is to demonstrate that satellites can greatly facilitate the monitoring, detection, and location of distress incidents alerted by Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) carried on commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft and some marine vessels. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, ELT/EPIRB distress information to ground stations, which will complete the data processing and forward alert and position location data to rescue coordination services. This paper presents a Sarsat system description and a summary of Coast Guard and USAF objectives for the initial demonstration and evaluation tests of Sarsat.

  17. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  18. Target diagnostic control system implementation for the National Ignition Facility (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, R. T.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Lagin, L. J.; Nelson, J. R.; O'Brien, D. W.

    2010-10-01

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser is observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A diagnostic control system (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost WINDOWS XP processor and JAVA application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The JAVA framework provides data management, control services, and operator graphical user interface generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in extensible markup language. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  19. Use of the target diagnostic control system in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R; Lagin, L; Nelson, J

    2011-07-25

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics including optical backscatter, time-integrated, time resolved and gated X-ray sensors, laser velocity interferometry, and neutron time of flight. Diagnostics to diagnose fusion ignition implosion and neutron emissions have been developed. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Window XP processor and Java application. Instruments are aggregated as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. During the past several years, over thirty-six diagnostics have been deployed using this architecture in support of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The DCS architecture facilitates the expected additions and upgrades to diagnostics as more experiments are performed. This paper presents the DCS architecture, framework and our experiences in using it during the NIC to operate, upgrade and maintain a large set of diagnostic instruments.

  20. Target diagnostic control system implementation for the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R. T.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Lagin, L. J.; Nelson, J. R.; O'Brien, D. W.

    2010-10-15

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser is observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A diagnostic control system (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost WINDOWS XP processor and JAVA application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The JAVA framework provides data management, control services, and operator graphical user interface generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in extensible markup language. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  1. SFO compensation by pilot-aided channel estimation for real-time DDO-OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Rui; He, Jing; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated a pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique in the real-time direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) system using a cost-effective directly modulated laser (DML). It has been verified that the pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique can help to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) effect. The experimental results show that, based on the pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique, even at a SFO of 170 ppm, a 16-QAM-OFDM signal can be successfully transmitted over 100-km SSMF under the hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold with a bit error rate of 3.8×10-3. And the effect of up to ~25 ppm SFO can be negligible.

  2. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  3. Local area network for the plasma diagnostics system of MFTF-B

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, N.H.; Minor, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The MFTF-B Plasma Diagnostics System will be implemented in stages, beginning with a start-up set of diagnostics and evolving toward a basic set. The start-up set contains 12 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 800 Kbytes of data per machine pulse; the basic set contains 23 diagnostics which will acquire a total of about 8 Mbytes of data per pulse. Each diagnostic is controlled by a Foundation System consisting of a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer connected to CAMAC via a 5 Mbits/second serial fiber-optic link and connected to a supervisory computer (Perkin-Elmer 3250) via a 9600 baud RS232 link. The Foundation System is a building block used throughout MFTF-B for control and status monitoring. However, its 9600 baud link to the supervisor presents a bottleneck for the large data transfers required by diagnostics. To overcome this bottleneck the diagnostics Foundation Systems will be connected together with an additional LSI-11/23 called the master to form a Local Area Network (LAN) for data acquisition.

  4. Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pussinen, P. J.; Vilkuna-Rautiainen, T.; Alfthan, G.; Mattila, K.; Asikainen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic oral infection caused by gram-negative bacteria, including Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontitis evokes inflammatory host response locally in the periodontium but also systemically. The systemic humoral antibody response against oral pathogens can conveniently be measured by an immunoassay. The aim of the study was to measure serum immunoglobulin G class antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which mixtures of several serotypes of the pathogens were used as antigens to avoid biasing of the results in favor of a particular strain. For A. actinomycetemcomitans the antigen consisted of six strains representing serotypes a, b, c, d, and e and one nonserotypeable strain. In the P. gingivalis ELISA, antigens representing serotypes a, b, and c were used. Serum samples from 90 subjects, including 35 samples from patients with diagnosed periodontitis, 10 samples from periodontally healthy controls, and 45 samples from randomly selected apparently healthy volunteers (referred to as “healthy subjects”), were tested. For both pathogens the antibody levels (means ± standard deviations) of the patients—expressed as area under the dilution curve—were significantly higher than those for healthy controls or healthy subjects, with values for A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, respectively, as follows: patients, 22.60 ± 9.94 mm2 and 26.72 ± 11.13 mm2; healthy controls, 9.99 ± 3.92 mm2 and 6.90 ± 3.38 mm2; and healthy subjects, 16.85 ± 6.67 mm2 and 8.51 ± 4.23 mm2. The serotype mixture ELISA is suitable for measuring antibodies against periodontal pathogens in large epidemiological studies in order to evaluate the role of periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases. PMID:11825965

  5. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems.

  6. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems. PMID:25663625

  7. Nano-bio Hybrid Materials for a New Generation of High-throughput Diagnostic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiev, Igor

    Nano-bio hybrid materials obtained by conjugation of capture molecules and plasmonic (metal) or excitonic (semiconductor) nanocrystals or microspheres encoded with fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals of different colors are the basis for development of a new generation of high-throughput diagnostic systems. Here, the general principles of development of "ideal" diagnostic nanoprobes based on oriented conjugates of capture molecules with the nanoparticles of different chemical compositions or with optically encoded microspheres are summarized and the basic requirements for individual components of the photonic nanoprobes being developed are discussed in the context of ensuring their advantages over the existing photonic diagnostic systems.

  8. Multiple sensor expert system for diagnostic reasoning, monitoring and control of mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Srinivas, Sampath; Schneider, Kenneth M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes an expert systems architecture for integrating multiple sensors for diagnostic reasoning, monitoring and supervisory control of mechanical systms in automated manufacturing and process control. The IDES (Influence Diagram based Expert System) performs probabilistic inference and expected value decision making. It integrates dynamic sensor readings, statistical data and subjective expertise in symbolic and numerical data structures and is designed for real time performance. An application using acoustic, current and force sensors on a numerically-controlled milling machine is described. In this example, the fusion of information from multiple sensors achieves effective prediction and control performance with relatively simple signal processing.

