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Sample records for aided image analysis

  1. Computer-aided photometric analysis of dynamic digital bioluminescent images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorski, Zbigniew; Bembnista, T.; Floryszak-Wieczorek, J.; Domanski, Marek; Slawinski, Janusz

    2003-04-01

    The paper deals with photometric and morphologic analysis of bioluminescent images obtained by registration of light radiated directly from some plant objects. Registration of images obtained from ultra-weak light sources by the single photon counting (SPC) technique is the subject of this work. The radiation is registered by use of a 16-bit charge coupled device (CCD) camera "Night Owl" together with WinLight EG&G Berthold software. Additional application-specific software has been developed in order to deal with objects that are changing during the exposition time. Advantages of the elaborated set of easy configurable tools named FCT for a computer-aided photometric and morphologic analysis of numerous series of quantitatively imperfect chemiluminescent images are described. Instructions are given how to use these tools and exemplified with several algorithms for the transformation of images library. Using the proposed FCT set, automatic photometric and morphologic analysis of the information hidden within series of chemiluminescent images reflecting defensive processes in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd) leaves affected by a pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is revealed.

  2. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  3. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J.; Bagci, Ulas; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  4. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases. PMID:26133591

  5. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound images for computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie Ying; Tuomi, Adam; Beland, Michael D; Konrad, Joseph; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2016-01-01

    We propose an adaptable framework for analyzing ultrasound (US) images quantitatively to provide computer-aided diagnosis using machine learning. Our preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis, adenomyosis, and craniosynostosis. For steatosis and adenomyosis, we collected US studies from 288 and 88 patients, respectively, as well as their biopsy or magnetic resonanceconfirmed diagnosis. Radiologists identified a region of interest (ROI) on each image. We filtered the US images for various texture responses and use the pixel intensity distribution within each ROI as feature parameterizations. Our craniosynostosis dataset consisted of 22 CT-confirmed cases and 22 age-matched controls. One physician manually measured the vectors from the center of the skull to the outer cortex at every 10 deg for each image and we used the principal directions as shape features for parameterization. These parameters and the known diagnosis were used to train classifiers. Testing with cross-validation, we obtained 72.74% accuracy and 0.71 area under receiver operating characteristics curve for steatosis ([Formula: see text]), 77.27% and 0.77 for adenomyosis ([Formula: see text]), and 88.63% and 0.89 for craniosynostosis ([Formula: see text]). Our framework is able to detect a variety of diseases with high accuracy. We hope to include it as a routinely available support system in the clinic. PMID:26835502

  6. Computer-aided analysis of CCD linear image sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, S. S.

    1976-01-01

    Special test equipment and techniques to collect and process image information from charge coupled devices (CCDs) by digital computer were reviewed. The video channel was traced from the CCD to the direct memory access bus of the Interdata Computer. Software was developed to evaluate and characterize a CCD for (1) dark signal versus temperature relationship, (2) calculation of temporal noise magnitude and noise shape for each pixel, (3) spatial noise into the video chain due to dark signal, (4) response versus illumination relationship (gamma), (5) response versus wavelength of illumination (spectral), (6) optimization of forcing functions, and (7) evaluation of an image viewed by a CCD. The basic software differences and specific examples of each program operating on real data are presented.

  7. High-precision image aided inertial navigation with known features: observability analysis and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Min; Hu, Xiangyun

    2014-01-01

    A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference. PMID:25330046

  8. High-Precision Image Aided Inertial Navigation with Known Features: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Min; Hu, Xiangyun

    2014-01-01

    A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference. PMID:25330046

  9. Noninvasive spectral imaging of skin chromophores based on multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Wiswadarma, Aditya; Hase, Yota; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Maeda, Takaaki; Niizeki, Kyuichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize melanin and blood concentrations and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue, a simple imaging technique based on multispectral diffuse reflectance images acquired at six wavelengths (500, 520, 540, 560, 580 and 600nm) was developed. The technique utilizes multiple regression analysis aided by Monte Carlo simulation for diffuse reflectance spectra. Using the absorbance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of melanin, oxygenated hemoglobin, and deoxygenated hemoglobin as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of melanin and total blood are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are deduced numerically in advance, while oxygen saturation is obtained directly from the regression coefficients. Experiments with a tissue-like agar gel phantom validated the method. In vivo experiments with human skin of the human hand during upper limb occlusion and of the inner forearm exposed to UV irradiation demonstrated the ability of the method to evaluate physiological reactions of human skin tissue.

  10. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Qian, Wei

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy.

  11. New breast cancer prognostic factors identified by computer-aided image analysis of HE stained histopathology images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Mei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Wang, Lin-Wei; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Yang, Fang; Xiang, Qing-Ming; Maskey, Ninu; Yang, Gui-Fang; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided image analysis (CAI) can help objectively quantify morphologic features of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) histopathology images and provide potentially useful prognostic information on breast cancer. We performed a CAI workflow on 1,150 HE images from 230 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. We used a pixel-wise support vector machine classifier for tumor nests (TNs)-stroma segmentation, and a marker-controlled watershed algorithm for nuclei segmentation. 730 morphologic parameters were extracted after segmentation, and 12 parameters identified by Kaplan-Meier analysis were significantly associated with 8-year disease free survival (P < 0.05 for all). Moreover, four image features including TNs feature (HR 1.327, 95%CI [1.001-1.759], P = 0.049), TNs cell nuclei feature (HR 0.729, 95%CI [0.537-0.989], P = 0.042), TNs cell density (HR 1.625, 95%CI [1.177-2.244], P = 0.003), and stromal cell structure feature (HR 1.596, 95%CI [1.142-2.229], P = 0.006) were identified by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to be new independent prognostic factors. The results indicated that CAI can assist the pathologist in extracting prognostic information from HE histopathology images for IDC. The TNs feature, TNs cell nuclei feature, TNs cell density, and stromal cell structure feature could be new prognostic factors. PMID:26022540

  12. Can Automated Imaging for Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis Aid Glaucoma Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Banister, Katie; Boachie, Charles; Bourne, Rupert; Cook, Jonathan; Burr, Jennifer M.; Ramsay, Craig; Garway-Heath, David; Gray, Joanne; McMeekin, Peter; Hernández, Rodolfo; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of automated imaging for glaucoma. Design Prospective, direct comparison study. Participants Adults with suspected glaucoma or ocular hypertension referred to hospital eye services in the United Kingdom. Methods We evaluated 4 automated imaging test algorithms: the Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) glaucoma probability score (GPS), the HRT Moorfields regression analysis (MRA), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx enhanced corneal compensation; Glaucoma Diagnostics (GDx), Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) nerve fiber indicator (NFI), and Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT; Heidelberg Engineering) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) classification. We defined abnormal tests as an automated classification of outside normal limits for HRT and OCT or NFI ≥ 56 (GDx). We conducted a sensitivity analysis, using borderline abnormal image classifications. The reference standard was clinical diagnosis by a masked glaucoma expert including standardized clinical assessment and automated perimetry. We analyzed 1 eye per patient (the one with more advanced disease). We also evaluated the performance according to severity and using a combination of 2 technologies. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity and specificity, likelihood ratios, diagnostic, odds ratio, and proportion of indeterminate tests. Results We recruited 955 participants, and 943 were included in the analysis. The average age was 60.5 years (standard deviation, 13.8 years); 51.1% were women. Glaucoma was diagnosed in at least 1 eye in 16.8%; 32% of participants had no glaucoma-related findings. The HRT MRA had the highest sensitivity (87.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.2%–92.1%), but lowest specificity (63.9%; 95% CI, 60.2%–67.4%); GDx had the lowest sensitivity (35.1%; 95% CI, 27.0%–43.8%), but the highest specificity (97.2%; 95% CI, 95.6%–98.3%). The HRT GPS sensitivity was 81.5% (95% CI, 73.9%–87.6%), and

  13. Automatic computer-aided detection of prostate cancer based on multiparametric magnetic resonance image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, P. C.; Barentsz, J. O.; Karssemeijer, N.; Huisman, H. J.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a fully automatic computer-aided detection (CAD) method is proposed for the detection of prostate cancer. The CAD method consists of multiple sequential steps in order to detect locations that are suspicious for prostate cancer. In the initial stage, a voxel classification is performed using a Hessian-based blob detection algorithm at multiple scales on an apparent diffusion coefficient map. Next, a parametric multi-object segmentation method is applied and the resulting segmentation is used as a mask to restrict the candidate detection to the prostate. The remaining candidates are characterized by performing histogram analysis on multiparametric MR images. The resulting feature set is summarized into a malignancy likelihood by a supervised classifier in a two-stage classification approach. The detection performance for prostate cancer was tested on a screening population of 200 consecutive patients and evaluated using the free response operating characteristic methodology. The results show that the CAD method obtained sensitivities of 0.41, 0.65 and 0.74 at false positive (FP) levels of 1, 3 and 5 per patient, respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that it is feasible to automatically detect prostate cancer at a FP rate lower than systematic biopsy. The CAD method may assist the radiologist to detect prostate cancer locations and could potentially guide biopsy towards the most aggressive part of the tumour.

  14. Analysis of the impact of digital watermarking on computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Gomez-Flores, Wilfrido; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Medical images (MI) are relevant sources of information for detecting and diagnosing a large number of illnesses and abnormalities. Due to their importance, this study is focused on breast ultrasound (BUS), which is the main adjunct for mammography to detect common breast lesions among women worldwide. On the other hand, aiming to enhance data security, image fidelity, authenticity, and content verification in e-health environments, MI watermarking has been widely used, whose main goal is to embed patient meta-data into MI so that the resulting image keeps its original quality. In this sense, this paper deals with the comparison of two watermarking approaches, namely spread spectrum based on the discrete cosine transform (SS-DCT) and the high-capacity data-hiding (HCDH) algorithm, so that the watermarked BUS images are guaranteed to be adequate for a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system, whose two principal outcomes are lesion segmentation and classification. Experimental results show that HCDH algorithm is highly recommended for watermarking medical images, maintaining the image quality and without introducing distortion into the output of CADx. PMID:26609802

  15. Computer-aided measurements of cell electrorotation by image analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Huang, Chengjun; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Guoliang; Cheng, Jing

    2007-05-01

    Electrorotation (ROT) is widely used for the investigation of the dielectric properties of biological cells. Traditionally the tedious measurements of the rotational rates of the cells are handled manually. In this paper, a ROT chip detection platform equipped with computer-aided measuring system is presented. The rotational motions of the cells are captured by CCD camera and an algorithm is implemented to automatically estimate the rotational rates by analyzing the captured image. The acquired data is verified by a comparison with manual stop-watch measurements. The experimental results are accurate and robust against variations in illumination and cellular deformation within maximum 5% deviation from the manual measurements. Thus the platform as a whole can be employed to detect changes in the cellular membrane dielectric properties caused by external stimulation, or those occurring naturally.

  16. Wavelet aided multivariate outlier analysis to enhance defect contrast in thermal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Arun; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2011-04-01

    A novel two-stage signal reconstruction approach is proposed to analyze raw thermal image sequences for damage detection purposes by Infrared Thermographic NDE. The first stage involves low-pass filtering using Wavelets. In the second stage, a Multivariate Outlier Analysis is performed on filtered data using a set of signal features. The proposed approach significantly enhances the defective area contrast against the background in infrared thermography NDE. The two-stage approach has some advantages in comparison to the traditionally used methods, including automation in the defect detection process and better defective area isolation through increased contrast. The method does not require a reference area to function. The results are presented for the case of a composite plate with simulated delaminations, and a composite sandwich plate with skin-core disbonds.

  17. Improving image segmentation performance and quantitative analysis via a computer-aided grading methodology for optical coherence tomography retinal image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Debuc, Delia; Salinas, Harry M.; Ranganathan, Sudarshan; Tátrai, Erika; Gao, Wei; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Jianhua; Somfai, Gábor M.; Puliafito, Carmen A.

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate quantitative analysis and error correction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal images by using a custom-built, computer-aided grading methodology. A total of 60 Stratus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California) B-scans collected from ten normal healthy eyes are analyzed by two independent graders. The average retinal thickness per macular region is compared with the automated Stratus OCT results. Intergrader and intragrader reproducibility is calculated by Bland-Altman plots of the mean difference between both gradings and by Pearson correlation coefficients. In addition, the correlation between Stratus OCT and our methodology-derived thickness is also presented. The mean thickness difference between Stratus OCT and our methodology is 6.53 μm and 26.71 μm when using the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction and outer segment/retinal pigment epithelium (OS/RPE) junction as the outer retinal border, respectively. Overall, the median of the thickness differences as a percentage of the mean thickness is less than 1% and 2% for the intragrader and intergrader reproducibility test, respectively. The measurement accuracy range of the OCT retinal image analysis (OCTRIMA) algorithm is between 0.27 and 1.47 μm and 0.6 and 1.76 μm for the intragrader and intergrader reproducibility tests, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrate R2>0.98 for all Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) regions. Our methodology facilitates a more robust and localized quantification of the retinal structure in normal healthy controls and patients with clinically significant intraretinal features.

  18. Computer-Aided Breast Cancer Diagnosis Based on the Analysis of Cytological Images of Fine Needle Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Filipczuk, Pawel; Fevens, Thomas; Krzyzak, Adam; Monczak, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The effectiveness of the treatment of breast cancer depends on its timely detection. An early step in the diagnosis is the cytological examination of breast material obtained directly from the tumor. This work reports on advances in computer-aided breast cancer diagnosis based on the analysis of cytological images of fine needle biopsies to characterize these biopsies as either benign or malignant. Instead of relying on the accurate segmentation of cell nuclei, the nuclei are estimated by circles using the circular Hough transform. The resulting circles are then filtered to keep only high-quality estimations for further analysis by a support vector machine which classifies detected circles as correct or incorrect on the basis of texture features and the percentage of nuclei pixels according to a nuclei mask obtained using Otsu's thresholding method. A set of 25 features of the nuclei is used in the classification of the biopsies by four different classifiers. The complete diagnostic procedure was tested on 737 microscopic images of fine needle biopsies obtained from patients and achieved 98.51% effectiveness. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that a computerized medical diagnosis system based on our method would be effective, providing valuable, accurate diagnostic information. PMID:23912498

  19. Computer-Aided Image Analysis and Fractal Synthesis in the Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Aggressiveness in Prostate Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The subjective evaluation of tumor aggressiveness is a cornerstone of the contemporary tumor pathology. A large intra- and interobserver variability is a known limiting factor of this approach. This fundamental weakness influences the statistical deterministic models of progression risk assessment. It is unlikely that the recent modification of tumor grading according to Gleason criteria for prostate carcinoma will cause a qualitative change and improve significantly the accuracy. The Gleason system does not allow the identification of low aggressive carcinomas by some precise criteria. The ontological dichotomy implies the application of an objective, quantitative approach for the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness as an alternative. That novel approach must be developed and validated in a manner that is independent of the results of any subjective evaluation. For example, computer-aided image analysis can provide information about geometry of the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei. A series of the interrelated complexity measures characterizes unequivocally the complex tumor images. Using those measures, carcinomas can be classified into the classes of equivalence and compared with each other. Furthermore, those measures define the quantitative criteria for the identification of low- and high-aggressive prostate carcinomas, the information that the subjective approach is not able to provide. The co-application of those complexity measures in cluster analysis leads to the conclusion that either the subjective or objective classification of tumor aggressiveness for prostate carcinomas should comprise maximal three grades (or classes). Finally, this set of the global fractal dimensions enables a look into dynamics of the underlying cellular system of interacting cells and the reconstruction of the temporal-spatial attractor based on the Taken’s embedding theorem. Both computer-aided image analysis and the subsequent fractal synthesis could be performed

  20. Computer-Aided Image Analysis and Fractal Synthesis in the Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Aggressiveness in Prostate Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The subjective evaluation of tumor aggressiveness is a cornerstone of the contemporary tumor pathology. A large intra- and interobserver variability is a known limiting factor of this approach. This fundamental weakness influences the statistical deterministic models of progression risk assessment. It is unlikely that the recent modification of tumor grading according to Gleason criteria for prostate carcinoma will cause a qualitative change and improve significantly the accuracy. The Gleason system does not allow the identification of low aggressive carcinomas by some precise criteria. The ontological dichotomy implies the application of an objective, quantitative approach for the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness as an alternative. That novel approach must be developed and validated in a manner that is independent of the results of any subjective evaluation. For example, computer-aided image analysis can provide information about geometry of the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei. A series of the interrelated complexity measures characterizes unequivocally the complex tumor images. Using those measures, carcinomas can be classified into the classes of equivalence and compared with each other. Furthermore, those measures define the quantitative criteria for the identification of low- and high-aggressive prostate carcinomas, the information that the subjective approach is not able to provide. The co-application of those complexity measures in cluster analysis leads to the conclusion that either the subjective or objective classification of tumor aggressiveness for prostate carcinomas should comprise maximal three grades (or classes). Finally, this set of the global fractal dimensions enables a look into dynamics of the underlying cellular system of interacting cells and the reconstruction of the temporal-spatial attractor based on the Taken's embedding theorem. Both computer-aided image analysis and the subsequent fractal synthesis could be performed

  1. Computer aided analysis of prostate histopathology images Gleason grading especially for Gleason score 7*

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jian; Sadimin, Evita T.; Wang, Daihou; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Foran, David J.; Qi, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, prostate adenocarcinoma is diagnosed by recognizing certain morphology on histology. While the Gleason grading system has been shown to be the strongest prognostic factor for men with prostrate adenocarcinoma, there is a significant intra and interobserver variability between pathologists in assigning this grading system. In this study, we present a new method for prostate gland segmentation from which we then utilize to develop a computer aided Gleason grading. The novelty of our method is a region-based nuclei segmentation to get individual gland without using lumen as prior information. Because each gland region is surrounded by nuclei, individual gland can be segmented by using the structure features and Delaunay Triangulation. The precision, recal and F1 of this approach are 0.94±0.11, 0.60±0.23 and 0.70±0.19 respectively. Our method achieves a high accuracy for prostate gland segmentation with less computation time. PMID:26736926

  2. Computer aided analysis of prostate histopathology images Gleason grading especially for Gleason score 7.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian; Sadimin, Evita T; Wang, Daihou; Epstein, Jonathan I; Foran, David J; Qi, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, prostate adenocarcinoma is diagnosed by recognizing certain morphology on histology. While the Gleason grading system has been shown to be the strongest prognostic factor for men with prostrate adenocarcinoma, there is a significant intra and interobserver variability between pathologists in assigning this grading system. In this study, we present a new method for prostate gland segmentation from which we then utilize to develop a computer aided Gleason grading. The novelty of our method is a region-based nuclei segmentation to get individual gland without using lumen as prior information. Because each gland region is surrounded by nuclei, individual gland can be segmented by using the structure features and Delaunay Triangulation. The precision, recal and F1 of this approach are 0.94±0.11, 0.60±0.23 and 0.70±0.19 respectively. Our method achieves a high accuracy for prostate gland segmentation with less computation time. PMID:26736926

  3. Stereo study as an aid to visual analysis of ERTS and Skylab images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The parallax on ERTS and Skylab images is sufficiently large for exploitation by human photointerpreters. The ability to view the imagery stereoscopically reduces the signal-to-noise ratio. Stereoscopic examination of orbital data can contribute to studies of spatial, spectral, and temporal variations on the imagery. The combination of true stereo parallax, plus shadow parallax offer many possibilities to human interpreters for making meaningful analyses of orbital imagery.

  4. Imaging lung manifestations of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Carolyn M.; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Irion, Klaus L.; Al Ghanem, Sarah; Gouda, Alaa; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2010-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have led to improved care and incremental increases in survival. However, the pulmonary manifestations of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Respiratory complaints are not infrequent in patients who are HIV positive. The great majority of lung complications of HIV/AIDS are of infectious etiology but neoplasm, interstitial pneumonias, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphomas add significantly to patient morbidity and mortality. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of lung of complications associated with HIV. Accurate diagnosis is based on an understanding of the pathogenesis of the processes involved and their imaging findings. Imaging also plays an important role in selection of the most appropriate site for tissue sampling, staging of disease and follow-ups. We present images of lung manifestations of HIV/AIDS, describing the salient features and the differential diagnosis. PMID:20981180

  5. Inertially-Aided Image Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Calef, B.

    2014-09-01

    Raw images from telescopes, where the dome moves with the aperture, have been observed to be much less resolved than telescopes without a dome. This degradation is much larger than can be explained by diffraction related to aperture size. One likely cause is the higher vibration environment associated with dome motion. Dome seeing is another possible cause. An optical inertial reference is an inertially stabilized platform with an integral collimated light source that traverses the same path in an imaging system as the image. The use of an inertial reference with an integrated optical source is not new and has been at the heart of almost every directed energy (DE) system on a moving platform. When attempting to put a beam of energy on a target, it is necessary to use the information from the inertial reference in real time over a very broad frequency band to stabilize the optical line of sight using fast steering mirrors and an inertially stabilized gimbal. Assuming the vibration environment is a major contributor to degradation in a staring, imaging system, the problem is much less difficult, as the camera filters out low frequency motion and the lowest frequency which a useful reference must appear stable above is inversely proportional to the exposure time. Images and information from the reference can also be stored and corrected in a post processing mode, which is not possible in a DE system. Assuming LOS jitter is controlled enough to keep the target on the image plane, the inertial reference only has to appear inertially stable above roughly half the sampling frequency to reduce jitter over the integration time of the image. The cost and complexity are inextricably linked to very low frequency performance in a traditional optical inertial reference, so the inertial reference for a staring, imaging system does not have to be complex or expensive and may be as simple as a passively isolated pointing laser. This work will establish feasibility of post

  6. Extended School Year Analysis Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Willitt S.

    The ESY Analysis Aids are a collection of materials and procedures related to and organized for use in making decisions concerning year-round school program alternatives. They are restricted largely to procedures dealing with the budgetary impact of school calendar manipulation, but can be used as a guide in monitoring progress in an ESY…

  7. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  8. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  9. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  10. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  12. A Dose-Volume Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Aided High-Dose-Rate Image-Based Interstitial Brachytherapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshida, Mineo; Furuya, Seiichi; Tanaka, Eiichi; Uegaki, Tadaaki; Kuriyama, Keiko; Matsumoto, Hisanobu; Yamada, Shigetoshi; Ban, Chiaki

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of our novel image-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for uterine cervical cancer, we evaluated the dose-volume histogram (DVH) according to the recommendations of the Gynecological GEC-ESTRO Working Group for image-based intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). Methods and Materials: Between June 2005 and June 2007, 18 previously untreated cervical cancer patients were enrolled. We implanted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-available plastic applicators by our unique ambulatory technique. Total treatment doses were 30-36 Gy (6 Gy per fraction) combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Treatment plans were created based on planning computed tomography with MRI as a reference. DVHs of the high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV), intermediate-risk CTV (IR CTV), and the bladder and rectum were calculated. Dose values were biologically normalized to equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Results: The median D90 (HR CTV) and D90 (IR CTV) per fraction were 6.8 Gy (range, 5.5-7.5) and 5.4 Gy (range, 4.2-6.3), respectively. The median V100 (HR CTV) and V100 (IR CTV) were 98.4% (range, 83-100) and 81.8% (range, 64-93.8), respectively. When the dose of EBRT was added, the median D90 and D100 of HR CTV were 80.6 Gy (range, 65.5-96.6) and 62.4 Gy (range, 49-83.2). The D{sub 2cc} of the bladder was 62 Gy (range, 51.4-89) and of the rectum was 65.9 Gy (range, 48.9-76). Conclusions: Although the targets were advanced and difficult to treat effectively by ICBT, MRI-aided image-based ISBT showed favorable results for CTV and organs at risk compared with previously reported image-based ICBT results.

  13. Intelligent Image Based Computer Aided Education (IICAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Amos A.; Thiery, Odile; Crehange, Marion

    1989-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has found its way into Computer Aided Education (CAE), and there are several systems constructed to put in evidence its interesting advantages. We believe that images (graphic or real) play an important role in learning. However, the use of images, outside their use as illustration, makes it necessary to have applications such as AI. We shall develop the application of AI in an image based CAE and briefly present the system under construction to put in evidence our concept. We shall also elaborate a methodology for constructing such a system. Futhermore we shall briefly present the pedagogical and psychological activities in a learning process. Under the pedagogical and psychological aspect of learning, we shall develop areas such as the importance of image in learning both as pedagogical objects as well as means for obtaining psychological information about the learner. We shall develop the learner's model, its use, what to build into it and how. Under the application of AI in an image based CAE, we shall develop the importance of AI in exploiting the knowledge base in the learning environment and its application as a means of implementing pedagogical strategies.

  14. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  15. An automated normative-based fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography image-analysis procedure to aid Alzheimer disease diagnosis using statistical parametric mapping and interactive image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kewei; Ge, Xiaolin; Yao, Li; Bandy, Dan; Alexander, Gene E.; Prouty, Anita; Burns, Christine; Zhao, Xiaojie; Wen, Xiaotong; Korn, Ronald; Lawson, Michael; Reiman, Eric M.

    2006-03-01

    Having approved fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in some patients, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services suggested the need to develop and test analysis techniques to optimize diagnostic accuracy. We developed an automated computer package comparing an individual's FDG PET image to those of a group of normal volunteers. The normal control group includes FDG-PET images from 82 cognitively normal subjects, 61.89+/-5.67 years of age, who were characterized demographically, clinically, neuropsychologically, and by their apolipoprotein E genotype (known to be associated with a differential risk for AD). In addition, AD-affected brain regions functionally defined as based on a previous study (Alexander, et al, Am J Psychiatr, 2002) were also incorporated. Our computer package permits the user to optionally select control subjects, matching the individual patient for gender, age, and educational level. It is fully streamlined to require minimal user intervention. With one mouse click, the program runs automatically, normalizing the individual patient image, setting up a design matrix for comparing the single subject to a group of normal controls, performing the statistics, calculating the glucose reduction overlap index of the patient with the AD-affected brain regions, and displaying the findings in reference to the AD regions. In conclusion, the package automatically contrasts a single patient to a normal subject database using sound statistical procedures. With further validation, this computer package could be a valuable tool to assist physicians in decision making and communicating findings with patients and patient families.

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence in clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Doi, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is rapidly entering the radiology mainstream. It has already become a part of the routine clinical work for the detection of breast cancer with mammograms. The computer output is used as a "second opinion" in assisting radiologists' image interpretations. The computer algorithm generally consists of several steps that may include image processing, image feature analysis, and data classification via the use of tools such as artificial neural networks (ANN). In this article, we will explore these and other current processes that have come to be referred to as "artificial intelligence." One element of CAD, temporal subtraction, has been applied for enhancing interval changes and for suppressing unchanged structures (eg, normal structures) between 2 successive radiologic images. To reduce misregistration artifacts on the temporal subtraction images, a nonlinear image warping technique for matching the previous image to the current one has been developed. Development of the temporal subtraction method originated with chest radiographs, with the method subsequently being applied to chest computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine bone scans. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction method for bone scans was demonstrated by an observer study in which reading times and diagnostic accuracy improved significantly. An additional prospective clinical study verified that the temporal subtraction image could be used as a "second opinion" by radiologists with negligible detrimental effects. ANN was first used in 1990 for computerized differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in CAD. Since then, ANN has been widely used in CAD schemes for the detection and diagnosis of various diseases in different imaging modalities, including the differential diagnosis of lung nodules and interstitial lung diseases in chest radiography, CT, and position emission tomography/CT. It is likely that CAD will be integrated into picture archiving and

  17. NADINE: new approaches to detecting breast cancer by sequential μm-wavelength imaging with the aid of novel frequency analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Joro, R; Dastidar, P; Iivonen, V; Ylänen, H; Soimakallio, S

    2012-07-01

    The study focuses on 12 breasts of six breast cancer patients sequential µm-wavelength imaging, taken by two different 3-5 μm wavelength area indium antimony (InSb) photovoltaic cameras. The aim of the study was to compare the functionality of area and pixel-based frequency analyses. Comparisons between these frequency analysis methods were made according to their relevancy to mammographic findings. Another objective of the study was to find reliable imaging conditions by specifying the border conditions for the patient stabilizing imaging bed and managing the imaging situation. According to the results, the match of pixel based frequency analysis to the mammography findings is better than using area frequency analysis. The results also indicate that when the optical axis of the camera in relation to the surface of the breast to be imaged grows to more than 40°, the emissivity changes dramatically and at that point reliable results will not be obtained. Consequently the analysis of the imagined breast requires more images to be fused into one analysis image to cover the whole breast. PMID:22512737

  18. Nurse Aide. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for nurse aide (NA) is a competency list verified by expert workers that evolved from a job analysis. It identifies occupational, academic, and employability competencies needed to enter the occupation; lists and clusters them into broader units; and details the competency builders needed to…

  19. Resampling detection aided steganalysis of heterogeneous bitmap images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaodan; Zhang, Tao; Xiong, Gang; Lu, Zhibo; Xie, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a practical forensics aided steganalyzer (FA-steganalyzer) for heterogeneous bitmap images is constructed, which can properly handle steganalysis problems of mixed image sources including raw single-sampled images and resampled images at different scaling factors. The proposed FA-steganalyzer consists of a resampling detector followed by two corresponding steganalyzers, one of which is used to deal with raw single-sampled images and the other is used for mixed resampled images at different scaling factors. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed FA-steganalyzer outperforms the existing steganalyzer that is trained on a mixed dataset especially at low embedding rates.

  20. Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slapnicar, P.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.

  1. Computer aided analysis of phonocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Anand, R S

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper analysis of phonocardiogram (PCG) records are presented. The analysis has been carried out in both time and frequency domains with the aim of detecting certain correlations between the time and frequency domain representations of PCG. The analysis is limited to first and second heart sounds (S1 and S2) only. In the time domain analysis the moving window averaging technique is used to determine the occurrence of S1 and S2, which helps in determination of cardiac interval and absolute and relative time duration of individual S1 and S2, as well as absolute and relative duration between them. In the frequency domain, fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the complete PCG record, and short time Fourier transform (STFT) and wavelet transform of individual heart sounds have been carried out. The frequency domain analysis gives an idea about the dominant frequency components in individual records and frequency spectrum of individual heart sounds. A comparative observation on both the analyses gives some correlation between time domain and frequency domain representations of PCG. PMID:17701776

  2. Computer aided cogeneration feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anaya, D.A.; Caltenco, E.J.L.; Robles, L.F.

    1996-12-31

    A successful cogeneration system design depends of several factors, and the optimal configuration can be founded using a steam and power simulation software. The key characteristics of one of this kind of software are described below, and its application on a process plant cogeneration feasibility analysis is shown in this paper. Finally a study case is illustrated. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  3. A computational image analysis glossary for biologists.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Adrienne H K; Cunha, Alexandre; Burl, Michael C; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in biological imaging have resulted in an explosion in the quality and quantity of images obtained in a digital format. Developmental biologists are increasingly acquiring beautiful and complex images, thus creating vast image datasets. In the past, patterns in image data have been detected by the human eye. Larger datasets, however, necessitate high-throughput objective analysis tools to computationally extract quantitative information from the images. These tools have been developed in collaborations between biologists, computer scientists, mathematicians and physicists. In this Primer we present a glossary of image analysis terms to aid biologists and briefly discuss the importance of robust image analysis in developmental studies. PMID:22872081

  4. Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world that includes age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, the review is devoted to retinal imaging and image analysis methods and their clinical implications. Methods for 2-D fundus imaging and techniques for 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are reviewed. Special attention is given to quantitative techniques for analysis of fundus photographs with a focus on clinically relevant assessment of retinal vasculature, identification of retinal lesions, assessment of optic nerve head (ONH) shape, building retinal atlases, and to automated methods for population screening for retinal diseases. A separate section is devoted to 3-D analysis of OCT images, describing methods for segmentation and analysis of retinal layers, retinal vasculature, and 2-D/3-D detection of symptomatic exudate-associated derangements, as well as to OCT-based analysis of ONH morphology and shape. Throughout the paper, aspects of image acquisition, image analysis, and clinical relevance are treated together considering their mutually interlinked relationships. PMID:21743764

  5. Interfacing Computer Aided Parallelization and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    When porting sequential applications to parallel computer architectures, the program developer will typically go through several cycles of source code optimization and performance analysis. We have started a project to develop an environment where the user can jointly navigate through program structure and performance data information in order to make efficient optimization decisions. In a prototype implementation we have interfaced the CAPO computer aided parallelization tool with the Paraver performance analysis tool. We describe both tools and their interface and give an example for how the interface helps within the program development cycle of a benchmark code.

  6. Training Aids for Online Instruction: An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Robin Frederick

    This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…

  7. Micro-optical imaging concepts for an intraocular vision aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eix, Ilos; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus D.

    2004-03-01

    About 10 million people around the world are suffering from blindness, where the path of light is disturbed due to an opaque, irreversible damaged, and inoperable cornea. Although vision is not given to this group of population, the retina is still intact. To date, there is no artificial implant which is able to replace the natural cornea. The work presented here describes an approach to build and implant a micro-optical and microelectronic system to be used as an intraocular vision aid. By overcoming the disturbed light path, it yields to an improved visual acuity of the patient. The main aspect of this bio-mimetic system is to transfer information representing the patient's field of view to the retina. An image of the field of view is captured in real-time outside the eye. After employing data processing, it is wireless transferred to the implanted part of the vision aid. From there, the information emerging from a micro display is imaged to the retina via a micro-optical system. The limited display resolution available inside the eye and the limited dimensions of the eyeball build the constrains of the optical system. A combination of a spatial light modulator together with an imaging lens system realizes intelligent spatial information distribution schemes onto the retina. This ensures a high outcome of visual acuity in the central region of the retina. Various retinal acuities can be realized. The employment of in-vivo adjustment mechanisms of the focal plane is discussed.

  8. Computer-aided kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daw-Tung; Lei, Chung-Chih; Hung, Siu-Wan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an effective model-based approach for computer-aided kidney segmentation of abdominal CT images with anatomic structure consideration is presented. This automatic segmentation system is expected to assist physicians in both clinical diagnosis and educational training. The proposed method is a coarse to fine segmentation approach divided into two stages. First, the candidate kidney region is extracted according to the statistical geometric location of kidney within the abdomen. This approach is applicable to images of different sizes by using the relative distance of the kidney region to the spine. The second stage identifies the kidney by a series of image processing operations. The main elements of the proposed system are: 1) the location of the spine is used as the landmark for coordinate references; 2) elliptic candidate kidney region extraction with progressive positioning on the consecutive CT images; 3) novel directional model for a more reliable kidney region seed point identification; and 4) adaptive region growing controlled by the properties of image homogeneity. In addition, in order to provide different views for the physicians, we have implemented a visualization tool that will automatically show the renal contour through the method of second-order neighborhood edge detection. We considered segmentation of kidney regions from CT scans that contain pathologies in clinical practice. The results of a series of tests on 358 images from 30 patients indicate an average correlation coefficient of up to 88% between automatic and manual segmentation. PMID:16445250

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  10. Effect of image variation on computer-aided detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, S. P.; Maduskar, P.; Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Hogeweg, L.; van Ginneken, B.

    2014-03-01

    As the importance of Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems application is rising in medical imaging field due to the advantages they generate; it is essential to know their weaknesses and try to find a proper solution for them. A common possible practical problem that affects CAD systems performance is: dissimilar training and testing datasets declines the efficiency of CAD systems. In this paper normalizing images is proposed, three different normalization methods are applied on chest radiographs namely (1) Simple normalization (2) Local Normalization (3) Multi Band Local Normalization. The supervised lung segmentation CAD system performance is evaluated on normalized chest radiographs with these three different normalization methods in terms of Jaccard index. As a conclusion the normalization enhances the performance of CAD system and among these three normalization methods Local Normalization and Multi band Local normalization improve performance of CAD system more significantly than the simple normalization.

  11. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Senegal.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case was confirmed in 1986, Senegal has conducted an aggressive prevention campaign. Senegal's National AIDS Committee has noted the contributions of poverty and migration to the spread of AIDS. By June 1994, 1297 AIDS cases had been reported and an estimated 500,000 people (1.4% of the population) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and 2. The highest rate of HIV infection (14%) exists among commercial sex workers. At present, HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated in Dakar, Kaolack, the Matam region, and Ziguinchor; however, the growing importance of inter-regional trading is expected to spread HIV to the smaller towns and rural areas. Also salient is the recent devaluation by 50% of the CFA franc, which has reduced the public sector workforce and led many poor urban residents into commercial sex work. CFA devaluation has made Senegal attractive to tourists and business visitors--another factor responsible for growth of the legalized commercial sex industry. Although sex workers are instructed in condom use and tested annually for HIV, only 850 of the 2000 registered sex workers have reported for check-ups, and the majority of prostitutes are unregistered. Senegal's AIDS Plan for 1994-98 focuses on care of AIDS patients, pressures placed on family structures by HIV, and AIDS-related erosions in the status of women. Each health service region has its own local plan for AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, supervised by a regional committee. Public education has involved outreach to religious leaders, promotion of affordable condoms, and distribution of over 75,000 leaflets to key target populations. About US $16 million of the $25,688,875-budget HIV/AIDS program for 1994-98 was pledged by external donors. PMID:12320531

  12. Feature-aided multiple target tracking in the image plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew P.; Sullivan, Kevin J.; Miller, David J.

    2006-05-01

    Vast quantities of EO and IR data are collected on airborne platforms (manned and unmanned) and terrestrial platforms (including fixed installations, e.g., at street intersections), and can be exploited to aid in the global war on terrorism. However, intelligent preprocessing is required to enable operator efficiency and to provide commanders with actionable target information. To this end, we have developed an image plane tracker which automatically detects and tracks multiple targets in image sequences using both motion and feature information. The effects of platform and camera motion are compensated via image registration, and a novel change detection algorithm is applied for accurate moving target detection. The contiguous pixel blob on each moving target is segmented for use in target feature extraction and model learning. Feature-based target location measurements are used for tracking through move-stop-move maneuvers, close target spacing, and occlusion. Effective clutter suppression is achieved using joint probabilistic data association (JPDA), and confirmed target tracks are indicated for further processing or operator review. In this paper we describe the algorithms implemented in the image plane tracker and present performance results obtained with video clips from the DARPA VIVID program data collection and from a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight.

  13. An Imaging Sensor-Aided Vision Navigation Approach that Uses a Geo-Referenced Image Database

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Hu, Qingwu; Wu, Meng; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID) for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m. PMID:26828496

  14. An Imaging Sensor-Aided Vision Navigation Approach that Uses a Geo-Referenced Image Database.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hu, Qingwu; Wu, Meng; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID) for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m. PMID:26828496

  15. Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Image-based computer-aided prognosis of lung cancer: predicting patient recurrent-free survival via a variational Bayesian mixture modeling framework for cluster analysis of CT histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohamatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided prognosis (CAP) scheme that utilizes quantitatively derived image information to predict patient recurrent-free survival for lung cancers. Our scheme involves analyzing CT histograms to evaluate the volumetric distribution of CT values within pulmonary nodules. A variational Bayesian mixture modeling framework translates the image-derived features into an image-based risk score for predicting the patient recurrence-free survival. Using our dataset of 454 patients with NSCLC, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of the CAP scheme which can provide a quantitative risk score that is strongly correlated with prognostic factors.

  17. Image-analysis library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    MATHPAC image-analysis library is collection of general-purpose mathematical and statistical routines and special-purpose data-analysis and pattern-recognition routines for image analysis. MATHPAC library consists of Linear Algebra, Optimization, Statistical-Summary, Densities and Distribution, Regression, and Statistical-Test packages.