  9. Radiochemistry as a (rho)R Diagnostic with the RAGS Gas Collection System

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S L; Shaughnessy, D A; Schneider, D H; Stoeffl, W; Moody, K J; Cerjan, C; Stoyer, M A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Hoffman, R

    2010-05-21

    Radiochemical diagnostic techniques such as gas-phase capsule debris analysis may prove to be successful methods for establishing the success or failure of ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Samples in the gas phase offer the most direct method of collection by simply pumping out the large target chamber following a NIF shot. The target capsules will be prepared with dopants which will produce radioactive noble gas isotopes upon activation with neutrons. We have designed and constructed the Radchem Apparatus for Gas Sampling (RAGS) in order to collect post-shot gaseous samples for NIF capsule diagnostics. The design of RAGS incorporates multiple stages intended to purify, transfer, and count the radioactive decays from gaseous products synthesized in NIF experiments. At the moment the dopant of choice is {sup 124}Xe, which will undergo (n,{gamma}) and (n, 2n) reactions to produce {sup 125}Xe and {sup 123}Xe. The half-lives of each are on the order of multiple hours and are suitable for long-term gamma-counting. These isotopes and the rest of the gases evolved in a NIF shot will be drawn through the NIF turbo pumps, past the temporarily shuttered cryo pumps (to aid our collection efficiency), and towards the first main portion of the RAGS system: the pre-cleaner. The pre-cleaner will consist of a water removal system, a series of heated getter cartridges to remove most other impurities such as N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, etc., and a residual gas analyzer (RGA) to monitor vacuum quality. The noble gases will flow through the precleaner and into the second stage of the system: the cryo collector. This cryo collector consists of a main cryo head for noble gas collection which will operate for approximately five minutes post-shot. Afterwards a valve will close and isolate the pre-cleaner, while the cryo head warms to release the Xe gas to one of two locations - either a second cryo station for in-situ gamma counting, or to a small cooled

  10. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Chen, D L; Shen, B; Granetz, R S; Sun, Y; Qian, J P; Wang, Y; Xiao, B J

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well. PMID:26520954

  11. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P. Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.; Granetz, R. S.

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  12. Combining neural network models for automated diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2006-12-01

    This paper illustrates the use of combined neural network (CNN) models to guide model selection for diagnosis of internal carotid arterial (ICA) disorders. The ICA Doppler signals were decomposed into time-frequency representations using discrete wavelet transform and statistical features were calculated to depict their distribution. The first level networks were implemented for the diagnosis of ICA disorders using the statistical features as inputs. To improve diagnostic accuracy, the second level network was trained using the outputs of the first level networks as input data. The CNN models achieved accuracy rates which were higher than that of the stand-alone neural network models. PMID:17233161

  13. Social context and stakeholders' values in building diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Sadler, John Z

    2005-01-01

    Beginning with an acknowledgment of the scientific aspects of developing classifications for psychopathology, this essay describes how diagnostic classifications (DCs) also function as public policy. Using the methods of philosophical analysis and a brief review of pertinent literature, the paper describes the regulatory and prescriptive functions of official DCs like the DSM and ICD manuals, functions that de facto serve as public policies. This background then provides for a comparison of the values involved in good science alongside the values involved in good public policy. Important areas of overlap are described, and these point to areas, relevant to stakeholders' interest, worth considering in developing future DCs. PMID:16145274

  14. HIV/AIDS and family support systems: A situation analysis of people living with HIV/AIDS in Lagos State.

    PubMed

    Oluwagbemiga, Adeyemi Ezekiel

    2007-11-01

    Current statistics about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria do not reveal the broader social and economic impacts of the disease on the family.The study therefore primarily aimed to address the socio-economic effects of HIV infection on individuals and their families.The study was carried out in Lagos State. In-depth interviews were employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the state, while four focus group discussions were conducted to elicit information from people affected by AIDS about the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on families in Nigeria. From the survey, among people living with HIV/AIDS, 66% of females and males were in the age group 21-40 years, while 10% were older people above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that as HIV/AIDS strikes at parents, grand parents are assuming responsibility for bringing up the children of the infected persons and the orphans of those killed by the virus. It was striking that some of the older caregivers could not meet the requirement of these children.They are often forced to work more than they would have, or borrow in order to cope with the needs of these extra mouths. Some of the infected people have sold their properties to enable them to cope with the economic effects of the virus, while their children have had to drop out of school, since they could not afford the school fees and other related expenses. It was suggested that PLWHA should be economically empowered with adequate medical treatment, in order to reduce the impact of the disease on the family. PMID:18185894

  15. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-15

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale ({approx}1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  16. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  17. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  18. The Third Therapeutic System: Faith Healing Strategies in the Context of a Generalized AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Manglos, Nicolette D.; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Faith healing in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily been studied qualitatively among Pentecostal-Charismatic groups, and considered as its own phenomenon with little attention to its relationship to other modes of healing. Using data from Malawi, a religiously diverse African country with high HIV prevalence, we find that faith healing is pervasive across multiple religious traditions. For individuals, attending a faith healing congregation is associated with lower levels of generalized worry about AIDS, and this association is driven by those who switched churches before AIDS became widespread in rural areas. Use of condoms and traditional medicine are, on the other hand, positively associated with worry about AIDS. We argue that faith healing can be understood as a third therapeutic system that coexists with the well-documented biomedical and traditional systems. The success of faith healing approaches lies in their unique ability to combine individual-pragmatic and communal-ritualized aspects of healing to inform interpretations of the AIDS epidemic and its consequences. PMID:21362615

  19. Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) and Maintenance and Diagnostic System (MDS): A maintenance and diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toms, David; Hadden, George D.; Harrington, Jim

    1990-01-01

    The Maintenance and Diagnostic System (MDS) that is being developed at Honeywell to enhance the Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery system (FDIR) for the Attitude Determination and Control System on Space Station Freedom is described. The MDS demonstrates ways that AI-based techniques can be used to improve the maintainability and safety of the Station by helping to resolve fault anomalies that cannot be fully determined by built-in-test, by providing predictive maintenance capabilities, and by providing expert maintenance assistance. The MDS will address the problems associated with reasoning about dynamic, continuous information versus only about static data, the concerns of porting software based on AI techniques to embedded targets, and the difficulties associated with real-time response. An initial prototype was built of the MDS. The prototype executes on Sun and IBM PS/2 hardware and is implemented in the Common Lisp; further work will evaluate its functionality and develop mechanisms to port the code to Ada.

  20. A vibroacoustic diagnostic system as an element improving road transport safety.

    PubMed

    Komorska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical defects of a vehicle driving system can be dangerous on the road. Diagnostic systems, which monitor operations of electric and electronic elements and devices of vehicles, are continuously developed and improved, while defects of mechanical systems are still not managed properly. This article proposes supplementing existing on-board diagnostics with a system of diagnosing selected defects to minimize their impact. It presents a method of diagnosing mechanical defects of the engine, gearbox and other elements of the driving system on the basis of a model of the vibration signal obtained adaptively. This method is suitable for engine valves, engine head gasket, main gearbox, joints, etc. PMID:24034880

  1. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, Phase 1. Volume 2: Diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

    1974-01-01

    The MIDAS System is a third-generation, fast, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughout. The hardware and software generated in Phase I of the over-all program are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating 2 x 105 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation. Diagnostic programs used to test MIDAS' operations are presented.

  2. Sentinel: An Expert System Decision Aid For A Command, Control And Communications Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobat, Daniel L.; Rogers, Steven K.; Cross, Stephen E.

    1986-03-01

    The growing complexity and quantity of information used in command, control and communications (C3) networks makes it essential to reduce the workload on the operators of these networks. SENTINEL is an expert system which functions as a decision aid for the strategic missile warning officer, using a simulation of a C3 network that involves multiple missile launches and up to 20 countries. In this research, a blackboard model expert system using rule bases and object oriented programming techniques was developed that permits SENTINEL to deal with uncertainty and offer several layers of explanation. SENTINEL deals with uncertainty by using Cohen's endorsement theory and the pattern recognition techniques of feature sets and prototypes. SENTINEL analyzes the causes of reported events into higher level, yet less precise forms to offer an abstract layer of explanation. The results are applicable to further expert system or decision aid development for C3 networks.

  3. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models for Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations.

  4. A Statistical Approach To An Expert Diagnostic Ultrasonic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insana, Michael F.; Wagner, Robert F.; Garra, Brian S.; Shawker, Thomas H.

    1986-06-01

    The techniques of statistical pattern recognition are implemented to determine the best combination of tissue characterization parameters for maximizing the diagnostic accuracy of a given task. In this paper, we considered combinations of four ultrasonic tissue parameters to discriminate between normal liver and chronic hepatitis. The separation between normal and diseased samples was made by application of the Bayes test for minimum risk which minimizes the error rate for classifying tissue states while including the prior probability for the presence of disease and the cost of misclassification. Large differences in classification performance of various tissue parameter combinations were demonstrated by ROC analysis. The power of additional features to classify tissue states, even those derived from other imaging modalities, can be compared directly in this manner.

  5. Evaluation of a vibration diagnostic system for the detection of spur gear pitting failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1993-01-01

    A vibration diagnostic system was used to detect spur gear surface pitting fatigue in a closed-loop spur gear fatigue test rig. The diagnostic system, comprising a personal computer with an analog-to-digital conversion board, a diagnostic system unit, and software, uses time-synchronous averaging of the vibration signal to produce a vibration image of each tooth on any gear in a transmission. Several parameters were analyzed including gear pair stress wave and raw baseband vibration, kurtosis, peak ratios, and others. The system provides limits for the various parameters and gives a warning when the limits are exceeded. Several spur gear tests were conducted with this system and vibration data analyzed at 5-min. intervals. The results presented herein show that the system is fairly effective at detecting spur gear tooth surface fatigue pitting failures.

  6. A pulsed-laser calibration system for the laser backscatter diagnostics at the Omega laser

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P; Sorce, C; Froula, D H; Rekow, V; Loughman, K; Knight, R; Glenzer, S H; Bahr, R; Seka, W

    2009-10-09

    A calibration system has been developed that allows a direct determination of the sensitivity of the laser backscatter diagnostics at the Omega laser. A motorized mirror at the target location redirects individual pulses of a mJ-class laser onto the diagnostic to allow the in-situ measurement of the local point response of the backscatter diagnostics. Featuring dual wavelength capability at the 2nd and 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser, both spectral channels of the backscatter diagnostics can be directly calibrated. In addition, channel cross-talk and polarization sensitivity can be determined. The calibration system has been employed repeatedly over the last two years and has enabled precise backscatter measurements of both stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled hohlraum targets that emulate conditions relevant to those in inertial confinement fusion targets.

  7. An evidence-based diagnostic classification system for low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Vining, Robert; Potocki, Eric; Seidman, Michael; Morgenthal, A. Paige

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: While clinicians generally accept that musculoskeletal low back pain (LBP) can arise from specific tissues, it remains difficult to confirm specific sources. Methods: Based on evidence supported by diagnostic utility studies, doctors of chiropractic functioning as members of a research clinic created a diagnostic classification system, corresponding exam and checklist based on strength of evidence, and in-office efficiency. Results: The diagnostic classification system contains one screening category, two pain categories: Nociceptive, Neuropathic, one functional evaluation category, and one category for unknown or poorly defined diagnoses. Nociceptive and neuropathic pain categories are each divided into 4 subcategories. Conclusion: This article describes and discusses the strength of evidence surrounding diagnostic categories for an in-office, clinical exam and checklist tool for LBP diagnosis. The use of a standardized tool for diagnosing low back pain in clinical and research settings is encouraged. PMID:23997245

  8. Modular microfluidic cartridge-based universal diagnostic system for global health applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Klemm, Richard; Dietze, William; White, Wallace; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Freyberg, Susanne; Moche, Christian; Dailey, Peter; Gärtner, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Current microfluidics-enabled point-of-care diagnostic systems are typically designed specifically for one assay type, e.g. a molecular diagnostic assay for a single disease of a class of diseases. This approach often leads to high development cost and a significant training requirement for users of different instruments. We have developed an open platform diagnostic system which allows to run molecular, immunological and clinical assays on a single instrument platform with a standardized microfluidic cartridge architecture in an automated sample-in answer-out fashion. As examples, a molecular diagnostic assay for tuberculosis, an immunoassay for HIV p24 and a clinical chemistry assay for ALT liver function have been developed and results of their pre-clinical validation are presented.

  9. Evaluation of the efficiency of biofield diagnostic system in breast cancer detection using clinical study results and classifiers.