  18. Is Health Aid Reaching the Poor? Analysis of Household Data from Aid Recipient Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bendavid, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which the narrowing of child mortality across wealth gradients has been related to foreign aid to the health sector in low- and middle-income countries. Methods Mortality and wealth data on 989,901 under-5 children from 957,674 households in 49 aid recipient countries in Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean between 1993 and 2012 were used in the analysis. Declines in under-5 mortality in the four poorest wealth quantiles were compared to the decline among the wealthiest at varying levels of health aid per capita using fixed effects multivariable regression models and controlling for maternal education, urbanization, and domestic spending on health among recipient countries. Results Each additional dollar in total health aid per capita was associated with 5.7 fewer deaths per 10,000 child-years among children in the poorest relative to the wealthiest households (p<0.001). This was also true when measured in percent declines (1.90% faster decline in under-5 mortality among the poorest compared with the wealthiest with each dollar in total health aid, p = 0.008). The association was stronger when using health aid specifically for malaria than total health aid, 12.60% faster decline among the poorest compared with the wealthiest with each dollar in malaria aid, p = 0.001. Conclusions Foreign aid to the health sector is preferentially related to reductions in under-5 mortality among the poorest compared with the wealthiest. Health aid addressing malaria, which imposes a disproportionate burden among the poor, may explain the observed effect. PMID:24404148

  19. Computer-aided Image Processing of Angiogenic Histological

    PubMed Central

    Sprindzuk, Matvey; Dmitruk, Alexander; Kovalev, Vassili; Bogush, Armen; Tuzikov, Alexander; Liakhovski, Victor; Fridman, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the questions regarding the image evaluation of angiogeneic histological samples, particularly the ovarian epithelial cancer. Review is focused on the principles of image analysis in the field of histology and pathology. The definition, classification, pathogenesis and angiogenesis regulation in the ovaries are also briefly discussed. It is hoped that the complex image analysis together with the patient’s clinical parameters will allow an acquiring of a clear pathogenic picture of the disease, extension of the differential diagnosis and become a useful tool for the evaluation of drug effects. The challenge of the assessment of angiogenesis activity is the heterogeneity of several objects: parameters derived from patient’s anamnesis as well as of pathology samples. The other unresolved problems are the subjectivity of the region of interest selection and performance of the whole slide scanning. Keywords Angiogenesis; Image processing; Microvessel density; Cancer; Pathology PMID:22481986

  20. Electronic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahm, J.; Grosskopf, R.; Jaeger, H.; Trautwein, F.

    1980-12-01

    An electronic system for image analysis was developed on the basis of low and medium cost integrated circuits. The printed circuit boards were designed, using the principles of modern digital electronics and data processing. The system consists of modules for automatic, semiautomatic and visual image analysis. They can be used for microscopical and macroscopical observations. Photographs can be evaluated, too. The automatic version is controlled by software modules adapted to various applications. The result is a system for image analysis suitable for many different measurement problems. The features contained in large image areas can be measured. For automatic routine analysis controlled by processing calculators the necessary software and hardware modules are available.

  1. Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539

  2. Basics of image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging technology has emerged as a powerful tool for quality and safety inspection of food and agricultural products and in precision agriculture over the past decade. Image analysis is a critical step in implementing hyperspectral imaging technology; it is aimed to improve the qualit...

  3. Computer-Aided Decision Support for Melanoma Detection Applied on Melanocytic and Nonmelanocytic Skin Lesions: A Comparison of Two Systems Based on Automatic Analysis of Dermoscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Møllersen, Kajsa; Kirchesch, Herbert; Zortea, Maciel; Schopf, Thomas R.; Hindberg, Kristian; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for skin cancer have been designed for the detection of melanoma only. Correct use of the systems requires expert knowledge, hampering their utility for nonexperts. Furthermore, there are no systems to detect other common skin cancer types, that is, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). As early diagnosis of skin cancer is essential, there is a need for a CDSS that is applicable to all types of skin lesions and is suitable for nonexperts. Nevus Doctor (ND) is a CDSS being developed by the authors. We here investigate ND's ability to detect both melanoma and NMSC and the opportunities for improvement. An independent test set of dermoscopic images of 870 skin lesions, including 44 melanomas and 101 NMSCs, were analysed by ND. Its sensitivity to melanoma and NMSC was compared to that of Mole Expert (ME), a commercially available CDSS, using the same set of lesions. ND and ME had similar sensitivity to melanoma. For ND at 95% melanoma sensitivity, the NMSC sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 12%. The melanomas misclassified by ND at 95% sensitivity were correctly classified by ME, and vice versa. ND is able to detect NMSC without sacrificing melanoma sensitivity. PMID:26693486

  4. Nurse Aide. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for nurses' aides. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify…

  5. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Mozambique.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Mozambique's National STD/AIDS Control Program (NACP) estimates that, at present, about 8% of the population is infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The epidemic is expected to peak in 1997. By 2001, Mozambique is projected to have 1,650,000 HIV-positive adults 15-49 years of age, of whom 500,000 will have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 500,000 AIDS orphans. Incidence rates are highest in the country's central region, the transport corridors, and urban centers. The rapid spread of HIV has been facilitated by extreme poverty, the social upheaval and erosion of traditional norms created by years of political conflict and civil war, destruction of the primary health care infrastructure, growth of the commercial sex work trade, and labor migration to and from neighboring countries with high HIV prevalence. Moreover, about 10% of the adult population suffers from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including genital ulcers. NACP, created in 1988, is attempting to curb the further spread of HIV through education aimed at changing high-risk behaviors and condom distribution to prevent STD transmission. Theater performances and radio/television programs are used to reach the large illiterate population. The integration of sex education and STD/AIDS information in the curricula of primary and secondary schools and universities has been approved by the Ministry of Education. Several private companies have been persuaded to distribute condoms to their employees. Finally, the confidentiality of HIV patients has been guaranteed. In 1993, the total AIDS budget was US $1.67 million, 50% of which was provided by the European Union. The European Commission seeks to develop a national strategy for managing STDs within the primary health care system. PMID:12320532

  6. Diagnostic utility of lymphocyte subset analysis in AIDS case finding.

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; MacLeod, A; Douglas, B; Maynard, M; Sharp, R; Wiggs, B

    1986-01-01

    Abnormalities of lymphocyte subsets, especially low absolute number of helper T cells, are characteristically present in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Similar abnormalities can be found in patients with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) and, to a lesser degree, in asymptomatic people who have been exposed to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III). Nevertheless, there appears to be a widespread perception that lymphocyte subset analysis may be useful in AIDS case finding within high-risk groups. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells in 33 patients with AIDS, 43 patients with PGL who had been referred for lymph node biopsy, 90 patients with PGL and 195 male homosexual controls. At conventional cutoff levels the tests did not appear to revise the probability of AIDS upward to any clinically significant degree when the pretest probability of AIDS was low. Lymphocyte subset analysis does not appear to be a cost-effective method of AIDS case finding in identified groups at risk in which the prevalence of AIDS is low. PMID:2938707

  7. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  8. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  9. SMART USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA) TO CHARACTERIZE SPERM MOTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) has evolved over the past fifteen years to provide an objective, practical means of measuring and characterizing the velocity and parttern of sperm motion. CASA instruments use video frame-grabber boards to capture multiple images of spermato...

  10. Computer aided stress analysis of long bones utilizing computer tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Marom, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    A computer aided analysis method, utilizing computed tomography (CT) has been developed, which together with a finite element program determines the stress-displacement pattern in a long bone section. The CT data file provides the geometry, the density and the material properties for the generated finite element model. A three-dimensional finite element model of a tibial shaft is automatically generated from the CT file by a pre-processing procedure for a finite element program. The developed pre-processor includes an edge detection algorithm which determines the boundaries of the reconstructed cross-sectional images of the scanned bone. A mesh generation procedure than automatically generates a three-dimensional mesh of a user-selected refinement. The elastic properties needed for the stress analysis are individually determined for each model element using the radiographic density (CT number) of each pixel with the elemental borders. The elastic modulus is determined from the CT radiographic density by using an empirical relationship from the literature. The generated finite element model, together with applied loads, determined from existing gait analysis and initial displacements, comprise a formatted input for the SAP IV finite element program. The output of this program, stresses and displacements at the model elements and nodes, are sorted and displayed by a developed post-processor to provide maximum and minimum values at selected locations in the model.

  11. Assessment of a CT image of the oral cavity with use of an aid focusing on a neck examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo-Jong; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Sung-Soo; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide clinical information on an oral cavity disease assessment that was conducted using a self-manufactured aid in a computed tomography (CT) oral examination. The study subjects included 30 patients, who were examined using a multi-detector CT (MDCT) 128-slice CT Scanner. Rapidia software was used for quantitative analysis, while a questionnaire and qualitative analysis were used to assess the convenience. The significance was evaluated using a Student's t-test and a Wilcoxon signed rank test. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. The convenience was evaluated by using a multiple response frequency analysis. The means and the standard deviations, which depended on use of the aid, were 2440.41 ± 4226.26 and 57443.86 ± 12445.91 respectively, the higher values being seen in the image assessment when the aid was used (p = 0.000). In a qualitative evaluation, the means and standard deviations were 2.52 ± 0.44 and 1.62 ± 0.22, respectively, the higher values being shown in the image assessment when the aid was used (p = 0.012). According to the convenience assessment that was conducted using a questionnaire, 80% of the respondents answered that they did not have any inconvenience when using the aid because the scores were 4 points or higher on the scale. In conclusion, the contrast increased when the aid, which enabled a clear identification of the anatomical structure, was inserted to examine the oral cavity. In particular, the patients considered the use of the aid to be convenient. Overall, the aid is recommended for use in a head/neck examination.

  12. Computer-aided assessment of cardiac computed tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Martin; Giger, Maryellen; Suzuki, Kenji; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2007-03-01

    The accurate interpretation of cardiac CT images is commonly hindered by the presence of motion artifacts. Since motion artifacts commonly can obscure the presence of coronary lesions, physicians must spend much effort analyzing images at multiple cardiac phases in order to determine which coronary structures are assessable for potential lesions. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier was designed to assign assessability indices to calcified plaques in individual region-of-interest (ROI) images reconstructed at multiple cardiac phases from two cardiac scans obtained at heart rates of 66 bpm and 90 bpm. Six individual features (volume, circularity, mean intensity, margin gradient, velocity, and acceleration) were used for analyzing images. Visually-assigned assessability indices were used as a continuous truth, and jack-knife analysis with four testing sets was used to evaluate the performance of the ANN classifier. In a study in which all six features were inputted into the ANN classifier, correlation coefficients of 0.962 +/- 0.006 and 0.935 +/- 0.023 between true and ANN-assigned assessability indices were obtained for databases corresponding to 66 bpm and 90 bpm, respectively.

  13. AIDS Education for Tanzanian Youth: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigler, Melissa H.; Kugler, K. C.; Komro, K. A.; Leshabari, M. T.; Klepp, K. I.

    2006-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical technique that can be used to identify mechanisms by which intervention programs achieve their effects. This paper presents the results of a mediation analysis of Ngao, an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education program that was implemented with school children in Grades 6 and 7 in Tanzania in the…

  14. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  15. Computer-aided interpretation of ICU portable chest images: automated detection of endotracheal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhimin; Li, Simon; Chen, Minjie; Wandtke, John

    2008-03-01

    In intensive care units (ICU), endotracheal (ET) tubes are inserted to assist patients who may have difficulty breathing. A malpositioned ET tube could lead to a collapsed lung, which is life threatening. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method that automatically detects the positioning of ET tubes on portable chest X-ray images. The method determines a region of interest (ROI) in the image and processes the raw image to provide edge enhancement for further analysis. The search of ET tubes is performed within the ROI. The ROI is determined based upon the analysis of the positions of the detected lung area and the spine in the image. Two feature images are generated: a Haar-like image and an edge image. The Haar-like image is generated by applying a Haar-like template to the raw ROI or the enhanced version of the raw ROI. The edge image is generated by applying a direction-specific edge detector. Both templates are designed to represent the characteristics of the ET tubes. Thresholds are applied to the Haar-like image and the edge image to detect initial tube candidates. Region growing, combined with curve fitting of the initial detected candidates, is performed to detect the entire ET tube. The region growing or "tube growing" is guided by the fitted curve of the initial candidates. Merging of the detected tubes after tube growing is performed to combine the detected broken tubes. Tubes within a predefined space can be merged if they meet a set of criteria. Features, such as width, length of the detected tubes, tube positions relative to the lung and spine, and the statistics from the analysis of the detected tube lines, are extracted to remove the false-positive detections in the images. The method is trained and evaluated on two different databases. Preliminary results show that computer-aided detection of tubes in portable chest X-ray images is promising. It is expected that automated detection of ET tubes could lead to timely detection of

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis of digital mammography images using unsupervised clustering and biclustering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Olfe, Mohamed A.; Al-Akwaa, Fadhl M.; Mohamed, Wael A.; Kadah, Yasser M.

    2010-03-01

    A new methodology for computer aided diagnosis in digital mammography using unsupervised classification and classdependent feature selection is presented. This technique considers unlabeled data and provides unsupervised classes that give a better insight into classes and their interrelationships, thus improving the overall effectiveness of the diagnosis. This technique is also extended to utilize biclustering methods, which allow for definition of unsupervised clusters of both pathologies and features. This has potential to provide more flexibility, and hence better diagnostic accuracy, than the commonly used feature selection strategies. The developed methods are applied to diagnose digital mammographic images from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database and the results confirm the potential for improving the current diagnostic rates.

  17. FFDM image quality assessment using computerized image texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Rachelle; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality (IQ) are routinely obtained during the evaluation of imaging systems. These measures, however, do not necessarily correlate with the IQ of the actual clinical images, which can also be affected by factors such as patient positioning. No quantitative method currently exists to evaluate clinical IQ. Therefore, we investigated the potential of using computerized image texture analysis to quantitatively assess IQ. Our hypothesis is that image texture features can be used to assess IQ as a measure of the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To test feasibility, the "Rachel" anthropomorphic breast phantom (Model 169, Gammex RMI) was imaged with a Senographe 2000D FFDM system (GE Healthcare) using 220 unique exposure settings (target/filter, kVs, and mAs combinations). The mAs were varied from 10%-300% of that required for an average glandular dose (AGD) of 1.8 mGy. A 2.5cm2 retroareolar region of interest (ROI) was segmented from each image. The SNR was computed from the ROIs segmented from images linear with dose (i.e., raw images) after flat-field and off-set correction. Image texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, and fractal dimension were computed from the Premium ViewTM postprocessed image ROIs. Multiple linear regression demonstrated a strong association between the computed image texture features and SNR (R2=0.92, p<=0.001). When including kV, target and filter as additional predictor variables, a stronger association with SNR was observed (R2=0.95, p<=0.001). The strong associations indicate that computerized image texture analysis can be used to measure image SNR and potentially aid in automating IQ assessment as a component of the clinical workflow. Further work is underway to validate our findings in larger clinical datasets.

  18. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. PMID:26346558

  19. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. PMID:26346558

  20. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Veta, Mitko; Pluim, Josien P W; van Diest, Paul J; Viergever, Max A

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of methods that have been proposed for the analysis of breast cancer histopathology images. This research area has become particularly relevant with the advent of whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, which can perform cost-effective and high-throughput histopathology slide digitization, and which aim at replacing the optical microscope as the primary tool used by pathologist. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancers among women, and image analysis methods that target this disease have a huge potential to reduce the workload in a typical pathology lab and to improve the quality of the interpretation. This paper is meant as an introduction for nonexperts. It starts with an overview of the tissue preparation, staining and slide digitization processes followed by a discussion of the different image processing techniques and applications, ranging from analysis of tissue staining to computer-aided diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer patients. PMID:24759275

  1. Image Analysis of Foods.

    PubMed

    Russ, John C

    2015-09-01

    The structure of foods, both natural and processed ones, is controlled by many variables ranging from biology to chemistry and mechanical forces. The structure also controls many of the properties of the food, including consumer acceptance, taste, mouthfeel, appearance, and so on, and nutrition. Imaging provides an important tool for measuring the structure of foods. This includes 2-dimensional (2D) images of surfaces and sections, for example, viewed in a microscope, as well as 3-dimensional (3D) images of internal structure as may be produced by confocal microscopy, or computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The use of images also guides robotics for harvesting and sorting. Processing of images may be needed to calibrate colors, reduce noise, enhance detail, and delineate structure and dimensions. Measurement of structural information such as volume fraction and internal surface areas, as well as the analysis of object size, location, and shape in both 2- and 3-dimensional images is illustrated and described, with primary references and examples from a wide range of applications. PMID:26270611

  2. An Analysis of the Secondary School Clerical Aide Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Judy K.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the secondary school clerical aide occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Seven duties are broken down…

  3. Issues of Aid to Nonpublic Schools. Summary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A.; Madaus, George F.

    This is a summary analysis of Volumes I, II, III, and IV (see ED 058 486--489 of Issues of Aid to Nonpublic Schools. The cardinal ideas in these volumes are discussed under the following topics: Popular Fallacies as to the Role of Nonpublic Schools; The Nature of the Crisis in Nonpublic Schools; and Perils of Public Policy. The central outcomes of…

  4. Prototypical Images in Condom Scripts among AIDS-Bereaved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Warren A.; Rubin, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five HIV-negative late adolescents (13 women and 12 men) who had lost a parent to AIDS generated vignettes in which the characters were deciding whether to use a condom (condom scripts). Two clinically trained judges rated the interpersonal tone of the condom scripts on 17 semantic differential scales. Three other clinically trained raters…

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis in radiological imaging: current status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Kunio

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Many different types of CAD schemes are being developed for detection and/or characterization of various lesions in medical imaging, including conventional projection radiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasound imaging. Commercial systems for detection of breast lesions on mammograms have been developed and have received FDA approval for clinical use. CAD may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a "second opinion". The purpose of CAD is to improve the quality and productivity of physicians in their interpretation of radiologic images. The quality of their work can be improved in terms of the accuracy and consistency of their radiologic diagnoses. In addition, the productivity of radiologists is expected to be improved by a reduction in the time required for their image readings. The computer output is derived from quantitative analysis of radiologic images by use of various methods and techniques in computer vision, artificial intelligence, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computer output may indicate a number of important parameters, for example, the locations of potential lesions such as lung cancer and breast cancer, the likelihood of malignancy of detected lesions, and the likelihood of various diseases based on differential diagnosis in a given image and clinical parameters. In this review article, the basic concept of CAD is first defined, and the current status of CAD research is then described. In addition, the potential of CAD in the future is discussed and predicted.

  6. A novel approach to computer-aided diagnosis of mammographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Sari-Sarraf, H.; Gleason, S.S.; Hudson, K.T.; Hubner, K.F.

    1996-08-01

    This is a work-in-progress report of a research endeavor that deals with the design and development of a novel approach to computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of mammographic images. With the initial emphasis being on the analysis of microcalcifications, the proposed approach defines a synergistic paradigm that utilizes new methodologies together with previously developed techniques. The new paradigm is intended to promote a higher degree of accuracy in CAD of mammograms with an increased overall throughput. The process of accomplishing these goals is initiated by the fractal encoding of the input image, which gives rise to the generation of focus-of-attention regions (FARs), that is, regions that contain anomalies. The primary thrust of this work is to demonstrate that by considering FARs, rather than the entire input image, the performances of the ensuing processes (i.e., segmentation, feature extraction, and classification) are enhanced in terms of accuracy and speed. After presenting the proposed approach to CAD of mammographic images, the paper describes the generation of FARs. Furthermore, an experimental study is included that demonstrates the impact of this front-end procedure on the process of microcalcification segmentation. Specifically, the experimentation reveals a dramatic decrease (increase) in the amount of input data (throughput), as well as a reduction in the number of false detections.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer based on fine needle biopsy microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Marek; Filipczuk, Paweł; Obuchowicz, Andrzej; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2013-10-01

    Prompt and widely available diagnostics of breast cancer is crucial for the prognosis of patients. One of the diagnostic methods is the analysis of cytological material from the breast. This examination requires extensive knowledge and experience of the cytologist. Computer-aided diagnosis can speed up the diagnostic process and allow for large-scale screening. One of the largest challenges in the automatic analysis of cytological images is the segmentation of nuclei. In this study, four different clustering algorithms are tested and compared in the task of fast nuclei segmentation. K-means, fuzzy C-means, competitive learning neural networks and Gaussian mixture models were incorporated for clustering in the color space along with adaptive thresholding in grayscale. These methods were applied in a medical decision support system for breast cancer diagnosis, where the cases were classified as either benign or malignant. In the segmented nuclei, 42 morphological, topological and texture features were extracted. Then, these features were used in a classification procedure with three different classifiers. The system was tested for classification accuracy by means of microscopic images of fine needle breast biopsies. In cooperation with the Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra, 500 real case medical images from 50 patients were collected. The acquired classification accuracy was approximately 96-100%, which is very promising and shows that the presented method ensures accurate and objective data acquisition that could be used to facilitate breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:24034748

  8. Computer-aided petrographic analysis of sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, P.A.; Helmold, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Thin-section point counting, mathematical and statistical analysis of petrographic-petrophysical data, report generation, and graphical presentation of results can be done efficiently by computer. Compositional and textural data are collected with a modified Schares point-counting system. The system uses an MS-DOS microcomputer programmed in BASIC to drive a motorized stage attached to a polarizing microscope. Numeric codes for up to 500 different categories of minerals, cements, pores, etc, are input using a separate keypad. Calculation and printing of constituent percentages, QFR, Folk name, and grain-size distribution are completed in seconds after data entry. Raw data files, compatible with software such as Lotus 1-2-3, SPSS, and SAS, are stored on floppy disk. Petrographic data files are transferred directly to a mainframe, merged with log and petrophysical data, analyzed statistically with SAS, and reports generated. SAS/GRAPH and TELL-A-GRAF routines linked with SAS generate a variety of cross plots, histograms, pie and bar charts, ternary diagrams, and vertical variation diagrams (e.g., depth vs. porosity, permeability, mean size, sorting, and percent grains-matrix-cement).

  9. Picosecond Imaging Circuit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kash, Jeffrey A.

    1998-03-01

    With ever-increasing complexity, probing the internal operation of a silicon IC becomes more challenging. Present methods of internal probing are becoming obsolete. We have discovered that a very weak picosecond pulse of light is emitted by each FET in a CMOS circuit whenever the circuit changes logic state. This pulsed emission can be simultaneously imaged and time resolved, using a technique we have named Picosecond Imaging Circuit Analysis (PICA). With a suitable imaging detector, PICA allows time resolved measurement on thousands of devices simultaneously. Computer videos made from measurements on real IC's will be shown. These videos, along with a more quantitative evaluation of the light emission, permit the complete operation of an IC to be measured in a non-invasive way with picosecond time resolution.

  10. Computer-aided detection of HER2 amplification status using FISH images: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Surti, Urvashi; Bhargava, Rohit; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    The amplification status of human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2) genes is strongly associated with clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Tumor Marker Guidelines Panel has recommended routine testing of HER2 status on all newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancers since 2001. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides superior accuracy as compared with other approaches, current manual FISH analysis methods are somewhat subjective, tedious, and may introduce interreader variability. The goal of this preliminary study is to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to assess HER2 status using FISH images. Forty FISH images were selected for this study from our genetic laboratory. The CAD scheme first applies an adaptive, iterative threshold method followed by a labeling algorithm to segment cells of possible interest. A set of classification rules is then used to identify analyzable interphase cells and discard nonanalyzable cells due to cell overlapping and/or other image staining debris (or artifacts). The scheme then maps the detected analyzable cells onto two other gray scale images corresponding to the red and green color of the original image followed by application of a raster scan and labeling algorithms to separately detect the HER-2/neu ("red") and CEP17 ("green") FISH signals. A simple distance based criterion is applied to detect and merge split FISH signals within each cell. The CAD scheme computes the ratio between independent "red" and "green" FISH signals of all analyzable cells identified on an image. If the ratio is >= 2.0, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from a HER2+ case; otherwise, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from HER2- case. When we applied the CAD scheme to the testing dataset, the average computed HER2 amplification ratios were 1.06+/-0.25 and 2.53+/-0.81 for HER2- and HER2+ samples, respectively. The

  11. Image analysis library software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Bryant, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Image Analysis Library consists of a collection of general purpose mathematical/statistical routines and special purpose data analysis/pattern recognition routines basic to the development of image analysis techniques for support of current and future Earth Resources Programs. Work was done to provide a collection of computer routines and associated documentation which form a part of the Image Analysis Library.

  12. Remote laboratory for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Yin, Yongkai; Liu, Zeyi; He, Wenqi; Li, Boqun; Peng, Xiang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the establishment of a remote laboratory for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology is presented. Proposed remote laboratory consists of three major components, including the network-based infrastructure for remote control and data management, the identity verification scheme for user authentication and management, and the local experimental system for phase-aided 3D microscopic imaging and metrology. The virtual network computer (VNC) is introduced to remotely control the 3D microscopic imaging system. Data storage and management are handled through the open source project eSciDoc. Considering the security of remote laboratory, the fingerprint is used for authentication with an optical joint transform correlation (JTC) system. The phase-aided fringe projection 3D microscope (FP-3DM), which can be remotely controlled, is employed to achieve the 3D imaging and metrology of micro objects.

  13. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoitsis, John; Valavanis, Ioannis; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G.; Golemati, Spyretta; Nikita, Alexandra; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2006-12-01

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis.

  14. Medical Image Analysis Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  15. Digital Image Analysis of Cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Image analysis is the extraction of meaningful information from images, mainly digital images by means of digital processing techniques. The field was established in the 1950s and coincides with the advent of computer technology, as image analysis is profoundly reliant on computer processing. As t...

  16. Electronic Imaging in Admissions, Records & Financial Aid Offices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Helen L.

    Over the years, efforts have been made to work more efficiently with the ever increasing number of records and paper documents that cross workers' desks. Filing records on optical disk through electronic imaging is an alternative that many feel is the answer to successful document management. The pioneering efforts in electronic imaging in…

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided interstitial application of laser aided by fiber optic temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Keyvan; Shellock, Frank G.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Castro, Dan J.

    1992-04-01

    In order to further understand signal variations observed on magnetic resonance imaging scans of interstitial laser heating, a commercial multichannel fluoroptic thermometer, equipped with fiber optic sensors, was employed in conjunction with the laser/MRI phototherapy system. Three calibrated fiber optic sensors of the thermometer were used to measure temperature changes in ex-vivo sheep's brain at various distances directly across from the beam of a Nd:YAG laser emitted from a bare fiber. Laser was operated at 5 W for 220 sec. Temperature was measured every 10 seconds and MR images were acquired during and after laser irradiation until temperature in all probes returned to the equilibrium level of prelaser irradiation. Image contrast analysis of the heated region showed that MRI signal variations, during heating and cooling periods, correlated well with the changes in temperature. It is concluded that direct thermometry of MRI-monitored laser application will aid in understanding the effects of high focal heating on the MRI signal.

  18. Radar image analysis utilizing junctive image metamorphosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Peter G.; Gouge, Sally B.; Gouge, Jim O.

    1998-09-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to investigate the ability of algorithms developed for medical sonogram image analysis, to be trained for extraction of cartographic information from synthetic aperture radar imagery. BioComputer Research Inc. has applied proprietary `junctive image metamorphosis' algorithms to cancer cell recognition and identification in ultrasound prostate images. These algorithms have been shown to support automatic radar image feature detection and identification. Training set images were used to develop determinants for representative point, line and area features, which were used on test images to identify and localize the features of interest. The software is computationally conservative; operating on a PC platform in real time. The algorithms are robust; having applicability to be trained for feature recognition on any digital imagery, not just those formed from reflected energy, such as sonograms and radar images. Applications include land mass characterization, feature identification, target recognition, and change detection.

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis based on quantitative elastographic features with supersonic shear wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Zeng, Jie; Niu, Lili; Zeng, Qingjing; Wu, Tao; Wang, Congzhi; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-02-01

    Supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) has recently been explored as a technique to evaluate tissue elasticity modulus and has become a valuable tool for tumor characterization. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system that can acquire quantitative elastographic information from color SSI elastography images automatically and objectively for the purpose of classifying benign and malignant breast tumors. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and SSI elastography images of 125 breast tumors (81 benign, 44 malignant), in 93 consecutive patients (mean age: 40 y, age range: 16-75 y), were obtained. After reconstruction of tissue elasticity data and automatic segmentation of each breast tumor, 10 quantitative elastographic features of the tumor and peri-tumoral areas, respectively (elasticity modulus mean, maximum and standard deviation, hardness degree and elasticity ratio), were computed and evaluated. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for optimum classification via combination of these features. The B-mode Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was used to compare gray-scale US and SSI elastography with respect to diagnostic performance. Histopathologic examination was used as the reference standard. Student's t-test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, the point biserial correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed for statistical analysis. As a result, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of benign/malignant classification were 95.2% (119/125), 90.9% (40/44), 97.5% (79/81), 95.2% (40/42) and 95.2% (79/83) for the CAD scheme, respectively, and 79.2% (99/125), 90.9% (40/44), 72.8% (59/81), 64.5% (40/62) and 93.7% (59/63) for BI-RADS assessment, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az value) for the proposed CAD system using the combination of elastographic features was

  20. Automated image analysis of uterine cervical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Gu, Jia; Ferris, Daron; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality of women in developing countries. If detected early and treated adequately, cervical cancer can be virtually prevented. Cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician with a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. In colposcopy, epithelium that turns white after application of acetic acid is called acetowhite epithelium. Acetowhite epithelium is one of the major diagnostic features observed in detecting cancer and pre-cancerous regions. Automatic extraction of acetowhite regions from cervical images has been a challenging task due to specular reflection, various illumination conditions, and most importantly, large intra-patient variation. This paper presents a multi-step acetowhite region detection system to analyze the acetowhite lesions in cervical images automatically. First, the system calibrates the color of the cervical images to be independent of screening devices. Second, the anatomy of the uterine cervix is analyzed in terms of cervix region, external os region, columnar region, and squamous region. Third, the squamous region is further analyzed and subregions based on three levels of acetowhite are identified. The extracted acetowhite regions are accompanied by color scores to indicate the different levels of acetowhite. The system has been evaluated by 40 human subjects' data and demonstrates high correlation with experts' annotations.

  1. 78 FR 58305 - Honeywell International, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

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  2. 75 FR 46940 - Nufarm Limited; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

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  3. 75 FR 57272 - The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Dun & Bradstreet Corporation; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment... or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the... (30) days. The following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent...

  4. 77 FR 33218 - Graco, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

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  5. 77 FR 2543 - Upromise, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

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    2012-01-18

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  6. 77 FR 63833 - Equifax Information Services LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

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  7. 76 FR 26729 - Ceridian Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

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    2011-05-09

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  8. 75 FR 42749 - Fidelity National Financial, Inc.; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

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  9. 75 FR 5322 - Indoor Tanning Association; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

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    2010-02-02

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  10. 78 FR 55717 - TRENDnet, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

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  11. 77 FR 28388 - Myspace, LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

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  12. 76 FR 18762 - Google, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

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  13. 75 FR 37806 - Twitter, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

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  14. 78 FR 300 - IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

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  15. 75 FR 48338 - Intel Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

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  16. High-resolution ultrasound-aided biophotonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong V; Wang, Xueding; Ku, Geng; Xie, Xueyi; Stoica, George

    2004-01-01

    Optical contrast is sensitive to functional parameters, including the oxygen saturation and total concentration of hemoglobin, in biological tissues. However, due to the overwhelming scattering encountered by light in tissues, traditional optical modalities cannot provide satisfactory spatial resolution beyond the ballistic (a few hundred microns) and quasiballistic (1-2 mm) regimes. Photoacoustic tomography is based on the high optical contrast yet utilizing the high ultrasonic resolution. Our work in this emerging area of research will be summarized in this invited talk. In this technology, a diffraction-based inverse-source problem is solved in the image reconstruction, for which we developed the rigorous reconstruction theory. We implemented a prototype and accomplished noninvasive transdermal and transcranial functional imaging of small-animal brains in vivo. Change in the cerebral blood oxygenation of a rat, as a result of the alternation from hyperoxia to hypoxia, was imaged successfully. PMID:17271539

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  18. Kinematics Analysis of an Aided Robot for Needle Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Dedong; Wang, Shan; Bai, Huiquan; Zheng, Haojun

    The kinematic relationship between the needle base and the robot's joints is analyzed. The analysis process is based on the aided needle-insertion robot built by our group. The thinking of needle-inserting procedure is confirming the needle base's posture before the needle inserted into tissue. The method of Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameters is used to establish a link robot body-frames with the structural characteristics of the robot. After analysing kinematics, the kinematics equation is presented. The kinematics inverse solutions are obtained with the analytical method and geometry analysis method.

  19. Developing a Diagnosis Aiding Ontology Based on Hysteroscopy Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, Marios; Korfiatis, Nikolaos

    In this paper we describe an ontology design process which will introduce the steps and mechanisms required in order to create and develop an ontology which will be able to represent and describe the contents and attributes of hysteroscopy images, as well as their relationships, thus providing a useful ground for the development of tools related with medical diagnosis from physicians.

  20. Computer aided detection of oral lesions on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galib, S.; Islam, F.; Abir, M.; Lee, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions in mandibular region from dental CT images is proposed. Two methods were developed to recognize two types of lesions namely (1) Close border (CB) lesions and (2) Open border (OB) lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. For the detection of CB lesions, fifteen features were extracted from each initial lesion candidates and multi layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to classify suspicious regions. Moreover, OB lesions were detected using a rule based image processing method, where no feature extraction or classification algorithm were used. The results were validated using a CT dataset of 52 patients, where 22 patients had abnormalities and 30 patients were normal. Using non-training dataset, CB detection algorithm yielded 71% sensitivity with 0.31 false positives per patient. Furthermore, OB detection algorithm achieved 100% sensitivity with 0.13 false positives per patient. Results suggest that, the proposed framework, which consists of two methods, has the potential to be used in clinical context, and assist radiologists for better diagnosis.

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  2. Statistical image analysis of longitudinal RAVENS images

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonjoo; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Reich, Daniel S.; Pham, Dzung L.

    2015-01-01

    Regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space (RAVENS) are transformation images used in the study of brain morphometry. In this paper, RAVENS images are analyzed using a longitudinal variant of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and longitudinal functional principal component analysis (LFPCA) for high-dimensional images. We demonstrate that the latter overcomes the limitations of standard longitudinal VBM analyses, which does not separate registration errors from other longitudinal changes and baseline patterns. This is especially important in contexts where longitudinal changes are only a small fraction of the overall observed variability, which is typical in normal aging and many chronic diseases. Our simulation study shows that LFPCA effectively separates registration error from baseline and longitudinal signals of interest by decomposing RAVENS images measured at multiple visits into three components: a subject-specific imaging random intercept that quantifies the cross-sectional variability, a subject-specific imaging slope that quantifies the irreversible changes over multiple visits, and a subject-visit specific imaging deviation. We describe strategies to identify baseline/longitudinal variation and registration errors combined with covariates of interest. Our analysis suggests that specific regional brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement are associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression. PMID:26539071

  3. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  4. Laser imaging and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture in prosthetics and orthotics.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, John P

    2006-02-01

    Although Hanger Orthopedic Group, Inc., has been developing clinical protocols for its INSIGNIA scanner for more than 2 years, there are many applications that are currently in development and will be released over the next 2-year period after this publication. It is the goal of Hanger Orthopedic Group, Inc., to replace all plaster casting procedures with the laser scan and move toward a paperless environment where all images and documents are passed through its virtual network. INSIGNIA currently has five major production centers throughout the United States, which support more than 600 INSIGNIA certified clinicians. These clinicians staff more than 600 clinics in North America, all under the Hanger company name. The central fabrication service and the central design center processes hundreds of shapes per day (Fig. 27). So that any clinician in the field can use the expertise of the central designers and central fabricators to help with overflow or problems they might be having, the network that exists within Hanger is tied together and enhanced by INSIGNIA. Through virtual modification and centralization of these services, each patient receives the virtual collaboration of several clinicians with a total of years of experience. INSIGNIA has enhanced the patient experience. The enhancement is not only in removing the plaster from the process, but also in exposing each patient to the team of prosthetic experts working collaboratively behind the scenes. The rehabilitation industry continues to be bombarded with compliance paperwork and justifications. The INSIGNIA scan and resulting measurement reports give inherent strength to justifications based on volume change, surgical revisions, or tissue change. The files are kept in a data warehouse where they are vaulted and preserved presumably forever. Also, any of the shape graphics or measurement instruments can be printed into a discrete report that can become part of the patient's permanent record. Many physicians

  5. 78 FR 13673 - HTC America, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... America, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission.... The attached Analysis To Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and... Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent agreement, and the allegations in the...

  6. Multidisciplinary Expert-aided Analysis and Design (MEAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Thomas C.; Taylor, James

    1989-01-01

    The MEAD Computer Program (MCP) is being developed under the Multidisciplinary Expert-Aided Analysis and Design (MEAD) Project as a CAD environment in which integrated flight, propulsion, and structural control systems can be designed and analyzed. The MCP has several embedded computer-aided control engineering (CACE) packages, a user interface (UI), a supervisor, a data-base manager (DBM), and an expert system (ES). The supervisor monitors and coordinates the operation of the CACE packages, the DBM; the ES, and the UI. The DBM tracks the control design process. Models created or installed by the MCP are tracked by date and version, and results are associated with the specific model version with which they were generated. The ES is used to relieve the control engineer from tedious and cumbersome tasks in the iterative design process. The UI provides the capability for a novice as well as an expert to utilize the MCP easily and effectively. The MCP version 2(MCP-2.0) is fully developed for flight control system design and analysis. Propulsion system modeling, analysis, and simulation is also supported; the same is true for structural models represented in state-space form. The ultimate goal is to cover the integration of flight, propulsion, and structural control engineering, including all discipline-specific functionality and interfaces. The current MCP-2.0 components and functionality are discussed.

  7. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    PubMed

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time. PMID:27503078

  8. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  9. Financial Aid Tipping Points: An Analysis of Aid and Academic Achievement at a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…

  10. Medical image analysis with artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Trundle, P; Ren, J

    2010-12-01

    Given that neural networks have been widely reported in the research community of medical imaging, we provide a focused literature survey on recent neural network developments in computer-aided diagnosis, medical image segmentation and edge detection towards visual content analysis, and medical image registration for its pre-processing and post-processing, with the aims of increasing awareness of how neural networks can be applied to these areas and to provide a foundation for further research and practical development. Representative techniques and algorithms are explained in detail to provide inspiring examples illustrating: (i) how a known neural network with fixed structure and training procedure could be applied to resolve a medical imaging problem; (ii) how medical images could be analysed, processed, and characterised by neural networks; and (iii) how neural networks could be expanded further to resolve problems relevant to medical imaging. In the concluding section, a highlight of comparisons among many neural network applications is included to provide a global view on computational intelligence with neural networks in medical imaging. PMID:20713305

  11. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  12. Shadow and feature recognition aids for rapid image geo-registration in UAV vision system architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Wolfgang; Kölsch, Mathias

    2009-05-01

    The problem of real-time image geo-referencing is encountered in all vision based cognitive systems. In this paper we present a model-image feedback approach to this problem and show how it can be applied to image exploitation from Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) vision systems. By calculating reference images from a known terrain database, using a novel ray trace algorithm, we are able to eliminate foreshortening, elevation, and lighting distortions, introduce registration aids and reduce the geo-referencing problem to a linear transformation search over the two dimensional image space. A method for shadow calculation that maintains real-time performance is also presented. The paper then discusses the implementation of our model-image feedback approach in the Perspective View Nascent Technology (PVNT) software package and provides sample results from UAV mission control and target mensuration experiments conducted at China Lake and Camp Roberts, California.

  13. Computer aided morphometric analysis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Gupta, J; Miglani, R

    2016-01-01

    We compared the changes in the cells in the basal layer of normal mucosa, oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computer aided image analysis of tissue sections. We investigated three morphometric parameters: nuclear area (NA), cell area (CA) and their ratio (NA:CA). NA and NA:CA ratio showed a statistically significant increase from dysplasia to increasing grades of OSCC. Nuclear size was useful for differentiating normal tissue, potentially malignant leukoplakia and OSCC. PMID:26983454

  14. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  15. A review of computer-aided diagnosis in thoracic and colonic imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging has been indispensable in medicine since the discovery of x-rays. Medical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and on the causes of their symptoms and diseases. As imaging technologies advance, a large number of medical images are produced which physicians/radiologists must interpret. Thus, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making based on medical images. Consequently, computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) has been investigated and has been an active research area in medical imaging. CAD is defined as detection and/or diagnosis made by a radiologist/physician who takes into account the computer output as a “second opinion”. In CAD research, detection and diagnosis of lung and colorectal cancer in thoracic and colonic imaging constitute major areas, because lung and colorectal cancers are the leading and second leading causes, respectively, of cancer deaths in the U.S. and also in other countries. In this review, CAD of the thorax and colon, including CAD for detection and diagnosis of lung nodules in thoracic CT, and that for detection of polyps in CT colonography, are reviewed. PMID:23256078

  16. Spotlight-8 Image Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert; Wright, Ted

    2006-01-01

    Spotlight is a cross-platform GUI-based software package designed to perform image analysis on sequences of images generated by combustion and fluid physics experiments run in a microgravity environment. Spotlight can perform analysis on a single image in an interactive mode or perform analysis on a sequence of images in an automated fashion. Image processing operations can be employed to enhance the image before various statistics and measurement operations are performed. An arbitrarily large number of objects can be analyzed simultaneously with independent areas of interest. Spotlight saves results in a text file that can be imported into other programs for graphing or further analysis. Spotlight can be run on Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Apple OS X platforms.