    PubMed

    Subbhuraam, Vinitha Sree; Ng, E Y K; Kaw, G; Acharya U, Rajendra; Chong, B K

    2012-02-01

    The division of breast cancer cells results in regions of electrical depolarisation within the breast. These regions extend to the skin surface from where diagnostic information can be obtained through measurements of the skin surface electropotentials using sensors. This technique is used by the Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) to detect the presence of malignancy. This paper evaluates the efficiency of BDS in breast cancer detection and also evaluates the use of classifiers for improving the accuracy of BDS. 182 women scheduled for either mammography or ultrasound or both tests participated in the BDS clinical study conducted at Tan Tock Seng hospital, Singapore. Using the BDS index obtained from the BDS examination and the level of suspicion score obtained from mammography/ultrasound results, the final BDS result was deciphered. BDS demonstrated high values for sensitivity (96.23%), specificity (93.80%), and accuracy (94.51%). Also, we have studied the performance of five supervised learning based classifiers (back propagation network, probabilistic neural network, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines, and a fuzzy classifier), by feeding selected features from the collected dataset. The clinical study results show that BDS can help physicians to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions, and thereby, aid in making better biopsy recommendations. PMID:20703753

  10. Intelligent computer-aided diagnosis system for breast MRI combining kinetic and morphological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismüller, Axel; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Lange, Oliver

    2008-04-01

    An intelligent medical systems based on a radial basis neural network is applied to the automatic classification of suspicious lesions in breast MRI and compared with two standard mammographic reading methods. Such systems represent an important component of future sophisticated computer-aided diagnosis systems and enable the extraction of spatial and temporal features of dynamic MRI data stemming from patients with confirmed lesion diagnosis. Intelligent medical systems combining both kinetics and lesions' morphology are expected to have substantial implications in healthcare politics by contributing to the diagnosis of indeterminate breast lesions by non-invasive imaging.

  11. The Diagnostic Challenge Competition: Probabilistic Techniques for Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Brian W.; Mengshoel, Ole J.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable systems health management is an important research area of NASA. A health management system that can accurately and quickly diagnose faults in various on-board systems of a vehicle will play a key role in the success of current and future NASA missions. We introduce in this paper the ProDiagnose algorithm, a diagnostic algorithm that uses a probabilistic approach, accomplished with Bayesian Network models compiled to Arithmetic Circuits, to diagnose these systems. We describe the ProDiagnose algorithm, how it works, and the probabilistic models involved. We show by experimentation on two Electrical Power Systems based on the ADAPT testbed, used in the Diagnostic Challenge Competition (DX 09), that ProDiagnose can produce results with over 96% accuracy and less than 1 second mean diagnostic time.

  12. The development of a post-test diagnostic system for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was undertaken by NASA to develop an automated post-test, post-flight diagnostic system for rocket engines. The automated system is designed to be generic and to automate the rocket engine data review process. A modular, distributed architecture with a generic software core was chosen to meet the design requirements. The diagnostic system is initially being applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine data review process. The system modules currently under development are the session/message manager, and portions of the applications section, the component analysis section, and the intelligent knowledge server. An overview is presented of a rocket engine data review process, the design requirements and guidelines, the architecture and modules, and the projected benefits of the automated diagnostic system.

  13. Assessment of Alternative Student Aid Delivery Systems: Specification of the Current System. Supplement II to the Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Specifications of the current student financial aid system, with attention to the Pell Grant, Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL), and campus-based programs, are provided. The methodology used to develop the specifications is also described. The campus-based programs include the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, the College Work Study…

  14. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  15. Blast wave diagnostic for the petawatt laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K. S., LLNL

    1998-06-03

    We report on a diagnostic to measure the trajectory of a blast wave propagating through a plastic target 400 {micro}m thick. This blast wave is generated by the irradiation of the front surface of the target with {approximately} 400 J of 1 {micro}m laser radiation in a 20 ps pulse focused to a {approximately} 50 {micro}m diameter spot, which produces an intensity in excess of 1O{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. These conditions approximate a point explosion and a blast wave is predicted to be generated with an initial pressure nearing 1 Gbar which decays as it travels approximately radially outward from the interaction region We have utilized streaked optical pyrometry of the blast front to determine its time of arrival at the rear surface of the target Applications of a self-similar Taylor-Sedov blast wave solution allows the amount of energy deposited to be estimated The experiment, LASNEX design simulations and initial results are discussed.

  16. PCR diagnostic system in the treatment of prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Jahoda, D; Landor, I; Benedík, J; Pokorný, D; Judl, T; Barták, V; Jahodová, I; Fulín, P; Síbek, M

    2015-09-01

    In our prospective study, we examined whether a multiplex PCR diagnostic method is suitable for the primary detection of pathogens. We also examined the possibility and sensitivity of detecting genes responsible for biofilm production and methicillin resistance. From 2007 to 2009, 94 patients were included in the study. A UNB (universal detection of 16S ribosomal bacterial DNA) and UNF (universal detection of pathogenic fungi) were used in the primary detection. A multiplex assay for biofilm production, methicillin resistance allowed us to distinguish between Gram positivity and negativity and to detect Staphylococci. From all the samples, the culture was positive in 53.2 % of cases, and by using the UNB method, we detected bacteria in 79.8 % of cases-the UNF detection of fungi was positive in 10.6 % of cases. In 75 % of positive findings, we detected a Gram-negative bacterium in 65.3 % of cases. In 47.2 % of Staphylococci detected, the ability to produce biofilm was confirmed. 61.1 % of the Staphylococci exhibited a methicillin resistance. Our multiplex scheme cannot yet fully replace microbial cultivation but can be a rational guide when choosing an appropriate antibiotic therapy in cases where the microbial culture is negative. PMID:25523034

  17. A Scalable, Out-of-Band Diagnostics Architecture for International Space Station Systems Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Rick; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The computational infrastructure of the International Space Station (ISS) is a dynamic system that supports multiple vehicle subsystems such as Caution and Warning, Electrical Power Systems and Command and Data Handling (C&DH), as well as scientific payloads of varying size and complexity. The dynamic nature of the ISS configuration coupled with the increased demand for payload support places a significant burden on the inherently resource constrained computational infrastructure of the ISS. Onboard system diagnostics applications are hosted on computers that are elements of the avionics network while ground-based diagnostic applications receive only a subset of available telemetry, down-linked via S-band communications. In this paper we propose a scalable, out-of-band diagnostics architecture for ISS systems support that uses a read-only connection for C&DH data acquisition, which provides a lower cost of deployment and maintenance (versus a higher criticality readwrite connection). The diagnostics processing burden is off-loaded from the avionics network to elements of the on-board LAN that have a lower overall cost of operation and increased computational capacity. A superset of diagnostic data, richer in content than the configured telemetry, is made available to Advanced Diagnostic System (ADS) clients running on wireless handheld devices, affording the crew greater mobility for troubleshooting and providing improved insight into vehicle state. The superset of diagnostic data is made available to the ground in near real-time via an out-of band downlink, providing a high level of fidelity between vehicle state and test, training and operational facilities on the ground.

  18. Optimal Sequential Diagnostic Strategy Generation Considering Test Placement Cost for Multimode Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shigang; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    Sequential fault diagnosis is an approach that realizes fault isolation by executing the optimal test step by step. The strategy used, i.e., the sequential diagnostic strategy, has great influence on diagnostic accuracy and cost. Optimal sequential diagnostic strategy generation is an important step in the process of diagnosis system construction, which has been studied extensively in the literature. However, previous algorithms either are designed for single mode systems or do not consider test placement cost. They are not suitable to solve the sequential diagnostic strategy generation problem considering test placement cost for multimode systems. Therefore, this problem is studied in this paper. A formulation is presented. Two algorithms are proposed, one of which is realized by system transformation and the other is newly designed. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the effectiveness of the algorithms. A real-world system is also presented. All the results show that both of them have the ability to solve the diagnostic strategy generation problem, and they have different characteristics. PMID:26457709

  19. Optimal Sequential Diagnostic Strategy Generation Considering Test Placement Cost for Multimode Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shigang; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    Sequential fault diagnosis is an approach that realizes fault isolation by executing the optimal test step by step. The strategy used, i.e., the sequential diagnostic strategy, has great influence on diagnostic accuracy and cost. Optimal sequential diagnostic strategy generation is an important step in the process of diagnosis system construction, which has been studied extensively in the literature. However, previous algorithms either are designed for single mode systems or do not consider test placement cost. They are not suitable to solve the sequential diagnostic strategy generation problem considering test placement cost for multimode systems. Therefore, this problem is studied in this paper. A formulation is presented. Two algorithms are proposed, one of which is realized by system transformation and the other is newly designed. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the effectiveness of the algorithms. A real-world system is also presented. All the results show that both of them have the ability to solve the diagnostic strategy generation problem, and they have different characteristics. PMID:26457709

  20. Application of Adaptive Decision Aiding Systems to Computer-Assisted Instruction. Final Report, January-December 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Donald M.; And Others

    The minicomputer-based Computerized Diagnostic and Decision Training (CDDT) system described combines the principles of artificial intelligence, decision theory, and adaptive computer assisted instruction for training in electronic troubleshooting. The system incorporates an adaptive computer program which learns the student's diagnostic and…

  1. A balanced diagnostic system compatible with a barotropic prognostic model. [for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Shkoller, B.; Yangarber, V.

    1977-01-01

    A system of diagnostic equations for the velocity field, or wind laws, for a barotropic primitive-equation model of large-scale atmospheric flow is derived. Attention is given to the classical balance equation and its ellipticity condition. Numerical solutions of the diagnostic system are presented, including examples of cases of the mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type and cases with non-zero divergence. Procedures for implementing such a system are outlined, along with a review of factors in using the technique for operational numerical weather prediction.

  2. A handheld point-of-care genomic diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Myers, Frank B; Henrikson, Richard H; Bone, Jennifer M; Bone, Jennifer; Lee, Luke P

    2013-01-01

    , and source code for the µBAR instrument with the goal of spurring further innovation toward low-cost genetic diagnostics. PMID:23936402

  3. Diagnostic-management system and test pulse acquisition for WEST plasma measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojenski, A.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K. T.; Byszuk, A.; Juszczyk, B.; Zabolotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes current status of electronics, firmware and software development for new plasma measurement system for use in WEST facility. The system allows to perform two dimensional plasma visualization (in time) with spectrum measurement. The analog front-end is connected to Gas Electron Multiplier detector (GEM detector). The system architecture have high data throughput due to use of PCI-Express interface, Gigabit Transceivers and sampling frequency of ADC integrated circuits. The hardware is based on several years of experience in building X-ray spectrometer system for Joint European Torus (JET) facility. Data streaming is done using Artix7 FPGA devices. The system in basic configuration can work with up to 256 channels, while the maximum number of measurement channels is 2048. Advanced firmware for the FPGA is required in order to perform high speed data streaming and analog signal sampling. Diagnostic system management has been developed in order to configure measurement system, perform necessary calibration and prepare hardware for data acquisition.

  4. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiyi; Sun, Jian; Zou, Lili; Shen, Kaini; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhou, Daobin; Sun, Wei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP) method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores) based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group) and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group) were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples. PMID:25984759

  5. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Lili; Shen, Kaini; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhou, Daobin; Sun, Wei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP) method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores) based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group) and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group) were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples. PMID:25984759

  6. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-11-30

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added.

  7. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  8. A relational approach to the development of expert diagnostic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, K. R.

    1984-01-01

    The proposition that, given a structural and/or functional description of any real or abstract system, an expert system can be built based on this description is examined. First, a model is developed for a microprocessor-controlled end effector/sensor system using a modeling approach called a relational Knowledge-Base Machine (RKBM). Next, an explanation of how the end effector model could be used for the error diagnosis on the operational end effector is given and two versions of an error diagnosis algorithm based on the model are presented. Finally, areas of further research are described that are necessary before an expert system using this approach becomes a reality.

  9. Diagnostic Assessment of Troubleshooting Skill in an Intelligent Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitomer, Drew H.; And Others

    This paper lays out the rationale and implementation of student modeling and updating in the HYDRIVE intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for aircraft hydraulic systems. An epistemic level of modeling concerns the plans and goals students are using to guide their problem solving, as inferred from specific actions in specific contexts. These results…

  10. Diagnostic Solution Assistant cornerstone for intelligent system monitoring, management, analysis and administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaseng, Gordon; Holland, Courtney; Nelson, Bill

    2000-01-01

    The Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA) provides diagnostics for space hardware and subsystems. Advanced Honewell `smart' model-based technology performs the real-time fault detection, isolation and diagnostics. This model-based technology provides 24-hour access to the operational knowledge of the system experts. The complexity of the International Space Station (ISS) and other manned space vehicles requires that a full staff of ground based system diagnosis experts be trained and available at all times. Response to critical situations must be immediate no matter what time of the day or night. Installation of new systems plus normal staff turnover cause personnel to be in training constantly. Domain knowledge lost due to staff attrition may also never be regained. All of these factors lead to higher cost ground based flight system monitoring stations and sub-optimal efficiency. The Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA) provides a solution to these issues. The DSA can be deployed into the ISS Mission Control Center to enhance Flight Controller awareness and decision making. DSA can be utilized onboard the vehicle to enhance crew awareness and potentially offload the crew in time- or safety-critical situations. The DSA can be used to isolate and diagnose faults during flight preparation, thus reducing the overall vehicle turn-around time. In addition to having diagnostic capability, DSA is a tremendous requirements and operations knowledge capture tool that could streamline training for the flight controller and crew, and facilitate the rapid location of important information. .