  17. A novel computer-aided lung nodule detection system for CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Maxine; Deklerck, Rudi; Jansen, Bart; Bister, Michel; Cornelis, Jan

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The paper presents a complete computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. A new mixed feature selection and classification methodology is applied for the first time on a difficult medical image analysis problem. Methods: The CAD system was trained and tested on images from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) on the National Cancer Institute website. The detection stage of the system consists of a nodule segmentation method based on nodule and vessel enhancement filters and a computed divergence feature to locate the centers of the nodule clusters. In the subsequent classification stage, invariant features, defined on a gauge coordinates system, are used to differentiate between real nodules and some forms of blood vessels that are easily generating false positive detections. The performance of the novel feature-selective classifier based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is compared with that of two other established classifiers, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and fixed-topology neural networks. A set of 235 randomly selected cases from the LIDC database was used to train the CAD system. The system has been tested on 125 independent cases from the LIDC database. Results: The overall performance of the fixed-topology ANN classifier slightly exceeds that of the other classifiers, provided the number of internal ANN nodes is chosen well. Making educated guesses about the number of internal ANN nodes is not needed in the new feature-selective classifier, and therefore this classifier remains interesting due to its flexibility and adaptability to the complexity of the classification problem to be solved. Our fixed-topology ANN classifier with 11 hidden nodes reaches a detection sensitivity of 87.5% with an average of four false positives per scan, for nodules with diameter greater than or equal to 3 mm. Analysis of the false positive items

  18. Oncological image analysis: medical and molecular image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Michael

    2007-03-01

    This paper summarises the work we have been doing on joint projects with GE Healthcare on colorectal and liver cancer, and with Siemens Molecular Imaging on dynamic PET. First, we recall the salient facts about cancer and oncological image analysis. Then we introduce some of the work that we have done on analysing clinical MRI images of colorectal and liver cancer, specifically the detection of lymph nodes and segmentation of the circumferential resection margin. In the second part of the paper, we shift attention to the complementary aspect of molecular image analysis, illustrating our approach with some recent work on: tumour acidosis, tumour hypoxia, and multiply drug resistant tumours.

  19. State Aid and Student Performance: A Supply-Demand Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Zheng, Yuqing; Brehmer, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Using a supply-demand framework, a six-equation model is specified to generate hypotheses about the relationship between state aid and student performance. Theory predicts that an increase in state or federal aid provides an incentive to decrease local funding, but that the disincentive associated with increased state aid is moderated when federal…

  20. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  1. Hyperspectral image analysis. A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Amigo, José Manuel; Babamoradi, Hamid; Elcoroaristizabal, Saioa

    2015-10-01

    This tutorial aims at providing guidelines and practical tools to assist with the analysis of hyperspectral images. Topics like hyperspectral image acquisition, image pre-processing, multivariate exploratory analysis, hyperspectral image resolution, classification and final digital image processing will be exposed, and some guidelines given and discussed. Due to the broad character of current applications and the vast number of multivariate methods available, this paper has focused on an industrial chemical framework to explain, in a step-wise manner, how to develop a classification methodology to differentiate between several types of plastics by using Near infrared hyperspectral imaging and Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis. Thus, the reader is guided through every single step and oriented in order to adapt those strategies to the user's case. PMID:26481986

  2. A level set segmentation for computer-aided dental x-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Fevens, Thomas; Krzyzak, Adam; Li, Song

    2005-04-01

    A level-set-based segmentation framework for Computer Aided Dental X-rays Analysis (CADXA) is proposed. In this framework, we first employ level set methods to segment the dental X-ray image into three regions: Normal Region (NR), Potential Abnormal Region (PAR), Abnormal and Background Region (ABR). The segmentation results are then used to build uncertainty maps based on a proposed uncertainty measurement method and an analysis scheme is applied. The level set segmentation method consists of two stages: a training stage and a segmentation stage. During the training stage, manually chosen representative images are segmented using hierarchical level set region detection. The segmentation results are used to train a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. During the segmentation stage, a dental X-ray image is first classified by the trained SVM. The classifier provides an initial contour which is close to the correct boundary for the coupled level set method which is then used to further segment the image. Different dental X-ray images are used to test the framework. Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves faster level set segmentation and provides more detailed information and indications of possible problems to the dentist. To our best knowledge, this is one of the first results on CADXA using level set methods.

  3. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  4. Image-based diagnostic aid for interstitial lung disease with secondary data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Müller, Henning; Hidki, Asmâa; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2007-03-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a relatively heterogeneous group of around 150 illnesses with often very unspecific symptoms. The most complete imaging method for the characterisation of ILDs is the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest but a correct interpretation of these images is difficult even for specialists as many diseases are rare and thus little experience exists. Moreover, interpreting HRCT images requires knowledge of the context defined by clinical data of the studied case. A computerised diagnostic aid tool based on HRCT images with associated medical data to retrieve similar cases of ILDs from a dedicated database can bring quick and precious information for example for emergency radiologists. The experience from a pilot project highlighted the need for detailed database containing high-quality annotations in addition to clinical data. The state of the art is studied to identify requirements for image-based diagnostic aid for interstitial lung disease with secondary data integration. The data acquisition steps are detailed. The selection of the most relevant clinical parameters is done in collaboration with lung specialists from current literature, along with knowledge bases of computer-based diagnostic decision support systems. In order to perform high-quality annotations of the interstitial lung tissue in the HRCT images an annotation software and its own file format is implemented for DICOM images. A multimedia database is implemented to store ILD cases with clinical data and annotated image series. Cases from the University & University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG) are retrospectively and prospectively collected to populate the database. Currently, 59 cases with certified diagnosis and their clinical parameters are stored in the database as well as 254 image series of which 26 have their regions of interest annotated. The available data was used to test primary visual features for the classification of lung tissue patterns

  5. Ratsnake: A Versatile Image Annotation Tool with Application to Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Iakovidis, D. K.; Goudas, T.; Smailis, C.; Maglogiannis, I.

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation and annotation are key components of image-based medical computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. In this paper we present Ratsnake, a publicly available generic image annotation tool providing annotation efficiency, semantic awareness, versatility, and extensibility, features that can be exploited to transform it into an effective CAD system. In order to demonstrate this unique capability, we present its novel application for the evaluation and quantification of salient objects and structures of interest in kidney biopsy images. Accurate annotation identifying and quantifying such structures in microscopy images can provide an estimation of pathogenesis in obstructive nephropathy, which is a rather common disease with severe implication in children and infants. However a tool for detecting and quantifying the disease is not yet available. A machine learning-based approach, which utilizes prior domain knowledge and textural image features, is considered for the generation of an image force field customizing the presented tool for automatic evaluation of kidney biopsy images. The experimental evaluation of the proposed application of Ratsnake demonstrates its efficiency and effectiveness and promises its wide applicability across a variety of medical imaging domains. PMID:24616617

  6. 75 FR 10799 - Transitions Optical, Inc.; Analysis to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Transitions Optical, Inc.; Analysis to Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed... prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to... public record for a period of thirty (30) days. The following Analysis to Aid Public Comment...

  7. High Tech Aids Low Vision: A Review of Image Processing for the Visually Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Moshtael, Howard; Aslam, Tariq; Underwood, Ian; Dhillon, Baljean

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in digital image processing provide promising methods for maximizing the residual vision of the visually impaired. This paper seeks to introduce this field to the readership and describe its current state as found in the literature. A systematic search revealed 37 studies that measure the value of image processing techniques for subjects with low vision. The techniques used are categorized according to their effect and the principal findings are summarized. The majority of participants preferred enhanced images over the original for a wide range of enhancement types. Adapting the contrast and spatial frequency content often improved performance at object recognition and reading speed, as did techniques that attenuate the image background and a technique that induced jitter. A lack of consistency in preference and performance measures was found, as well as a lack of independent studies. Nevertheless, the promising results should encourage further research in order to allow their widespread use in low-vision aids. PMID:26290777

  8. Underwater terrain-aided navigation based on multibeam bathymetric sonar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziqi; Bian, Hongyu; Zielinski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Underwater terrain-aided navigation is used to complement traditional inertial navigation employed by autonomous underwater vehicles during lengthy missions. It can provide fixed estimations by matching real-time depth data with a digital terrain map. This study presents the concept of using image processing techniques in the underwater terrain matching process. A traditional gray-scale histogram of an image is enriched by incorporation with spatial information in pixels. Edge corner pixels are then defined and used to construct an edge corner histogram, which it employs as a template to scan the digital terrain map and estimate the fixes of the vehicle by searching the correlation peak. Simulations are performed to investigate the robustness of the proposed method, particularly in relation to its sensitivity to background noise, the scale of real-time images, and the travel direction of the vehicle. At an image resolution of 1 m2/pixel, the accuracy of localization is more than 10 meters.

  9. Meshfree analysis with the aid of NURBS boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Sheng-Wei; Lin, Shih-Po

    2016-09-01

    We present a meshfree analysis framework to integrate the geometric exactness of non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS)-based isogeometric analysis (IGA) (Hughes et al., Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 194:4135-4195, 2005) with the flexibility of meshfree approximations. In the framework, only the NURBS boundary surface immediately available from CAD tools is used to describe the exact problem domain, and meshfree particles are inserted inside the boundary surface, in a flexible manner, for construction of the approximation for analysis. Nitche's method is employed for imposing essential boundary conditions and the domain integration in the Galerkin formulation is performed based on variationally consistent integration (VCI) to recover integration exactness. The NURBS boundary surface from CAD serves as an aid in selecting particle distributions and as the integration net for the boundary integration required both for the Nitche's method and the VCI. As shown in numerical studies, the VCI is essential for the solution accuracy of the method. Several benchmarks are tested to examine the effectiveness of the proposed framework and numerical results are compared with those obtained by the IGA.

  10. Meshfree analysis with the aid of NURBS boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Sheng-Wei; Lin, Shih-Po

    2016-05-01

    We present a meshfree analysis framework to integrate the geometric exactness of non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS)-based isogeometric analysis (IGA) (Hughes et al., Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 194:4135-4195, 2005) with the flexibility of meshfree approximations. In the framework, only the NURBS boundary surface immediately available from CAD tools is used to describe the exact problem domain, and meshfree particles are inserted inside the boundary surface, in a flexible manner, for construction of the approximation for analysis. Nitche's method is employed for imposing essential boundary conditions and the domain integration in the Galerkin formulation is performed based on variationally consistent integration (VCI) to recover integration exactness. The NURBS boundary surface from CAD serves as an aid in selecting particle distributions and as the integration net for the boundary integration required both for the Nitche's method and the VCI. As shown in numerical studies, the VCI is essential for the solution accuracy of the method. Several benchmarks are tested to examine the effectiveness of the proposed framework and numerical results are compared with those obtained by the IGA.

  11. Histopathological Image Analysis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Boucheron, Laura; Can, Ali; Madabhushi, Anant; Rajpoot, Nasir; Yener, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic increases in computational power and improvement in image analysis algorithms have allowed the development of powerful computer-assisted analytical approaches to radiological data. With the recent advent of whole slide digital scanners, tissue histopathology slides can now be digitized and stored in digital image form. Consequently, digitized tissue histopathology has now become amenable to the application of computerized image analysis and machine learning techniques. Analogous to the role of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms in medical imaging to complement the opinion of a radiologist, CAD algorithms have begun to be developed for disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction to complement to the opinion of the pathologist. In this paper, we review the recent state of the art CAD technology for digitized histopathology. This paper also briefly describes the development and application of novel image analysis technology for a few specific histopathology related problems being pursued in the United States and Europe. PMID:20671804

  12. Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit (FIIAT) is a C library that provides image analysis functions in a single, portable package. It provides basic low-level filtering, texture analysis, and subwindow descriptor for applications dealing with image interpretation and object recognition. Designed with spaceflight in mind, it addresses: Ease of integration (minimal external dependencies) Fast, real-time operation using integer arithmetic where possible (useful for platforms lacking a dedicated floatingpoint processor) Written entirely in C (easily modified) Mostly static memory allocation 8-bit image data The basic goal of the FIIAT library is to compute meaningful numerical descriptors for images or rectangular image regions. These n-vectors can then be used directly for novelty detection or pattern recognition, or as a feature space for higher-level pattern recognition tasks. The library provides routines for leveraging training data to derive descriptors that are most useful for a specific data set. Its runtime algorithms exploit a structure known as the "integral image." This is a caching method that permits fast summation of values within rectangular regions of an image. This integral frame facilitates a wide range of fast image-processing functions. This toolkit has applicability to a wide range of autonomous image analysis tasks in the space-flight domain, including novelty detection, object and scene classification, target detection for autonomous instrument placement, and science analysis of geomorphology. It makes real-time texture and pattern recognition possible for platforms with severe computational restraints. The software provides an order of magnitude speed increase over alternative software libraries currently in use by the research community. FIIAT can commercially support intelligent video cameras used in intelligent surveillance. It is also useful for object recognition by robots or other autonomous vehicles

  13. Pregnancy, STDS, and AIDS prevention: evaluation of New Image Teen Theatre.

    PubMed

    Hillman, E; Hovell, M F; Williams, L; Hofstetter, R; Burdyshaw, C; Rugg, D; Atkins, C; Elder, J; Blumberg, E

    1991-01-01

    New Image Teen Theatre combines peer education and theatre in an informative and entertaining package. This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of New Image Teen Theatre on altering teenagers' attitudes, knowledge, and intentions regarding sexual behavior. A total of 143 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 viewed the performance. The performance focused on the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS, and STDs and included content aimed at increasing communication. Teen participants completed pretest and posttest questionnaires. Almost half of the adolescents reported having engaged in sexual intercourse. About one third of the sexually active reported never using birth control, and only 21% reported consistent use of condoms. These results confirm adolescents' risk for pregnancy, STDs, and AIDS in particular. Following the performance, the teens reported significantly more willingness to discuss sexual issues with others, significantly greater intention to use birth control (for sexually active teens), and demonstrated significantly greater sexual knowledge. Furthermore, they indicated that they had experienced more positive emotions than negative emotions while viewing the production. Results suggest that theatre education may set the stage for more comprehensive interventions designed to prevent pregnancy, STDs, and AIDS. PMID:1777341

  14. Image Analysis in Surgical Pathology.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Mark C; Monaco, James P; Bui, Marilyn M

    2016-06-01

    Digitization of glass slides of surgical pathology samples facilitates a number of value-added capabilities beyond what a pathologist could previously do with a microscope. Image analysis is one of the most fundamental opportunities to leverage the advantages that digital pathology provides. The ability to quantify aspects of a digital image is an extraordinary opportunity to collect data with exquisite accuracy and reliability. In this review, we describe the history of image analysis in pathology and the present state of technology processes as well as examples of research and clinical use. PMID:27241112

  15. Who Gets More Financial Aid in China? A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Po

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese financial aid system intends to increase the affordability of postsecondary education and provide access to college for disadvantaged students. However, the research base for access to aid in China is extremely thin. Using data from a large cross-sectional survey in Beijing, this study found that attending selective institutions with…

  16. Functional Analysis of HIV/AIDS Stigma: Consensus or Divergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia

    2011-01-01

    Functional theory proposes that attitudes may serve a variety of purposes for individuals. This study aimed to determine whether stigmatized attitudes toward HIV/AIDS serve the same function for all (consensus function) or serve different functions for different individuals (divergence function) by assessing various aspects of HIV/AIDS stigma…

  17. AIDS Bereavement Support Group: A Qualitative Analysis of Training Transcripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conboy, Arlene Marchese; Moore, Penelope J.

    African American pastors are increasingly becoming involved in the care and understanding of those infected with HIV and AIDS. In this pilot project, lay leaders of a Methodist Church in Queens, New York participated in a facilitator training program for AIDS bereavement. A variety of theoretical perspectives that included bereavement theory;…

  18. HIV/AIDS in Communities of Color: A Lasswellian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble Michael N.; Bride, Brian E.

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has changed drastically since the introduction of life-saving drugs known as highly active antiretroviral treatment. These same drugs have created a schism between the haves and the have-nots in society. The demographics of the disease have also changed alongside treatment. This article explores the changing face of HIV/AIDS in the 21st…

  19. MR brain image analysis in dementia: From quantitative imaging biomarkers to ageing brain models and imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Wiro J

    2016-10-01

    MR brain image analysis has constantly been a hot topic research area in medical image analysis over the past two decades. In this article, it is discussed how the field developed from the construction of tools for automatic quantification of brain morphology, function, connectivity and pathology, to creating models of the ageing brain in normal ageing and disease, and tools for integrated analysis of imaging and genetic data. The current and future role of the field in improved understanding of the development of neurodegenerative disease is discussed, and its potential for aiding in early and differential diagnosis and prognosis of different types of dementia. For the latter, the use of reference imaging data and reference models derived from large clinical and population imaging studies, and the application of machine learning techniques on these reference data, are expected to play a key role. PMID:27344937

  20. Feasibility Testing of an Automated Image-Capture Method to Aid Dietary Recall

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Estrin, Deborah; Kim, Donnie H.; Burke, Jeff; Goldman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives The accuracy of dietary recalls might be enhanced by providing participants with photo images of foods they consumed during the test period. Subjects/Methods We examined the feasibility of a system (Image-Diet Day) that is a user-initiated camera-equipped mobile phone that is programmed to automatically capture and transmit images to a secure website in conjunction with computer-assisted, multi-pass, 24-hour dietary recalls in 14 participants during 2007. Participants used the device during eating periods on each of the three independent days. Image processing filters successfully eliminated underexposed, over-exposed, and blurry images. Captured images were accessed by participants using the ImageViewer software while completing the 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. Results None of the participants reported difficulty using the ImageViewer. Images were deemed “helpful” or “sort of helpful” by 93% of participants. A majority (79%) of users reported having no technical problems, but 71% rated the burden of wearing the device as somewhat to very difficult, owing to issues such as limited battery life, self-consciousness about wearing the device in public, and concerns about the camera’s field of view. Conclusion Overall, these findings suggest that automated imaging is a promising technology to facilitate dietary recall. The challenge of managing the thousands of images generated can be met. Smaller devices with a broader field of view may aid in overcoming user’s self-consciousness with using or wearing the device PMID:21587282

  1. Study on computer-aided diagnosis of hepatic MR imaging and mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuejun

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that the liver is an organ easily attacked by diseases. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for helping radiologists to differentiate hepatic diseases more efficiently. Our software named LIVERANN integrated the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with different pulse sequences to classify the five categories of hepatic diseases by using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The intensity and homogeneity within the region of interest (ROI) delineated by a radiologist were automatically calculated to obtain numerical data by the program for input signals to the ANN. Outputs were the five pathological categories of hepatic diseases (hepatic cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplasia in cirrhosis, cavernous hemangioma, and metastasis). The experiment demonstrated a testing accuracy of 93% from 80 patients. In order to differentiate the cirrhosis from normal liver, the volume ratio of left to whole (LTW) was proposed to quantify the degree of cirrhosis by three-dimensional (3D) volume analysis. The liver region was firstly extracted from computed tomography (CT) or MR slices based on edge detection algorithms, and then separated into left lobe and right lobe by the hepatic umbilical fissure. The volume ratio of these two parts showed that the LTW ratio in the liver was significantly improved in the differentiation performance, with (25.6%{+-}4.3%) in cirrhosis versus the normal liver (16.4%{+-}5.4%). In addition, the application of the ANN method for detecting clustered microcalcifications in masses on mammograms was described here as well. A new structural ANN, so-called a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN), was integrated with our triple-ring filter (TRF) method in our CAD system. As the result, the sensitivity of detecting clusters was improved from 90% by our previous TRF method to 95% by using both SIANN and TRF.

  2. 76 FR 25353 - Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment AGENCY... unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations... comment--including your name and your state--will be placed on the public record of this...

  3. 78 FR 46950 - Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... claims. \\2\\ See Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11... Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint...

  4. 75 FR 53968 - Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... proposed order. This matter involves the public relations, marketing, and sales services that respondents... Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in...

  5. Treatment of Farm Families under Need Analysis for Student Aid. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Computer Systems, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    In response to Congressional request, this report compares the treatment of student financial aid applicants from farm families and non-farm families under two need-analysis formulae. Both the need-analysis methodology for Pell Grants and the Congressional Methodology (CM) for other federal aid calculate ability to pay as a function of income and…

  6. 78 FR 46952 - Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11, 2012). Parts III though VI require Relief-Mart to: Keep... Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint...

  7. Computer-Aided Assessment of Tumor Grade for Breast Cancer in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an AZ of 0.7940. PMID:25810750

  8. Image-based retrieval system and computer-aided diagnosis system for renal cortical scintigraphy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumcuoğlu, Erkan; Nar, Fatih; Uğur, Omer; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Aslan, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    Cortical renal (kidney) scintigraphy images are 2D images (256x256) acquired in three projection angles (posterior, right-posterior-oblique and left-posterior-oblique). These images are used by nuclear medicine specialists to examine the functional morphology of kidney parenchyma. The main visual features examined in reading the images are: size, location, shape and activity distribution (pixel intensity distribution within the boundary of each kidney). Among the above features, activity distribution (in finding scars if any) was found to have the least interobserver reproducibility. Therefore, in this study, we developed an image-based retrieval (IBR) and a computer-based diagnosis (CAD) system, focused on this feature in particular. The developed IBR and CAD algorithms start with automatic segmentation, boundary and landmark detection. Then, shape and activity distribution features are computed. Activity distribution feature is obtained using the acquired image and image set statistics of the normal patients. Active Shape Model (ASM) technique is used for more accurate kidney segmentation. In the training step of ASM, normal patient images are used. Retrieval performance is evaluated by calculating precision and recall. CAD performance is evaluated by specificity and sensitivity. To our knowledge, this paper is the first IBR or CAD system reported in the literature on renal cortical scintigraphy images.

  9. Image analysis for DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Kannappan; Huang, Thomas S.

    1991-07-01

    There is a great deal of interest in automating the process of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequencing to support the analysis of genomic DNA such as the Human and Mouse Genome projects. In one class of gel-based sequencing protocols autoradiograph images are generated in the final step and usually require manual interpretation to reconstruct the DNA sequence represented by the image. The need to handle a large volume of sequence information necessitates automation of the manual autoradiograph reading step through image analysis in order to reduce the length of time required to obtain sequence data and reduce transcription errors. Various adaptive image enhancement, segmentation and alignment methods were applied to autoradiograph images. The methods are adaptive to the local characteristics of the image such as noise, background signal, or presence of edges. Once the two-dimensional data is converted to a set of aligned one-dimensional profiles waveform analysis is used to determine the location of each band which represents one nucleotide in the sequence. Different classification strategies including a rule-based approach are investigated to map the profile signals, augmented with the original two-dimensional image data as necessary, to textual DNA sequence information.

  10. Optimal Image Stitching for Concrete Bridge Bottom Surfaces Aided by 3d Structure Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yahui; Yao, Jian; Liu, Kang; Lu, Xiaohu; Xia, Menghan

    2016-06-01

    Crack detection for bridge bottom surfaces via remote sensing techniques is undergoing a revolution in the last few years. For such applications, a large amount of images, acquired with high-resolution industrial cameras close to the bottom surfaces with some mobile platform, are required to be stitched into a wide-view single composite image. The conventional idea of stitching a panorama with the affine model or the homographic model always suffers a series of serious problems due to poor texture and out-of-focus blurring introduced by depth of field. In this paper, we present a novel method to seamlessly stitch these images aided by 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces, which are extracted from 3D camera data. First, we propose to initially align each image in geometry based on its rough position and orientation acquired with both a laser range finder (LRF) and a high-precision incremental encoder, and these images are divided into several groups with the rough position and orientation data. Secondly, the 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces are extracted from the 3D cloud points acquired with 3D cameras, which impose additional strong constraints on geometrical alignment of structure lines in adjacent images to perform a position and orientation optimization in each group to increase the local consistency. Thirdly, a homographic refinement between groups is applied to increase the global consistency. Finally, we apply a multi-band blending algorithm to generate a large-view single composite image as seamlessly as possible, which greatly eliminates both the luminance differences and the color deviations between images and further conceals image parallax. Experimental results on a set of representative images acquired from real bridge bottom surfaces illustrate the superiority of our proposed approaches.

  11. Computer-aided analysis of a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Qualheim, B.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The groundwater investigation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was initiated in 1983 after perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) were detected in the groundwater. Since that time, more than 300 monitor wells have been completed, logged, sampled, and hydraulically tested. In 1987, the Livermore site was placed on the Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List (Superfund). The Livermore valley is relatively flat, underlain by a complex alluvial sedimentary basin drained by two intermittent streams. The subsurface consists of unconsolidated sand, gravel, silt, and clay with multiple water-bearing zones of relatively high permeability. The hydrogeologic system is characterized as leaky, with horizontal hydraulic communication of up to 800 ft and vertical communication between aquifers of up to 50 ft. Computer-based analysis of the site stratigraphy was used to analyze and characterize the subsurface. The authors used a computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) system to create two-dimensional slices of the subsurface. The slice program takes a subsurface slice at any specified depositional gradient and at any slice thickness. A slice displays the lithology type, unit thickness, depth of slice, and chemical analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lateral continuity of subsurface channels was mapped for each depth slice. By stacking these maps, the authors interpreted a pseudo-three-dimensional representation of probably pathways for VOC movement in the subsurface. An enhanced computer graphics system was also used to map the movement of VOCs in the subsurface.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria: aid for their reclassification.

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, F A; Ward, N L; Morgan, H W; Toalster, R; Stackebrandt, E

    1993-01-01

    Small subunit rDNA sequences were determined for 20 species of the genera Acetogenium, Clostridium, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, Thermoanaerobium, and Thermobacteroides, 3 non-validly described species, and 5 isolates of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria, providing a basis for a phylogenetic analysis of these organisms. Several species contain a version of the molecule significantly longer than that of Escherichia coli because of the presence of inserts. On the basis of normal evolutionary distances, the phylogenetic tree indicates that all bacteria investigated in this study with a maximum growth temperature above 65 degrees C form a supercluster within the subphylum of gram-positive bacteria that also contains Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum and Clostridium thermoaceticum, which have been previously sequenced. This supercluster appears to be equivalent in its phylogenetic depth to the supercluster of mesophilic clostridia and their nonspore-forming relatives. Several phylogenetically and phenotypically coherent clusters that are defined by sets of signature nucleotides emerge within the supercluster of thermophiles. Clostridium thermobutyricum and Clostridium thermopalmarium are members of Clostridium group I. A phylogenetic tree derived from transversion distances demonstrated the artificial clustering of some organisms with high rDNA G+C moles percent, i.e., Clostridium fervidus and the thermophilic, cellulolytic members of the genus Clostridium. The results of this study can be used as an aid for future taxonomic restructuring of anaerobic sporogenous and asporogenous thermophillic, gram-positive bacteria. PMID:7687600

  13. Anmap: Image and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Paul; Waldram, Elizabeth; Titterington, David; Rees, Nick

    2014-11-01

    Anmap analyses and processes images and spectral data. Originally written for use in radio astronomy, much of its functionality is applicable to other disciplines; additional algorithms and analysis procedures allow direct use in, for example, NMR imaging and spectroscopy. Anmap emphasizes the analysis of data to extract quantitative results for comparison with theoretical models and/or other experimental data. To achieve this, Anmap provides a wide range of tools for analysis, fitting and modelling (including standard image and data processing algorithms). It also provides a powerful environment for users to develop their own analysis/processing tools either by combining existing algorithms and facilities with the very powerful command (scripting) language or by writing new routines in FORTRAN that integrate seamlessly with the rest of Anmap.

  14. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-03-01

    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  15. Autonomous Image Analysis for Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Ruzon, M. A.; Bandari, E.; Roush, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    To explore high priority landing sites and to prepare for eventual human exploration, future Mars missions will involve rovers capable of traversing tens of kilometers. However, the current process by which scientists interact with a rover does not scale to such distances. Specifically, numerous command cycles are required to complete even simple tasks, such as, pointing the spectrometer at a variety of nearby rocks. In addition, the time required by scientists to interpret image data before new commands can be given and the limited amount of data that can be downlinked during a given command cycle constrain rover mobility and achievement of science goals. Experience with rover tests on Earth supports these concerns. As a result, traverses to science sites as identified in orbital images would require numerous science command cycles over a period of many weeks, months or even years, perhaps exceeding rover design life and other constraints. Autonomous onboard science analysis can address these problems in two ways. First, it will allow the rover to preferentially transmit "interesting" images, defined as those likely to have higher science content. Second, the rover will be able to anticipate future commands. For example, a rover might autonomously acquire and return spectra of "interesting" rocks along with a high-resolution image of those rocks in addition to returning the context images in which they were detected. Such approaches, coupled with appropriate navigational software, help to address both the data volume and command cycle bottlenecks that limit both rover mobility and science yield. We are developing fast, autonomous algorithms to enable such intelligent on-board decision making by spacecraft. Autonomous algorithms developed to date have the ability to identify rocks and layers in a scene, locate the horizon, and compress multi-spectral image data. We are currently investigating the possibility of reconstructing a 3D surface from a sequence of images

  16. Image analysis and quantitative morphology.

    PubMed

    Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative studies are increasingly found in the literature, particularly in the fields of development/evolution, pathology, and neurosciences. Image digitalization converts tissue images into a numeric form by dividing them into very small regions termed picture elements or pixels. Image analysis allows automatic morphometry of digitalized images, and stereology aims to understand the structural inner three-dimensional arrangement based on the analysis of slices showing two-dimensional information. To quantify morphological structures in an unbiased and reproducible manner, appropriate isotropic and uniform random sampling of sections, and updated stereological tools are needed. Through the correct use of stereology, a quantitative study can be performed with little effort; efficiency in stereology means as little counting as possible (little work), low cost (section preparation), but still good accuracy. This short text provides a background guide for non-expert morphologists. PMID:19960334

  17. Automatic Regions of Interest Segmentation for Computer Aided Classification of Prostate Trus Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scebran, M.; Palladini, A.; Maggio, S.; De Marchi, L.; Speciale, N.

    Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) plays two central roles in prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate examination and measurement and biopsy guidance, but its sensitivity and specificity need improvement. This paper presents one possible method to improve TRUS detection and biopsy guidance using computer-aided diagnosis techniques for ultrasound images. The method uses automated segmentation of regions of interest followed by a supervised classifier. It was tested on a database of 37 prostate TRUS RF scans (22 with cancer). Average sensitivity was 78%, average specificity was 92% and average accuracy was 90% in discriminating normal from cancerous tissue.

  18. Multispectral Imaging Broadens Cellular Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Amnis Corporation, a Seattle-based biotechnology company, developed ImageStream to produce sensitive fluorescence images of cells in flow. The company responded to an SBIR solicitation from Ames Research Center, and proposed to evaluate several methods of extending the depth of field for its ImageStream system and implement the best as an upgrade to its commercial products. This would allow users to view whole cells at the same time, rather than just one section of each cell. Through Phase I and II SBIR contracts, Ames provided Amnis the funding the company needed to develop this extended functionality. For NASA, the resulting high-speed image flow cytometry process made its way into Medusa, a life-detection instrument built to collect, store, and analyze sample organisms from erupting hydrothermal vents, and has the potential to benefit space flight health monitoring. On the commercial end, Amnis has implemented the process in ImageStream, combining high-resolution microscopy and flow cytometry in a single instrument, giving researchers the power to conduct quantitative analyses of individual cells and cell populations at the same time, in the same experiment. ImageStream is also built for many other applications, including cell signaling and pathway analysis; classification and characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations; quantitative morphology; apoptosis (cell death) assays; gene expression analysis; analysis of cell conjugates; molecular distribution; and receptor mapping and distribution.

  19. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  20. Multiple-reader studies, digital mammography, computer-aided diagnosis, and the Holy Grail of imaging physics: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiden, Sergey V.; Wagner, Robert F.; Campbell, Gregory; Metz, Charles E.; Jiang, Yulei; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2001-06-01

    The metaphor of the Holy Grail is used here to refer to the classic and elusive problem in medical imaging of predicting the ranking of the clinical performance of competing imaging modalities from the ranking obtained from physical laboratory measurements and signal-detection analysis, or from simple phantom studies. We show how the use of the multiple-reader, multiple-case (MRMC) ROC paradigm and new analytical techniques allows this masking effect to be quantified in terms of components-of-variance models. Moreover, we demonstrate how the components of variance associated with reader variability may be reduced when readers have the benefit of computer-assist reading aids. The remaining variability will be due to the case components, and these reflect the contribution of the technology without the masking effect of the reader. This suggests that prediction of clinical ranking of imaging systems in terms of physical measurements may become a much more tractable task in a world that includes MRMC ROC analysis of performance of radiologists with the advantage of computer-assisted reading.

  1. Age-based computer-aided diagnosis approach for pancreatic cancer on endoscopic ultrasound images

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Murat; Cakiroglu, Murat; Kocaman, Orhan; Kurt, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Bulent; Can, Guray; Korkmaz, Ugur; Dandil, Emre; Eksi, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to develop a high-performance computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with image processing and pattern recognition in diagnosing pancreatic cancer by using endosonography images. Materials and Methods: On the images, regions of interest (ROI) of three groups of patients (<40, 40-60 and >60) were extracted by experts; features were obtained from images using three different techniques and were trained separately for each age group with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to diagnose cancer. The study was conducted on endosonography images of 202 patients with pancreatic cancer and 130 noncancer patients. Results: 122 features were identified from the 332 endosonography images obtained in the study, and the 20 most appropriate features were selected by using the relief method. Images classified under three age groups (in years; <40, 40-60 and >60) were tested via 200 random tests and the following ratios were obtained in the classification: accuracy: 92%, 88.5%, and 91.7%, respectively; sensitivity: 87.5%, 85.7%, and 93.3%, respectively; and specificity: 94.1%, 91.7%, and 88.9%, respectively. When all the age groups were assessed together, the following values were obtained: accuracy: 87.5%, sensitivity: 83.3%, and specificity: 93.3%. Conclusions: It was observed that the CAD system developed in the study performed better in diagnosing pancreatic cancer images based on classification by patient age compared to diagnosis without classification. Therefore, it is imperative to take patient age into consideration to ensure higher performance. PMID:27080608

  2. Evaluation of a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system. Part 2: Image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, S. F.; Cocking, S. J.

    1981-12-01

    The TV imagery from a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system has been digitally processed with an I2S model 70E image processor, controlled by a PDP 11/60 minicomputer. The image processor allowed valuable processing for detection of defects in cast components to be carried out at television frame rates. Summation of TV frames was used to reduce noise, and hence improve the thickness sensitivity of the system. A displaced differencing technique and interactive contrast enhancement were then used to improve the reliability of inspection by removing spurious blemishes and interferences lines, while simultaneously enhancing the visibility of real defects. The times required for these operations are given, and the benefits provided for X-ray fluorography are illustrated by the results from inspection of aero engine castings.

  3. Quantitative histogram analysis of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, Oliver; Ferreira, Sérgio T.

    2006-11-01

    A routine for histogram analysis of images has been written in the object-oriented, graphical development environment LabVIEW. The program converts an RGB bitmap image into an intensity-linear greyscale image according to selectable conversion coefficients. This greyscale image is subsequently analysed by plots of the intensity histogram and probability distribution of brightness, and by calculation of various parameters, including average brightness, standard deviation, variance, minimal and maximal brightness, mode, skewness and kurtosis of the histogram and the median of the probability distribution. The program allows interactive selection of specific regions of interest (ROI) in the image and definition of lower and upper threshold levels (e.g., to permit the removal of a constant background signal). The results of the analysis of multiple images can be conveniently saved and exported for plotting in other programs, which allows fast analysis of relatively large sets of image data. The program file accompanies this manuscript together with a detailed description of two application examples: The analysis of fluorescence microscopy images, specifically of tau-immunofluorescence in primary cultures of rat cortical and hippocampal neurons, and the quantification of protein bands by Western-blot. The possibilities and limitations of this kind of analysis are discussed. Program summaryTitle of program: HAWGC Catalogue identifier: ADXG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXG_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Mobile Intel Pentium III, AMD Duron Installations: No installation necessary—Executable file together with necessary files for LabVIEW Run-time engine Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: WindowsME/2000/XP Programming language used: LabVIEW 7.0 Memory required to execute with typical data:˜16MB for starting and ˜160MB used for

  4. Computer-Aided Detection of Exophytic Renal Lesions on Non-Contrast CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Renal lesions are important extracolonic findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). They are difficult to detect on non-contrast CTC images due to low image contrast with surrounding objects. In this paper, we developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis system to detect a subset of renal lesions, exophytic lesions, by 1) exploiting efficient belief propagation to segment kidneys, 2) establishing an intrinsic manifold diffusion on kidney surface, 3) searching for potential lesion-caused protrusions with local maximum diffusion response, and 4) exploring novel shape descriptors, including multi-scale diffusion response, with machine learning to classify exophytic renal lesions. Experimental results on the validation dataset with 167 patients revealed that manifold diffusion significantly outperformed conventional shape features (p < 1e − 3) and resulted in 95% sensitivity with 15 false positives per patient for detecting exophytic renal lesions. Five-fold cross-validation also demonstrated that our method could stably detect exophytic renal lesions. These encouraging results demonstrated that manifold diffusion is a key means to enable accurate computer-aided diagnosis of renal lesions. PMID:25189363

  5. The Work of Teacher Aides in Australia: An Analysis of Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Although teacher aides are often employed in schools to provide support for students with disabilities and special education needs, there is limited Australian research on their work and employer expectations. This article provides an analysis of advertisements for teacher aide positions, and compares the content of advertisements with role…

  6. The Effects of Student Financial Aid on Persistence: A Sequential Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of effects of different student financial aid types on year-to-year persistence of high school seniors of 1980 found social and educational background had differential effects at different points in the college experience, college experiences were influential, student aid had a positive effect on persistence, and loans promoted…

  7. A computer-aided diagnosis system to identify regions of pathologic change in temporal subtraction images of the chest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Charles; Lee, Katherine; Armato, Samuel G.

    2015-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs side-by-side in order to identify regions of change and evaluate the clinical significance of such regions. Some changes in pathology, however, may be overlooked or misinterpreted. For this reason, temporal subtraction (TS) images provide an important tool for enhanced visualization. Not all areas of "change" demonstrated on a TS image, however, are caused by pathology. The purpose of this study was to develop an automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to locate regions of change in TS images as well as to classify such regions as being true regions of pathologic change or false regions of change caused by misregistration artifacts. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images, on which an experienced radiologist outlined 74 regions of true pathologic change that were used as the gold standard. Through gray-level thresholding and initial false-positive reduction, an initial set of candidates was extracted and inputted into a classifier. A five-fold cross-validation method was employed to create training and testing groups. Both false-candidate regions as well as the gold-standard regions were used as training data. Of the three classifiers tested (support vector machine, logistic regression, and linear discriminant analysis), the logistic regression classifier performed the best with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 84%; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis resulted in an area under the ROC curve of 0.94. These results show promise in the performance of the CAD system to detect regions of pathologic changes in TS images of the chest.

  8. HIV/AIDS in communities of color: a Lasswellian analysis.

    PubMed

    Humble, Michael N; Bride, Brian E

    2009-11-01

    HIV/AIDS has changed drastically since the introduction of life-saving drugs known as highly active antiretroviral treatment. These same drugs have created a schism between the haves and the have-nots in society. The demographics of the disease have also changed alongside treatment. This article explores the changing face of HIV/AIDS in the 21st century by using the work of political scientist Harold Lasswell. Lasswell has provided a theoretical framework in which to view an epidemic that is deeply affecting communities of color. This framework further accentuates the need for social workers to do more work in the area of HIV/AIDS within communities of color. PMID:19927475

  9. Performance analysis of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids

    PubMed Central

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Comparison of the performance of hearing instrument batteries from various manufacturers can enable otologists, audiologists, or final consumers to select the best products, maximizing the use of these materials. Aim: To analyze the performance of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids available in the Brazilian marketplace. Methods: Hearing aid batteries in four sizes were acquired from ten manufacturers and subjected to the same test conditions in an acoustic laboratory. Results: The results obtained in the laboratory contrasted with the values reported by manufacturers highlighted significant discrepancies, besides the fact that certain brands in certain sizes perform better on some tests, but does not indicate which brand is the best in all sizes. Conclusions: It was possible to investigate the performance of ten brands of hearing aid batteries and describe the procedures to be followed for leakage, accidental intake, and disposal. PMID:25992026

  10. Computer-aided target tracking in motion analysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Dominic C.; Marcuse, M. L.; Mislan, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    Motion analysis studies require the precise tracking of reference objects in sequential scenes. In a typical situation, events of interest are captured at high frame rates using special cameras, and selected objects or targets are tracked on a frame by frame basis to provide necessary data for motion reconstruction. Tracking is usually done using manual methods which are slow and prone to error. A computer based image analysis system has been developed that performs tracking automatically. The objective of this work was to eliminate the bottleneck due to manual methods in high volume tracking applications such as the analysis of crash test films for the automotive industry. The system has proven to be successful in tracking standard fiducial targets and other objects in crash test scenes. Over 95 percent of target positions which could be located using manual methods can be tracked by the system, with a significant improvement in throughput over manual methods. Future work will focus on the tracking of clusters of targets and on tracking deformable objects such as airbags.

  11. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis Scheme For Detection Of Fatty Liver In Vivo Based On Ultrasound Kurtosis Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hsiang-Yang; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a common disease caused by alcoholism, obesity, and diabetes, resulting in triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes. Kurtosis coefficient, a measure of the peakedness of the probability distribution, has been applied to the analysis of backscattered statistics for characterizing fatty liver. This study proposed ultrasound kurtosis imaging as a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) method to visually and quantitatively stage the fatty liver. A total of 107 patients were recruited to participate in the experiments. The livers were scanned using a clinical ultrasound scanner with a 3.5-MHz curved transducer to acquire the raw ultrasound backscattered signals for kurtosis imaging. The kurtosis image was constructed using the sliding window technique. Experimental results showed that kurtosis imaging has the ability to visualize and quantify the variation of backscattered statistics caused by fatty infiltration. The kurtosis coefficient corresponding to liver parenchyma decreased from 5.41 ± 0.89 to 3.68 ± 0.12 with increasing the score of fatty liver from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe), indicating that fatty liver reduces the degree of peakedness of backscattered statistics. The best performance of kurtosis imaging was found when discriminating between normal and fatty livers with scores ≥1: the area under the curve (AUC) is 0.92 at a cutoff value of 4.36 (diagnostic accuracy =86.9 %, sensitivity =86.7 %, specificity =87.0 %). The current findings suggest that kurtosis imaging may be useful in designing CAD tools to assist in physicians in early detection of fatty liver. PMID:26563476

  12. Histology image analysis for carcinoma detection and grading

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the image analysis techniques in the domain of histopathology, specifically, for the objective of automated carcinoma detection and classification. As in other biomedical imaging areas such as radiology, many computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems have been implemented to aid histopathologists and clinicians in cancer diagnosis and research, which have been attempted to significantly reduce the labor and subjectivity of traditional manual intervention with histology images. The task of automated histology image analysis is usually not simple due to the unique characteristics of histology imaging, including the variability in image preparation techniques, clinical interpretation protocols, and the complex structures and very large size of the images themselves. In this paper we discuss those characteristics, provide relevant background information about slide preparation and interpretation, and review the application of digital image processing techniques to the field of histology image analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to state-of-the-art image segmentation methods for feature extraction and disease classification. Four major carcinomas of cervix, prostate, breast, and lung are selected to illustrate the functions and capabilities of existing CAD systems. PMID:22436890

  13. A portable image overlay projection device for computer-aided open liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, Kate A; Peterhans, Matthias; Oliveira-Santos, Thiago; Weber, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    Image overlay projection is a form of augmented reality that allows surgeons to view underlying anatomical structures directly on the patient surface. It improves intuitiveness of computer-aided surgery by removing the need for sight diversion between the patient and a display screen and has been reported to assist in 3-D understanding of anatomical structures and the identification of target and critical structures. Challenges in the development of image overlay technologies for surgery remain in the projection setup. Calibration, patient registration, view direction, and projection obstruction remain unsolved limitations to image overlay techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel, portable, and handheld-navigated image overlay device based on miniature laser projection technology that allows images of 3-D patient-specific models to be projected directly onto the organ surface intraoperatively without the need for intrusive hardware around the surgical site. The device can be integrated into a navigation system, thereby exploiting existing patient registration and model generation solutions. The position of the device is tracked by the navigation system's position sensor and used to project geometrically correct images from any position within the workspace of the navigation system. The projector was calibrated using modified camera calibration techniques and images for projection are rendered using a virtual camera defined by the projectors extrinsic parameters. Verification of the device's projection accuracy concluded a mean projection error of 1.3 mm. Visibility testing of the projection performed on pig liver tissue found the device suitable for the display of anatomical structures on the organ surface. The feasibility of use within the surgical workflow was assessed during open liver surgery. We show that the device could be quickly and unobtrusively deployed within the sterile environment. PMID:21411401

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  1. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2007-03-01

    Multislice CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multislice CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. Moreover, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by using a lung cancer screening algorithm built into mobile helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening done in the region without the hospital. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  2. Automatic localization of the left ventricle from cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging: a new spectrum-based computer-aided tool.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liang; Zhang, Jun-Mei; Zhao, Xiaodan; Tan, Ru San; Wan, Min

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, cardiac image analysis is done manually. Automatic image processing can help with the repetitive tasks, and also deal with huge amounts of data, a task which would be humanly tedious. This study aims to develop a spectrum-based computer-aided tool to locate the left ventricle using images obtained via cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Discrete Fourier Transform was conducted pixelwise on the image sequence. Harmonic images of all frequencies were analyzed visually and quantitatively to determine different patterns of the left and right ventricles on spectrum. The first and fifth harmonic images were selected to perform an anisotropic weighted circle Hough detection. This tool was then tested in ten volunteers. Our tool was able to locate the left ventricle in all cases and had a significantly higher cropping ratio of 0.165 than did earlier studies. In conclusion, a new spectrum-based computer aided tool has been proposed and developed for automatic left ventricle localization. The development of this technique, which will enable the automatic location and further segmentation of the left ventricle, will have a significant impact in research and in diagnostic settings. We envisage that this automated method could be used by radiographers and cardiologists to diagnose and assess ventricular function in patients with diverse heart diseases. PMID:24722328

  3. D06: Graphs to aid in concordance analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is intended for those familiar with PROC GPLOT from SAS/GRAPH® and PROC UNIVARIATE and PROC CORR from base SAS®. Via macro procedures, two graphs are developed to aid in the assessment of agreement between two variables. The first is a variant on a mean-difference plot, the second is a va...

  4. Computer-aided recognition of dental implants in X-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Pedro; Queirós, Sandro; Moreira, António H. J.; Ferreira, Adriano; Ferreira, Ernesto; Duque, Duarte; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Vilaça, João. L.

    2015-03-01

    Dental implant recognition in patients without available records is a time-consuming and not straightforward task. The traditional method is a complete user-dependent process, where the expert compares a 2D X-ray image of the dental implant with a generic database. Due to the high number of implants available and the similarity between them, automatic/semi-automatic frameworks to aide implant model detection are essential. In this study, a novel computer-aided framework for dental implant recognition is suggested. The proposed method relies on image processing concepts, namely: (i) a segmentation strategy for semi-automatic implant delineation; and (ii) a machine learning approach for implant model recognition. Although the segmentation technique is the main focus of the current study, preliminary details of the machine learning approach are also reported. Two different scenarios are used to validate the framework: (1) comparison of the semi-automatic contours against implant's manual contours of 125 X-ray images; and (2) classification of 11 known implants using a large reference database of 601 implants. Regarding experiment 1, 0.97±0.01, 2.24±0.85 pixels and 11.12±6 pixels of dice metric, mean absolute distance and Hausdorff distance were obtained, respectively. In experiment 2, 91% of the implants were successfully recognized while reducing the reference database to 5% of its original size. Overall, the segmentation technique achieved accurate implant contours. Although the preliminary classification results prove the concept of the current work, more features and an extended database should be used in a future work.

  5. Computer-aided classification of Alzheimer's disease based on support vector machine with combination of cerebral image features in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongkreangkrai, C.; Vichianin, Y.; Tocharoenchai, C.; Arimura, H.; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have differentiated Alzheimer's disease (AD) using cerebral image features derived from MR brain images. In this study, we were interested in combining hippocampus and amygdala volumes and entorhinal cortex thickness to improve the performance of AD differentiation. Thus, our objective was to investigate the useful features obtained from MRI for classification of AD patients using support vector machine (SVM). T1-weighted MR brain images of 100 AD patients and 100 normal subjects were processed using FreeSurfer software to measure hippocampus and amygdala volumes and entorhinal cortex thicknesses in both brain hemispheres. Relative volumes of hippocampus and amygdala were calculated to correct variation in individual head size. SVM was employed with five combinations of features (H: hippocampus relative volumes, A: amygdala relative volumes, E: entorhinal cortex thicknesses, HA: hippocampus and amygdala relative volumes and ALL: all features). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the method. AUC values of five combinations were 0.8575 (H), 0.8374 (A), 0.8422 (E), 0.8631 (HA) and 0.8906 (ALL). Although “ALL” provided the highest AUC, there were no statistically significant differences among them except for “A” feature. Our results showed that all suggested features may be feasible for computer-aided classification of AD patients.

  6. Computer aided segmentation of kidneys using locally shape constrained deformable models on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdt, Marius; Sakas, Georgios

    2010-03-01

    This work presents a novel approach for model based segmentation of the kidney in images acquired by Computed Tomography (CT). The developed computer aided segmentation system is expected to support computer aided diagnosis and operation planning. We have developed a deformable model based approach based on local shape constraints that prevents the model from deforming into neighboring structures while allowing the global shape to adapt freely to the data. Those local constraints are derived from the anatomical structure of the kidney and the presence and appearance of neighboring organs. The adaptation process is guided by a rule-based deformation logic in order to improve the robustness of the segmentation in areas of diffuse organ boundaries. Our work flow consists of two steps: 1.) a user guided positioning and 2.) an automatic model adaptation using affine and free form deformation in order to robustly extract the kidney. In cases which show pronounced pathologies, the system also offers real time mesh editing tools for a quick refinement of the segmentation result. Evaluation results based on 30 clinical cases using CT data sets show an average dice correlation coefficient of 93% compared to the ground truth. The results are therefore in most cases comparable to manual delineation. Computation times of the automatic adaptation step are lower than 6 seconds which makes the proposed system suitable for an application in clinical practice.

  7. Precision analysis of passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years BD (BeiDou positioning system), an active satellite navigation system, has been widely applied in geodetic survey, precise engineering survey and GNC (guide, navigation and control system) of weapons because of its reliability and availability. However, it has several problems on the accuracy, anti-interference and active-positioning. A passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system is introduced in details in this paper. The configuration and the operating principle of system are presented. In analyzing the precision of location, one of the crucial aspects to be studied is how to determine the arrangement of the pseudolites to get the good GDOP, which is discussed in the different arrangements of the pseudolites in this paper. The simulation results show that the VDOP (vertical dilution of precision) of BD is improved due to introducing the pseudolites. The experiments indicate the validity of the methods and the improvement of the positioning precision in the BD aided pseudolite system.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2005-04-01

    Mass screening based on helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router. This electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system were developed so as not to loosen the communication among staffs of hospital. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  9. Aspect-Aided Dynamic Non-Negative Sparse Representation-Based Microwave Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Yang, Qiuyue; Liu, Miaomiao; Jia, Yunjian; Liu, Shujun; Li, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Classification of target microwave images is an important application in much areas such as security, surveillance, etc. With respect to the task of microwave image classification, a recognition algorithm based on aspect-aided dynamic non-negative least square (ADNNLS) sparse representation is proposed. Firstly, an aspect sector is determined, the center of which is the estimated aspect angle of the testing sample. The training samples in the aspect sector are divided into active atoms and inactive atoms by smooth self-representative learning. Secondly, for each testing sample, the corresponding active atoms are selected dynamically, thereby establishing dynamic dictionary. Thirdly, the testing sample is represented with ℓ 1 -regularized non-negative sparse representation under the corresponding dynamic dictionary. Finally, the class label of the testing sample is identified by use of the minimum reconstruction error. Verification of the proposed algorithm was conducted using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) database which was acquired by synthetic aperture radar. Experiment results validated that the proposed approach was able to capture the local aspect characteristics of microwave images effectively, thereby improving the classification performance. PMID:27598172

  10. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies. PMID:25607287

  11. Target identification by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Fetz, V; Prochnow, H; Brönstrup, M; Sasse, F

    2016-05-01

    Covering: 1997 to the end of 2015Each biologically active compound induces phenotypic changes in target cells that are characteristic for its mode of action. These phenotypic alterations can be directly observed under the microscope or made visible by labelling structural elements or selected proteins of the cells with dyes. A comparison of the cellular phenotype induced by a compound of interest with the phenotypes of reference compounds with known cellular targets allows predicting its mode of action. While this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of natural products based on a visual inspection of images, recent studies used automated microscopy and analysis software to increase speed and to reduce subjective interpretation. In this review, we give a general outline of the workflow for manual and automated image analysis, and we highlight natural products whose bacterial and eucaryotic targets could be identified through such approaches. PMID:26777141

  12. Extracellular space preservation aids the connectomic analysis of neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Pallotto, Marta; Watkins, Paul V; Fubara, Boma; Singer, Joshua H; Briggman, Kevin L

    2015-01-01

    Dense connectomic mapping of neuronal circuits is limited by the time and effort required to analyze 3D electron microscopy (EM) datasets. Algorithms designed to automate image segmentation suffer from substantial error rates and require significant manual error correction. Any improvement in segmentation error rates would therefore directly reduce the time required to analyze 3D EM data. We explored preserving extracellular space (ECS) during chemical tissue fixation to improve the ability to segment neurites and to identify synaptic contacts. ECS preserved tissue is easier to segment using machine learning algorithms, leading to significantly reduced error rates. In addition, we observed that electrical synapses are readily identified in ECS preserved tissue. Finally, we determined that antibodies penetrate deep into ECS preserved tissue with only minimal permeabilization, thereby enabling correlated light microscopy (LM) and EM studies. We conclude that preservation of ECS benefits multiple aspects of the connectomic analysis of neural circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08206.001 PMID:26650352

  13. Computer-aided alignment of off-axis three-mirror imaging spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dun; Wang, Hong; Tian, Tie-yin

    2013-08-01

    The space camera is one of the most advanced optical equipments in obtaining earth surface information from space. With the development of the optical design, manufacture and alignment technology, the performance of the optical camera is moving forward quickly. In spaceto- ground remote sensing field, the resolution of ground remote sensing images have become higher and higher. Off-axis three-mirror system becomes an advanced optical system structure of space camera at present , because of its merits of large field, long focal length, no obstruction, high modulated transfer function, wide spectrum, good image quality, small cubage and light weight, etc. As it is difficult to align and test, the alignment of off-axis three mirror system is timeconsuming, so it is important and necessary of studying the computer-aided alignment of the complex optical system. Aiming at cutting the time of alignment, Computer-aided alignment technology is applied to this system. According to relation between fringe Zernike coefficient and Seidel aberration, wavefront aberration in the exit pupil of optical system is instead with fringe Zernike coefficient. A series of Zernike coefficient expressing the incorrect parameters of system are obtained by using multi-fields ZYGO interferometer auto-collimating interference test, which are transformed into geometric aberrations as the corrected object. Incorrect parameters of the system are determined by sensitivity matrix resulted from optical design software. These incorrect parameters are defined to be variables; the Zernike coefficient are defined to be the optimized target in merit function. The system is optimized by applying optical design software to receive the incorrect parameters result. Consequently, the adjusted result is brought into the optical design software to verify the right selection of incorrect parameters. The practical experiments are also given, result with RMS value lower than 0.04λ is acquired by using this

  14. Planning applications in image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

  15. Quantitative multi-image analysis for biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Martin A B; Bergholt, Mads S; Stevens, Molly M

    2016-05-01

    Imaging by Raman spectroscopy enables unparalleled label-free insights into cell and tissue composition at the molecular level. With established approaches limited to single image analysis, there are currently no general guidelines or consensus on how to quantify biochemical components across multiple Raman images. Here, we describe a broadly applicable methodology for the combination of multiple Raman images into a single image for analysis. This is achieved by removing image specific background interference, unfolding the series of Raman images into a single dataset, and normalisation of each Raman spectrum to render comparable Raman images. Multivariate image analysis is finally applied to derive the contributing 'pure' biochemical spectra for relative quantification. We present our methodology using four independently measured Raman images of control cells and four images of cells treated with strontium ions from substituted bioactive glass. We show that the relative biochemical distribution per area of the cells can be quantified. In addition, using k-means clustering, we are able to discriminate between the two cell types over multiple Raman images. This study shows a streamlined quantitative multi-image analysis tool for improving cell/tissue characterisation and opens new avenues in biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging. PMID:26833935

  16. Computer-aided prognosis of neuroblastoma: classification of stromal development on whole-slide images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin

    2008-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is a cancer of the nervous system and one of the most common tumors in children. In clinical practice, pathologists examine the haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue slides under the microscope for the diagnosis. According to the International Neuroblastoma Classification System, neuroblastoma tumors are categorized into favorable and unfavorable histologies. The subsequent treatment planning is based on this classification. However, this qualitative evaluation is time consuming, prone to error and subject to inter- and intra-reader variations and sampling bias. To overcome these shortcomings, we are developing a computerized system for the quantitative analysis of neuroblastoma slides. In this study, we present a novel image analysis system to determine the degree of stromal development from digitized whole-slide neuroblastoma samples. The developed method uses a multi-resolution approach that works similar to how pathologists examine slides. Due to their very large resolutions, the whole-slide images are divided into non-overlapping image tiles and the proposed image analysis steps are applied to each image tile using a parallel computation infrastructure developed earlier by our group. The computerized system classifies image tiles as stroma-poor or stroma-rich subtypes using texture characteristics. The developed method has been independently tested on 20 whole-slide neuroblastoma slides and it has achieved 95% classification accuracy.

  17. Grid computing in image analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic surgical pathology or tissue–based diagnosis still remains the most reliable and specific diagnostic medical procedure. The development of whole slide scanners permits the creation of virtual slides and to work on so-called virtual microscopes. In addition to interactive work on virtual slides approaches have been reported that introduce automated virtual microscopy, which is composed of several tools focusing on quite different tasks. These include evaluation of image quality and image standardization, analysis of potential useful thresholds for object detection and identification (segmentation), dynamic segmentation procedures, adjustable magnification to optimize feature extraction, and texture analysis including image transformation and evaluation of elementary primitives. Grid technology seems to possess all features to efficiently target and control the specific tasks of image information and detection in order to obtain a detailed and accurate diagnosis. Grid technology is based upon so-called nodes that are linked together and share certain communication rules in using open standards. Their number and functionality can vary according to the needs of a specific user at a given point in time. When implementing automated virtual microscopy with Grid technology, all of the five different Grid functions have to be taken into account, namely 1) computation services, 2) data services, 3) application services, 4) information services, and 5) knowledge services. Although all mandatory tools of automated virtual microscopy can be implemented in a closed or standardized open system, Grid technology offers a new dimension to acquire, detect, classify, and distribute medical image information, and to assure quality in tissue–based diagnosis. PMID:21516880

  18. Medical diagnosis imaging systems: image and signal processing applications aided by fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Yutaka

    2010-04-01

    First, we describe an automated procedure for segmenting an MR image of a human brain based on fuzzy logic for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. The intensity thresholds for segmenting the whole brain of a subject are automatically determined by finding the peaks of the intensity histogram. After these thresholds are evaluated in a region growing, the whole brain can be identified. Next, we describe a procedure for decomposing the obtained whole brain into the left and right cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum and the brain stem. Our method then identified the whole brain, the left cerebral hemisphere, the right cerebral hemisphere, the cerebellum and the brain stem. Secondly, we describe a transskull sonography system that can visualize the shape of the skull and brain surface from any point to examine skull fracture and some brain diseases. We employ fuzzy signal processing to determine the skull and brain surface. The phantom model, the animal model with soft tissue, the animal model with brain tissue, and a human subjects' forehead is applied in our system. The all shapes of the skin surface, skull surface, skull bottom, and brain tissue surface are successfully determined.

  19. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:26547117

  20. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  1. AIDS, policy analysis, and the electorate: the role of schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Lashof, J C

    1988-04-01

    Current debates concerning appropriate policy to combat the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have raised critical questions regarding the role that schools of public health and individual public health professionals should play, if any, in AIDS-related policy analysis and social advocacy. In the summer of 1986, the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley initiated a telegram sent by the Deans of all 23 schools of public health to protest US Department of Justice AIDS policy and, in the subsequent fall, the school expanded its public educational role in an unprecedented manner by initiating and issuing, with California's other three schools of public health, a policy analysis of Proposition 64, the LaRouche AIDS Quarantine Initiative. That analysis exposed the proposition's fallacious claims regarding casual transmission of AIDS and served to educate the electorate on the likely public health impact of this deleterious legislation. Based on these experiences, and in light of ongoing national controversy regarding AIDS, we believe schools of public health have an important role to play in policy analysis, and individual public health professionals have a role to play in social advocacy. PMID:3348472

  2. AIDS, policy analysis, and the electorate: the role of schools of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, N; Lashof, J C

    1988-01-01

    Current debates concerning appropriate policy to combat the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have raised critical questions regarding the role that schools of public health and individual public health professionals should play, if any, in AIDS-related policy analysis and social advocacy. In the summer of 1986, the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley initiated a telegram sent by the Deans of all 23 schools of public health to protest US Department of Justice AIDS policy and, in the subsequent fall, the school expanded its public educational role in an unprecedented manner by initiating and issuing, with California's other three schools of public health, a policy analysis of Proposition 64, the LaRouche AIDS Quarantine Initiative. That analysis exposed the proposition's fallacious claims regarding casual transmission of AIDS and served to educate the electorate on the likely public health impact of this deleterious legislation. Based on these experiences, and in light of ongoing national controversy regarding AIDS, we believe schools of public health have an important role to play in policy analysis, and individual public health professionals have a role to play in social advocacy. PMID:3348472

  3. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  4. Use of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Imaging for Quantifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided Tomography (CT) imaging was utilized to quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, NY) and mineral (North Inlet, SC) Spartina alterniflora soils. Calibration rods composed of materials with standard dens...

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  6. Toward automatic computer aided dental X-ray analysis using level set method.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Fevens, Thomas; Krzyzak, Adam; Jin, Chao; Li, Song

    2005-01-01

    A Computer Aided Dental X-rays Analysis (CADXA) framework is proposed to semi-automatically detect areas of bone loss and root decay in digital dental X-rays. In this framework, first, a new proposed competitive coupled level set method is proposed to segment the image into three pathologically meaningful regions using two coupled level set functions. Tailored for the dental clinical environment, the segmentation stage uses a trained support vector machine (SVM) classifier to provide initial contours. Then, based on the segmentation results, an analysis scheme is applied. First, the scheme builds an uncertainty map from which those areas with bone loss will be automatically detected. Secondly, the scheme employs a method based on the SVM and the average intensity profile to isolate the teeth and detect root decay. Experimental results show that our proposed framework is able to automatically detect the areas of bone loss and, when given the orientation of the teeth, it is able to automatically detect the root decay with a seriousness level marked for diagnosis. PMID:16685904

  7. The HIV/AIDS caregiver identity as a double-edged sword: a discourse analysis on HIV/AIDS caregiving in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Vania

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses the identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers as constructed by a group of HIV/AIDS caregivers at a non-profit organisation in South Africa. During a 12-month period data were collected through interviews with the organisation's staff and volunteers. Using discourse analysis, the study identified a caregiver identity constructed by participants. This caregiving identity acts as a double-edged sword: while the rewards of caregiving act as a buffer against stressful experiences, the prescriptive nature of the caregiver identity is taxing, and may explain burnout among HIV/AIDS caregivers. The study concludes that for support systems for HIV/AIDS caregivers to be effective, the social culture and identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers must be considered. PMID:25388980

  8. [Evaluation of national prevention campaigns against AIDS: analysis model].

    PubMed

    Hausser, D; Lehmann, P; Dubois, F; Gutzwiller, F

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of the "Stop-Aids" campaign is based upon a model of behaviour modification (McAlister) which includes the communication theory of McGuire and the social learning theory of Bandura. Using this model, it is possible to define key variables that are used to measure the impact of the campaign. Process evaluation allows identification of multipliers that reinforce and confirm the initial message of prevention (source) thereby encouraging behaviour modifications that are likely to reduce the transmission of HIV (condom use, no sharing of injection material, monogamous relationship, etc.). Twelve studies performed by seven teams in the three linguistic areas contribute to the project. A synthesis of these results will be performed by the IUMSP. PMID:3687209

  9. Computer-Aided Content-Based Cueing of Remotely Sensed Images with the Image Content Engine (ICE)

    SciTech Connect

    Weinert, G F; Brase, J M; Paglieroni, D W

    2004-06-22

    Human analysts are often unable to meet time constraints on analysis and interpretation of large volumes of remotely sensed imagery. To address this problem, the Image Content Engine (ICE) system currently under development is organized into an off-line component for automated extraction of image features followed by user-interactive components for content detection and content-based query processing. The extracted features are vectors that represent attributes of three entities, namely image tiles, image regions and shapes, or suspected matches to models of objects. ICE allows users to interactively specify decision thresholds so that content (consisting of entities whose features satisfy decision criteria) can be detected. ICE presents detected content to users as a prioritized series of thumbnail images. Users can either accept the detection results or specify a new set of decision thresholds. Once accepted, ICE stores the detected content in database tables and semantic graphs. Users can interactively query the tables and graphs for locations at which prescribed relationships between detected content exist. New queries can be submitted repeatedly until a satisfactory series of prioritized thumbnail image cues is produced. Examples are provided to demonstrate how ICE can be used to assist users in quickly finding prescribed collections of entities (both natural and man-made) in a set of large USGS aerial photos retrieved from TerraserverUSA.

  10. Neural network ultrasound image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Alexander C.; Brown, David G.; Pastel, Mary S.

    1993-09-01

    Neural network based analysis of ultrasound image data was carried out on liver scans of normal subjects and those diagnosed with diffuse liver disease. In a previous study, ultrasound images from a group of normal volunteers, Gaucher's disease patients, and hepatitis patients were obtained by Garra et al., who used classical statistical methods to distinguish from among these three classes. In the present work, neural network classifiers were employed with the same image features found useful in the previous study for this task. Both standard backpropagation neural networks and a recently developed biologically-inspired network called Dystal were used. Classification performance as measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was generally excellent for the back propagation networks and was roughly comparable to that of classical statistical discriminators tested on the same data set and documented in the earlier study. Performance of the Dystal network was significantly inferior; however, this may be due to the choice of network parameter. Potential methods for enhancing network performance was identified.

  11. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Min; Kang, Minah

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country. PMID:26617451

  12. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kang, Minah

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country. PMID:26617451

  13. New layer-based imaging and rapid prototyping techniques for computer-aided design and manufacture of custom dental restoration.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-Y; Chang, C-C; Ku, Y C

    2008-01-01

    Fixed dental restoration by conventional methods greatly relies on the skill and experience of the dental technician. The quality and accuracy of the final product depends mostly on the technician's subjective judgment. In addition, the traditional manual operation involves many complex procedures, and is a time-consuming and labour-intensive job. Most importantly, no quantitative design and manufacturing information is preserved for future retrieval. In this paper, a new device for scanning the dental profile and reconstructing 3D digital information of a dental model based on a layer-based imaging technique, called abrasive computer tomography (ACT) was designed in-house and proposed for the design of custom dental restoration. The fixed partial dental restoration was then produced by rapid prototyping (RP) and computer numerical control (CNC) machining methods based on the ACT scanned digital information. A force feedback sculptor (FreeForm system, Sensible Technologies, Inc., Cambridge MA, USA), which comprises 3D Touch technology, was applied to modify the morphology and design of the fixed dental restoration. In addition, a comparison of conventional manual operation and digital manufacture using both RP and CNC machining technologies for fixed dental restoration production is presented. Finally, a digital custom fixed restoration manufacturing protocol integrating proposed layer-based dental profile scanning, computer-aided design, 3D force feedback feature modification and advanced fixed restoration manufacturing techniques is illustrated. The proposed method provides solid evidence that computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies may become a new avenue for custom-made fixed restoration design, analysis, and production in the 21st century. PMID:18183523

  14. Spectrum of imaging appearances of intracranial cryptococcal infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the anti-retroviral therapy era.

    PubMed

    Offiah, Curtis E; Naseer, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans infection is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, but remains a relatively uncommon CNS infection in both the immunocompromised and immunocompetent patient population, rendering it a somewhat elusive and frequently overlooked diagnosis. The morbidity and mortality associated with CNS cryptococcal infection can be significantly reduced by early recognition of the imaging appearances by the radiologist in order to focus and expedite clinical management and treatment. The emergence and evolution of anti-retroviral therapy have also impacted significantly on the imaging appearances, morbidity, and mortality of this neuro-infection. The constellation of varied imaging appearances associated with cryptococcal CNS infection in the HIV and AIDS population in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) will be presented in this review. PMID:26564776

  15. 48 CFR 915.404-2-70 - Audit as an aid in proposal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proposal analysis. 915.404-2-70 Section 915.404-2-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Audit as an aid in proposal analysis. (a) When a contract price will be based on cost or pricing data... contract or a fixed-price contract with economic price adjustment provisions; or adjustment provisions;...

  16. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Nursing. Occupation: Home Health Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    This document contains a task analysis for health occupations (home health aid) in the nursing cluster. For each task listed, occupation, duty area, performance standard, steps, knowledge, attitudes, safety, equipment/supplies, source of analysis, and Illinois state goals for learning are listed. For the duty area of "providing therapeutic…

  17. Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Alfonso; Quartulli, Marco; Murace, Raffaele; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Manganaro, Mario; Guerra, Oscar; Bizzi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis). This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR). PMID:24281070

  18. A survey of compiler development aids. [concerning lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckles, B. P.; Hodges, B. C.; Hsia, P.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical background was established for the compilation process by dividing it into five phases and explaining the concepts and algorithms that underpin each. The five selected phases were lexical analysis, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, optimization, and code generation. Graph theoretical optimization techniques were presented, and approaches to code generation were described for both one-pass and multipass compilation environments. Following the initial tutorial sections, more than 20 tools that were developed to aid in the process of writing compilers were surveyed. Eight of the more recent compiler development aids were selected for special attention - SIMCMP/STAGE2, LANG-PAK, COGENT, XPL, AED, CWIC, LIS, and JOCIT. The impact of compiler development aids were assessed some of their shortcomings and some of the areas of research currently in progress were inspected.

  19. Multispectral texture characterization: application to computer aided diagnosis on prostatic tissue images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelifi, Riad; Adel, Mouloud; Bourennane, Salah

    2012-12-01

    Various approaches have been proposed in the literature for texture characterization of images. Some of them are based on statistical properties, others on fractal measures and some more on multi-resolution analysis. Basically, these approaches have been applied on mono-band images. However, most of them have been extended by including the additional information between spectral bands to deal with multi-band texture images. In this article, we investigate the problem of texture characterization for multi-band images. Therefore, we aim to add spectral information to classical texture analysis methods that only treat gray-level spatial variations. To achieve this goal, we propose a spatial and spectral gray level dependence method (SSGLDM) in order to extend the concept of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) by assuming the presence of texture joint information between spectral bands. Thus, we propose new multi-dimensional functions for estimating the second-order joint conditional probability density of spectral vectors. Theses functions can be represented in structure form which can help us to compute the occurrences while keeping the corresponding components of spectral vectors. In addition, new texture features measurements related to (SSGLDM) which define the multi-spectral image properties are proposed. Extensive experiments have been carried out on 624 textured multi-spectral images for use in prostate cancer diagnosis and quantitative results showed the efficiency of this method compared to the GLCM. The results indicate a significant improvement in terms of global accuracy rate. Thus, the proposed approach can provide clinically useful information for discriminating pathological tissue from healthy tissue.

  20. A novel computer-aided detection system for pulmonary nodule identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Hao; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules from computer tomography (CT) scans is critical for assisting radiologists to identify lung lesions at an early stage. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for CADe of lung nodules using a two-stage vector quantization (VQ) scheme. The first-stage VQ aims to extract lung from the chest volume, while the second-stage VQ is designed to extract initial nodule candidates (INCs) within the lung volume. Then rule-based expert filtering is employed to prune obvious FPs from INCs, and the commonly-used support vector machine (SVM) classifier is adopted to further reduce the FPs. The proposed system was validated on 100 CT scans randomly selected from the 262 scans that have at least one juxta-pleural nodule annotation in the publicly available database - Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI). The two-stage VQ only missed 2 out of the 207 nodules at agreement level 1, and the INCs detection for each scan took about 30 seconds in average. Expert filtering reduced FPs more than 18 times, while maintaining a sensitivity of 93.24%. As it is trivial to distinguish INCs attached to pleural wall versus not on wall, we investigated the feasibility of training different SVM classifiers to further reduce FPs from these two kinds of INCs. Experiment results indicated that SVM classification over the entire set of INCs was in favor of, where the optimal operating of our CADe system achieved a sensitivity of 89.4% at a specificity of 86.8%.

  1. Computer-aided detection of cerebral microbleeds in susceptibility-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Fazlollahi, Amir; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Giancardo, Luca; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Yates, Paul; Salvado, Olivier; Bourgeat, Pierrick

    2015-12-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is recognized as the preferred MRI technique for visualizing cerebral vasculature and related pathologies such as cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). Manual identification of CMBs is time-consuming, has limited reliability and reproducibility, and is prone to misinterpretation. In this paper, a novel computer-aided microbleed detection technique based on machine learning is presented: First, spherical-like objects (potential CMB candidates) with their corresponding bounding boxes were detected using a novel multi-scale Laplacian of Gaussian technique. A set of robust 3-dimensional Radon- and Hessian-based shape descriptors within each bounding box were then extracted to train a cascade of binary random forests (RF). The cascade consists of consecutive independent RF classifiers with low to high posterior probability constraints to handle imbalanced training sets (CMBs and non-CMBs), and to progressively improve detection rates. The proposed method was validated on 66 subjects whose CMBs were manually stratified into "possible" and "definite" by two medical experts. The proposed technique achieved a sensitivity of 87% and an average false detection rate of 27.1 CMBs per subject on the "possible and definite" set. A sensitivity of 93% and false detection rate of 10 CMBs per subject was also achieved on the "definite" set. The proposed automated approach outperforms state of the art methods, and promises to enhance manual expert screening. Benefits include improved reliability, minimization of intra-rater variability and a reduction in assessment time. PMID:26560677

  2. Learning-based image preprocessing for robust computer-aided detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghupathi, Laks; Devarakota, Pandu R.; Wolf, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that low dose computed tomography (LDCT) can be an effective screening tool to reduce lung cancer mortality. Computer-aided detection (CAD) would be a beneficial second reader for radiologists in such cases. Studies demonstrate that while iterative reconstructions (IR) improve LDCT diagnostic quality, it however degrades CAD performance significantly (increased false positives) when applied directly. For improving CAD performance, solutions such as retraining with newer data or applying a standard preprocessing technique may not be suffice due to high prevalence of CT scanners and non-uniform acquisition protocols. Here, we present a learning-based framework that can adaptively transform a wide variety of input data to boost an existing CAD performance. This not only enhances their robustness but also their applicability in clinical workflows. Our solution consists of applying a suitable pre-processing filter automatically on the given image based on its characteristics. This requires the preparation of ground truth (GT) of choosing an appropriate filter resulting in improved CAD performance. Accordingly, we propose an efficient consolidation process with a novel metric. Using key anatomical landmarks, we then derive consistent feature descriptors for the classification scheme that then uses a priority mechanism to automatically choose an optimal preprocessing filter. We demonstrate CAD prototype∗ performance improvement using hospital-scale datasets acquired from North America, Europe and Asia. Though we demonstrated our results for a lung nodule CAD, this scheme is straightforward to extend to other post-processing tools dedicated to other organs and modalities.

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis of mammographic masses using scalable image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Menglin; Zhang, Shaoting; Li, Hongsheng; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2015-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis of masses in mammograms is important to the prevention of breast cancer. Many approaches tackle this problem through content-based image retrieval techniques. However, most of them fall short of scalability in the retrieval stage, and their diagnostic accuracy is, therefore, restricted. To overcome this drawback, we propose a scalable method for retrieval and diagnosis of mammographic masses. Specifically, for a query mammographic region of interest (ROI), scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features are extracted and searched in a vocabulary tree, which stores all the quantized features of previously diagnosed mammographic ROIs. In addition, to fully exert the discriminative power of SIFT features, contextual information in the vocabulary tree is employed to refine the weights of tree nodes. The retrieved ROIs are then used to determine whether the query ROI contains a mass. The presented method has excellent scalability due to the low spatial-temporal cost of vocabulary tree. Extensive experiments are conducted on a large dataset of 11 553 ROIs extracted from the digital database for screening mammography, which demonstrate the accuracy and scalability of our approach. PMID:25361497

  4. Image analysis of weaverbird nests reveals signature weave textures.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ida E; Backes, André; Walsh, Patrick T; Morgan, Kate V; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    2015-06-01

    In nature, many animals build structures that can be readily measured at the scale of their gross morphology (e.g. length, volume and weight). Capturing individuality as can be done with the structures designed and built by human architects or artists, however, is more challenging. Here, we tested whether computer-aided image texture classification approaches can be used to describe textural variation in the nests of weaverbirds (Ploceus species) in order to attribute nests to the individual weaverbird that built them. We found that a computer-aided texture analysis approach does allow the assignment of a signature to weaverbirds' nests. We suggest that this approach will be a useful tool with which to examine individual variation across a range of animal constructions, not just for nests. PMID:26543586

  5. Image analysis of weaverbird nests reveals signature weave textures

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ida E.; Backes, André; Walsh, Patrick T.; Morgan, Kate V.; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    In nature, many animals build structures that can be readily measured at the scale of their gross morphology (e.g. length, volume and weight). Capturing individuality as can be done with the structures designed and built by human architects or artists, however, is more challenging. Here, we tested whether computer-aided image texture classification approaches can be used to describe textural variation in the nests of weaverbirds (Ploceus species) in order to attribute nests to the individual weaverbird that built them. We found that a computer-aided texture analysis approach does allow the assignment of a signature to weaverbirds' nests. We suggest that this approach will be a useful tool with which to examine individual variation across a range of animal constructions, not just for nests. PMID:26543586

  6. State Aid for Undergraduates in Postsecondary Education. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John B.; Clery, Suzanne B.

    This report examines differences between undergraduates who attended postsecondary institutions in states that provide different levels of student financial aid. The report uses data from the 1995-96 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. The study evaluated how students combine aid types and sources, price of attendance, and personal…

  7. Spreadsheet-like image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul

    1992-08-01

    This report describes the design of a new software system being built by the Army to support and augment automated nondestructive inspection (NDI) on-line equipment implemented by the Army for detection of defective manufactured items. The new system recalls and post-processes (off-line) the NDI data sets archived by the on-line equipment for the purpose of verifying the correctness of the inspection analysis paradigms, of developing better analysis paradigms and to gather statistics on the defects of the items inspected. The design of the system is similar to that of a spreadsheet, i.e., an array of cells which may be programmed to contain functions with arguments being data from other cells and whose resultant is the output of that cell's function. Unlike a spreadsheet, the arguments and the resultants of a cell may be a matrix such as a two-dimensional matrix of picture elements (pixels). Functions include matrix mathematics, neural networks and image processing as well as those ordinarily found in spreadsheets. The system employs all of the common environmental supports of the Macintosh computer, which is the hardware platform. The system allows the resultant of a cell to be displayed in any of multiple formats such as a matrix of numbers, text, an image, or a chart. Each cell is a window onto the resultant. Like a spreadsheet if the input value of any cell is changed its effect is cascaded into the resultants of all cells whose functions use that value directly or indirectly. The system encourages the user to play what-of games, as ordinary spreadsheets do.

  8. Image analysis for discrimination of cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Harper, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Colposcopy involves visual imaging of the cervix for patients who have exhibited some prior indication of abnormality, and the major goals are to visually inspect for any malignancies and to guide biopsy sampling. Currently colposcopy equipment is being upgraded in many health care centers to incorporate digital image acquisition and archiving. These permanent images can be analyzed for characteristic features and color patterns which may enhance the specificity and objectivity of the routine exam. In this study a series of images from patients with biopsy confirmed cervical intraepithelia neoplasia stage 2/3 are compared with images from patients with biopsy confirmed immature squamous metaplasia, with the goal of determining optimal criteria for automated discrimination between them. All images were separated into their red, green, and blue channels, and comparisons were made between relative intensity, intensity variation, spatial frequencies, fractal dimension, and Euler number. This study indicates that computer-based processing of cervical images can provide some discrimination of the type of tissue features which are important for clinical evaluation, with the Euler number being the most clinically useful feature to discriminate metaplasia from neoplasia. Also there was a strong indication that morphology observed in the blue channel of the image provided more information about epithelial cell changes. Further research in this field can lead to advances in computer-aided diagnosis as well as the potential for online image enhancement in digital colposcopy.