  11. An integrated real-time diagnostic concept using expert systems, qualitative reasoning and quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.; Kumara, S.; Levine, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    An approach for an integrated real-time diagnostic system is being developed for inclusion as an integral part of a power plant automatic control system. In order to participate in control decisions and automatic closed loop operation, the diagnostic system must operate in real-time. Thus far, an expert system with real-time capabilities has been developed and installed on a subsystem at the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) in Idaho, USA. Real-time simulation testing of advanced power plant concepts at the Pennsylvania State University has been developed and was used to support the expert system development and installation at EBR-II. Recently, the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have funded a Penn State research program to further enhance application of real-time diagnostic systems by pursuing implementation in a distributed power plant computer system including microprocessor based controllers. This paper summarizes past, current, planned, and possible future approaches to power plant diagnostic systems research at Penn State. 34 refs., 9 figs.

  12. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  13. Development of an Adaptable Display and Diagnostic System for the Evaluation of Tropical Cyclone Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, P. A.; Burek, T.; Halley-Gotway, J.

    2015-12-01

    NCAR's Joint Numerical Testbed Program (JNTP) focuses on the evaluation of experimental forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) with the goal of developing new research tools and diagnostic evaluation methods that can be transitioned to operations. Recent activities include the development of new TC forecast verification methods and the development of an adaptable TC display and diagnostic system. The next generation display and diagnostic system is being developed to support evaluation needs of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) and broader TC research community. The new hurricane display and diagnostic capabilities allow forecasters and research scientists to more deeply examine the performance of operational and experimental models. The system is built upon modern and flexible technology that includes OpenLayers Mapping tools that are platform independent. The forecast track and intensity along with associated observed track information are stored in an efficient MySQL database. The system provides easy-to-use interactive display system, and provides diagnostic tools to examine forecast track stratified by intensity. Consensus forecasts can be computed and displayed interactively. The system is designed to display information for both real-time and for historical TC cyclones. The display configurations are easily adaptable to meet the needs of the end-user preferences. Ongoing enhancements include improving capabilities for stratification and evaluation of historical best tracks, development and implementation of additional methods to stratify and compute consensus hurricane track and intensity forecasts, and improved graphical display tools. The display is also being enhanced to incorporate gridded forecast, satellite, and sea surface temperature fields. The presentation will provide an overview of the display and diagnostic system development and demonstration of the current capabilities.

  14. A vision-aided alignment datum system for coordinate measuring machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Lin, G. C. I.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a CAD-based and vision-aided precision measurement system. A new coordinate system alignment technique for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) is described. This alignment technique involves a machine vision system with CAD-based planning and execution of inspection. The determination method for measuring datums for the coordinate measuring technique, using the AutoCAD development system, is described in more detail. To improve image quality in the machine vision system, a contrast enhancement technique is used on the image background to reduce image noise, and an on-line calibration technique is applied. Some systematic errors may be caused by imperfect geometric features in components during coordinate system alignment. This measurement system approach, with its new measuring coordinate alignment method, can be used for high-precision measurement to overcome such errors.

  15. Payload installation and deployment aid for space shuttle orbiter spacecraft remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, T. O.

    1982-01-01

    An aid concept known as the PIDA (Payload Installation and Deployment Aid) is presented as a way to assist the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) by relaxing the accuracy required during payload handling in the payload bay. The aid concept was designed and developed to move payloads through a prescribed path between the confined quarters of the payload bay and a position outside the critical maneuvering area of the Orbiter. An androgynous docking mechanism is used at the payload/PIDA interfaces for normal docking functions that also serves as the structural connection between the payload and the Orbiter, that is capable of being loosened to prevent transfer of loads between a stowed payload and the PIDA structure. A gearmotor driven drum/cable system is used in the docking mechanism in a unique manner to center the attenuator assembly, align the ring and guide assembly (docking interface) in roll, pitch, and yaw, and rigidize the mechanism at a nominal position. A description of the design requirements and the modes of operation of the various functions of the deployment and the docking mechanisms are covered.

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  17. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  18. Decision-aided sampling frequency offset compensation for reduced-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhuge, Qunbi; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Gao, Yuliang; Xu, Xian; Chagnon, Mathieu; Qiu, Meng; Hoang, Minh Thang; Zhang, Fangyuan; Li, Rui; Plant, David V

    2014-11-01

    We propose a decision-aided algorithm to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) between the transmitter and receiver for reduced-guard-interval (RGI) coherent optical (CO) OFDM systems. In this paper, we first derive the cyclic prefix (CP) requirement for preventing OFDM symbols from SFO induced inter-symbol interference (ISI). Then we propose a new decision-aided SFO compensation (DA-SFOC) algorithm, which shows a high SFO tolerance and reduces the CP requirement. The performance of DA-SFOC is numerically investigated for various situations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified in a single channel 28 Gbaud polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RGI CO-OFDM experiment with QPSK, 8 QAM and 16 QAM modulation formats, respectively. Both numerical and experimental results show that the proposed DA-SFOC method is highly robust against the standard SFO in optical fiber transmission. PMID:25401902

  19. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, G. Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  20. ETHERNET BASED EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR FEL DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan; Daniel Sexton; Steven Moore; Albert Grippo; Kevin Jordan

    2006-10-24

    An Ethernet based embedded system has been developed to upgrade the Beam Viewer and Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems within the free-electron laser (FEL) project at Jefferson Lab. The embedded microcontroller was mounted on the front-end I/O cards with software packages such as Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) and Real Time Executive for Multiprocessor System (RTEMS) running as an Input/Output Controller (IOC). By cross compiling with the EPICS, the RTEMS kernel, IOC device supports, and databases all of these can be downloaded into the microcontroller. The first version of the BPM electronics based on the embedded controller was built and is currently running in our FEL system. The new version of BPM that will use a Single Board IOC (SBIOC), which integrates with an Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA) and a ColdFire embedded microcontroller, is presently under development. The new system has the features of a low cost IOC, an open source real-time operating system, plug&play-like ease of installation and flexibility, and provides a much more localized solution.