  9. IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHMS FOR DUAL MODE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sean M.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Miller, Erin A.; Misner, Alex C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Pitts, W. Karl; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-06-11

    The level of detail discernable in imaging techniques has generally excluded them from consideration as verification tools in inspection regimes where information barriers are mandatory. However, if a balance can be struck between sufficient information barriers and feature extraction to verify or identify objects of interest, imaging may significantly advance verification efforts. This paper describes the development of combined active (conventional) radiography and passive (auto) radiography techniques for imaging sensitive items assuming that comparison images cannot be furnished. Three image analysis algorithms are presented, each of which reduces full image information to non-sensitive feature information and ultimately is intended to provide only a yes/no response verifying features present in the image. These algorithms are evaluated on both their technical performance in image analysis and their application with or without an explicitly constructed information barrier. The first algorithm reduces images to non-invertible pixel intensity histograms, retaining only summary information about the image that can be used in template comparisons. This one-way transform is sufficient to discriminate between different image structures (in terms of area and density) without revealing unnecessary specificity. The second algorithm estimates the attenuation cross-section of objects of known shape based on transition characteristics around the edge of the object’s image. The third algorithm compares the radiography image with the passive image to discriminate dense, radioactive material from point sources or inactive dense material. By comparing two images and reporting only a single statistic from the combination thereof, this algorithm can operate entirely behind an information barrier stage. Together with knowledge of the radiography system, the use of these algorithms in combination can be used to improve verification capability to inspection regimes and improve

  10. Towards large-scale histopathological image analysis: hashing-based image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Liu, Wei; Dundar, Murat; Badve, Sunil; Zhang, Shaoting

    2015-02-01

    Automatic analysis of histopathological images has been widely utilized leveraging computational image-processing methods and modern machine learning techniques. Both computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and content-based image-retrieval (CBIR) systems have been successfully developed for diagnosis, disease detection, and decision support in this area. Recently, with the ever-increasing amount of annotated medical data, large-scale and data-driven methods have emerged to offer a promise of bridging the semantic gap between images and diagnostic information. In this paper, we focus on developing scalable image-retrieval techniques to cope intelligently with massive histopathological images. Specifically, we present a supervised kernel hashing technique which leverages a small amount of supervised information in learning to compress a 10 000-dimensional image feature vector into only tens of binary bits with the informative signatures preserved. These binary codes are then indexed into a hash table that enables real-time retrieval of images in a large database. Critically, the supervised information is employed to bridge the semantic gap between low-level image features and high-level diagnostic information. We build a scalable image-retrieval framework based on the supervised hashing technique and validate its performance on several thousand histopathological images acquired from breast microscopic tissues. Extensive evaluations are carried out in terms of image classification (i.e., benign versus actionable categorization) and retrieval tests. Our framework achieves about 88.1% classification accuracy as well as promising time efficiency. For example, the framework can execute around 800 queries in only 0.01 s, comparing favorably with other commonly used dimensionality reduction and feature selection methods. PMID:25314696

  11. Image analysis applications for grain science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Steele, James L.

    1991-02-01

    Morphometrical features of single grain kernels or particles were used to discriminate two visibly similar wheat varieties foreign material in wheat hardsoft and spring-winter wheat classes and whole from broken corn kernels. Milled fractions of hard and soft wheat were evaluated using textural image analysis. Color image analysis of sound and mold damaged corn kernels yielded high recognition rates. The studies collectively demonstrate the potential for automated classification and assessment of grain quality using image analysis.

  12. Computer-aided-engineering system for modeling and analysis of ECLSS integration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepahban, Sonbol

    1987-01-01

    The accurate modeling and analysis of two-phase fluid networks found in environmental control and life support systems is presently undertaken by computer-aided engineering (CAE) techniques whose generalized fluid dynamics package can solve arbitrary flow networks. The CAE system for integrated test bed modeling and analysis will also furnish interfaces and subsystem/test-article mathematical models. Three-dimensional diagrams of the test bed are generated by the system after performing the requisite simulation and analysis.

  13. Automatic processing, analysis, and recognition of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrukov, Victor S.; Smirnov, Evgeniy V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy G.

    2004-11-01

    New approaches and computer codes (A&CC) for automatic processing, analysis and recognition of images are offered. The A&CC are based on presentation of object image as a collection of pixels of various colours and consecutive automatic painting of distinguished itself parts of the image. The A&CC have technical objectives centred on such direction as: 1) image processing, 2) image feature extraction, 3) image analysis and some others in any consistency and combination. The A&CC allows to obtain various geometrical and statistical parameters of object image and its parts. Additional possibilities of the A&CC usage deal with a usage of artificial neural networks technologies. We believe that A&CC can be used at creation of the systems of testing and control in a various field of industry and military applications (airborne imaging systems, tracking of moving objects), in medical diagnostics, at creation of new software for CCD, at industrial vision and creation of decision-making system, etc. The opportunities of the A&CC are tested at image analysis of model fires and plumes of the sprayed fluid, ensembles of particles, at a decoding of interferometric images, for digitization of paper diagrams of electrical signals, for recognition of the text, for elimination of a noise of the images, for filtration of the image, for analysis of the astronomical images and air photography, at detection of objects.

  14. Satellite image analysis using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    The tremendous backlog of unanalyzed satellite data necessitates the development of improved methods for data cataloging and analysis. Ford Aerospace has developed an image analysis system, SIANN (Satellite Image Analysis using Neural Networks) that integrates the technologies necessary to satisfy NASA's science data analysis requirements for the next generation of satellites. SIANN will enable scientists to train a neural network to recognize image data containing scenes of interest and then rapidly search data archives for all such images. The approach combines conventional image processing technology with recent advances in neural networks to provide improved classification capabilities. SIANN allows users to proceed through a four step process of image classification: filtering and enhancement, creation of neural network training data via application of feature extraction algorithms, configuring and training a neural network model, and classification of images by application of the trained neural network. A prototype experimentation testbed was completed and applied to climatological data.

  15. Automated image-based colon cleansing for laxative-free CT colonography computer-aided polyp detection

    SciTech Connect

    Linguraru, Marius George; Panjwani, Neil; Fletcher, Joel G.; Summer, Ronald M.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detecting colonic polyps at noncathartic computed tomography colonography (CTC) in conjunction with an automated image-based colon cleansing algorithm. Methods: An automated colon cleansing algorithm was designed to detect and subtract tagged-stool, accounting for heterogeneity and poor tagging, to be used in conjunction with a colon CAD system. The method is locally adaptive and combines intensity, shape, and texture analysis with probabilistic optimization. CTC data from cathartic-free bowel preparation were acquired for testing and training the parameters. Patients underwent various colonic preparations with barium or Gastroview in divided doses over 48 h before scanning. No laxatives were administered and no dietary modifications were required. Cases were selected from a polyp-enriched cohort and included scans in which at least 90% of the solid stool was visually estimated to be tagged and each colonic segment was distended in either the prone or supine view. The CAD system was run comparatively with and without the stool subtraction algorithm. Results: The dataset comprised 38 CTC scans from prone and/or supine scans of 19 patients containing 44 polyps larger than 10 mm (22 unique polyps, if matched between prone and supine scans). The results are robust on fine details around folds, thin-stool linings on the colonic wall, near polyps and in large fluid/stool pools. The sensitivity of the CAD system is 70.5% per polyp at a rate of 5.75 false positives/scan without using the stool subtraction module. This detection improved significantly (p = 0.009) after automated colon cleansing on cathartic-free data to 86.4% true positive rate at 5.75 false positives/scan. Conclusions: An automated image-based colon cleansing algorithm designed to overcome the challenges of the noncathartic colon significantly improves the sensitivity of colon CAD by approximately 15%.

  16. Dynamic chest image analysis: model-based ventilation study with pyramid images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jianming; Jaervi, Timo; Kiuru, Aaro J.; Kormano, Martti; Svedstrom, Erkki; Virkki, Raimo

    1997-05-01

    The aim of the study 'dynamic chest image analysis' is to develop computing analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected at different phases of the respiratory/cardiac cycles. A multiresolutional method for ventilation study with an explicit ventilation model based on pyramid images is proposed in this paper. The ventilation model is sophisticated enough in coverage of both inhalation and exhalation phases, but also remains simple enough in model realization. This model plays a critical role in extracting accurate, geographic ventilation parameters; while the pyramid helps in understanding ventilation at multiple resolutions and speeding up the convergence process in optimization. A number of patients have been studied with a research prototype produced in MATLAB. The prototype has proven to be useful aid in dynamic pulmonary ventilation study. However, for clinical use, further work must be done in the future.

  17. Computer-aided design and analysis of mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    An introduction to the computer programs developed to assist in the design and analysis of mechanisms is presented. A survey of the various types of programs which are available is given, and the most widely used programs are compared. The way in which the programs are used is discussed, and demonstrated with an example.

  18. A topological approach to computer-aided sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, S. P.; Munoz, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    Sensitivities of any arbitrary system are calculated using general purpose digital computer with available software packages for transfer function analysis. Sensitivity shows how element variation within system affects system performance. Signal flow graph illustrates topological system behavior and relationship among parameters in system.

  19. P/G% of Analysis: An Evaluation-Aiding Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart; Long, John

    1985-01-01

    Policy Goal Percentaging Analysis is a microcomputer program which can perform a variety of useful decision-making analyses. The components of the program, its applications, and limitations are examined. The program is related to the field of multicriteria decision-making and is most useful to program evaluators. (DWH)

  20. Computer aided analysis and optimization of mechanical system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose is to outline a computational approach to spatial dynamics of mechanical systems that substantially enlarges the scope of consideration to include flexible bodies, feedback control, hydraulics, and related interdisciplinary effects. Design sensitivity analysis and optimization is the ultimate goal. The approach to computer generation and solution of the system dynamic equations and graphical methods for creating animations as output is outlined.

  1. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  6. 75 FR 79377 - NBTY, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of Federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  7. 76 FR 44924 - Cardinal Health, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  8. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Nursing. Occupation: Geriatric Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    This task analysis for nursing education provides performance standards, steps to be followed, knowledge required, attitudes to be developed, safety procedures, and equipment and supplies needed for 13 tasks performed by geriatric aides in the duty area of performing diagnostic measures and for 30 tasks in the duty area of providing therapeutic…

  9. 76 FR 75883 - Facebook, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... 2004, Facebook has operated http://www.facebook.com , a social networking Web site that enables a... Facebook, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Facebook, File No. 092 3184'' on your comment, and file...

  10. 77 FR 50508 - Brain-Pad, Inc; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Brain-Pad, Inc; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Brain-Pad, File No. 122 3073'' on your comment, and file your... must receive it on or before September 17, 2012. Write ``Brain-Pad, File No. 122 3073'' on your...

  11. 77 FR 17479 - Star Pipe Products, Ltd.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Star Pipe Products, Ltd.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Star Pipe, Docket No. 9351'' on your comment, and file your... receive it on or before April 20, 2012. Write ``Star Pipe, Docket No. 9351'' on your comment. Your...

  12. 77 FR 65550 - Compete, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  13. 75 FR 48686 - Tops Markets LLC; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Tops Markets LLC; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... refer to``Tops-Penn Traffic, File No. 101 0074'' to facilitate the organization of comments. Please note... include the ``Tops-Penn Traffic, File No. 101 0074'' reference both in the text and on the envelope,...

  14. 77 FR 59925 - ABCSP, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ABCSP, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment Correction In notice document 2012... corrections: 1. On page 58839, in the first column, in the seventeenth line, ``AABSCP'' should read...

  15. 77 FR 51801 - Cooperativa de Farmacias Puertorriquenas; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  16. 75 FR 37438 - Minnesota Rural Health Cooperative; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order -- embodied in the consent agreement -- that would settle these...

  17. 77 FR 42733 - Novartis AG; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  18. 76 FR 71564 - ScanScout, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  19. 77 FR 47844 - Renown Health; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis To Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  20. 76 FR 27056 - Lookout Services, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  1. 76 FR 15313 - Chitika, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  2. 77 FR 64519 - Magnesium Elektron; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  3. Graphical and Normative Analysis of Binocular Vision by Mini Computer: A Teaching Aid and Clinical Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Martin; Schor, Clifton

    1981-01-01

    An inexpensive computer graphics systems (Commodore PET), used as a video aid for teaching students advanced case analysis, is described. The course provides students with the analytical tools for evaluating with graphical and statistical techniques and treating with lenses, prisms, and orthoptics various anomalies of binocular vision. (MLW)

  4. 77 FR 66867 - Corning Incorporated; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis To Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations... Stephanie C. Bovee (202-326-2083), FTC, Bureau of Competition, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC..., and Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 45, by lessening...

  5. 77 FR 12590 - Winchester Industries; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  6. 77 FR 12584 - Gorell Enterprises, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  7. 77 FR 12586 - Serious Energy, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis To Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  8. 77 FR 12591 - THV Holdings LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  9. Using computer aided system to determine the maximum depth of visualization of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslebu, G.; Adi, K.; Suryono

    2016-03-01

    In the service unit of radiology, ultrasound modality is widely used because it has advantages over other modalities, such as relatively inexpensive, non-invasive, does not use ionizing radiation, and portable. Until now, the method for determining the depth visualization on quality control program is through the visual observation of ultrasound image on the monitor. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided system to determine maximum depth of visualization. Data acquisition was done by using B-Mode Diagnostic Ultrasound machine and Multi-purpose Multi-tissue Ultrasound Phantom model 040GSE. Phantom was scanned at fixed frequency of 1,8 MHz, 2,2 MHz, 3,6 MHz and 5,0 MHz with a gain variation of 30 dB, 45 dB, and 60 dB. Global thresholding and Euclidean distance method were used to determine maximum visualization depth. From this study, it is proved that the visualization depth using computer aided provide deeper visualization than visual interpretation. The differences between expert verification and the result of image processing are <6%. Thus, computer aided system can be used for the purpose of quality control in determining maximum visualization depth of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image.

  10. Microscopy image segmentation tool: Robust image data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Valmianski, Ilya Monton, Carlos; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2014-03-15

    We present a software package called Microscopy Image Segmentation Tool (MIST). MIST is designed for analysis of microscopy images which contain large collections of small regions of interest (ROIs). Originally developed for analysis of porous anodic alumina scanning electron images, MIST capabilities have been expanded to allow use in a large variety of problems including analysis of biological tissue, inorganic and organic film grain structure, as well as nano- and meso-scopic structures. MIST provides a robust segmentation algorithm for the ROIs, includes many useful analysis capabilities, and is highly flexible allowing incorporation of specialized user developed analysis. We describe the unique advantages MIST has over existing analysis software. In addition, we present a number of diverse applications to scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  11. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  12. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  13. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  14. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  15. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  16. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  17. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  18. Image registration with uncertainty analysis

    DOEpatents

    Simonson, Katherine M.

    2011-03-22

    In an image registration method, edges are detected in a first image and a second image. A percentage of edge pixels in a subset of the second image that are also edges in the first image shifted by a translation is calculated. A best registration point is calculated based on a maximum percentage of edges matched. In a predefined search region, all registration points other than the best registration point are identified that are not significantly worse than the best registration point according to a predetermined statistical criterion.

  19. Digital-image processing and image analysis of glacier ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Joan J.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides a methodology for extracting grain statistics from 8-bit color and grayscale images of thin sections of glacier ice—a subset of physical properties measurements typically performed on ice cores. This type of analysis is most commonly used to characterize the evolution of ice-crystal size, shape, and intercrystalline spatial relations within a large body of ice sampled by deep ice-coring projects from which paleoclimate records will be developed. However, such information is equally useful for investigating the stress state and physical responses of ice to stresses within a glacier. The methods of analysis presented here go hand-in-hand with the analysis of ice fabrics (aggregate crystal orientations) and, when combined with fabric analysis, provide a powerful method for investigating the dynamic recrystallization and deformation behaviors of bodies of ice in motion. The procedures described in this document compose a step-by-step handbook for a specific image acquisition and data reduction system built in support of U.S. Geological Survey ice analysis projects, but the general methodology can be used with any combination of image processing and analysis software. The specific approaches in this document use the FoveaPro 4 plug-in toolset to Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended but it can be carried out equally well, though somewhat less conveniently, with software such as the image processing toolbox in MATLAB, Image-Pro Plus, or ImageJ.

  20. Diffuser-aided diffuse optical imaging for breast tumor: a feasibility study based on time-resolved three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Lee, Chia-Yen; Chen, Chung-Ming; Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Liu, Tsan-Chi; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2012-05-01

    This study proposed diffuser-aided diffuse optical imaging (DADOI) as a new approach to improve the performance of the conventional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) approach for breast imaging. The 3-D breast model for Monte Carlo simulation is remodeled from clinical MRI image. The modified Beer-Lambert's law is adopted with the DADOI approach to substitute the complex algorithms of inverse problem for mapping of spatial distribution, and the depth information is obtained based on the time-of-flight estimation. The simulation results demonstrate that the time-resolved Monte Carlo method can be capable of performing source-detector separations analysis. The dynamics of photon migration with various source-detector separations are analyzed for the characterization of breast tissue and estimation of optode arrangement. The source-detector separations should be less than 4 cm for breast imaging in DOT system. Meanwhile, the feasibility of DADOI was manifested in this study. In the results, DADOI approach can provide better imaging contrast and faster imaging than conventional DOT measurement. The DADOI approach possesses great potential to detect the breast tumor in early stage and chemotherapy monitoring that implies a good feasibility for clinical application. PMID:22394571

  1. Millimeter-wave sensor image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Suess, Helmut

    1989-01-01

    Images of an airborne, scanning, radiometer operating at a frequency of 98 GHz, have been analyzed. The mm-wave images were obtained in 1985/1986 using the JPL mm-wave imaging sensor. The goal of this study was to enhance the information content of these images and make their interpretation easier for human analysis. In this paper, a visual interpretative approach was used for information extraction from the images. This included application of nonlinear transform techniques for noise reduction and for color, contrast and edge enhancement. Results of the techniques on selected mm-wave images are presented.

  2. Image processing software for imaging spectrometry data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazer, Alan; Martin, Miki; Lee, Meemong; Solomon, Jerry E.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging spectrometers simultaneously collect image data in hundreds of spectral channels, from the near-UV to the IR, and can thereby provide direct surface materials identification by means resembling laboratory reflectance spectroscopy. Attention is presently given to a software system, the Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for the analysis of imaging spectrometer data. SPAM requires only modest computational resources and is composed of one main routine and a set of subroutine libraries. Additions and modifications are relatively easy, and special-purpose algorithms have been incorporated that are tailored to geological applications.

  3. Sampling and analysis information aids for stationary source personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.D.; Johnson, L.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency, in developing and evaluating samples and analysis methodology for stationary sources, has compiled information on availability and applicability of sampling and analytical methods. Information has also been summarized on the applicability of the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as the analytical method. All of this information is accessible in three documents: ``Stationary Source Sampling and Analysis Directory, Version 2`` (SSSADIR), ``Handbook of GC/MS Data and Information for Selected Clean Air Act Amendments Compounds`` (Handbook), and ``Literature Review of CAAA Compounds`` (LitRev). The SSSADIR has information on which sampling and analytical methods to use for organic compounds listed in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, as well as Appendices 8 and 9 of RCRA compounds, and the status of method evaluation for these analytes. The Handbook provides information on the mass spectra of selected CAAA analytes, primary quantitation ions, relative retention times and compatibility of the organic compounds in solution. The LitRev provides information on CAAA compounds for which EPA has no potential methods available but provides suggestions on ways to develop methods.

  4. Computer-aided fiber analysis for crime scene forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Arndt, Christian; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-03-01

    The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers. Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric. As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type. The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features.

  5. Mobility aid for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A project to develop an effective mobility aid for blind pedestrians which acquires consecutive images of the scenes before a moving pedestrian, which locates and identifies the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles in the path, which presents path and obstacle information to the pedestrian, and which operates in real-time is discussed. The mobility aid has three principal components: an image acquisition system, an image interpretation system, and an information presentation system. The image acquisition system consists of a miniature, solid-state TV camera which transforms the scene before the blind pedestrian into an image which can be received by the image interpretation system. The image interpretation system is implemented on a microprocessor which has been programmed to execute real-time feature extraction and scene analysis algorithms for locating and identifying the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles. Identity and location information is presented to the pedestrian by means of tactile coding and machine-generated speech.

  6. Quantitative analysis of digital microscope images.

    PubMed

    Wolf, David E; Samarasekera, Champika; Swedlow, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses quantitative analysis of digital microscope images and presents several exercises to provide examples to explain the concept. This chapter also presents the basic concepts in quantitative analysis for imaging, but these concepts rest on a well-established foundation of signal theory and quantitative data analysis. This chapter presents several examples for understanding the imaging process as a transformation from sample to image and the limits and considerations of quantitative analysis. This chapter introduces to the concept of digitally correcting the images and also focuses on some of the more critical types of data transformation and some of the frequently encountered issues in quantization. Image processing represents a form of data processing. There are many examples of data processing such as fitting the data to a theoretical curve. In all these cases, it is critical that care is taken during all steps of transformation, processing, and quantization. PMID:23931513

  7. 78 FR 46949 - Essentia Natural Memory Foam Company, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11, 2012). Part II... Essentia Natural Memory Foam Company, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment AGENCY... unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the...

  8. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts. 2937.103-70 Section 2937.103-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 2937.103-70 Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review...

  9. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts. 2937.103-70 Section 2937.103-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 2937.103-70 Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review...

  10. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts. 2937.103-70 Section 2937.103-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 2937.103-70 Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review...

  11. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts. 2937.103-70 Section 2937.103-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 2937.103-70 Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review...

  12. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts. 2937.103-70 Section 2937.103-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 2937.103-70 Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review...

  13. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  14. Multiscale Analysis of Solar Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. A.; Myers, D. C.

    2001-12-01

    It is often said that the blessing and curse of solar physics is that there is too much data. Solar missions such as Yohkoh, SOHO and TRACE have shown us the Sun with amazing clarity but have also cursed us with an increased amount of higher complexity data than previous missions. We have improved our view of the Sun yet we have not improved our analysis techniques. The standard techniques used for analysis of solar images generally consist of observing the evolution of features in a sequence of byte scaled images or a sequence of byte scaled difference images. The determination of features and structures in the images are done qualitatively by the observer. There is little quantitative and objective analysis done with these images. Many advances in image processing techniques have occured in the past decade. Many of these methods are possibly suited for solar image analysis. Multiscale/Multiresolution methods are perhaps the most promising. These methods have been used to formulate the human ability to view and comprehend phenomena on different scales. So these techniques could be used to quantitify the imaging processing done by the observers eyes and brains. In this work we present a preliminary analysis of multiscale techniques applied to solar image data. Specifically, we explore the use of the 2-d wavelet transform and related transforms with EIT, LASCO and TRACE images. This work was supported by NASA contract NAS5-00220.

  15. A 3D image analysis tool for SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontos, Despina; Wang, Qiang; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Maurer, Alan H.; Knight, Linda C.; Kantor, Steve; Fisher, Robert S.; Simonian, Hrair P.; Parkman, Henry P.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed semi-automated and fully-automated tools for the analysis of 3D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The focus is on the efficient boundary delineation of complex 3D structures that enables accurate measurement of their structural and physiologic properties. We employ intensity based thresholding algorithms for interactive and semi-automated analysis. We also explore fuzzy-connectedness concepts for fully automating the segmentation process. We apply the proposed tools to SPECT image data capturing variation of gastric accommodation and emptying. These image analysis tools were developed within the framework of a noninvasive scintigraphic test to measure simultaneously both gastric emptying and gastric volume after ingestion of a solid or a liquid meal. The clinical focus of the particular analysis was to probe associations between gastric accommodation/emptying and functional dyspepsia. Employing the proposed tools, we outline effectively the complex three dimensional gastric boundaries shown in the 3D SPECT images. We also perform accurate volume calculations in order to quantitatively assess the gastric mass variation. This analysis was performed both with the semi-automated and fully-automated tools. The results were validated against manual segmentation performed by a human expert. We believe that the development of an automated segmentation tool for SPECT imaging of the gastric volume variability will allow for other new applications of SPECT imaging where there is a need to evaluate complex organ function or tumor masses.

  16. Computer aided classification system for breast ultrasound based on Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS).

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-Chih; Chang, Ruey-Feng; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-11-01

    Clinically, the ultrasound findings are evaluated by its sonographic characteristics and then assigned to assessment categories according to the definitions of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) developed by the American College of Radiology. In this study, a computer-aided classification (CAC) system was proposed to classify the masses into assessment categories 3, 4 and 5, which simulated the clinical diagnosis of radiologists. Compared with current computer-aided diagnosis systems, the proposed CAC system classifies the indeterminate cases into BI-RADS category 4 for further diagnosis. Six hundred twenty-six cases were collected from three ultrasound systems and confirmed by pathology and retrospectively classified into categories 3, 4 and 5 by radiologists. The multinomial logistic regression model was trained as the CAC system for predicting the assessment category from the computerized BI-RADS features and from a set of machine-dependent factors. By using the machine-dependent factors to indicate the adopted ultrasound systems, the same regression model could be applied for the cases acquired from different ultrasound systems. A basic CAC system was trained by using the classification result of radiologists. A weighted CAC system, to improve the capacity of the basic CAC system in differentiating benign from malignant lesions, was trained by adding the pathologic result. Between the radiologists and the basic CAC system, a substantial agreement was indicated by Cohen's kappa statistic and the differences in either the performance indices or the A(Z) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were not statistically significant. For the weighted CAC system, the performance indices accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 73.00% (457 of 626), 98.17% (215 of 219), 59.46% (242 of 407), 56.58% (215 of 380) and 98.37% (242 of 246), respectively; the A(Z) was 0.94; and the

  17. Digital breast tomosynthesis: computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on planar projection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach to detect microcalcification clusters (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) via its planar projection (PPJ) image. With IRB approval, two-view (cranio-caudal and mediolateral oblique views) DBTs of human subject breasts were obtained with a GE GEN2 prototype DBT system that acquires 21 projection angles spanning 60° in 3° increments. A data set of 307 volumes (154 human subjects) was divided by case into independent training (127 with MCs) and test sets (104 with MCs and 76 free of MCs). A simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization was used to enhance microcalcifications and suppress noise. During the MSBF regularized reconstruction, the DBT volume was separated into high frequency (HF) and low frequency components representing microcalcifications and larger structures. At the final iteration, maximum intensity projection was applied to the regularized HF volume to generate a PPJ image that contained MCs with increased contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and reduced search space. High CNR objects in the PPJ image were extracted and labeled as microcalcification candidates. Convolution neural network trained to recognize the image pattern of microcalcifications was used to classify the candidates into true calcifications and tissue structures and artifacts. The remaining microcalcification candidates were grouped into MCs by dynamic conditional clustering based on adaptive CNR threshold and radial distance criteria. False positive (FP) clusters were further reduced using the number of candidates in a cluster, CNR and size of microcalcification candidates. At 85% sensitivity an FP rate of 0.71 and 0.54 was achieved for view- and case-based sensitivity, respectively, compared to 2.16 and 0.85 achieved in DBT. The improvement was significant (p-value = 0.003) by JAFROC analysis.

  18. Digital breast tomosynthesis: computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on planar projection images.

    PubMed

    Samala, Ravi K; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach to detect microcalcification clusters (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) via its planar projection (PPJ) image. With IRB approval, two-view (cranio-caudal and mediolateral oblique views) DBTs of human subject breasts were obtained with a GE GEN2 prototype DBT system that acquires 21 projection angles spanning 60° in 3° increments. A data set of 307 volumes (154 human subjects) was divided by case into independent training (127 with MCs) and test sets (104 with MCs and 76 free of MCs). A simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization was used to enhance microcalcifications and suppress noise. During the MSBF regularized reconstruction, the DBT volume was separated into high frequency (HF) and low frequency components representing microcalcifications and larger structures. At the final iteration, maximum intensity projection was applied to the regularized HF volume to generate a PPJ image that contained MCs with increased contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and reduced search space. High CNR objects in the PPJ image were extracted and labeled as microcalcification candidates. Convolution neural network trained to recognize the image pattern of microcalcifications was used to classify the candidates into true calcifications and tissue structures and artifacts. The remaining microcalcification candidates were grouped into MCs by dynamic conditional clustering based on adaptive CNR threshold and radial distance criteria. False positive (FP) clusters were further reduced using the number of candidates in a cluster, CNR and size of microcalcification candidates. At 85% sensitivity an FP rate of 0.71 and 0.54 was achieved for view- and case-based sensitivity, respectively, compared to 2.16 and 0.85 achieved in DBT. The improvement was significant (p-value = 0.003) by JAFROC analysis. PMID:25393654

  19. Digital breast tomosynthesis: Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on planar projection images

    PubMed Central

    Samala, Ravi K; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to detection of microcalcification clusters (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) via its planar projection (PPJ) image. With IRB approval, two-view (cranio-caudal and mediolateral oblique views) DBTs of human subject breasts were obtained with a GE GEN2 prototype DBT system that acquires 21 projection angles spanning 600 in 30 increments. A data set of 307 volumes (154 human subjects) was divided by case into independent training (127 with MCs) and test sets (104 with MCs and 76 free of MCs). Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization was used to enhance microcalcifications and suppress noise. During the MSBF regularized reconstruction, the DBT volume was separated into high frequency (HF) and low frequency components representing microcalcifications and larger structures. At the final iteration, maximum intensity projection was applied to the regularized HF volume to generate a PPJ image that contained MCs with increased contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and reduced search space. High CNR objects in the PPJ image were extracted and labeled as microcalcification candidates. Convolution neural network (CNN) trained to recognize the image pattern of microcalcifications was used to classify the candidates into true calcifications and tissue structures and artifacts. The remaining microcalcification candidates were grouped into MCs by dynamic conditional clustering based on adaptive CNR threshold and radial distance criteria. False positive (FP) clusters were further reduced using the number of candidates in a cluster, CNR and size of microcalcification candidates. At 85% sensitivity an FP rate of 0.71 and 0.54 was achieved for view- and case-based sensitivity, respectively, compared to 2.16 and 0.85 achieved in DBT. The improvement was significant (p-value = 0.003) by JAFROC analysis. PMID:25393654

  20. Shell stability analysis in a computer aided engineering (CAE) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, J.; Hol, J. M. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of 'DISDECO', the Delft Interactive Shell DEsign COde is described. The purpose of this project is to make the accumulated theoretical, numerical and practical knowledge of the last 25 years or so readily accessible to users interested in the analysis of buckling sensitive structures. With this open ended, hierarchical, interactive computer code the user can access from his workstation successively programs of increasing complexity. The computational modules currently operational in DISDECO provide the prospective user with facilities to calculate the critical buckling loads of stiffened anisotropic shells under combined loading, to investigate the effects the various types of boundary conditions will have on the critical load, and to get a complete picture of the degrading effects the different shapes of possible initial imperfections might cause, all in one interactive session. Once a design is finalized, its collapse load can be verified by running a large refined model remotely from behind the workstation with one of the current generation 2-dimensional codes, with advanced capabilities to handle both geometric and material nonlinearities.

  1. Image Reconstruction Using Analysis Model Prior.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Du, Huiqian; Lam, Fan; Mei, Wenbo; Fang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The analysis model has been previously exploited as an alternative to the classical sparse synthesis model for designing image reconstruction methods. Applying a suitable analysis operator on the image of interest yields a cosparse outcome which enables us to reconstruct the image from undersampled data. In this work, we introduce additional prior in the analysis context and theoretically study the uniqueness issues in terms of analysis operators in general position and the specific 2D finite difference operator. We establish bounds on the minimum measurement numbers which are lower than those in cases without using analysis model prior. Based on the idea of iterative cosupport detection (ICD), we develop a novel image reconstruction model and an effective algorithm, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance. Simulation results on synthetic and practical magnetic resonance (MR) images are also shown to illustrate our theoretical claims. PMID:27379171

  2. Image Reconstruction Using Analysis Model Prior

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Du, Huiqian; Lam, Fan; Mei, Wenbo; Fang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The analysis model has been previously exploited as an alternative to the classical sparse synthesis model for designing image reconstruction methods. Applying a suitable analysis operator on the image of interest yields a cosparse outcome which enables us to reconstruct the image from undersampled data. In this work, we introduce additional prior in the analysis context and theoretically study the uniqueness issues in terms of analysis operators in general position and the specific 2D finite difference operator. We establish bounds on the minimum measurement numbers which are lower than those in cases without using analysis model prior. Based on the idea of iterative cosupport detection (ICD), we develop a novel image reconstruction model and an effective algorithm, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance. Simulation results on synthetic and practical magnetic resonance (MR) images are also shown to illustrate our theoretical claims. PMID:27379171

  3. Markov Chain Modelling Analysis of HIV/AIDS Progression: A Race-based Forecast in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S.; Ko, J.; Tan, Xi; Patel, Isha; Balkrishnan, R.; Chang, J.

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has reached a pandemic level across the world with more than 33 million people who are living with HIV. In the United States, more than half a million people have been victims of AIDS. This study investigates the most vulnerable racial minority population (the African Americans) in the United States and the second least affected (the Caucasians) in order to predict the trends of the epidemic. A Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the disease among vulnerable people, infective people and AIDS cases for the two races separately, based on the 2009 Centers of Disease Control and Prevention HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Based on the Markov model, our study predicts that the number of African American people living with AIDS diagnosis and HIV infection and dead due to HIV/AIDS will be 662.2, 1225.3 and 62.9 in 2015 and 794.9, 1566.5 and 79.2 in 2030, respectively. The number of Caucasian people living with AIDS diagnosis and HIV infection and dead due to HIV/AIDS will be 96.4, 160 and 6.5 in 2015 and 118.6, 206.9 and 8.3 in 2030, respectively. The numbers of deaths due to HIV/AIDS are quite stable over the years in both the races. There is an increasing trend in the number of people living with HIV infection and AIDS diagnosis in Caucasians compared with African Americans. The absolute number of Caucasians living with AIDS diagnosis and HIV infection is quite smaller compared with African Americans. The results reveal discrepancy in HIV infection, AIDS diagnosis and deaths due to HIV/AIDS among the African Americans and the Caucasians races. There is a need for interventions focusing on HIV/AIDS prevention and management, optimum resource allocation and development of antiAIDS campaigns to reduce the infection rate. PMID:24843183

  4. Effect of technical settings and semen handling upon motility characteristics of dog spermatozoa measured using computer-aided sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, S C; England, G C

    2001-01-01

    Technical aspects of computer-aided sperm analysis and the influence of semen preparation were investigated for their effect on the measured motility characteristics of dog spermatozoa. Altering the internal image settings significantly influenced the measured motility by changing the ability of the computer to recognize spermatozoa. Similarly, the use of a longer minimum track point (the minimum length of sperm track detected before analysis) resulted in failure to detect some of the faster moving spermatozoa. There was a clear interaction between the search radius (the threshold distance below which objects are linked together) and the minimum track point. A 1 min analysis period was required to eliminate reduced motility as a result of sample deterioration upon the microscope stage. The dilution of semen to between 1:10 and 1:20 was necessary to allow accurate detection of sperm motility; however, such dilution significantly altered the motility characteristics of spermatozoa. The influence of viscosity and ionic composition of the media was confirmed by comparing dilution in seminal plasma with dilution in iso-viscous methylcellulose and iso-osmotic saline, respectively. Analysis temperature had a significant influence on sperm motility, although values were most constant within the range of 25-45 degrees C. Extremes of temperature had marked deleterious effects. Careful selection of internal image settings, the minimal track point and search radius, and the analysis time are essential for accurate detection of sperm motility. Moreover, dilution of spermatozoa per se, and dilution with media of different viscosities and ionic compositions can alter the sperm motility. Once these aspects of computer image analysis are determined for each system, the method can achieve a high degree of repeatability with interanalysis coefficients of variation of < 12%, and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of < 3% for most parameters. PMID:11787144

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  6. A Canonical Correlation Analysis of AIDS Restriction Genes and Metabolic Pathways Identifies Purine Metabolism as a Key Cooperator

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hanhui; Yuan, Jinjin; Wang, Zhengwu; Huang, Aiqiong; Liu, Xiaolong; Han, Xiao; Chen, Yahong

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus causes a severe disease in humans, referred to as immune deficiency syndrome. Studies on the interaction between host genetic factors and the virus have revealed dozens of genes that impact diverse processes in the AIDS disease. To resolve more genetic factors related to AIDS, a canonical correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between AIDS restriction and metabolic pathway gene expression. The results show that HIV-1 postentry cellular viral cofactors from AIDS restriction genes are coexpressed in human transcriptome microarray datasets. Further, the purine metabolism pathway comprises novel host factors that are coexpressed with AIDS restriction genes. Using a canonical correlation analysis for expression is a reliable approach to exploring the mechanism underlying AIDS. PMID:27462363

  7. Mathematical analysis of a two strain HIV/AIDS model with antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Bhunu, C P; Garira, W; Magombedze, G

    2009-09-01

    A two strain HIV/AIDS model with treatment which allows AIDS patients with sensitive HIV-strain to undergo amelioration is presented as a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The disease-free equilibrium is shown to be globally asymptotically stable when the associated epidemic threshold known as the basic reproduction number for the model is less than unity. The centre manifold theory is used to show that the sensitive HIV-strain only and resistant HIV-strain only endemic equilibria are locally asymptotically stable when the associated reproduction numbers are greater than unity. Qualitative analysis of the model including positivity, boundedness and persistence of solutions are presented. The model is numerically analysed to assess the effects of treatment with amelioration on the dynamics of a two strain HIV/AIDS model. Numerical simulations of the model show that the two strains co-exist whenever the reproduction numbers exceed unity. Further, treatment with amelioration may result in an increase in the total number of infective individuals (asymptomatic) but results in a decrease in the number of AIDS patients. Further, analysis of the reproduction numbers show that antiretroviral resistance increases with increase in antiretroviral use. PMID:19357968

  8. AIDS education in an Islamic nation: content analysis of Farsi-language AIDS-education materials in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Hale, Lauren

    2008-09-01

    Inconsistent statistics about the number of HIV/AIDS cases in Iran and misinformation about HIV/AIDS among Iranian adolescents necessitate proper understanding and knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention. This is particularly important since many issues related to HIV/AIDS, such as sex, homosexuality, and drug use, are taboo topics in the Islamic world. We analyzed Farsi-language educational and informational small media items to ascertain the nature of HIV/AIDS-related material available in society. While all of the documents mentioned sexual contact as a means of transmitting the virus, and the majority (87%) mentioned condom use as a preventive means, mention of homosexuality (43%) and prostitution (17%) was lacking in most. Thus, mention of "safe sex" strategies was not avoided due to fear of promoting sex outside of marriage, as has been noted in other Islamic nations. Mention of intravenous drug use in 90% of the documents shows an acknowledgment of the drug problem in the nation, and an effort to curb its harmful sequelae. Therefore, while certain issues such as sex, condoms, and drug use were well represented in the documents analyzed, additional inclusion of topics such as homosexuality and prostitution, issues already discussed infrequently in society, can help to better educate the population and curb the spread of this life-threatening disease. PMID:18784049

  9. Analysis of hydroelastic slamming through particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciroli, R.; Porfiri, M.

    2015-07-01

    Predicting the hydrodynamic loading experienced by lightweight structures during water impact is central to the design of marine vessels and aircraft. Here, hydroelastic effects of flexible panels during water entry are studied through particle image velocimetry. Experiments are conducted on a compliant wedge entering the water surface in free fall for varying entry velocities, and the pressure field is indirectly evaluated from particle image velocimetry. Results show that the impact is responsible for prominent multimodal vibrations of the wedge, and, vice versa, that the wedge flexibility strongly influences the hydrodynamic loading. With respect to rigid wedges, the hydrodynamic loading exhibits marked spatial variations, which control the location of the minimum and maximum pressure on the wetted surface, and temporal oscillations, which modulate the direction of the hydrodynamic force. These experimental results are expected to aid in refining computational schemes for the analysis of hydroelastic phenomena and provide guidelines for structural design.

  10. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  11. HIV/AIDS and family support systems: A situation analysis of people living with HIV/AIDS in Lagos State.

    PubMed

    Oluwagbemiga, Adeyemi Ezekiel

    2007-11-01

    Current statistics about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria do not reveal the broader social and economic impacts of the disease on the family.The study therefore primarily aimed to address the socio-economic effects of HIV infection on individuals and their families.The study was carried out in Lagos State. In-depth interviews were employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the state, while four focus group discussions were conducted to elicit information from people affected by AIDS about the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on families in Nigeria. From the survey, among people living with HIV/AIDS, 66% of females and males were in the age group 21-40 years, while 10% were older people above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that as HIV/AIDS strikes at parents, grand parents are assuming responsibility for bringing up the children of the infected persons and the orphans of those killed by the virus. It was striking that some of the older caregivers could not meet the requirement of these children.They are often forced to work more than they would have, or borrow in order to cope with the needs of these extra mouths. Some of the infected people have sold their properties to enable them to cope with the economic effects of the virus, while their children have had to drop out of school, since they could not afford the school fees and other related expenses. It was suggested that PLWHA should be economically empowered with adequate medical treatment, in order to reduce the impact of the disease on the family. PMID:18185894

  12. Optical Analysis of Microscope Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biles, Jonathan R.

    Microscope images were analyzed with coherent and incoherent light using analog optical techniques. These techniques were found to be useful for analyzing large numbers of nonsymbolic, statistical microscope images. In the first part phase coherent transparencies having 20-100 human multiple myeloma nuclei were simultaneously photographed at 100 power magnification using high resolution holographic film developed to high contrast. An optical transform was obtained by focussing the laser onto each nuclear image and allowing the diffracted light to propagate onto a one dimensional photosensor array. This method reduced the data to the position of the first two intensity minima and the intensity of successive maxima. These values were utilized to estimate the four most important cancer detection clues of nuclear size, shape, darkness, and chromatin texture. In the second part, the geometric and holographic methods of phase incoherent optical processing were investigated for pattern recognition of real-time, diffuse microscope images. The theory and implementation of these processors was discussed in view of their mutual problems of dimness, image bias, and detector resolution. The dimness problem was solved by either using a holographic correlator or a speckle free laser microscope. The latter was built using a spinning tilted mirror which caused the speckle to change so quickly that it averaged out during the exposure. To solve the bias problem low image bias templates were generated by four techniques: microphotography of samples, creation of typical shapes by computer graphics editor, transmission holography of photoplates of samples, and by spatially coherent color image bias removal. The first of these templates was used to perform correlations with bacteria images. The aperture bias was successfully removed from the correlation with a video frame subtractor. To overcome the limited detector resolution it is necessary to discover some analog nonlinear intensity

  13. Objective analysis of image quality of video image capture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowberg, Alan H.

    1990-07-01

    As Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) technology has matured, video image capture has become a common way of capturing digital images from many modalities. While digital interfaces, such as those which use the ACR/NEMA standard, will become more common in the future, and are preferred because of the accuracy of image transfer, video image capture will be the dominant method in the short term, and may continue to be used for some time because of the low cost and high speed often associated with such devices. Currently, virtually all installed systems use methods of digitizing the video signal that is produced for display on the scanner viewing console itself. A series of digital test images have been developed for display on either a GE CT9800 or a GE Signa MRI scanner. These images have been captured with each of five commercially available image capture systems, and the resultant images digitally transferred on floppy disk to a PC1286 computer containing Optimast' image analysis software. Here the images can be displayed in a comparative manner for visual evaluation, in addition to being analyzed statistically. Each of the images have been designed to support certain tests, including noise, accuracy, linearity, gray scale range, stability, slew rate, and pixel alignment. These image capture systems vary widely in these characteristics, in addition to the presence or absence of other artifacts, such as shading and moire pattern. Other accessories such as video distribution amplifiers and noise filters can also add or modify artifacts seen in the captured images, often giving unusual results. Each image is described, together with the tests which were performed using them. One image contains alternating black and white lines, each one pixel wide, after equilibration strips ten pixels wide. While some systems have a slew rate fast enough to track this correctly, others blur it to an average shade of gray, and do not resolve the lines, or give

  14. Video decision aids to assist with advance care planning: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashu; Corriveau, Sophie; Quinn, Kathleen; Gardhouse, Amanda; Vegas, Daniel Brandt; You, John J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Advance care planning (ACP) can result in end-of-life care that is more congruent with patients’ values and preferences. There is increasing interest in video decision aids to assist with ACP. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of video decision aids on patients’ preferences regarding life-sustaining treatments (primary outcome). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, AMED and CENTRAL, between 1980 and February 2014, and correspondence with authors. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials of adult patients that compared a video decision aid to a non-video-based intervention to assist with choices about use of life-sustaining treatments and reported at least one ACP-related outcome. Data extraction Reviewers worked independently and in pairs to screen potentially eligible articles, and to extract data regarding risk of bias, population, intervention, comparator and outcomes. Reviewers assessed quality of evidence (confidence in effect estimates) for each outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Results 10 trials enrolling 2220 patients were included. Low-quality evidence suggests that patients who use a video decision aid are less likely to indicate a preference for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (pooled risk ratio, 0.50 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.95); I2=65%). Moderate-quality evidence suggests that video decision aids result in greater knowledge related to ACP (standardised mean difference, 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.77); I2=0%). No study reported on the congruence of end-of-life treatments with patients’ wishes. No study evaluated the effect of video decision aids when integrated into clinical care. Conclusions Video decision aids may improve some ACP-related outcomes. Before recommending their use in clinical practice, more evidence is needed to confirm these findings and

  15. The effect of input data transformations on object-based image analysis

    PubMed Central

    LIPPITT, CHRISTOPHER D.; COULTER, LLOYD L.; FREEMAN, MARY; LAMANTIA-BISHOP, JEFFREY; PANG, WYSON; STOW, DOUGLAS A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using spectral transform images as input data on segmentation quality and its potential effect on products generated by object-based image analysis are explored in the context of land cover classification in Accra, Ghana. Five image data transformations are compared to untransformed spectral bands in terms of their effect on segmentation quality and final product accuracy. The relationship between segmentation quality and product accuracy is also briefly explored. Results suggest that input data transformations can aid in the delineation of landscape objects by image segmentation, but the effect is idiosyncratic to the transformation and object of interest. PMID:21673829

  16. Miniature spectrometer and multispectral imager as a potential diagnostic aid in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey; Palcic, Branko

    1995-04-01

    A miniature spectrometer system has been constructed for both reflectance and autofluorescence spectral measurements of skin. The system is based on PC plug-in spectrometer, therefore, it is miniature and easy to operate. The spectrometer has been used clinically to collect spectral data from various skin lesions including skin cancer. To date, 48 patients with a total of 71 diseased skin sites have been measured. Analysis of these preliminary data suggests that unique spectral characteristics exist for certain types of skin lesions, i.e. seborrheic keratosis, psoriasis, etc.. These spectral characteristics will help the differential diagnosis in Dermatology practice. In conjunction with the spectral point measurements, we are building and testing a multispectral imaging system to measure the spatial distribution of skin reflectance and autofluorescence. Preliminary results indicate that a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma has a weak autofluorescence signal at the edge of the lesion, but a higher autofluorescence signal in the central area.

  17. Consumer preferences for hearing aid attributes: a comparison of rating and conjoint analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Bridges, John F P; Lataille, Angela T; Buttorff, Christine; White, Sharon; Niparko, John K

    2012-03-01

    Low utilization of hearing aids has drawn increased attention to the study of consumer preferences using both simple ratings (e.g., Likert scale) and conjoint analyses, but these two approaches often produce inconsistent results. The study aims to directly compare Likert scales and conjoint analysis in identifying important attributes associated with hearing aids among those with hearing loss. Seven attributes of hearing aids were identified through qualitative research: performance in quiet settings, comfort, feedback, frequency of battery replacement, purchase price, water and sweat resistance, and performance in noisy settings. The preferences of 75 outpatients with hearing loss were measured with both a 5-point Likert scale and with 8 paired-comparison conjoint tasks (the latter being analyzed using OLS [ordinary least squares] and logistic regression). Results were compared by examining implied willingness-to-pay and Pearson's Rho. A total of 56 respondents (75%) provided complete responses. Two thirds of respondents were male, most had sensorineural hearing loss, and most were older than 50; 44% of respondents had never used a hearing aid. Both methods identified improved performance in noisy settings as the most valued attribute. Respondents were twice as likely to buy a hearing aid with better functionality in noisy environments (p < .001), and willingness to pay for this attribute ranged from US$2674 on the Likert to US$9000 in the conjoint analysis. The authors find a high level of concordance between the methods-a result that is in stark contrast with previous research. The authors conclude that their result stems from constraining the levels on the Likert scale. PMID:22514094

  18. Scale-Specific Multifractal Medical Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Fractal geometry has been applied widely in the analysis of medical images to characterize the irregular complex tissue structures that do not lend themselves to straightforward analysis with traditional Euclidean geometry. In this study, we treat the nonfractal behaviour of medical images over large-scale ranges by considering their box-counting fractal dimension as a scale-dependent parameter rather than a single number. We describe this approach in the context of the more generalized Rényi entropy, in which we can also compute the information and correlation dimensions of images. In addition, we describe and validate a computational improvement to box-counting fractal analysis. This improvement is based on integral images, which allows the speedup of any box-counting or similar fractal analysis algorithm, including estimation of scale-dependent dimensions. Finally, we applied our technique to images of invasive breast cancer tissue from 157 patients to show a relationship between the fractal analysis of these images over certain scale ranges and pathologic tumour grade (a standard prognosticator for breast cancer). Our approach is general and can be applied to any medical imaging application in which the complexity of pathological image structures may have clinical value. PMID:24023588

  19. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR AIDING IN DIAGNOSING OSTEOARTHRITIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Veronezi, Carlos Cassiano Denipotti; de Azevedo Simões, Priscyla Waleska Targino; dos Santos, Robson Luiz; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Meláo, Suelen; de Mattos, Merisandra Côrtes; Cechinel, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the advantages of applying artificial neural networks to recognize patterns on lumbar spine radiographies in order to aid in the process of diagnosing primary osteoarthritis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study with a quantitative approach and an emphasis on diagnosis. The training set was composed of images collected between January and July 2009 from patients who had undergone lateral-view digital radiographies of the lumbar spine, which were provided by a radiology clinic located in the municipality of Criciúma (SC). Out of the total of 260 images gathered, those with distortions, those presenting pathological conditions that altered the architecture of the lumbar spine and those with patterns that were difficult to characterize were discarded, resulting in 206 images. The image data base (n = 206) was then subdivided, resulting in 68 radiographies for the training stage, 68 images for tests and 70 for validation. A hybrid neural network based on Kohonen self-organizing maps and on Multilayer Perceptron networks was used. Results: After 90 cycles, the validation was carried out on the best results, achieving accuracy of 62.85%, sensitivity of 65.71% and specificity of 60%. Conclusions: Even though the effectiveness shown was moderate, this study is still innovative. The values show that the technique used has a promising future, pointing towards further studies on image and cycle processing methodology with a larger quantity of radiographies. PMID:27027010

  20. Multispectral image analysis for algal biomass quantification.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Thomas E; Macon, Keith; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a novel multispectral image processing technique for rapid, noninvasive quantification of biomass concentration in attached and suspended algae cultures. Monitoring the biomass concentration is critical for efficient production of biofuel feedstocks, food supplements, and bioactive chemicals. Particularly, noninvasive and rapid detection techniques can significantly aid in providing delay-free process control feedback in large-scale cultivation platforms. In this technique, three-band spectral images of Anabaena variabilis cultures were acquired and separated into their red, green, and blue components. A correlation between the magnitude of the green component and the areal biomass concentration was generated. The correlation predicted the biomass concentrations of independently prepared attached and suspended cultures with errors of 7 and 15%, respectively, and the effect of varying lighting conditions and background color were investigated. This method can provide necessary feedback for dilution and harvesting strategies to maximize photosynthetic conversion efficiency in large-scale operation. PMID:23554374

  1. On the convergence of nanotechnology and Big Data analysis for computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose F; Paulovich, Fernando V; de Oliveira, Maria Cf; de Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-04-01

    An overview is provided of the challenges involved in building computer-aided diagnosis systems capable of precise medical diagnostics based on integration and interpretation of data from different sources and formats. The availability of massive amounts of data and computational methods associated with the Big Data paradigm has brought hope that such systems may soon be available in routine clinical practices, which is not the case today. We focus on visual and machine learning analysis of medical data acquired with varied nanotech-based techniques and on methods for Big Data infrastructure. Because diagnosis is essentially a classification task, we address the machine learning techniques with supervised and unsupervised classification, making a critical assessment of the progress already made in the medical field and the prospects for the near future. We also advocate that successful computer-aided diagnosis requires a merge of methods and concepts from nanotechnology and Big Data analysis. PMID:26979668

  2. Crop identification and area estimation by computer-aided analysis of Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Hixson, M. M.; Davis, B. J.; Etheridge, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study involving the use of computer-aided analysis techniques applied to Landsat MSS data for identification and area estimation of winter wheat in Kansas and corn and soybeans in Indiana. Key elements of the approach included use of aerial photography for classifier training, stratification of Landsat data and extension of training statistics to areas without training data, and classification of a systematic sample of pixels from each county. Major results and conclusions are: (1) Landsat data was adequate for accurate identification and area estimation of winter wheat in Kansas, but corn and soybean estimates for Indiana were less accurate; (2) computer-aided analysis techniques can be effectively used to extract crop identification information from Landsat MSS data, and (3) systematic sampling of entire counties made possible by computer classification methods resulted in very precise area estimates at county as well as district and state levels.

  3. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-01-01

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  4. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-07-28

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  5. "AID"-ing Academic Program Evaluation: The "Automatic Interaction Detector" as Analysis Tool. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Allan M.; And Others

    The use of of the Automatic Interaction Detector (program AID3 of the OSIRIS statistical package) to study a university program is discussed. The performance of students who took general physics lecture and laboratory concurrently is compared to the performance of those who took them separately. Five years of data are analyzed, covering 1,997…

  6. Advancing lighting and daylighting simulation: The transition from analysis to design aid tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper explores three significant software development requirements for making the transition from stand-alone lighting simulation/analysis tools to simulation-based design aid tools. These requirements include specialized lighting simulation engines, facilitated methods for creating detailed simulatable building descriptions, an automated techniques for providing lighting design guidance. Initial computer implementations meant to address each of these requirements are discussed to further elaborate these requirements and to illustrate work-in-progress.

  7. The Dark Side of EDX Tomography: Modeling Detector Shadowing to Aid 3D Elemental Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Catriona S M; Rossouw, David; Saghi, Zineb; Burdet, Pierre; Leary, Rowan K; Midgley, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    A simple model is proposed to account for the loss of collected X-ray signal by the shadowing of X-ray detectors in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The model is intended to aid the analysis of three-dimensional elemental data sets acquired using energy-dispersive X-ray tomography methods where shadow-free specimen holders are unsuitable or unavailable. The model also provides a useful measure of the detection system geometry. PMID:25790959

  8. Materials characterization through quantitative digital image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Philliber; B. Antoun; B. Somerday; N. Yang

    2000-07-01

    A digital image analysis system has been developed to allow advanced quantitative measurement of microstructural features. This capability is maintained as part of the microscopy facility at Sandia, Livermore. The system records images digitally, eliminating the use of film. Images obtained from other sources may also be imported into the system. Subsequent digital image processing enhances image appearance through the contrast and brightness adjustments. The system measures a variety of user-defined microstructural features--including area fraction, particle size and spatial distributions, grain sizes and orientations of elongated particles. These measurements are made in a semi-automatic mode through the use of macro programs and a computer controlled translation stage. A routine has been developed to create large montages of 50+ separate images. Individual image frames are matched to the nearest pixel to create seamless montages. Results from three different studies are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  9. Semiautomated analysis of embryoscope images: Using localized variance of image intensity to detect embryo developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Mölder, Anna; Drury, Sarah; Costen, Nicholas; Hartshorne, Geraldine M; Czanner, Silvester

    2015-02-01

    Embryo selection in in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment has traditionally been done manually using microscopy at intermittent time points during embryo development. Novel technique has made it possible to monitor embryos using time lapse for long periods of time and together with the reduced cost of data storage, this has opened the door to long-term time-lapse monitoring, and large amounts of image material is now routinely gathered. However, the analysis is still to a large extent performed manually, and images are mostly used as qualitative reference. To make full use of the increased amount of microscopic image material, (semi)automated computer-aided tools are needed. An additional benefit of automation is the establishment of standardization tools for embryo selection and transfer, making decisions more transparent and less subjective. Another is the possibility to gather and analyze data in a high-throughput manner, gathering data from multiple clinics and increasing our knowledge of early human embryo development. In this study, the extraction of data to automatically select and track spatio-temporal events and features from sets of embryo images has been achieved using localized variance based on the distribution of image grey scale levels. A retrospective cohort study was performed using time-lapse imaging data derived from 39 human embryos from seven couples, covering the time from fertilization up to 6.3 days. The profile of localized variance has been used to characterize syngamy, mitotic division and stages of cleavage, compaction, and blastocoel formation. Prior to analysis, focal plane and embryo location were automatically detected, limiting precomputational user interaction to a calibration step and usable for automatic detection of region of interest (ROI) regardless of the method of analysis. The results were validated against the opinion of clinical experts. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25614363

  10. Multiscale Morphological Filtering for Analysis of Noisy and Complex Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kher, A.; Mitra, S.

    1993-01-01

    Images acquired with passive sensing techniques suffer from illumination variations and poor local contrasts that create major difficulties in interpretation and identification tasks. On the other hand, images acquired with active sensing techniques based on monochromatic illumination are degraded with speckle noise. Mathematical morphology offers elegant techniques to handle a wide range of image degradation problems. Unlike linear filters, morphological filters do not blur the edges and hence maintain higher image resolution. Their rich mathematical framework facilitates the design and analysis of these filters as well as their hardware implementation. Morphological filters are easier to implement and are more cost effective and efficient than several conventional linear filters. Morphological filters to remove speckle noise while maintaining high resolution and preserving thin image regions that are particularly vulnerable to speckle noise were developed and applied to SAR imagery. These filters used combination of linear (one-dimensional) structuring elements in different (typically four) orientations. Although this approach preserves more details than the simple morphological filters using two-dimensional structuring elements, the limited orientations of one-dimensional elements approximate the fine details of the region boundaries. A more robust filter designed recently overcomes the limitation of the fixed orientations. This filter uses a combination of concave and convex structuring elements. Morphological operators are also useful in extracting features from visible and infrared imagery. A multiresolution image pyramid obtained with successive filtering and a subsampling process aids in the removal of the illumination variations and enhances local contrasts. A morphology-based interpolation scheme was also introduced to reduce intensity discontinuities created in any morphological filtering task. The generality of morphological filtering techniques in

  11. Factor Analysis of the Image Correlation Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Cerny, Barbara A.

    1979-01-01

    Whether to factor the image correlation matrix or to use a new model with an alpha factor analysis of it is mentioned, with particular reference to the determinacy problem. It is pointed out that the distribution of the images is sensibly multivariate normal, making for "better" factor analyses. (Author/CTM)

  12. Viewing angle analysis of integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Wu, Chun-Hong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Lan

    2007-12-01

    Integral imaging (II) is a technique capable of displaying 3D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. It is becoming the most perspective technique in developing next generation three-dimensional TV (3DTV) and visualization field due to its outstanding advantages. However, most of conventional integral images are restricted by its narrow viewing angle. One reason is that the range in which a reconstructed integral image can be displayed with consistent parallax is limited. The other is that the aperture of system is finite. By far many methods , an integral imaging method to enhance the viewing angle of integral images has been proposed. Nevertheless, except Ren's MVW (Maximum Viewing Width) most of these methods involve complex hardware and modifications of optical system, which usually bring other disadvantages and make operation more difficult. At the same time the cost of these systems should be higher. In order to simplify optical systems, this paper systematically analyzes the viewing angle of traditional integral images instead of modified ones. Simultaneously for the sake of cost the research was based on computer generated integral images (CGII). With the analysis result we can know clearly how the viewing angle can be enhanced and how the image overlap or image flipping can be avoided. The result also promotes the development of optical instruments. Based on theoretical analysis, preliminary calculation was done to demonstrate how the other viewing properties which are closely related with the viewing angle, such as viewing distance, viewing zone, lens pitch, and etc. affect the viewing angle.

  13. Image interpretation for landforms using expert systems and terrain analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Al-garni, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Most current research in digital photogrammetry and computer vision concentrates on the early vision process; little research has been done on the late vision process. The late vision process in image interpretation contains descriptive knowledge and heuristic information which requires artificial intelligence (AI) in order for it to be modeled. This dissertation has introduced expert systems, as AI tools, and terrain analysis to the late vision process. This goal has been achieved by selecting and theorizing landforms as features for image interpretation. These features present a wide spectrum of knowledge that can furnish a good foundation for image interpretation processes. In this dissertation an EXpert system for LANdform interpretation using Terrain analysis (EXPLANT) was developed. EXPLANT can interpret the major landforms on earth. The system contains sample military and civilian consultations regarding site analysis and development. A learning mechanism was developed to accommodate necessary improvement for the data base due to the rapidly advancing and dynamically changing technology and knowledge. Many interface facilities and menu-driven screens were developed in the system to aid the users. Finally, the system has been tested and verified to be working properly.

  14. Depth-based selective image reconstruction using spatiotemporal image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Tetsuji; Sumi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Manabu; Seki, Akinobu

    1999-03-01

    In industrial plants, a remote monitoring system which removes physical tour inspection is often considered desirable. However the image sequence given from the mobile inspection robot is hard to see because interested objects are often partially occluded by obstacles such as pillars or fences. Our aim is to improve the image sequence that increases the efficiency and reliability of remote visual inspection. We propose a new depth-based image processing technique, which removes the needless objects from the foreground and recovers the occluded background electronically. Our algorithm is based on spatiotemporal analysis that enables fine and dense depth estimation, depth-based precise segmentation, and accurate interpolation. We apply this technique to a real time sequence given from the mobile inspection robot. The resulted image sequence is satisfactory in that the operator can make correct visual inspection with less fatigue.

  15. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework.

    PubMed

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a 'cartoon' part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the 'cartoon' image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts grown in

  16. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework

    PubMed Central

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a ‘cartoon’ part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the ‘cartoon’ image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts

  17. Medical Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The MD Image System, a true-color image processing system that serves as a diagnostic aid and tool for storage and distribution of images, was developed by Medical Image Management Systems, Huntsville, AL, as a "spinoff from a spinoff." The original spinoff, Geostar 8800, developed by Crystal Image Technologies, Huntsville, incorporates advanced UNIX versions of ELAS (developed by NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory for analysis of Landsat images) for general purpose image processing. The MD Image System is an application of this technology to a medical system that aids in the diagnosis of cancer, and can accept, store and analyze images from other sources such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  18. Linear digital imaging system fidelity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of imaging gathering, sampling and reconstruction are analyzed in terms of image fidelity. The analysis is based upon a standard end-to-end linear system model which is sufficiently general so that the results apply to most line-scan and sensor-array imaging systems. Shift-variant sampling effects are accounted for with an expected value analysis based upon the use of a fixed deterministic input scene which is randomly shifted (mathematically) relative to the sampling grid. This random sample-scene phase approach has been used successfully by the author and associates in several previous related papers.

  19. Infrared image processing and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; González, D.; Klein, M.; Pilla, M.; Vallerand, S.; Maldague, X.

    2004-12-01

    Infrared thermography in nondestructive testing provides images (thermograms) in which zones of interest (defects) appear sometimes as subtle signatures. In this context, raw images are not often appropriate since most will be missed. In some other cases, what is needed is a quantitative analysis such as for defect detection and characterization. In this paper, presentation is made of various methods of data analysis required either at preprocessing and/or processing images. References from literature are provided for briefly discussed known methods while novelties are elaborated in more details within the text which include also experimental results.

  20. Malware Analysis Using Visualized Image Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eul Gyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API) calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively. PMID:25133202

  1. Malware analysis using visualized image matrices.

    PubMed

    Han, KyoungSoo; Kang, BooJoong; Im, Eul Gyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API) calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively. PMID:25133202

  2. Image deconvolution as an aid to feature identification: a clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Doherty, Triona; Shearer, Andrew; van der Putten, Wilhelm J.; Abbott, Phillip

    2000-06-01

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate the clinical performance of the image processing technique which we have developed for computed radiography x-rays. This algorithm, which was presented at the SPIE '99 medical imaging conference, uses iterative deconvolution with a measured point spread function to reduce the effect of scatter. Wavelet denoising is also carried out after each iteration to remove effects due to noise. A random selection of chest x-rays were processed using the algorithm. Both the raw and processed images were presented to the radiologists in a random order. They scored the images with regard to the visibility of anatomical detail and image quality as outlined in the european guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images. The most notable result of the technique is seen in the reduction of noise in the processed image.

  3. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids. [Root-cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems based on research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. Our research in fault diagnosis at PNL grew out of our work in root-cause analysis (RCA). Our approach consists of those major activities which we categorize as (1) determining knowledge requirements, (2) constructing models, and (3) developing the requirements for representation schemes. We group knowledge for fault diagnosis into two broad groups: cognitive task and process-system knowledge. Our research indicates that a useful representation scheme can be developed employing function and object hierarchies, task required inference, and task specified reasoning control. Formal modeling of the reasoning task determines the required task inference and control. This research has focused on the use of the representation scheme for fault diagnosis. However, preliminary analysis indicates that this same scheme may be useful in automating control tasks. The next phase of this research is to develop a prototype. The prototype system has been specified and we are presently developing knowledge models of the components and system. 19 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

  5. Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    PubMed

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical use of chest high-resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent subsolid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to noninvasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semiquantitative measures to decrease interrater and intrarater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still suboptimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, and noninvasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. Computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield correlates well with consensus histology and postsurgical patient outcomes, and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management, for example, in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. PMID:27568149

  6. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Martin, C. R.; Steele, James L.; Dempster, Richard E.

    1992-03-01

    The development of new approaches for wheat hardness assessment may impact the grain industry in marketing, milling, and breeding. This study used image texture features for wheat hardness evaluation. Application of digital imaging to grain for grading purposes is principally based on morphometrical (shape and size) characteristics of the kernels. A composite sample of 320 kernels for 17 wheat varieties were collected after testing and crushing with a single kernel hardness characterization meter. Six wheat classes where represented: HRW, HRS, SRW, SWW, Durum, and Club. In this study, parameters which characterize texture or spatial distribution of gray levels of an image were determined and used to classify images of crushed wheat kernels. The texture parameters of crushed wheat kernel images were different depending on class, hardness and variety of the wheat. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels showed promise for use in class, hardness, milling quality, and variety discrimination.

  7. Breast tomosynthesis imaging configuration analysis.

    PubMed

    Rayford, Cleveland E; Zhou, Weihua; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Traditional two-dimensional (2D) X-ray mammography is the most commonly used method for breast cancer diagnosis. Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) system has been invented, which is likely to challenge the current mammography technology. The DBT system provides stunning 3D information, giving physicians increased detail of anatomical information, while reducing the chance of false negative screening. In this research, two reconstruction algorithms, Back Projection (BP) and Shift-And-Add (SAA), were used to investigate and compare View Angle (VA) and the number of projection images (N) with parallel imaging configurations. In addition, in order to better determine which method displayed better-quality imaging, Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) analyses were conducted with both algorithms, ultimately producing results which improve upon better breast cancer detection. Research studies find evidence that early detection of the disease is the best way to conquer breast cancer, and earlier detection results in the increase of life span for the affected person. PMID:23900440

  8. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  9. Use of computer aided drafting for analysis and control of posture in manual work.

    PubMed

    Ulin, S S; Armstrong, T J; Radwin, R G

    1990-06-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) in conjunction with digitised anthropometric manikins can be used for analysis and control of stressful work postures, one of the most frequently cited occupational risk factors of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. This paper describes the use of macros for manipulating manikins and workstation components and for designing the workplace. AutoCAD, a popular computer aided design software package, was used to demonstrate the feasibility of these concepts. Specifically, macros are used for drawing work equipment using parametric designs, manipulating manikins and analysing jobs. In comparing the macros to the use of primitive CAD commands, the macros not only decrease the amount of time needed to create workstation components, but they also make the task easier for the user and decrease the risk of errors. Despite the limitation of anthropometric data and manikins, CAD is an effective method for identifying postural stresses and redesigning the workstation to control the identified stresses. PMID:15676770

  10. Principal component analysis of scintimammographic images.

    PubMed

    Bonifazzi, Claudio; Cinti, Maria Nerina; Vincentis, Giuseppe De; Finos, Livio; Muzzioli, Valerio; Betti, Margherita; Nico, Lanconelli; Tartari, Agostino; Pani, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The recent development of new gamma imagers based on scintillation array with high spatial resolution, has strongly improved the possibility of detecting sub-centimeter cancer in Scintimammography. However, Compton scattering contamination remains the main drawback since it limits the sensitivity of tumor detection. Principal component image analysis (PCA), recently introduced in scintimam nographic imaging, is a data reduction technique able to represent the radiation emitted from chest, breast healthy and damaged tissues as separated images. From these images a Scintimammography can be obtained where the Compton contamination is "removed". In the present paper we compared the PCA reconstructed images with the conventional scintimammographic images resulting from the photopeak (Ph) energy window. Data coming from a clinical trial were used. For both kinds of images the tumor presence was quantified by evaluating the t-student statistics for independent sample as a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since the absence of Compton scattering, the PCA reconstructed images shows a better noise suppression and allows a more reliable diagnostics in comparison with the images obtained by the photopeak energy window, reducing the trend in producing false positive. PMID:17646004

  11. Satellite image maps are an inexpensive source of geologic and remote sensing teaching aids

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Inexpensive, even free, printed copies of images and image maps provide Earth Science, Geology, and Remote Sensing teachers with an alternative to expensive photoproducts for classroom and student use. Printed images and image maps are available free, or at costs ranging from $3 to $20. In addition to urban and agricultural features, images and image maps in the author's collection display features suitable for teaching a variety of topics. Examples are: 1) linear features (lineaments) for structural mapping (i.e. San Francisco, Grand Canyon, Medicine Bow River, Southern New England Mosaic, The Adirondacks Mosaic); 2) coastal erosion and deposition; 3) formation and outcrop mapping (Dry Rock Cheyene River, Medicine Bow River, Grand Canyon); 4) glaciers and sea ice; and 5) volcanic features. Almost all image maps show fluvial and lacustrine features. Printed images and image maps may be ordered from many sources: USGS Map Distribution Centers; the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Grand Canyon National Park, and The World Bank map outlet. Free maps and printed images are often distributed by exhibitors at remote sensing conferences.

  12. Image analysis in comparative genomic hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Lundsteen, C.; Maahr, J.; Christensen, B.

    1995-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new technique by which genomic imbalances can be detected by combining in situ suppression hybridization of whole genomic DNA and image analysis. We have developed software for rapid, quantitative CGH image analysis by a modification and extension of the standard software used for routine karyotyping of G-banded metaphase spreads in the Magiscan chromosome analysis system. The DAPI-counterstained metaphase spread is karyotyped interactively. Corrections for image shifts between the DAPI, FITC, and TRITC images are done manually by moving the three images relative to each other. The fluorescence background is subtracted. A mean filter is applied to smooth the FITC and TRITC images before the fluorescence ratio between the individual FITC and TRITC-stained chromosomes is computed pixel by pixel inside the area of the chromosomes determined by the DAPI boundaries. Fluorescence intensity ratio profiles are generated, and peaks and valleys indicating possible gains and losses of test DNA are marked if they exceed ratios below 0.75 and above 1.25. By combining the analysis of several metaphase spreads, consistent findings of gains and losses in all or almost all spreads indicate chromosomal imbalance. Chromosomal imbalances are detected either by visual inspection of fluorescence ratio (FR) profiles or by a statistical approach that compares FR measurements of the individual case with measurements of normal chromosomes. The complete analysis of one metaphase can be carried out in approximately 10 minutes. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 78 FR 3427 - Motorola Mobility LLC and Google Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20580. Correction In the Federal Register of January 11, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013... analysis of proposed consent order to aid public comment. The document inadvertently did not include...

  14. Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of Model Equations on Interactions of the HIV/AIDS Virus and the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parumasur, N.; Willie, R.

    2008-09-01

    We consider a simple HIV/AIDs finite dimensional mathematical model on interactions of the blood cells, the HIV/AIDs virus and the immune system for consistence of the equations to the real biomedical situation that they model. A better understanding to a cure solution to the illness modeled by the finite dimensional equations is given. This is accomplished through rigorous mathematical analysis and is reinforced by numerical analysis of models developed for real life cases.

  15. Active imaging with the aids of polarization retrieve in turbid media system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Qiangqiang; Sun, Yongxuan; Shen, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Guo, Zhongyi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel active imaging based on the polarization retrieve (PR) method in turbid media system. In our simulations, the Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm has been used to investigate the scattering process between the incident photons and the scattering particles, and the visually concordant object but with different polarization characteristics in different regions, has been selected as the original target that is placed in the turbid media. Under linearly and circularly polarized illuminations, the simulation results demonstrate that the corresponding polarization properties can provide additional information for the imaging, and the contrast of the polarization image can also be enhanced greatly compared to the simplex intensity image in the turbid media. Besides, the polarization image adjusted by the PR method can further enhance the visibility and contrast. In addition, by PR imaging method, with the increasing particles' size in Mie's scale, the visibility can be enhanced, because of the increased forward scattering effect. In general, in the same circumstance, the circular polarization images can offer a better contrast and visibility than that of linear ones. The results indicate that the PR imaging method is more applicable to the scattering media system with relatively larger particles such as aerosols, heavy fog, cumulus, and seawater, as well as to biological tissues and blood media.

  16. Computer aided diagnosis for osteoporosis based on vertebral column structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Eiji; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Harada, Masafumi; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-03-01

    Patients of osteoporosis are comprised of about 11 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems that have gained society. For preventing the osteoporosis, obtaining early detection and treatment are necessary. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving for three dimensional (3D) image analysis, higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. 3D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used for supporting diagnosis of osteoporosis. Simultaneously, this analysis can be used for lung cancer diagnosis which may lead to early detection. We develop automatic extraction and partitioning algorithm for spinal column by analyzing vertebral body structure, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. An effective result was provided for the case including an insufficient complicated vertebral body bone fracture by the conventional method.

  17. Interference-based image encryption with silhouette removal by aid of compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qiong; Wang, Zhipeng; Lv, Xiaodong; Qin, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) offers the opportunity to reconstruct a signal from its sparse representation, either in the space domain or the transform domain. Exploiting this character, we propose a simple interference-based image encryption method. For encryption, a synthetic image, which contains sparse samples of the original image and the designated values, is analytically separated into two phase only masks (POMs). Consequently, only fragmentary data of the primary image can be directly collected in the traditional decryption scheme. However, the subsequent CS reconstruction will retrieve a high quality image from the fragmentary information. The proposed method has effectively suppressed the silhouette problem. Moreover, it has also some distinct advantages over the previous approaches.

  18. Computer-aided detection of bladder tumors based on the thickness mapping of bladder wall in MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Duan, Chaijie; Jiang, Ruirui; Li, Lihong; Fan, Yi; Yu, Xiaokang; Zeng, Wei; Gu, Xianfeng; Liang, Zhengrong

    2010-03-01

    Bladder cancer is reported to be the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Recent advances in medical imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, make virtual cystoscopy a potential alternative with advantages as being a safe and non-invasive method for evaluation of the entire bladder and detection of abnormalities. To help reducing the interpretation time and reading fatigue of the readers or radiologists, we introduce a computer-aided detection scheme based on the thickness mapping of the bladder wall since locally-thickened bladder wall often appears around tumors. In the thickness mapping method, the path used to measure the thickness can be determined without any ambiguity by tracing the gradient direction of the potential field between the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall. The thickness mapping of the three-dimensional inner border surface of the bladder is then flattened to a twodimensional (2D) gray image with conformal mapping method. In the 2D flattened image, a blob detector is applied to detect the abnormalities, which are actually the thickened bladder wall indicating bladder lesions. Such scheme was tested on two MR datasets, one from a healthy volunteer and the other from a patient with a tumor. The result is preliminary, but very promising with 100% detection sensitivity at 7 FPs per case.

  19. Hybrid µCT-FMT imaging and image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zafarnia, Sara; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Lammers, Twan; Lederle, Wiltrud; Kiessling, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT) enables longitudinal and quantitative determination of the fluorescence distribution in vivo and can be used to assess the biodistribution of novel probes and to assess disease progression using established molecular probes or reporter genes. The combination with an anatomical modality, e.g., micro computed tomography (µCT), is beneficial for image analysis and for fluorescence reconstruction. We describe a protocol for multimodal µCT-FMT imaging including the image processing steps necessary to extract quantitative measurements. After preparing the mice and performing the imaging, the multimodal data sets are registered. Subsequently, an improved fluorescence reconstruction is performed, which takes into account the shape of the mouse. For quantitative analysis, organ segmentations are generated based on the anatomical data using our interactive segmentation tool. Finally, the biodistribution curves are generated using a batch-processing feature. We show the applicability of the method by assessing the biodistribution of a well-known probe that binds to bones and joints. PMID:26066033

  20. Identification and Analysis of Distinct Features in Imaging Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zaunbrecher, K. N.; Johnston, S. W.; Sites, J. R.

    2012-06-01

    Electroluminescence and photoluminescence (EL and PL) are two imaging techniques employed at NREL that are used to qualitatively evaluate solar cells. In this work, imaging lab-scale CdTe and CIGS devices provides information about small-area PV response, which will aid in determining the effects of non-uniformities on cell performance. EL, PL, and dark lock-in thermography signatures are first catalogued. Their responses to varying conditions are then studied. Further analysis includes acquiring spectral data, making microscopy measurements, and correlating luminescence to device performance. The goal of this work is to quantitatively determine non-uniformity effects on cell performance using rapid imaging techniques.

  1. Particle Pollution Estimation Based on Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenbin; Tsow, Francis; Zou, Yi; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particles can cause various diseases, and an easily accessible method to monitor the particles can help raise public awareness and reduce harmful exposures. Here we report a method to estimate PM air pollution based on analysis of a large number of outdoor images available for Beijing, Shanghai (China) and Phoenix (US). Six image features were extracted from the images, which were used, together with other relevant data, such as the position of the sun, date, time, geographic information and weather conditions, to predict PM2.5 index. The results demonstrate that the image analysis method provides good prediction of PM2.5 indexes, and different features have different significance levels in the prediction. PMID:26828757

  2. Particle Pollution Estimation Based on Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenbin; Tsow, Francis; Zou, Yi; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particles can cause various diseases, and an easily accessible method to monitor the particles can help raise public awareness and reduce harmful exposures. Here we report a method to estimate PM air pollution based on analysis of a large number of outdoor images available for Beijing, Shanghai (China) and Phoenix (US). Six image features were extracted from the images, which were used, together with other relevant data, such as the position of the sun, date, time, geographic information and weather conditions, to predict PM2.5 index. The results demonstrate that the image analysis method provides good prediction of PM2.5 indexes, and different features have different significance levels in the prediction. PMID:26828757

  3. Image calibration and registration in cone-beam computed tomogram for measuring the accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Walter Y. H.; Ngan, Henry Y. T.; Wat, Peter Y. P.; Luk, Henry W. K.; Goto, Tazuko K.; Pow, Edmond H. N.

    2015-02-01

    Medical radiography is the use of radiation to "see through" a human body without breaching its integrity (surface). With computed tomography (CT)/cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be produced. These imagings not only facilitate disease diagnosis but also enable computer-aided surgical planning/navigation. In dentistry, the common method for transfer of the virtual surgical planning to the patient (reality) is the use of surgical stent either with a preloaded planning (static) like a channel or a real time surgical navigation (dynamic) after registration with fiducial markers (RF). This paper describes using the corner of a cube as a radiopaque fiducial marker on an acrylic (plastic) stent, this RF allows robust calibration and registration of Cartesian (x, y, z)- coordinates for linking up the patient (reality) and the imaging (virtuality) and hence the surgical planning can be transferred in either static or dynamic way. The accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery was measured with reference to coordinates. In our preliminary model surgery, a dental implant was planned virtually and placed with preloaded surgical guide. The deviation of the placed implant apex from the planning was x=+0.56mm [more right], y=- 0.05mm [deeper], z=-0.26mm [more lingual]) which was within clinically 2mm safety range. For comparison with the virtual planning, the physically placed implant was CT/CBCT scanned and errors may be introduced. The difference of the actual implant apex to the virtual apex was x=0.00mm, y=+0.21mm [shallower], z=-1.35mm [more lingual] and this should be brought in mind when interpret the results.

  4. Features of Undiagnosed Breast Cancers at Screening Breast MR Imaging and Potential Utility of Computer-Aided Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Mirinae; Bae, Min Sun; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Chu, Ajung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the features of undiagnosed breast cancers on prior screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer, as well as the potential utility of MR-computer-aided evaluation (CAE). Materials and Methods Between March 2004 and May 2013, of the 72 consecutive pairs of prior negative MR images and subsequent MR images with diagnosed cancers (median interval, 32.8 months; range, 5.4-104.6 months), 36 (50%) had visible findings (mean size, 1.0 cm; range, 0.3-5.2 cm). The visible findings were divided into either actionable or underthreshold groups by the blinded review by 5 radiologists. MR imaging features, reasons for missed cancer, and MR-CAE features according to actionability were evaluated. Results Of the 36 visible findings on prior MR images, 33.3% (12 of 36) of the lesions were determined to be actionable and 66.7% (24 of 36) were underthreshold; 85.7% (6 of 7) of masses and 31.6% (6 of 19) of non-mass enhancements were classified as actionable lesions. Mimicking physiologic enhancements (27.8%, 10 of 36) and small lesion size (27.8%, 10 of 36) were the most common reasons for missed cancer. Actionable findings tended to show more washout or plateau kinetic patterns on MR-CAE than underthreshold findings, as the 100% of actionable findings and 46.7% of underthreshold findings showed washout or plateau (p = 0.008). Conclusion MR-CAE has the potential for reducing the number of undiagnosed breast cancers on screening breast MR images, the majority of which are caused by mimicking physiologic enhancements or small lesion size. PMID:26798217

  5. Membrane composition analysis by imaging mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, S G; Kraft, M L; Longo, M; Hutcheon, I D; Weber, P K

    2006-03-29

    Membranes on solid supports offer an ideal format for imaging. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) can be used to obtain composition information on membrane-associated components. Using the NanoSIMS50, images of composition variations in membrane domains can be obtained with a lateral resolution better than 100 nm. By suitable calibration, these variations in composition can be translated into a quantitative analysis of the membrane composition. Progress towards imaging small phase-separated lipid domains, membrane-associated proteins and natural biological membranes will be described.