  1. Simultaneous Sensor and Process Fault Diagnostics for Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, J.; Kwan, C.; Figueroa, F.; Xu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to extract fault features from sensor faults and process faults by using advanced fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms. A tank system that has some common characteristics to a NASA testbed at Stennis Space Center was used to verify our proposed algorithms. First, a generic tank system was modeled. Second, a mathematical model suitable for FDI has been derived for the tank system. Third, a new and general FDI procedure has been designed to distinguish process faults and sensor faults. Extensive simulations clearly demonstrated the advantages of the new design.

  2. SERS diagnostic platforms, methods and systems microarrays, biosensors and biochips

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2007-09-11

    A Raman integrated sensor system for the detection of targets including biotargets includes at least one sampling platform, at least one receptor probe disposed on the sampling platform, and an integrated circuit detector system communicably connected to the receptor. The sampling platform is preferably a Raman active surface-enhanced scattering (SERS) platform, wherein the Raman sensor is a SERS sensor. The receptors can include at least one protein receptor and at least one nucleic acid receptor.

  3. Continued Development of Expert System Tools for NPSS Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Henry

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this grant were to work with previously developed NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) tools and enhance their functionality; explore similar AI systems; and work with the High Performance Computing Communication (HPCC) K-12 program. Activities for this reporting period are briefly summarized and a paper addressing the implementation, monitoring and zooming in a distributed jet engine simulation is included as an attachment.

  4. Biomedical Informatics for Computer-Aided Decision Support Systems: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Kon, Mark A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest. PMID:23431259

  5. Design and implementation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system for a helicopter UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelan, David R.

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) benefit from vertical takeoff and landing, hover, low-speed, and cruising flight capabilities. This versatility has the expense of nonlinear, unstable, and underactuated system dynamics. These challenges and numerous potential applications make the helicopter UAV an interesting testbed for nonlinear control. A platform for such development has been established in the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL). A miniature helicopter was augmented with a manual/autonomous takeover system and the ANCL Avionics. This payload contains a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, inertial sensors, and communications and computing hardware. Allan variance analysis of inertial sensor data enabled the derivation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system that was implemented on the ANCL Avionics. This extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based algorithm estimates vehicle position, velocity, and attitude necessary for system identification tasks and control system feedback. Performance validation of this algorithm was demonstrated in simulation and in experimental ground and flight tests.

  6. System of polarization phasometry of polycrystalline blood plasma networks in mammary gland pathology diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Oliinychenko, Bogdan P.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.; Krasnoshchoka, Anastasiia K.; Shcherba, Olga K.

    2015-09-01

    The polarizing phase meter system of polycrystalline networks of human blood plasma which is used for the mammary gland pathology diagnostics was proposed in this paper. Increasing the accuracy of the phase value determination was achieved using a combination of low coherent source of radiation and circularly polarized probing of biological object. Thus, high informativity of polarizing phase meter system for the diagnosis of breast pathology using the phase mapping of the human blood plasma films were determined, thereafter statistical, correlational, fractal structure analysis of the obtained phase maps was carried out and the quantitative criterias of the phase diagnostics and differentiation of the breast pathological conditions were determined too.

  7. Small-scale on-line diagnostics for an HVAC system

    SciTech Connect

    Dodier, R.H.; Kreider, J.F.; Curtiss, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes an automated fault detection and diagnosis scheme for HVAC equipment, the Real-Time Diagnostic System (RTDS). The principles of operation of the RTDS are outlined, a computer implementation of the RTDS is described, and results of applying the RTDS to HVAC laboratory data are presented. The tests indicated that application of this inference system to the diagnosis of mixing box failures yields encouraging results. Although misdiagnosis of failure conditions is more frequent than the authors might like, false alarms are uncommon. The tests also show that training a diagnostic model on one mixing box and using the model on the other mixing boxes yields good results.

  8. Development of prototype polychromator system for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. H.; Son, S. H.; Ko, W. H.; Seo, D. C.; Yamada, I.; Her, K. H.; Jeon, J. S.; Bog, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    A polychromator is widely used by the Thomson scattering system for measuring the electron temperature and density. This type of spectrometer includes optic elements such as band-pass filters, focusing lens, collimating lens, and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The characteristics of band-pass filters in the polychromator are determined by the measuring range of the Thomson system. KSTAR edge polychromators were developed by co-works at NIFS in Japan, and the KSTAR core polychromators were developed by NFRI in Korea. The power supply system of these polychromators is connected only to one power supply module and can manually control the APD's voltage at the front side of the power supply by using a potentiometer. In this paper, a prototype polychromator is introduced at the KSTAR. The prototype polychromator system has a built-in power supply unit that includes high voltage for the APD and ± 5 V for an op-amp IC. The high voltage for the APD is finely controlled and monitored using a PC with the LabView software. One out of the six band pass-filters has a center wavelength of 523.5 nm with 2-nm bandwidth, which can measure Zeff, and the other five band-pass filters can simultaneously measure the Thomson signal. In addition, we will show the test result of this prototype polychromator system during the KSTAR experiment campaign (2015).

  9. Advanced development of particle beam probe diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Crowley, T.P.; Connor, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    This progress report covers the period starting with the approval to go ahead with the 2 MeV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) for TEXT Upgrade to the submission of the grant renewal proposal. During this period the co-principal investigators, R. L. Hickok and T. P. Crowley have each devoted 45% of their time to this Grant. Their effort has been almost exclusively devoted to the design and fabrication of the 2 MeV HIBP system. The 1989 report that described the advantages of a 2 MeV HIBP for TEXT Upgrade compared to the existing 0.5 MeV HIBP and outlined the design of the 2 MeV system is attached as Appendix A. Since the major effort under the renewal proposal will be the continued fabrication, installation and operation of the 2 MeV system on TEXT Upgrade, we describe some of the unique results that have been obtained with the 0.5 MeV system on TEXT. For completeness, we also include the preliminary operation of the 160 keV HIBP on ATF. We present the present fabrication status of the 2 MeV system with the exception of the electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy analyzer which is designed to operate with 400 kV on the top plate is a major development effort and is treated separately. Included in this section are the results obtained with a prototype no guard ring analyzer, the conceptual design for the 2 MeV analyzer, the status of the high voltage testing of full size analyzer systems and backup plans if it turns out that it is impossible to hold 400 kV on an analyzer this size.

  10. Cooperating Expert Systems For Automated Monitoring And Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Veregge, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Human operators freer to perform nonrepetitive tasks. Expert software system for monitoring multiple streams of sensory data from interacting equipment subsystems undergoing development. Organized hierarchically to monitor multiple equipment subsystems simultaneously. Each expert software subsystem responsible for one of equipment subsystems. Intended to assist human analysts in interpretation of telemetry data indicating operating statuses of subsystems of spacecraft, enables analysts to maintain desired mode(s) of operation, and helps to correct anomalies in subsystems or in overall spacecraft system. Other versions devised for industrial monitoring and analysis tasks similarly complicated.