  6. Data analysis for GOPEX image frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. M.; Shaik, K. S.; Yan, T.-Y.

    1993-01-01

    The data analysis based on the image frames received at the Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera of the Galileo Optical Experiment (GOPEX) demonstration conducted between 9-16 Dec. 1992 is described. Laser uplink was successfully established between the ground and the Galileo spacecraft during its second Earth-gravity-assist phase in December 1992. SSI camera frames were acquired which contained images of detected laser pulses transmitted from the Table Mountain Facility (TMF), Wrightwood, California, and the Starfire Optical Range (SOR), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Laser pulse data were processed using standard image-processing techniques at the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL) for preliminary pulse identification and to produce public release images. Subsequent image analysis corrected for background noise to measure received pulse intensities. Data were plotted to obtain histograms on a daily basis and were then compared with theoretical results derived from applicable weak-turbulence and strong-turbulence considerations. Processing steps are described and the theories are compared with the experimental results. Quantitative agreement was found in both turbulence regimes, and better agreement would have been found, given more received laser pulses. Future experiments should consider methods to reliably measure low-intensity pulses, and through experimental planning to geometrically locate pulse positions with greater certainty.

  7. Design Criteria For Networked Image Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Cliff; Nitteberg, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Image systems design is currently undergoing a metamorphosis from the conventional computing systems of the past into a new generation of special purpose designs. This change is motivated by several factors, notably among which is the increased opportunity for high performance with low cost offered by advances in semiconductor technology. Another key issue is a maturing in understanding of problems and the applicability of digital processing techniques. These factors allow the design of cost-effective systems that are functionally dedicated to specific applications and used in a utilitarian fashion. Following an overview of the above stated issues, the paper presents a top-down approach to the design of networked image analysis systems. The requirements for such a system are presented, with orientation toward the hospital environment. The three main areas are image data base management, viewing of image data and image data processing. This is followed by a survey of the current state of the art, covering image display systems, data base techniques, communications networks and software systems control. The paper concludes with a description of the functional subystems and architectural framework for networked image analysis in a production environment.

  8. Towards the routine use of brain imaging to aid the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M R; Davis, M H; Rodd, J M; Robson, T; Ali, A; Owen, A M; Pickard, J D

    2009-09-01

    Clinical audits have highlighted the many challenges and dilemmas faced by clinicians assessing persons with disorders of consciousness (vegetative state and minimally conscious state). The diagnostic decision-making process is highly subjective, dependent upon the skills of the examiner and invariably dictated by the patients' ability to move or speak. Whilst a considerable amount has been learnt since Jennett and Plum coined the term 'vegetative state', the assessment process remains largely unchanged; conducted at the bedside, using behavioural assessment tools, which are susceptible to environmental and physiological factors. This has created a situation where the rate of misdiagnosis is unacceptably high (up to 43%). In order to address these problems, various functional brain imaging paradigms, which do not rely upon the patient's ability to move or speak, have been proposed as a source of additional information to inform the diagnostic decision making process. Although accumulated evidence from brain imaging, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has been encouraging, the empirical evidence is still based on relatively small numbers of patients. It remains unclear whether brain imaging is capable of informing the diagnosis beyond the behavioural assessment and whether brain imaging has any prognostic utility. In this study, we describe the functional brain imaging findings from a group of 41 patients with disorders of consciousness, who undertook a hierarchical speech processing task. We found, contrary to the clinical impression of a specialist team using behavioural assessment tools, that two patients referred to the study with a diagnosis of vegetative state did in fact demonstrate neural correlates of speech comprehension when assessed using functional brain imaging. These fMRI findings were found to have no association with the patient's behavioural presentation at the time of investigation and thus provided additional diagnostic

  9. Holographic imaging through a scattering medium by diffuser-aided statistical averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Michael J.; Kumar, Manish; Rand, Stephen C.; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a practical digital holographic method capable of imaging through a diffusive or scattering medium. The method relies on statistical averaging from a rotating ground glass diffuser to negate the adverse effects caused by speckle introduced by a first, static diffuser or scattering medium. In particular, a setup based on Fourier transform holography is used to show that an image can be recovered after scattering by introducing an additional diffuser in the optical setup. This method is capable of recovering object information from behind a scattering layer in biomedical or military imaging applications.

  10. Holographic imaging through a scattering medium by diffuser-aided statistical averaging.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Michael J; Kumar, Manish; Rand, Stephen C; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a practical digital holographic method capable of imaging through a diffusive or scattering medium. The method relies on statistical averaging from a rotating ground glass diffuser to negate the adverse effects caused by speckle introduced by a static diffuser or scattering medium. In particular, a setup based on Fourier transform holography is used to show that an image can be recovered after scattering by introducing an additional diffuser in the optical setup. This method is capable of recovering object information from behind a scattering layer in biomedical or military imaging applications. PMID:27409685

  11. VAICo: visual analysis for image comparison.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Johanna; Gröller, M Eduard; Bruckner, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Scientists, engineers, and analysts are confronted with ever larger and more complex sets of data, whose analysis poses special challenges. In many situations it is necessary to compare two or more datasets. Hence there is a need for comparative visualization tools to help analyze differences or similarities among datasets. In this paper an approach for comparative visualization for sets of images is presented. Well-established techniques for comparing images frequently place them side-by-side. A major drawback of such approaches is that they do not scale well. Other image comparison methods encode differences in images by abstract parameters like color. In this case information about the underlying image data gets lost. This paper introduces a new method for visualizing differences and similarities in large sets of images which preserves contextual information, but also allows the detailed analysis of subtle variations. Our approach identifies local changes and applies cluster analysis techniques to embed them in a hierarchy. The results of this process are then presented in an interactive web application which allows users to rapidly explore the space of differences and drill-down on particular features. We demonstrate the flexibility of our approach by applying it to multiple distinct domains. PMID:24051775

  12. Rapid discrimination of Mycobacterium avium strains from AIDS patients by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Matsiota-Bernard, P; Waser, S; Tassios, P T; Kyriakopoulos, A; Legakis, N J

    1997-01-01

    A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed for the molecular typing of Mycobacterium avium strains. This method was applied to epidemiologically unrelated M. avium strains isolated from the blood of 10 different AIDS patients and to strains that were considered epidemiologically related, as they had been isolated from the same patient but from different body locations (4 patients, 10 strains). Three oligonucleotide primers among the six tested were found to generate RAPD profiles with DNA from all M. avium strains and to successfully type them. This method for the typing of M. avium strains is rapid and easy to perform. PMID:9163488

  13. Computer-Aided Analysis of Patents for Product Technology Maturity Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanhong; Gan, Dequan; Guo, Yingchun; Zhang, Peng

    Product technology maturity foresting is vital for any enterprises to hold the chance for innovation and keep competitive for a long term. The Theory of Invention Problem Solving (TRIZ) is acknowledged both as a systematic methodology for innovation and a powerful tool for technology forecasting. Based on TRIZ, the state -of-the-art on the technology maturity of product and the limits of application are discussed. With the application of text mining and patent analysis technologies, this paper proposes a computer-aided approach for product technology maturity forecasting. It can overcome the shortcomings of the current methods.

  14. Strengthening capacity for AIDS vaccine research: analysis of the Pfizer Global Health Fellows Program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Methods This case study helps to extend our understanding by analyzing how the Pfizer Global Health Fellows (GHF) program helped develop capacity of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), looking specifically at Fellowship activities in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. From 2005–2009, 8 Pfizer GHF worked with IAVI and local research centers to strengthen capacity to conduct and monitor vaccine trials to meet international standards and expand trial activities. Data collection for the case study included review of Fellow job descriptions, online journals, evaluation reports, and interviews with Fellows and IAVI staff. Qualitative methods were used to analyze factors which influenced the process and outcomes of capacity strengthening. Results Fellows filled critical short-term expert staffing needs at IAVI as well as providing technical assistance and staff development activities. Capacity building included assistance in establishing operating procedures for the start-up period of research centers; training staff in Good Clinical Practice (GCP); developing monitoring capacity (staff and systems) to assure that centers are audit-ready at all times; and strategic planning for data management systems. Factors key to the success of volunteering partnerships included similarities in mission between the corporate and NGO partners, expertise and experience of Fellows, and attitudes of partner organization staff. Conclusion By developing standard operating procedures, ensuring that monitoring and regulatory

  15. A pairwise image analysis with sparse decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, A.; Cloppet, F.; Vincent, N.

    2013-02-01

    This paper aims to detect the evolution between two images representing the same scene. The evolution detection problem has many practical applications, especially in medical images. Indeed, the concept of a patient "file" implies the joint analysis of different acquisitions taken at different times, and the detection of significant modifications. The research presented in this paper is carried out within the application context of the development of computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) applied to mammograms. It is performed on already registered pair of images. As the registration is never perfect, we must develop a comparison method sufficiently adapted to detect real small differences between comparable tissues. In many applications, the assessment of similarity used during the registration step is also used for the interpretation step that yields to prompt suspicious regions. In our case registration is assumed to match the spatial coordinates of similar anatomical elements. In this paper, in order to process the medical images at tissue level, the image representation is based on elementary patterns, therefore seeking patterns, not pixels. Besides, as the studied images have low entropy, the decomposed signal is expressed in a parsimonious way. Parsimonious representations are known to help extract the significant structures of a signal, and generate a compact version of the data. This change of representation should allow us to compare the studied images in a short time, thanks to the low weight of the images thus represented, while maintaining a good representativeness. The good precision of our results show the approach efficiency.

  16. Image analysis of insulation mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Talbot, H; Lee, T; Jeulin, D; Hanton, D; Hobbs, L W

    2000-12-01

    We present two methods for measuring the diameter and length of man-made vitreous fibres based on the automated image analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The fibres we want to measure are used in materials such as glass wool, which in turn are used for thermal and acoustic insulation. The measurement of the diameters and lengths of these fibres is used by the glass wool industry for quality control purposes. To obtain reliable quality estimators, the measurement of several hundred images is necessary. These measurements are usually obtained manually by operators. Manual measurements, although reliable when performed by skilled operators, are slow due to the need for the operators to rest often to retain their ability to spot faint fibres on noisy backgrounds. Moreover, the task of measuring thousands of fibres every day, even with the help of semi-automated image analysis systems, is dull and repetitive. The need for an automated procedure which could replace manual measurements is quite real. For each of the two methods that we propose to accomplish this task, we present the sample preparation, the microscope setting and the image analysis algorithms used for the segmentation of the fibres and for their measurement. We also show how a statistical analysis of the results can alleviate most measurement biases, and how we can estimate the true distribution of fibre lengths by diameter class by measuring only the lengths of the fibres visible in the field of view. PMID:11106965

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of splenic enlargement using wave pattern of spleen in abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Won; Cho, June-Sik; Noh, Seung-Moo; Park, Jong Won

    2006-03-01

    It is known that the spleen accompanied by liver cirrhosis is hypertrophied or enlarged. We have examined a wave pattern at the left boundary of spleen on the abdominal CT images having liver cirrhosis, and found that they are different from those on the images having a normal liver. It is noticed that the abdominal CT images of patient with liver cirrhosis shows strong bending in the wave pattern. In the case of normal liver, the images may also have a wave pattern, but its bends are not strong. Therefore, the total waving area of the spleen with liver cirrhosis is found to be greater than that of the spleen with a normal liver. Moreover, we found that the waves of the spleen from the image with liver cirrhosis have the higher degree of circularity compared to the normal liver case. Based on the two observations above, we propose an automatic method to diagnose splenic enlargement by using the wave pattern of the spleen in abdominal CT images. The proposed automatic method improves the diagnostic performance compared with the conventional process based on the size of spleen.

  18. Sensitive test for sea mine identification based on polarization-aided image processing.

    PubMed

    Leonard, I; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C

    2013-12-01

    Techniques are widely sought to detect and identify sea mines. This issue is characterized by complicated mine shapes and underwater light propagation dependencies. In a preliminary study we use a preprocessing step for denoising underwater images before applying the algorithm for mine detection. Once a mine is detected, the protocol for identifying it is activated. Among many correlation filters, we have focused our attention on the asymmetric segmented phase-only filter for quantifying the recognition rate because it allows us to significantly increase the number of reference images in the fabrication of this filter. Yet they are not entirely satisfactory in terms of recognition rate and the obtained images revealed to be of low quality. In this report, we propose a way to improve upon this preliminary study by using a single wavelength polarimetric camera in order to denoise the images. This permits us to enhance images and improve depth visibility. We present illustrative results using in situ polarization imaging of a target through a milk-water mixture and demonstrate that our challenging objective of increasing the detection rate and decreasing the false alarm rate has been achieved. PMID:24514481

  19. Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

  20. Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis

    2003-11-25

    AXSIA performs automated factor analysis of hyperspectral images. In such images, a complete spectrum is collected an each point in a 1-, 2- or 3- dimensional spatial array. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques have proven effective for extracting the essential information from high dimensional data sets into a limtedmore » number of factors that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the pure components comprising the sample. AXSIA provides tools to estimate different types of factor models including Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), PCA with factor rotation, and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR-ALS). As part of the analysis process, AXSIA can automatically estimate the number of pure components that comprise the data and can scale the data to account for Poisson noise. The data analysis methods are fundamentally based on eigenanalysis of the data crossproduct matrix coupled with orthogonal eigenvector rotation and constrained alternating least squares refinement. A novel method for automatically determining the number of significant components, which is based on the eigenvalues of the crossproduct matrix, has also been devised and implemented. The data can be compressed spectrally via PCA and spatially through wavelet transforms, and algorithms have been developed that perform factor analysis in the transform domain while retaining full spatial and spectral resolution in the final result. These latter innovations enable the analysis of larger-than core-memory spectrum-images. AXSIA was designed to perform automated chemical phase analysis of spectrum-images acquired by a variety of chemical imaging techniques. Successful applications include Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, X

  1. Objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software.

    PubMed

    Pham, Annette M; Tollefson, Travis T

    2010-05-01

    Facial analysis is an integral part of the surgical planning process. Clinical photography has long been an invaluable tool in the surgeon's practice not only for accurate facial analysis but also for enhancing communication between the patient and surgeon, for evaluating postoperative results, for medicolegal documentation, and for educational and teaching opportunities. From 35-mm slide film to the digital technology of today, clinical photography has benefited greatly from technological advances. With the development of computer imaging software, objective facial analysis becomes easier to perform and less time consuming. Thus, while the original purpose of facial analysis remains the same, the process becomes much more efficient and allows for some objectivity. Although clinical judgment and artistry of technique is never compromised, the ability to perform objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software may become the standard in facial plastic surgery practices in the future. PMID:20511080

  2. Going public as an AIDS family caregiver.

    PubMed

    Powell-Cope, G M; Brown, M A

    1992-03-01

    Images of AIDS invoke fears of contagion, disability and formidable death, and moral overtones directed toward drug use, sexuality and sexual identity and freedom. Responses to these images are both private and public, and have profound consequences for individuals whose lives have been touched by the disease, both the person with AIDS and the family caregiver. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in detail 'going public,' one category of a substantive theory of AIDS family caregiving. This category was developed from a grounded theory study of 53 AIDS family members who were asked to describe their experiences as an AIDS family caregiver during an indepth interview. Data were content analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Going public referred to how AIDS family caregivers let others known that they were caring for a PWA. Specifically, going public entailed selecting appropriate persons and audiences to tell, formulating approaches to communicating information, and considering the risks and benefits of the possible choices. The description of going public as an AIDS family caregiver details the assertiveness involved in political action and social change, contrasted with the isolation and secrecy involved in maintaining relationships with others under the condition of a stigmatizing illness. Data revealed a particular emphasis on the phenomenon of 'guilt by association'. Because of their close relationship to a person with AIDS, caregivers were obligated to share the stigma of AIDS and were likewise discredited. Findings from our study emphasize the tremendous personal suffering experienced by caregivers which was associated with AIDS stigma in the form of rejection, loss of friends and harassment. Data also revealed the strong commitment of many caregivers to social activism which ranged from participating in educational efforts to marching in demonstrations. The rationale for the apparent increased activism among AIDS family caregivers compared to

  3. Motion Analysis From Television Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberberg, George G.; Keller, Patrick N.

    1982-02-01

    The Department of Defense ranges have relied on photographic instrumentation for gathering data of firings for all types of ordnance. A large inventory of cameras are available on the market that can be used for these tasks. A new set of optical instrumentation is beginning to appear which, in many cases, can directly replace photographic cameras for a great deal of the work being performed now. These are television cameras modified so they can stop motion, see in the dark, perform under hostile environments, and provide real time information. This paper discusses techniques for modifying television cameras so they can be used for motion analysis.

  4. Biomedical image analysis using Markov random fields & efficient linear programing.

    PubMed

    Komodakis, Nikos; Besbes, Ahmed; Glocker, Ben; Paragios, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis through biomedical image analysis is increasingly considered in health sciences. This is due to the progress made on the acquisition side, as well as on the processing one. In vivo visualization of human tissues where one can determine both anatomical and functional information is now possible. The use of these images with efficient intelligent mathematical and processing tools allows the interpretation of the tissues state and facilitates the task of the physicians. Segmentation and registration are the two most fundamental tools in bioimaging. The first aims to provide automatic tools for organ delineation from images, while the second focuses on establishing correspondences between observations inter and intra subject and modalities. In this paper, we present some recent results towards a common formulation addressing these problems, called the Markov Random Fields. Such an approach is modular with respect to the application context, can be easily extended to deal with various modalities, provides guarantees on the optimality properties of the obtained solution and is computationally efficient. PMID:19963682

  5. Pathology Image of the Month:Cough and Shortness of Breath in a Noncompliant Patient with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Thomasson, Reggie; Dewenter, Tracy; McGoey, Robin R

    2015-01-01

    A 37- year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) was admitted to the intensive care unit following a four month history of progressive shortness of breath, productive cough, and flu-like symptoms. His HIV/AIDS was diagnosed at the age of 19 (CD4 count =15; viral load = 294,436 copies/ mL) and was complicated by hemodialysis-dependent, HIV-associated nephropathy, prior Pneumocystis pneumonia and known noncompliance with prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Chest film at admission was interpreted as diffuse bilateral interstitial and airspace opacities with a right sided layering density representative of laminar pleural effusion. Bacterial blood cultures were subsequently negative. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and an image from the cytologic cell block is seen above in Figure 1. The patient's respiratory status continued to deteriorate and he was converted to comfort care. Following death, an unlimited autopsy examination was requested by the family and authorized by the coroner. At autopsy, additional gross pathologic findings included 350ml of chylous appearing pleural fluid and serous ascites (700ml). Histopathology revealed intra-alveolar acute fibrinopurulent exudate, chronic pericarditis and end-stage nephropathy. Similar cells to those shown above in Figure 1 were identified in lung epithelium and in pancreatic acinar cells. Special stain for Pneumocystis was negative. PMID:27159517

  6. Computer-aided detection of renal calculi from noncontrast CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Renal calculi are common extracolonic incidental findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). This work aims to develop a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system to accurately detect renal calculi on CTC images. Methods: The authors developed a total variation (TV) flow method to reduce image noise within the kidneys while maintaining the characteristic appearance of renal calculi. Maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features were then calculated to robustly identify calculi candidates. Finally, the authors computed texture and shape features that were imported to support vector machines for calculus classification. The method was validated on a dataset of 192 patients and compared to a baseline approach that detects calculi by thresholding. The authors also compared their method with the detection approaches using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing. Results: At a false positive rate of 8 per patient, the sensitivities of the new method and the baseline thresholding approach were 69% and 35% (p < 1e − 3) on all calculi from 1 to 433 mm{sup 3} in the testing dataset. The sensitivities of the detection methods using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing were 36% and 0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new method increased to 90% if only larger and more clinically relevant calculi were considered. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrated that TV-flow and MSER features are efficient means to robustly and accurately detect renal calculi on low-dose, high noise CTC images. Thus, the proposed method can potentially improve diagnosis.

  7. Computer-aided detection of renal calculi from noncontrast CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Linguraru, Marius George; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Renal calculi are common extracolonic incidental findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). This work aims to develop a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system to accurately detect renal calculi on CTC images. Methods: The authors developed a total variation (TV) flow method to reduce image noise within the kidneys while maintaining the characteristic appearance of renal calculi. Maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features were then calculated to robustly identify calculi candidates. Finally, the authors computed texture and shape features that were imported to support vector machines for calculus classification. The method was validated on a dataset of 192 patients and compared to a baseline approach that detects calculi by thresholding. The authors also compared their method with the detection approaches using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing. Results: At a false positive rate of 8 per patient, the sensitivities of the new method and the baseline thresholding approach were 69% and 35% (p < 1e − 3) on all calculi from 1 to 433 mm3 in the testing dataset. The sensitivities of the detection methods using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing were 36% and 0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new method increased to 90% if only larger and more clinically relevant calculi were considered. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrated that TV-flow and MSER features are efficient means to robustly and accurately detect renal calculi on low-dose, high noise CTC images. Thus, the proposed method can potentially improve diagnosis. PMID:25563255

  8. Computer-Aided Segmentation of the Mid-Brain in Trans-Cranial Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Sakalauskas, Andrius; Laučkaitė, Kristina; Lukoševičius, Arūnas; Rastenytė, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel and rapid method developed for semi-automated segmentation of the mid-brain region in B-mode trans-cranial ultrasound (TCS) images. TCS is a relatively new neuroimaging tool having promising application in early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The quality of TCS images is much lower compared with the ultrasound images obtained during scanning of the soft tissues; the structures of interest in TCS are difficult to extract and to evaluate. The combination of an experience-based statistical shape model and intensity-amplitude invariant edge detector was proposed for the extraction of fuzzy boundaries of the mid-brain in TCS images. A statistical shape model was constructed using 90 manual delineations of the mid-brain region made by professional neurosonographer. Local phase-based edge detection strategy was applied for determination of plausible mid-brain boundary points used for statistical shape fitting. The proposed method was tested on other 40 clinical TCS images evaluated by two experts. The obtained averaged results of segmentation revealed that the differences between manual and automated measurements are statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). PMID:26603659

  9. Endoscopic image analysis in semantic space.

    PubMed

    Kwitt, R; Vasconcelos, N; Rasiwasia, N; Uhl, A; Davis, B; Häfner, M; Wrba, F

    2012-10-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as (1) recognition of important semantic concepts, (2) semantically-focused image browsing, and (3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  10. Endoscopic Image Analysis in Semantic Space

    PubMed Central

    Kwitt, R.; Vasconcelos, N.; Rasiwasia, N.; Uhl, A.; Davis, B.; Häfner, M.; Wrba, F.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as 1) recognition of important semantic concepts, 2) semantically-focused image browsing, and 3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  11. A Comparison of Local Variance, Fractal Dimension, and Moran's I as Aids to Multispectral Image Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Sig-NganLam, Nina; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of traditional multispectral maximum-likelihood image classification is limited by the skewed statistical distributions of reflectances from the complex heterogenous mixture of land cover types in urban areas. This work examines the utility of local variance, fractal dimension and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation in segmenting multispectral satellite imagery. Tools available in the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) were used to analyze Landsat 7 imagery of Atlanta, Georgia. Although segmentation of panchromatic images is possible using indicators of spatial complexity, different land covers often yield similar values of these indices. Better results are obtained when a surface of local fractal dimension or spatial autocorrelation is combined as an additional layer in a supervised maximum-likelihood multispectral classification. The addition of fractal dimension measures is particularly effective at resolving land cover classes within urbanized areas, as compared to per-pixel spectral classification techniques.

  12. Analysis of an interferometric Stokes imaging polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Sukumar

    Estimation of Stokes vector components from an interferometric fringe encoded image is a novel way of measuring the State Of Polarization (SOP) distribution across a scene. Imaging polarimeters employing interferometric techniques encode SOP in- formation across a scene in a single image in the form of intensity fringes. The lack of moving parts and use of a single image eliminates the problems of conventional polarimetry - vibration, spurious signal generation due to artifacts, beam wander, and need for registration routines. However, interferometric polarimeters are limited by narrow bandpass and short exposure time operations which decrease the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio of the mean photon count to the standard deviation in the detected image. A simulation environment for designing an Interferometric Stokes Imaging polarimeter (ISIP) and a detector with noise effects is created and presented. Users of this environment are capable of imaging an object with defined SOP through an ISIP onto a detector producing a digitized image output. The simulation also includes bandpass imaging capabilities, control of detector noise, and object brightness levels. The Stokes images are estimated from a fringe encoded image of a scene by means of a reconstructor algorithm. A spatial domain methodology involving the idea of a unit cell and slide approach is applied to the reconstructor model developed using Mueller calculus. The validation of this methodology and effectiveness compared to a discrete approach is demonstrated with suitable examples. The pixel size required to sample the fringes and minimum unit cell size required for reconstruction are investigated using condition numbers. The importance of the PSF of fore-optics (telescope) used in imaging the object is investigated and analyzed using a point source imaging example and a Nyquist criteria is presented. Reconstruction of fringe modulated images in the presence of noise involves choosing an

  13. Unsupervised hyperspectral image analysis using independent component analysis (ICA)

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Chiang; I. W. Ginsberg

    2000-06-30

    In this paper, an ICA-based approach is proposed for hyperspectral image analysis. It can be viewed as a random version of the commonly used linear spectral mixture analysis, in which the abundance fractions in a linear mixture model are considered to be unknown independent signal sources. It does not require the full rank of the separating matrix or orthogonality as most ICA methods do. More importantly, the learning algorithm is designed based on the independency of the material abundance vector rather than the independency of the separating matrix generally used to constrain the standard ICA. As a result, the designed learning algorithm is able to converge to non-orthogonal independent components. This is particularly useful in hyperspectral image analysis since many materials extracted from a hyperspectral image may have similar spectral signatures and may not be orthogonal. The AVIRIS experiments have demonstrated that the proposed ICA provides an effective unsupervised technique for hyperspectral image classification.

  14. Curvelet Based Offline Analysis of SEM Images

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Syed Hamad; Haq, Nuhman ul; Hayat, Khizar; Naz, Saeeda; Haque, Ihsan ul

    2014-01-01

    Manual offline analysis, of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image, is a time consuming process and requires continuous human intervention and efforts. This paper presents an image processing based method for automated offline analyses of SEM images. To this end, our strategy relies on a two-stage process, viz. texture analysis and quantification. The method involves a preprocessing step, aimed at the noise removal, in order to avoid false edges. For texture analysis, the proposed method employs a state of the art Curvelet transform followed by segmentation through a combination of entropy filtering, thresholding and mathematical morphology (MM). The quantification is carried out by the application of a box-counting algorithm, for fractal dimension (FD) calculations, with the ultimate goal of measuring the parameters, like surface area and perimeter. The perimeter is estimated indirectly by counting the boundary boxes of the filled shapes. The proposed method, when applied to a representative set of SEM images, not only showed better results in image segmentation but also exhibited a good accuracy in the calculation of surface area and perimeter. The proposed method outperforms the well-known Watershed segmentation algorithm. PMID:25089617

  15. Fourier analysis: from cloaking to imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kedi; Cheng, Qiluan; Wang, Guo Ping

    2016-04-01

    Regarding invisibility cloaks as an optical imaging system, we present a Fourier approach to analytically unify both Pendry cloaks and complementary media-based invisibility cloaks into one kind of cloak. By synthesizing different transfer functions, we can construct different devices to realize a series of interesting functions such as hiding objects (events), creating illusions, and performing perfect imaging. In this article, we give a brief review on recent works of applying Fourier approach to analysis invisibility cloaks and optical imaging through scattering layers. We show that, to construct devices to conceal an object, no constructive materials with extreme properties are required, making most, if not all, of the above functions realizable by using naturally occurring materials. As instances, we experimentally verify a method of directionally hiding distant objects and create illusions by using all-dielectric materials, and further demonstrate a non-invasive method of imaging objects completely hidden by scattering layers.

  16. Measuring toothbrush interproximal penetration using image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, Mark S.; Lyons, Elizabeth K.

    1994-09-01

    An image analysis method of measuring the effectiveness of a toothbrush in reaching the interproximal spaces of teeth is described. Artificial teeth are coated with a stain that approximates real plaque and then brushed with a toothbrush on a brushing machine. The teeth are then removed and turned sideways so that the interproximal surfaces can be imaged. The areas of stain that have been removed within masked regions that define the interproximal regions are measured and reported. These areas correspond to the interproximal areas of the tooth reached by the toothbrush bristles. The image analysis method produces more precise results (10-fold decrease in standard deviation) in a fraction (22%) of the time as compared to our prior visual grading method.

  17. Structured Activities in Perceptual Training to Aid Retention of Visual and Auditory Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, James W.; And Others

    The experimental program in structured activities in perceptual training was said to have two main objectives: to train children in retention of visual and auditory images and to increase the children's motivation to learn. Eight boys and girls participated in the program for two hours daily for a 10-week period. The age range was 7.0 to 12.10…

  18. Segmentation-aided adaptive filtering for metal artifact reduction in radio-therapeutic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint Olive, Celine; Kaus, Michael R.; Pekar, Vladimir; Eck, Kai; Spies, Lothar

    2004-05-01

    In CT imaging, high absorbing objects such as metal bodies may cause significant artifacts, which may, for example, result in dose inaccuracies in the radiation therapy planning process. In this work, we aim at reducing the local and global image artifact, in order to improve the overall dose accuracy. The key part f this approach is the correction of the original projection data in those regions, which feature defects caused by rays traversing the high attenuating objects in the patient. The affected regions are substituted by model data derived from the original tomogram deploying a segmentation method. Phantom and climnical studies demonstrate that the proposed method significantly reduces the overall artifacts while preserving the information content of the image as much as possible. The image quality improvements were quantified by determining the signal-to-noise ratio, the artifact level and the modulation transfer function. The proposed method is computationally efficient and can easily be integrated into commercial CT scanners and radiation therapy planning software.

  19. Computer aided preoperative evaluation of the residual liver volume using computed tomography images.

    PubMed

    Bliznakova, Kristina; Kolev, Nikola; Buliev, Ivan; Tonev, Anton; Encheva, Elitsa; Bliznakov, Zhivko; Ivanov, Krasimir

    2015-04-01

    Major hepatectomy causes a risk of postoperative liver dysfunction, failure, and infections like surgical site infection. Preoperative assessment of the liver volume and function of the remnant liver is a mandatory prerequisite before performing such surgery. The aim of this work is to develop and test a software application for evaluation of the residual function of the liver prior to the intervention of the surgeons. For this purpose, a technique for evaluation of liver volume from computed tomography (CT) images has been developed. Furthermore, the methodology algorithms were implemented and incorporated within a software tool with three basic functionalities: volume determination based on segmentation of liver from CT images, virtual tumour resection and estimation of the residual liver function and 3D visualisation. Forty-one sets of abdominal CT images consisting of different number of tomographic slice images were used to test and evaluate the proposed approach. Volumes that were obtained after manual tracing by two surgeon experts showed a relative difference of 3.5 %. The suggested methodology was encapsulated within an application with user-friendly interface that allows surgeons interactively to perform virtual tumour resection, to evaluate the relative residual liver and render the final result. Thereby, it is a tool in the surgeons' hands that significantly facilitates their duties, saves time, and allows them to objectively evaluate the situation and take the right decisions. At the same time, the tool appears to be appropriate educational instrument for virtual training of young surgeon specialists. PMID:25273505

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy as an aid to imaging latent fingermarks in the ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Bramble, S K

    1996-11-01

    Two- and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopic data have been recorded from sebum-rich latent fingermarks on quartz and white card. The fingermark residue was found to fluoresce between 310 to 380 nm and have an excitation range between 260 to 300 nm. The data are used to describe the results observed when imaging the inherent ultraviolet photoluminescence of latent fingermarks. PMID:8914294

  1. Morphometry of spermatozoa using semiautomatic image analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jagoe, J R; Washbrook, N P; Hudson, E A

    1986-01-01

    Human sperm heads were detected and tracked using semiautomatic image analysis. Measurements of size and shape on two specimens from each of 26 men showed that the major component of variability both within and between subjects was the number of small elongated sperm heads. Variability of the computed features between subjects was greater than that between samples from the same subject. PMID:3805320

  2. Scale Free Reduced Rank Image Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Paul

    In the traditional Guttman-Harris type image analysis, a transformation is applied to the data matrix such that each column of the transformed data matrix is the best least squares estimate of the corresponding column of the data matrix from the remaining columns. The model is scale free. However, it assumes (1) that the correlation matrix is…

  3. Using Image Analysis to Build Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John

    2010-01-01

    Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.

  4. Expert system for imaging spectrometer analysis results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchardt, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    Information on an expert system for imaging spectrometer analysis results is outlined. Implementation requirements, the Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning (STAR) program that provides a software environment for the development and operation of rule-based expert systems, STAR data structures, and rule-based identification of surface materials are among the topics outlined.

  5. COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory



    COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES

    T Martonen1 and J Schroeter2

    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 USA and 2Curriculum in Toxicology, Unive...

  6. The non-directional pattern of axonal changes in Wallerian degeneration: a computer-aided morphometric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Malbouisson, A M; Ghabriel, M N; Allt, G

    1984-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration was investigated to determine whether axonal changes occur progressively in a somatofugal or somatopetal direction or simultaneously along the length of the axon. Microtubule density was used as a measure of the extent of axonal degeneration and was assessed by a computer-aided analysis of electron micrographs. The left sural nerves of ten rats were crushed and 30 hours later axonal areas and axonal microtubule numbers were recorded from a large sample of axons at two sites 1 cm and 3 cm distal to the crush. The same recordings were made from the right unoperated nerve at two comparable sites. Statistical analysis of all the data provided no evidence for a somatofugal or reverse direction of degeneration. It is concluded therefore that in Wallerian degeneration axonal changes, as indicated by microtubule dissolution, occur simultaneously along the length of the axon. It is proposed that to interpret the conflicting published data on the direction of fibre degeneration, Schwann cell changes (e.g. myelin ovoid formation) and axonal changes (e.g. microtubule dissolution) should be considered independently since they have different aetiological mechanisms which may account for the differing experimental results reported. Images Fig. 1 Figs. 7-8 Figs. 9-10 PMID:6469853

  7. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  8. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 6: Environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the external environment of the FBI Fingerprint Identification Division are presented. Possible trends in the future environment of the Division that may have an effect on the work load were projected to determine if future work load will lie within the capability range of the proposed new system, AIDS 3. Two working models of the environment were developed, the internal and external model, and from these scenarios the projection of possible future work load volume and mixture was developed. Possible drivers of work load change were identified and assessed for upper and lower bounds of effects. Data used for the study were derived from historical information, analysis of the current situation and from interviews with various agencies who are users of or stakeholders in the present system.

  9. Cellular level nanomanipulation using atomic force microscope aided with superresolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Harke, Benjamin; Canale, Claudio; Diaspro, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide topographical and mechanical information of the sample with very good axial resolution, but are limited in terms of chemical specificity and operation time-scale. An optical microscope coupled to an AFM can recognize and target an area of interest using specific identification markers like fluorescence tags. A high resolution fluorescence microscope can visualize fluorescence structures or molecules below the classical optical diffraction limit and reach nanometer scale resolution. A stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy superresolution (SR) microscope coupled to an AFM is an example in which the AFM tip gains nanoscale manipulation capabilities. The SR targeting and visualization ability help in fast and specific identification of subdiffraction-sized cellular structures and manoeuvring the AFM tip onto the target. We demonstrate how to build a STED AFM and use it for biological nanomanipulation aided with fast visualization. The STED AFM based bionanomanipulation is presented for the first time in this article. This study points to future nanosurgeries performable at single-cell level and a physical targeted manipulation of cellular features as it is currently used in research domains like nanomedicine and nanorobotics.

  10. Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics

    SciTech Connect

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kamezawa, Hidemi; Jin, Ze; Nakamoto, Takahiro; Soufi, Mazen

    2015-09-30

    Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics have been constructed for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy in radiological physics. Computational image analysis has been established based on applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. This review paper will introduce how computational image analysis is useful in radiation therapy with respect to radiological physics.

  11. Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kamezawa, Hidemi; Jin, Ze; Nakamoto, Takahiro; Soufi, Mazen

    2015-09-01

    Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics have been constructed for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy in radiological physics. Computational image analysis has been established based on applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. This review paper will introduce how computational image analysis is useful in radiation therapy with respect to radiological physics.

  12. Computer-aided method for automated selection of optimal imaging plane for measurement of total cerebral blood flow by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Pang-yu; Bagci, Ahmet Murat; Alperin, Noam

    2009-02-01

    A computer-aided method for finding an optimal imaging plane for simultaneous measurement of the arterial blood inflow through the 4 vessels leading blood to the brain by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The method performance is compared with manual selection by two observers. The skeletons of the 4 vessels for which centerlines are generated are first extracted. Then, a global direction of the relatively less curved internal carotid arteries is calculated to determine the main flow direction. This is then used as a reference direction to identify segments of the vertebral arteries that strongly deviates from the main flow direction. These segments are then used to identify anatomical landmarks for improved consistency of the imaging plane selection. An optimal imaging plane is then identified by finding a plane with the smallest error value, which is defined as the sum of the angles between the plane's normal and the vessel centerline's direction at the location of the intersections. Error values obtained using the automated and the manual methods were then compared using 9 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets. The automated method considerably outperformed the manual selection. The mean error value with the automated method was significantly lower than the manual method, 0.09+/-0.07 vs. 0.53+/-0.45, respectively (p<.0001, Student's t-test). Reproducibility of repeated measurements was analyzed using Bland and Altman's test, the mean 95% limits of agreements for the automated and manual method were 0.01~0.02 and 0.43~0.55 respectively.

  13. Photometric analysis as an aid to 3D reconstruction of indoor scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfaty, Veronique; Ackah-Miezan, Andrew; Lutton, Evelyne; Gagalowicz, Andre

    1993-06-01

    In an Image Understanding framework, our aim is to reconstruct an actual indoor scene from a (sequence of) color pair(s) of stereoscopic images. The desired (synthesis-oriented) description requires the analysis of both 3D geometric and photometric parameters in order to use the feedback provided by image synthesis to control the image analysis. The environment model is a hierarchy of polyhedral 3D objects (planar lambertian facets). Two main physical phenomena determine the image intensities: surface reflectance properties and light sources. From illumination models established in Computer Graphics, we derive the appropriate irradiance equations. Rather than use a point source located at infinity, we choose instead isotropic point sources with decreasing energy. This allows us to discriminate small irradiance gradients inside regions. For indoor scenes, such photometric models are more realistic, due to the presence of ceiling lights, desk lamps, and so on. Both a photometric reconstruction algorithm and a technique for localizing the 'dominant' light source are presented along with lighting simulations. For comparison purposes, corresponding artificial images are shown. Using this work, we wish to highlight the fruitful cooperation between the Vision and Graphics domains in order to perform a more accurate scene reconstruction, both photometrically and geometrically. The emphasis is on the illumination characterization which influences the scene interpretation.

  14. Computer-aided analysis of star shot films for high-accuracy radiation therapy treatment units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depuydt, Tom; Penne, Rudi; Verellen, Dirk; Hrbacek, Jan; Lang, Stephanie; Leysen, Katrien; Vandevondel, Iwein; Poels, Kenneth; Reynders, Truus; Gevaert, Thierry; Duchateau, Michael; Tournel, Koen; Boussaer, Marlies; Cosentino, Dorian; Garibaldi, Cristina; Solberg, Timothy; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-05-01

    As mechanical stability of radiation therapy treatment devices has gone beyond sub-millimeter levels, there is a rising demand for simple yet highly accurate measurement techniques to support the routine quality control of these devices. A combination of using high-resolution radiosensitive film and computer-aided analysis could provide an answer. One generally known technique is the acquisition of star shot films to determine the mechanical stability of rotations of gantries and the therapeutic beam. With computer-aided analysis, mechanical performance can be quantified as a radiation isocenter radius size. In this work, computer-aided analysis of star shot film is further refined by applying an analytical solution for the smallest intersecting circle problem, in contrast to the gradient optimization approaches used until today. An algorithm is presented and subjected to a performance test using two different types of radiosensitive film, the Kodak EDR2 radiographic film and the ISP EBT2 radiochromic film. Artificial star shots with a priori known radiation isocenter size are used to determine the systematic errors introduced by the digitization of the film and the computer analysis. The estimated uncertainty on the isocenter size measurement with the presented technique was 0.04 mm (2σ) and 0.06 mm (2σ) for radiographic and radiochromic films, respectively. As an application of the technique, a study was conducted to compare the mechanical stability of O-ring gantry systems with C-arm-based gantries. In total ten systems of five different institutions were included in this study and star shots were acquired for gantry, collimator, ring, couch rotations and gantry wobble. It was not possible to draw general conclusions about differences in mechanical performance between O-ring and C-arm gantry systems, mainly due to differences in the beam-MLC alignment procedure accuracy. Nevertheless, the best performing O-ring system in this study, a BrainLab/MHI Vero system

  15. Frequency domain analysis of knock images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yunliang; He, Xin; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-12-01

    High speed imaging-based knock analysis has mainly focused on time domain information, e.g. the spark triggered flame speed, the time when end gas auto-ignition occurs and the end gas flame speed after auto-ignition. This study presents a frequency domain analysis on the knock images recorded using a high speed camera with direct photography in a rapid compression machine (RCM). To clearly visualize the pressure wave oscillation in the combustion chamber, the images were high-pass-filtered to extract the luminosity oscillation. The luminosity spectrum was then obtained by applying fast Fourier transform (FFT) to three basic colour components (red, green and blue) of the high-pass-filtered images. Compared to the pressure spectrum, the luminosity spectra better identify the resonant modes of pressure wave oscillation. More importantly, the resonant mode shapes can be clearly visualized by reconstructing the images based on the amplitudes of luminosity spectra at the corresponding resonant frequencies, which agree well with the analytical solutions for mode shapes of gas vibration in a cylindrical cavity.