  11. TMX-U neutral pressure measurement diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W.L.; Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N.; Hunt, A.L.; Simonen, T.C.

    1984-09-14

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) has a large and complex system of Baird Alpert, magnetron, and Penning gauges, in addition to mass spectrometers (RGA), all of which measure neutral pressures in the many internal regions of TMX-U. These pressure measurements are used as part of the confinement physics data base as well as for management of the TMX-U vacuum system. Dynamic pressures are modeled by a coupled-volumes simulation code, which includes wall reflus, getter pumping, and plasma pumping.

  12. Megahertz pulse-burst alexandrite laser diagnostic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luff, Jon David

    Megahertz pulse-burst laser systems coupled with megahertz-rate framing cameras have proven (over the last ten years) to be very robust in imaging of high-speed reacting and nonreacting supersonic flows. These Nd:YAG systems produce 20--30 pulses (at variable rates from 500 kHz to 1 MHz) with 50--100 mJ/pulse (lambda = 1064nm) and have been used with narrow, spectral-linewidth, iodine, atomic filters to image turbulence in supersonic boundary layers with great success (when operating at lambda = 532nm). To extend this pulse-burst capability at other wavelengths (wavelengths outside of the 5--30 GHz tuning range of Nd:YAG: lambda = 1064 nm fundamental, and lambda = 532 nm second harmonic), two unique, tunable, megahertz-rate alexandrite laser systems were designed and built. This dissertation documents these two systems and discusses the potential for tunable, megahertz, pulse-burst systems that have more tuning range than Nd:YAG. These tunable alexandrite systems substantially extend the wavelength range of pulse-burst laser technology, but, to date, have pulse-energy limitations. Tunable from 710 nm to 800 nm (in the fundamental), these lasers provide researchers one laser to reach multiple molecular or atomic resonances with variable pulse-burst pulse separations. The molecular and atomic species of interest in reacting and nonreacting flows are presented in Chapter 1, providing a road-map for the development of these tunable lasers. This dissertation presents the design and development of these systems, including mode control, Herriott cell design for pulse separation, and the megahertz-tuning ringmaster-oscillator. Chapter 2 covers the physics of alexandrite as a solid-state, lamp-pumped, tunable medium and compares it to the tunability of Ti:sapphire. Chapter 3 and 4 present the pulse-burst alexandrite systems. The first system, built in Princeton's Applied Physics group (PAPG) (Chapter 3), produced 1-5 mJ total pulse-packet energy of 20--30 pulses, or

  13. Machine and Process System Diagnostics Using One-Step Prediction Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, J.E.; Damiano, B.; Tucker, R.W., Jr.

    1999-05-10

    This paper describes a method for machine or process system diagnostics that uses one-step prediction maps. The method uses nonlinear time series analysis techniques to form a one-step prediction map that estimates the next time series data point when given a sequence of previously measured time series data point. The difference between the predicted and measured time series values is a measure of the map error. The average value of this error should remain within some bound as long as both the dynamic system and its operating condition remain unchanged. However, changes in the dynamic system or operating condition will cause an increase in average map error. Thus, for a constant operating condition, monitoring the average map error over time should indicate when a change has occurred in the dynamic system. Furthermore, the map error itself forms a time series that can be analyzed to detect changes in system dynamics. The paper provides technical background in the nonlinear analysis techniques used in the diagnostic method, describes the creation of one-step prediction maps and their application to machine or process system diagnostics, and then presents results obtained from applying the diagnostic method to simulated and measured data.

  14. Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E.; Applequist, C. A.; Chasensky, T.M.

    1996-03-01

    Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase.

  15. Development of a system to provide diagnostics-while-drilling.

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Jack LeRoy; Jacobson, Ronald David; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2003-06-01

    This report describes development of a system that provides high-speed, real-time downhole data while drilling. Background of the project, its benefits, major technical challenges, test planning, and test results are covered by relatively brief descriptions in the body of the report, with some topics presented in more detail in the attached appendices.

  16. Strategic Explanations for a Diagnostic Consultation System. Technical Report #8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasling, Diane Warner; And Others

    This paper examines the problem of automatic explanation of reasoning, or the ability of a program to discuss what it is doing in some understandable way, particularly as part of an expert system. An introduction presents a general framework in which to view explanation and reviews some of the research in this area. This is followed by a…

  17. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  18. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  19. Companion cats and the social support systems of men with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Castelli, P; Hart, L A; Zasloff, R L

    2001-08-01

    60 male pet owners with AIDS were given a formal questionnaire including items related to demographic, lifestyle, and pet ownership, as well as the Comfort from Companion Animals Scale, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The men lived in the San Francisco area and received assistance from Pets Are Wonderful Support (PAWS), a community organization, in caring for their companion dogs or cats. Participants were a convenience sample of pet owners who volunteered from among 500 PAWS clients and who do not necessarily represent a random sample of men with AIDS who keep companion animals. For these men, their comfort from companion animals was significantly associated with having cats but not dogs, closeness with friends, dissatisfaction with their practical support system, and listing pets as a source of support. Loneliness was negatively associated with having a large practical support network, scoring as healthy on the General Health Questionnaire, and living alone. For these male pet owners with AIDS, pet cats appeared to complement their supportive relationships with friends and family that were protective against loneliness. PMID:11729540

  20. Hearing loss and the central auditory system: Implications for hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisina, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can result from disorders or damage to the ear (peripheral auditory system) or the brain (central auditory system). Here, the basic structure and function of the central auditory system will be highlighted as relevant to cases of permanent hearing loss where assistive devices (hearing aids) are called for. The parts of the brain used for hearing are altered in two basic ways in instances of hearing loss: (1) Damage to the ear can reduce the number and nature of input channels that the brainstem receives from the ear, causing plasticity of the central auditory system. This plasticity may partially compensate for the peripheral loss, or add new abnormalities such as distorted speech processing or tinnitus. (2) In some situations, damage to the brain can occur independently of the ear, as may occur in cases of head trauma, tumors or aging. Implications of deficits to the central auditory system for speech perception in noise, hearing aid use and future innovative circuit designs will be provided to set the stage for subsequent presentations in this special educational session. [Work supported by NIA-NIH Grant P01 AG09524 and the International Center for Hearing & Speech Research, Rochester, NY.