  16. COMPUTER-AIDED GLEASON GRADING OF PROSTATE CANCER HISTOPATHOLOGICAL IMAGES USING TEXTON FORESTS

    PubMed Central

    Khurd, Parmeshwar; Bahlmann, Claus; Maday, Peter; Kamen, Ali; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Frangioni, John V.

    2010-01-01

    The Gleason score is the single most important prognostic indicator for prostate cancer candidates and plays a significant role in treatment planning. Histopathological imaging of prostate tissue samples provides the gold standard for obtaining the Gleason score, but the manual assignment of Gleason grades is a labor-intensive and error-prone process. We have developed a texture classification system for automatic and reproducible Gleason grading. Our system characterizes the texture in images belonging to a tumor grade by clustering extracted filter responses at each pixel into textons (basic texture elements). We have used random forests to cluster the filter responses into textons followed by the spatial pyramid match kernel in conjunction with an SVM classifier. We have demonstrated the efficacy of our system in distinguishing between Gleason grades 3 and 4. PMID:21221421

  17. A semantically-aided approach for online annotation and retrieval of medical images.

    PubMed

    Kyriazos, George K; Gerostathopoulos, Ilias Th; Kolias, Vassileios D; Stoitsis, John S; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2011-01-01

    The need for annotating the continuously increasing volume of medical image data is recognized from medical experts for a variety of purposes, regardless if this is medical practice, research or education. The rich information content latent in medical images can be made explicit and formal with the use of well-defined ontologies. Evolution of the Semantic Web now offers a unique opportunity of a web-based, service-oriented approach. Remote access to FMA and ICD-10 reference ontologies provides the ontological annotation framework. The proposed system utilizes this infrastructure to provide a customizable and robust annotation procedure. It also provides an intelligent search mechanism indicating the advantages of semantic over keyword search. The common representation layer discussed facilitates interoperability between institutions and systems, while semantic content enables inference and knowledge integration. PMID:22254818

  18. Clinical Verification of Image Warping as a Potential Aid for the Visually Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshin, David

    1996-01-01

    The bulk of this research was to designed determine potential of the Programmable Remapper (PR) as a device to enhance vision for the visually handicapped. This research indicated that remapping would have potential as a low vision device if the eye position could be monitored with feedback to specify the proper location of the remapped image. This must be accomplished at high rate so that there is no lag of the image behind the eye position. Since at this time, there is no portable eye monitor device (at a reasonable cost) that will operate under the required conditions, it would not be feasible to continue with remapping experiments for patients with central field defects. However, since patients with peripheral field defects do not have the same eye positioning requirements, they may indeed benefit from this technology. Further investigations must be performed to determine plausibility of this application of remapping.

  19. COMPUTER-AIDED GLEASON GRADING OF PROSTATE CANCER HISTOPATHOLOGICAL IMAGES USING TEXTON FORESTS.

    PubMed

    Khurd, Parmeshwar; Bahlmann, Claus; Maday, Peter; Kamen, Ali; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer; Genega, Elizabeth M; Frangioni, John V

    2010-04-17

    The Gleason score is the single most important prognostic indicator for prostate cancer candidates and plays a significant role in treatment planning. Histopathological imaging of prostate tissue samples provides the gold standard for obtaining the Gleason score, but the manual assignment of Gleason grades is a labor-intensive and error-prone process. We have developed a texture classification system for automatic and reproducible Gleason grading. Our system characterizes the texture in images belonging to a tumor grade by clustering extracted filter responses at each pixel into textons (basic texture elements). We have used random forests to cluster the filter responses into textons followed by the spatial pyramid match kernel in conjunction with an SVM classifier. We have demonstrated the efficacy of our system in distinguishing between Gleason grades 3 and 4. PMID:21221421

  20. ImageJ: Image processing and analysis in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasband, W. S.

    2012-06-01

    ImageJ is a public domain Java image processing program inspired by NIH Image. It can display, edit, analyze, process, save and print 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit images. It can read many image formats including TIFF, GIF, JPEG, BMP, DICOM, FITS and "raw". It supports "stacks", a series of images that share a single window. It is multithreaded, so time-consuming operations such as image file reading can be performed in parallel with other operations.

  1. Multiscale likelihood analysis and image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Rebecca M.; Nowak, Robert D.

    2003-11-01

    The nonparametric multiscale polynomial and platelet methods presented here are powerful new tools for signal and image denoising and reconstruction. Unlike traditional wavelet-based multiscale methods, these methods are both well suited to processing Poisson or multinomial data and capable of preserving image edges. At the heart of these new methods lie multiscale signal decompositions based on polynomials in one dimension and multiscale image decompositions based on what the authors call platelets in two dimensions. Platelets are localized functions at various positions, scales and orientations that can produce highly accurate, piecewise linear approximations to images consisting of smooth regions separated by smooth boundaries. Polynomial and platelet-based maximum penalized likelihood methods for signal and image analysis are both tractable and computationally efficient. Polynomial methods offer near minimax convergence rates for broad classes of functions including Besov spaces. Upper bounds on the estimation error are derived using an information-theoretic risk bound based on squared Hellinger loss. Simulations establish the practical effectiveness of these methods in applications such as density estimation, medical imaging, and astronomy.

  2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and computer aided diagnosis of human cervical tissue specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazant-Hegemark, F.; Stone, N.; Read, M. D.; McCarthy, K.; Wang, R. K.

    2007-07-01

    The keyword for management of cervical cancer is prevention. The present program within the UK, the 'National Health Service (NHS) cervical screening programme' (NHSCSP), is based on cytology. Although the program has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, this program requires patient follow ups and relies on diagnostic biopsying. There is potential for reducing costs and workload within the NHS, and relieving anxiety of patients. In this study, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was investigated for its capability to improve this situation. Our time domain bench top system used a superluminescent diode (Superlum), centre wave length ~1.3 μm, resolution (air) ~15 μm. Tissue samples were obtained according to the ethics approval by Gloucestershire LREC, Nr. 05/Q2005/123. 1387 images of 199 participants have been compared with histopathology results and categorized accordingly. Our OCT images do not reach the clarity and resolution of histopathology. Further, establishing and recognizing features of diagnostic significance seems difficult. Automated classification would allow one to take decision-making to move from the subjective appraisal of a physician to an objective assessment. Hence we investigated a classification algorithm for its ability in recognizing pre-cancerous stages from OCT images. The initial results show promise.

  3. Policy Analysis Implications of a Model to Improve the Delivery of Financial Aid to Disadvantaged Students. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; Porter, John D.

    The role of institutional research in policy analysis regarding the operation of a computer model for delivery of financial aid to disadvantaged students is considered. A student financial aid model at Arizona State University is designed to develop a profile of late appliers for aid funds and also those who file inaccurate or incomplete…

  4. Computer-aided interpretation of side-looking sonar images from the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Kane Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dengliang; Hurst, Stephen D.; Karson, Jeffrey A.; Delaney, John R.; Spiess, Fred N.

    1998-09-01

    Approximately 600 km2 of Deep-Tow side-looking sonar data were collected at the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Kane Transform. The merged digital image mosaic provides a synoptic view of the oceanic crust exposed across major escarpments at this ridge-transform intersection (RTI). We characterized this large acoustic data set using textural attributes extracted from the backscatter image by means of a gray level co occurrence matrix method and Fourier fractal analysis. False-color texture attribute maps created from these methods aid in the interpretation and discrimination of surficial deposits and bedrock units on the seafloor. Principal components analysis performed on the textural attributes reduced the dimensionality of the textural feature vector and optimized imago texture discrimination. The textural attributes were calibrated to ground truth geologic data and extrapolated to regions with no ground data. The resultant texture and classification maps are consistent with the results of submersible studies but reveal more details of the seafloor geology than the conventional visual interpretation of the backscatter image and ground geologic observations. The inferred distribution of gabbros, basalts, surficial sediments, and rubble deposits shown in the classification map provides new constraints on seafloor geology at the eastern Kane RTI. Over 60% of the southern transform valley wall is covered by pelagic sediments and talus or rubble deposits, with intermittent exposures of coarse-grained gabbroic rocks and basaltic volcanic rocks. The western rift valley wall is classified as mainly massive outcrops of gabbroic rocks. The contact between the gabbroic outcrops on the western rift valley wall and the pillow basalt terrane on the rift valley floor can be traced for several kilometers along the base of the median valley wall. This new perspective supports the interpretation of the "inside-corner massif" as an "oceanic core complex

  5. Computer-Aided Quantification of Interstitial Lung Disease from High Resolution Computed Tomography Images in Systemic Sclerosis: Correlation with Visual Reader-Based Score and Physiologic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Bosello, Silvia; Bichisecchi, Elisabetta; Giuseppetti, Gianmarco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of a computerized-aided method (CaM) for quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis and to determine its correlation with the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. All patients underwent chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scored by two radiologists adopting the CoVR. All HRCT images were then analysed by a CaM using a DICOM software. The relationships among the lung segmentation analysis, the readers, and the PFTs results were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed for determination of CaM extent threshold. Results. A strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (P < 0.0001). The CaM showed a significant negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC) (P < 0.0001) and the single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLco) (P < 0.0001). A CaM optimal extent threshold of 20% represented the best compromise between sensitivity (75.6%) and specificity (97.4%). Conclusions. CaM quantification of SSc-ILD can be useful in the assessment of extent of lung disease and may provide reliable tool in daily clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:25629053

  6. Recent advances in morphological cell image analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengyong; Zhao, Mingzhu; Wu, Guang; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed. PMID:22272215

  7. Gay Men with AIDS and Their Families of Origin: An Analysis of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadushin, Goldie

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on relationships of gay men with AIDS and their families of origin. Some reasons for the absence of family from support networks include family's lack of acceptance of homosexuality and relationship with a male partner; stigma associated with AIDS; inability of family to communicate openly about homosexuality and AIDS. (FC)

  8. Student Financial Aid in Maryland: Programs, Trends, and Analysis. Postsecondary Education Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Janice

    Trends in financial aid to students in Maryland colleges and universities are reported. Attention is directed to the distribution of different types of aid to undergraduate and graduate students, and financial aid awarded by type of institution. Characteristics of recipients of Guaranteed Student Loans, General State Scholarships, and Senatorial…

  9. An Analysis of Teacher Aide Administrative Practices in Kansas Public Schools, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Robert C.

    Responses to a questionnaire sent to all Kansas public school districts with enrollments of 500 and over revealed several characteristics of teacher aide utilization in the state. Such utilization is increasing, especially among larger districts where paid aides predominated over volunteers. In most districts all aides were paid, usually by the…

  10. Analysis of imaging system performance capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haim, Harel; Marom, Emanuel

    2013-06-01

    Present performance analysis of optical imaging systems based on results obtained with classic one-dimensional (1D) resolution targets (such as the USAF resolution chart) are significantly different than those obtained with a newly proposed 2D target [1]. We hereby prove such claim and show how the novel 2D target should be used for correct characterization of optical imaging systems in terms of resolution and contrast. We apply thereafter the consequences of these observations on the optimal design of some two-dimensional barcode structures.

  11. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold-rolling material and Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 were selected as typical hot-rolling and cold-rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape-rolling process were developed. These models utilize the upper-bound and the slab methods of analysis, and are capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll-separating force, roll torque and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design (CAD) system is also capable of simulating the actual rolling process and thereby designing roll-pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or similar shape. The predictions from the CAD system were verified with respect to cold rolling of mild steel plates. The system is being applied to cold and hot isothermal rolling of an airfoil shape, and will be verified with respect to laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.

  12. High resolution multidetector CT aided tissue analysis and quantification of lung fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavaletta, Vanessa A.; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian; Robb, Richard A.

    2006-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, also known as Idiopathic Usual Interstitial Pneumontis, pathologically) is a progressive diffuse lung disease which has a median survival rate of less than four years with a prevalence of 15-20/100,000 in the United States. Global function changes are measured by pulmonary function tests and the diagnosis and extent of pulmonary structural changes are typically assessed by acquiring two-dimensional high resolution CT (HRCT) images. The acquisition and analysis of volumetric high resolution Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) images with nearly isotropic pixels offers the potential to measure both lung function and structure. This paper presents a new approach to three dimensional lung image analysis and classification of normal and abnormal structures in lungs with IPF.

  13. National Responses to HIV/AIDS and Non-Communicable Diseases in Developing Countries: Analysis of Strategic Parallels and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Setswe, Geoffrey; Elliott, Julian; Oldenburg, Brian

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) epidemics may have many important similarities in their aetiology, pathogenesis and management. Evidence about the similarities and differences between the national responses HIV/AIDS and NCDs is essential for an integrated response. The objective of this study was to examine the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in selected developing countries. This study applied a strategic level comparative case study approach as its study design. The main construct was national response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs. The 4 overarching themes were policy response, institutional mechanism, programmatic response and strategic information. Four countries were purposively selected as cases. Data were collected and triangulated from a multiple sources. The focus of analysis included identifying items for comparison, characteristics to be compared, degrees of similarity, and strategic importance of similarities. Analysis of data was qualitative content analysis with within-case, between-case, and across-case comparisons. While the nature of the disease and the contents of national HIV/AIDS and NCD policies are different, the policy processes involved are largely similar. Functional characteristics of programmatic response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs are similar. But the internal constituents are different. Though both HIV and NCDs require both a multi-sectorial response and a national coordination mechanism, the model and the complexity of the coordination are different. Strategic information frameworks for HIV/AIDS and NCDs use similar models. However, the indicators, targets and priorities are different. In conclusion, the national responses between HIV/AIDS and NCDs are largely similar in approaches and functions but different in content. Significance for public health This study explores the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The identified

  14. Computer aided diagnosis system for Alzheimer disease using brain diffusion tensor imaging features selected by Pearson's correlation.

    PubMed

    Graña, M; Termenon, M; Savio, A; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Echeveste, J; Pérez, J M; Besga, A

    2011-09-20

    The aim of this paper is to obtain discriminant features from two scalar measures of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data, Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD), and to train and test classifiers able to discriminate Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients from controls on the basis of features extracted from the FA or MD volumes. In this study, support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained and tested on FA and MD data. Feature selection is done computing the Pearson's correlation between FA or MD values at voxel site across subjects and the indicative variable specifying the subject class. Voxel sites with high absolute correlation are selected for feature extraction. Results are obtained over an on-going study in Hospital de Santiago Apostol collecting anatomical T1-weighted MRI volumes and DTI data from healthy control subjects and AD patients. FA features and a linear SVM classifier achieve perfect accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in several cross-validation studies, supporting the usefulness of DTI-derived features as an image-marker for AD and to the feasibility of building Computer Aided Diagnosis systems for AD based on them. PMID:21839143

  15. Use of genetic algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancers from image features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, Carey E., Jr.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Baker, Jay A.

    1996-04-01

    In this investigation we explore genetic algorithms as a technique to train the weights in a feed forward neural network designed to predict breast cancer based on mammographic findings and patient history. Mammograms were obtained from 206 patients who obtained breast biopsies. Mammographic findings were recorded by radiologists for each patient. In addition, the outcome of the biopsy was recorded. Of the 206 cases, 73 were malignant while 133 were benign at the time of biopsy. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to adjust the weights of an artificial neural network (ANN) so that the ANN would output the outcome of the biopsy when the mammographic findings were given as inputs. The GA is a technique for function optimization that reflects biological genetic evolution. The ANN was a fully connected feed- forward network using a sigmoid activation with 11 inputs, one hidden layer with 10 nodes, and one output node (benign/malignant). The GA approach allows much flexibility in selecting the function to be optimized. In this work both mean-squared error (MSE) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area (Az) were explored as optimization criteria. The system was trained using a bootstrap sampling. Optimizing for the two criteria result in different solutions. The 'best' solution was obtained by minimizing a linear combination of MSE and (1-Az). ROC areas were 0.82 plus or minus 0.07, somewhat less than those obtained using backpropagation for ANN training: 0.90 plus or minus 0.05. This is the first description of a genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis. The novel advantage of this technique is the ability to optimize the system for maximizing ROC area rather than minimizing mean squared error. A new technique for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer has been explored. The flexibility of the GA approach allows optimization of cost functions that have relevance to breast cancer prediction.

  16. Anniversary Paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM

    PubMed Central

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-01-01

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists’ goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists—as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation—focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous—from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects—collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the

  17. Anniversary Paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM

    SciTech Connect

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-12-15

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists' goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists--as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation--focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous--from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects--collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the

  18. Anniversary paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: the role of Medical Physics and AAPM.

    PubMed

    Giger, Maryellen L; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-12-01

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists' goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists-as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation-focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous-from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects-collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the algorithms

  19. Photomat: A Mobile Tool for Aiding in Student Construction of Research Questions and Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Tia Renee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Silva, Alexandra; Lyons, Leilah; Moher, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile software tool, PhotoMAT (Photo Management and Analysis Tool), and students' experiences with this tool within a scaffolded curricular unit--Neighborhood Safari. PhotoMAT was designed to support learners' investigations of backyard animal behavior and works with image sets obtained using fixed-position field cameras…

  20. Computer-aided texture analysis combined with experts' knowledge: Improving endoscopic celiac disease diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gadermayr, Michael; Kogler, Hubert; Karla, Maximilian; Merhof, Dorit; Uhl, Andreas; Vécsei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    AIM To further improve the endoscopic detection of intestinal mucosa alterations due to celiac disease (CD). METHODS We assessed a hybrid approach based on the integration of expert knowledge into the computer-based classification pipeline. A total of 2835 endoscopic images from the duodenum were recorded in 290 children using the modified immersion technique (MIT). These children underwent routine upper endoscopy for suspected CD or non-celiac upper abdominal symptoms between August 2008 and December 2014. Blinded to the clinical data and biopsy results, three medical experts visually classified each image as normal mucosa (Marsh-0) or villous atrophy (Marsh-3). The experts’ decisions were further integrated into state-of-the-art texture recognition systems. Using the biopsy results as the reference standard, the classification accuracies of this hybrid approach were compared to the experts’ diagnoses in 27 different settings. RESULTS Compared to the experts’ diagnoses, in 24 of 27 classification settings (consisting of three imaging modalities, three endoscopists and three classification approaches), the best overall classification accuracies were obtained with the new hybrid approach. In 17 of 24 classification settings, the improvements achieved with the hybrid approach were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Using the hybrid approach classification accuracies between 94% and 100% were obtained. Whereas the improvements are only moderate in the case of the most experienced expert, the results of the less experienced expert could be improved significantly in 17 out of 18 classification settings. Furthermore, the lowest classification accuracy, based on the combination of one database and one specific expert, could be improved from 80% to 95% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION The overall classification performance of medical experts, especially less experienced experts, can be boosted significantly by integrating expert knowledge into computer-aided diagnosis

  1. Improving the Accuracy of Computer-aided Diagnosis for Breast MR Imaging by Differentiating between Mass and Nonmass Lesions.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Martel, Anne L

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To determine suitable features and optimal classifier design for a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to differentiate among mass and nonmass enhancements during dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast. Materials and Methods Two hundred eighty histologically proved mass lesions and 129 histologically proved nonmass lesions from MR imaging studies were retrospectively collected. The institutional research ethics board approved this study and waived informed consent. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System classification of mass and nonmass enhancement was obtained from radiologic reports. Image data from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging were extracted and analyzed by using feature selection techniques and binary, multiclass, and cascade classifiers. Performance was assessed by measuring the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. Bootstrap cross validation was used to predict the best classifier for the classification task of mass and nonmass benign and malignant breast lesions. Results A total of 176 features were extracted. Feature relevance ranking indicated unequal importance of kinetic, texture, and morphologic features for mass and nonmass lesions. The best classifier performance was a two-stage cascade classifier (mass vs nonmass followed by malignant vs benign classification) (AUC, 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88, 0.94) compared with one-shot classifier (ie, all benign vs malignant classification) (AUC, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.92). The AUC was 2% higher for cascade (median percent difference obtained by using paired bootstrapped samples) and was significant (P = .0027). Our proposed two-stage cascade classifier decreases the overall misclassification rate by 12%, with 72 of 409 missed diagnoses with cascade versus 82 of 409 missed diagnoses with one-shot classifier. Conclusion Separately optimizing feature selection and training classifiers

  2. Automated Analysis of Fluorescence Microscopy Images to Identify Protein-Protein Interactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Venkatraman, S.; Doktycz, M. J.; Qi, H.; Morrell-Falvey, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    The identification of protein interactions is important for elucidating biological networks. One obstacle in comprehensive interaction studies is the analyses of large datasets, particularly those containing images. Development of an automated system to analyze an image-based protein interaction dataset is needed. Such an analysis system is described here, to automatically extract features from fluorescence microscopy images obtained from a bacterial protein interaction assay. These features are used to relay quantitative values that aid in the automated scoring of positive interactions. Experimental observations indicate that identifying at least 50% positive cells in an image is sufficient to detect a protein interaction.more » Based on this criterion, the automated system presents 100% accuracy in detecting positive interactions for a dataset of 16 images. Algorithms were implemented using MATLAB and the software developed is available on request from the authors.« less

  3. Morphological analysis of infrared images for waterjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuxin; Long, Aifang

    2013-03-01

    High-speed waterjet has been widely used in industries and been investigated as a model of free shearing turbulence. This paper presents an investigation involving the flow visualization of high speed water jet, the noise reduction of the raw thermogram using a high-pass morphological filter ? and a median filter; the image enhancement using white top-hat filter; and the image segmentation using the multiple thresholding method. The image processing results by the designed morphological filters, ? - top-hat, were proved being ideal for further quantitative and in-depth analysis and can be used as a new morphological filter bank that may be of general implications for the analogous work

  4. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Luis Miguel; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity. Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19–73 years old) with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also. Results. It was observed both a high inter-hemispheric symmetry

  5. Computer-aided diabetic retinopathy detection using trace transforms on digital fundus images.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Karthikeyan; Martis, Roshan Joy; Acharya, U Rajendra; Chua, Chua Kuang; Min, Lim Choo; Ng, E Y K; Laude, Augustinus

    2014-08-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss among diabetic patients in developed countries. Early detection of occurrence of DR can greatly help in effective treatment. Unfortunately, symptoms of DR do not show up till an advanced stage. To counter this, regular screening for DR is essential in diabetic patients. Due to lack of enough skilled medical professionals, this task can become tedious as the number of images to be screened becomes high with regular screening of diabetic patients. An automated DR screening system can help in early diagnosis without the need for a large number of medical professionals. To improve detection, several pattern recognition techniques are being developed. In our study, we used trace transforms to model a human visual system which would replicate the way a human observer views an image. To classify features extracted using this technique, we used support vector machine (SVM) with quadratic, polynomial, radial basis function kernels and probabilistic neural network (PNN). Genetic algorithm (GA) was used to fine tune classification parameters. We obtained an accuracy of 99.41 and 99.12% with PNN-GA and SVM quadratic kernels, respectively. PMID:24958614

  6. Persistent Scatterer Aided Facade Lattice Extraction in Single Airborne Optical Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schack, L.; Soergel, U.; Heipke, C.

    2015-03-01

    We present a new method to extract patterns of regular facade structures from single optical oblique images. To overcome the missing three-dimensional information we incorporate structural information derived from Persistent Scatter (PS) point cloud data into our method. Single oblique images and PS point clouds have never been combined before and offer promising insights into the compatibility of remotely sensed data of different kinds. Even though the appearance of facades is significantly different, many characteristics of the prominent patterns can be seen in both types of data and can be transferred across the sensor domains. To justify the extraction based on regular facade patterns we show that regular facades appear rather often in typical airborne oblique imagery of urban scenes. The extraction of regular patterns is based on well established tools like cross correlation and is extended by incorporating a module for estimating a window lattice model using a genetic algorithm. Among others the results of our approach can be used to derive a deeper understanding of the emergence of Persistent Scatterers and their fusion with optical imagery. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach we present a concept for data fusion aiming at facade lattices extraction in PS and optical data.

  7. Modeling error in assessment of mammographic image features for improved computer-aided mammography training: initial experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2011-03-01

    In this study we investigate the hypothesis that there exist patterns in erroneous assessment of BI-RADS image features among radiology trainees when performing diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. We also investigate whether these error making patterns can be captured by individual user models. To test our hypothesis we propose a user modeling algorithm that uses the previous readings of a trainee to identify whether certain BI-RADS feature values (e.g. "spiculated" value for "margin" feature) are associated with higher than usual likelihood that the feature will be assessed incorrectly. In our experiments we used readings of 3 radiology residents and 7 breast imaging experts for 33 breast masses for the following BI-RADS features: parenchyma density, mass margin, mass shape and mass density. The expert readings were considered as the gold standard. Rule-based individual user models were developed and tested using the leave one-one-out crossvalidation scheme. Our experimental evaluation showed that the individual user models are accurate in identifying cases for which errors are more likely to be made. The user models captured regularities in error making for all 3 residents. This finding supports our hypothesis about existence of individual error making patterns in assessment of mammographic image features using the BI-RADS lexicon. Explicit user models identifying the weaknesses of each resident could be of great use when developing and adapting a personalized training plan to meet the resident's individual needs. Such approach fits well with the framework of adaptive computer-aided educational systems in mammography we have proposed before.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction using ultrasound images with DWT, GLCM and HOS methods: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Vidya, K Sudarshan; Ng, E Y K; Acharya, U Rajendra; Chou, Siaw Meng; Tan, Ru San; Ghista, Dhanjoo N

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial Infarction (MI) or acute MI (AMI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Precise and timely identification of MI and extent of muscle damage helps in early treatment and reduction in the time taken for further tests. MI diagnosis using 2D echocardiography is prone to inter-/intra-observer variability in the assessment. Therefore, a computerised scheme based on image processing and artificial intelligent techniques can reduce the workload of clinicians and improve the diagnosis accuracy. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) of infarcted and normal ultrasound images will be useful for clinicians. In this study, the performance of CAD approach using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), second order statistics calculated from Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Higher-Order Spectra (HOS) texture descriptors are compared. The proposed system is validated using 400 MI and 400 normal ultrasound images, obtained from 80 patients with MI and 80 normal subjects. The extracted features are ranked based on t-value and fed to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to obtain the best performance using minimum number of features. The features extracted from DWT coefficients obtained an accuracy of 99.5%, sensitivity of 99.75% and specificity of 99.25%; GLCM have achieved an accuracy of 85.75%, sensitivity of 90.25% and specificity of 81.25%; and HOS obtained an accuracy of 93.0%, sensitivity of 94.75% and specificity of 91.25%. Among the three techniques presented DWT yielded the highest classification accuracy. Thus, the proposed CAD approach may be used as a complementary tool to assist cardiologists in making a more accurate diagnosis for the presence of MI. PMID:25912990

  9. A Metric for Reducing False Positives in the Computer-Aided Detection of Breast Cancer from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Screening Examinations of High-Risk Women.

    PubMed

    Levman, Jacob E D; Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Warner, Ellen; Causer, Petrina; Martel, Anne L

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-enabled cancer screening has been shown to be a highly sensitive method for the early detection of breast cancer. Computer-aided detection systems have the potential to improve the screening process by standardizing radiologists to a high level of diagnostic accuracy. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. This study compares the performance of a proposed method for computer-aided detection (based on the second-order spatial derivative of the relative signal intensity) with the signal enhancement ratio (SER) on MRI-based breast screening examinations. Comparison is performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis as well as free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve analysis. A modified computer-aided detection system combining the proposed approach with the SER method is also presented. The proposed method provides improvements in the rates of false positive markings over the SER method in the detection of breast cancer (as assessed by FROC analysis). The modified computer-aided detection system that incorporates both the proposed method and the SER method yields ROC results equal to that produced by SER while simultaneously providing improvements over the SER method in terms of false positives per noncancerous exam. The proposed method for identifying malignancies outperforms the SER method in terms of false positives on a challenging dataset containing many small lesions and may play a useful role in breast cancer screening by MRI as part of a computer-aided detection system. PMID:26293705

  10. A needs analysis for computer-based telephone triage in a community AIDS clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, S. B.; Schreiner, J. G.; Borchelt, D.; Musen, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the complexity of the telephone-triage task in a community-based AIDS clinic. We identify deficiencies related to the data management for and documentation of the telephone-triage encounter, including inaccessibility of the medical record and failure to document required data elements. Our needs analysis suggests five design criteria for a computer-based system that assists nurses with the telephone-triage task: (1) online accessibility of the medical record, (2) ability to move among modules of the medical record and the triage-encounter module, (3) ease of data entry, (4) compliance with standards for documentation, and (5) notification of the primary-care physician in an appropriate and timely manner. PMID:1482941

  11. Error analysis for relay type satellite-aided search and rescue systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marini, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis was made of the errors in the determination of the position of an emergency transmitter in a satellite aided search and rescue system. The satellite was assumed to be at a height of 820 km in a near circular near polar orbit. Short data spans of four minutes or less were used. The error sources considered were measurement noise, transmitter frequency drift, ionospheric effects and error in the assumed height of the transmitter. The errors were calculated for several different transmitter positions, data rates and data spans. The only transmitter frequency used was 406 MHz, but the results can be scaled to different frequencies. In a typical case, in which four Doppler measurements were taken over a span of two minutes, the position error was about 1.2 km.

  12. Computer-aided head film analysis: the University of California San Francisco method.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Miller, D M

    1980-07-01

    Computer technology is already assuming an important role in the management of orthodontic practices. The next 10 years are likely to see expansion in computer usage into the areas of diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment-record keeping. In the areas of diagnosis and treatment planning, one of the first problems to be attacked will be the automation of head film analysis. The problems of constructing computer-aided systems for this purpose are considered herein in the light of the authors' 10 years of experience in developing a similar system for research purposes. The need for building in methods for automatic detection and correction of gross errors is discussed and the authors' method for doing so is presented. The construction of a rudimentary machine-readable data base for research and clinical purposes is described. PMID:6930171

  13. A feasibility assessment of automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cervical cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Zheng, Bin

    2012-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides a promising molecular imaging tool to detect cervical cancer. Since manual FISH analysis is difficult, time-consuming, and inconsistent, the automated FISH image scanning systems have been developed. Due to limited focal depth of scanned microscopic image, a FISH-probed specimen needs to be scanned in multiple layers that generate huge image data. To improve diagnostic efficiency of using automated FISH image analysis, we developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme. In this experiment, four pap-smear specimen slides were scanned by a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system that acquired two spectrum images simultaneously, which represent images of interphase cells and FISH-probed chromosome X. During image scanning, once detecting a cell signal, system captured nine image slides by automatically adjusting optical focus. Based on the sharpness index and maximum intensity measurement, cells and FISH signals distributed in 3-D space were projected into a 2-D con-focal image. CAD scheme was applied to each con-focal image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm and detect FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform. The ratio of abnormal cells was calculated to detect positive cases. In four scanned specimen slides, CAD generated 1676 con-focal images that depicted analyzable cells. FISH-probed signals were independently detected by our CAD algorithm and an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cyto-geneticists in detecting cervical cancers.

  14. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  15. Image analysis for measuring rod network properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongjae; Choi, Jungkyu; Nam, Jaewook

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, metallic nanowires have been attracting significant attention as next-generation flexible transparent conductive films. The performance of films depends on the network structure created by nanowires. Gaining an understanding of their structure, such as connectivity, coverage, and alignment of nanowires, requires the knowledge of individual nanowires inside the microscopic images taken from the film. Although nanowires are flexible up to a certain extent, they are usually depicted as rigid rods in many analysis and computational studies. Herein, we propose a simple and straightforward algorithm based on the filtering in the frequency domain for detecting the rod-shape objects inside binary images. The proposed algorithm uses a specially designed filter in the frequency domain to detect image segments, namely, the connected components aligned in a certain direction. Those components are post-processed to be combined under a given merging rule in a single rod object. In this study, the microscopic properties of the rod networks relevant to the analysis of nanowire networks were measured for investigating the opto-electric performance of transparent conductive films and their alignment distribution, length distribution, and area fraction. To verify and find the optimum parameters for the proposed algorithm, numerical experiments were performed on synthetic images with predefined properties. By selecting proper parameters, the algorithm was used to investigate silver nanowire transparent conductive films fabricated by the dip coating method.

  16. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  17. Multiresolution simulated annealing for brain image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loncaric, Sven; Majcenic, Zoran

    1999-05-01

    Analysis of biomedical images is an important step in quantification of various diseases such as human spontaneous intracerebral brain hemorrhage (ICH). In particular, the study of outcome in patients having ICH requires measurements of various ICH parameters such as hemorrhage volume and their change over time. A multiresolution probabilistic approach for segmentation of CT head images is presented in this work. This method views the segmentation problem as a pixel labeling problem. In this application the labels are: background, skull, brain tissue, and ICH. The proposed method is based on the Maximum A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation of the unknown pixel labels. The MAP method maximizes the a-posterior probability of segmented image given the observed (input) image. Markov random field (MRF) model has been used for the posterior distribution. The MAP estimation of the segmented image has been determined using the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. The SA algorithm is used to minimize the energy function associated with MRF posterior distribution function. A multiresolution SA (MSA) has been developed to speed up the annealing process. MSA is presented in detail in this work. A knowledge-based classification based on the brightness, size, shape and relative position toward other regions is performed at the end of the procedure. The regions are identified as background, skull, brain, ICH and calcifications.

  18. The synthesis and analysis of color images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for performing the synthesis and analysis of digital color images. The method is based on two principles. First, image data are represented with respect to the separate physical factors, surface reflectance and the spectral power distribution of the ambient light, that give rise to the perceived color of an object. Second, the encoding is made efficiently by using a basis expansion for the surface spectral reflectance and spectral power distribution of the ambient light that takes advantage of the high degree of correlation across the visible wavelengths normally found in such functions. Within this framework, the same basic methods can be used to synthesize image data for color display monitors and printed materials, and to analyze image data into estimates of the spectral power distribution and surface spectral reflectances. The method can be applied to a variety of tasks. Examples of applications include the color balancing of color images, and the identification of material surface spectral reflectance when the lighting cannot be completely controlled.

  19. The synthesis and analysis of color images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for performing the synthesis and analysis of digital color images. The method is based on two principles. First, image data are represented with respect to the separate physical factors, surface reflectance and the spectral power distribution of the ambient light, that give rise to the perceived color of an object. Second, the encoding is made efficient by using a basis expansion for the surface spectral reflectance and spectral power distribution of the ambient light that takes advantage of the high degree of correlation across the visible wavelengths normally found in such functions. Within this framework, the same basic methods can be used to synthesize image data for color display monitors and printed materials, and to analyze image data into estimates of the spectral power distribution and surface spectral reflectances. The method can be applied to a variety of tasks. Examples of applications include the color balancing of color images, and the identification of material surface spectral reflectance when the lighting cannot be completely controlled.

  20. Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients. PMID:25759524

  1. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  2. Extracting roads from remote sensing images with the aid of path morphology and parallelized graph cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhulin; Zhou, Shaoguang

    2013-10-01

    While Graph Cuts are used for image segmentation, there exist two problems: how to get better initial information of foreground and background and how to improve the executing efficiency of Graph Cuts algorithm. To solve the first problem, path morphology and line segment matching algorithm are performed to get initial background information at the same time as getting initial foreground information, so non-road pixels similar with road pixels in gray value or texture are avoided being segmented as road points. To cope with the second problem, push-relabel strategy is chosen and its parallelized version based on NVIDIA CUDA platform is performed in this paper. Our strategy is performed on dense built-up area and suburban district and proved to be effective in both accuracy and efficiency.

  3. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery. PMID:26160346

  4. Impact of image normalization and quantization on the performance of sonar computer-aided detection/computer-aided classification (CAD/CAC) algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciany, Charles M.; Zurawski, William C.

    2007-04-01

    Raytheon has extensively processed high-resolution sonar images with its CAD/CAC algorithms to provide real-time classification of mine-like bottom objects in a wide range of shallow-water environments. The algorithm performance is measured in terms of probability of correct classification (Pcc) as a function of false alarm rate, and is impacted by variables associated with both the physics of the problem and the signal processing design choices. Some examples of prominent variables pertaining to the choices of signal processing parameters are image resolution (i.e., pixel dimensions), image normalization scheme, and pixel intensity quantization level (i.e., number of bits used to represent the intensity of each image pixel). Improvements in image resolution associated with the technology transition from sidescan to synthetic aperture sonars have prompted the use of image decimation algorithms to reduce the number of pixels per image that are processed by the CAD/CAC algorithms, in order to meet real-time processor throughput requirements. Additional improvements in digital signal processing hardware have also facilitated the use of an increased quantization level in converting the image data from analog to digital format. This study evaluates modifications to the normalization algorithm and image pixel quantization level within the image processing prior to CAD/CAC processing, and examines their impact on the resulting CAD/CAC algorithm performance. The study utilizes a set of at-sea data from multiple test exercises in varying shallow water environments.

  5. Use of Cardiac CT Angiography Imaging in an Epidemiology Study – the Methodology of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Cardiovascular Disease Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Hacıoğlu, Yalçın; Gupta, Mohit; Choi, Tae-Young; George, Richard T.; Deible, Christopher R.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Witt, Mallory D.; Palella, Frank J.; Post, Wendy S.; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The methodology for use of cardiac CT angiography (CTA) in low risk populations is not well defined. In order to present a reference for future studies, we present CTA methodology that is being used in an epidemiology study- the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Methods The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is an on-going multicenter prospective, observational cohort study. The MACS Cardiovascular Disease substudy plans to enroll 800 men (n= 575 HIV seropositive and n= 225 HIV seronegative) age 40-75 years for coronary atherosclerosis imaging using cardiac CTA. The protocol includes heart rate (HR) optimization with beta blockers; use of proper field of view; scan length limitation; prospective ECG-gating using the lowest beam voltage possible. All scans are evaluated for presence, extent, and composition of coronary atherosclerosis, left atrial volumes, left ventricular volume and mass and non-coronary cardiac pathology. Results The first 498 participants had an average radiation dose of 2.5±1.6 milliSieverts (mSv) for the cardiac CTA study. Overall quality of scans was fair to excellent in 98.6% of studies. There were three significant adverse events- two allergic reactions to contrast and one subcutaneous contrast extravasation. Conclusion Cardiac CTA was safe and afforded a low effective radiation exposure to these asymptomatic research participants and provides valuable cardiovascular endpoints for scientific analysis. The cardiac CTA methodology described here may serve as a reference for use in future epidemiology studies aiming to assess coronary atherosclerosis and cardiac anatomy in low risk populations while minimizing radiation exposure. PMID:23376648

  6. Design, analysis, and applications of cellular contact-aided compliant mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vipul

    A new class of compliant mechanisms utilizing the benefits of cellular geometry and contact are addressed in this work. The design, analysis, fabrication and testing of such structures for high-strain and high-strength applications is the focus of the present research. Cellular structures have relatively good strength-to-weight ratios. They also have a higher strain capability than solid structures. Contact during deformation reduces failure-causing bending stresses through stress relief, thereby enabling such cellular structures to be stretched more than the corresponding structures without contact. Both analytical and numerical models are developed to represent one specific mechanism. Several candidate materials are investigated for such mechanisms. Although the allowable strain of all these materials is small, the overall strain of the contact-aided cellular mechanisms is at least an order of magnitude greater than that of the constitutive material. Application of contact to different materials yields an improvement in the global strain capacity by more than 100% relative to cellular structures without contact. Experiments are conducted to validate the models, and good agreement is found. Size optimization is carried out to maximize the stress relief and the overall strain. Two main applications are considered in the present work. One application consists of a morphing aircraft skin for adaptive structures. Different material models such as linearly elastic and multi-linear elastic are examined. For linearly elastic materials, contact-induced stress-relief is advantageous and for nonlinear elastic materials, reduction of transverse deflection due to contact is useful. The proposed contact-aided skin structure is compared with a cellular skin without contact. The contact mechanism helps to increase the morphing capacity while decreasing the structural mass. Using contact-aided cellular mechanisms, the global strain capability is increased by as much as 37%. For a

  7. Imaging Brain Dynamics Using Independent Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Makeig, Scott; McKeown, Martin J.; Bell, Anthony J.; Lee, Te-Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings is important both for basic brain research and for medical diagnosis and treatment. Independent component analysis (ICA) is an effective method for removing artifacts and separating sources of the brain signals from these recordings. A similar approach is proving useful for analyzing functional magnetic resonance brain imaging (fMRI) data. In this paper, we outline the assumptions underlying ICA and demonstrate its application to a variety of electrical and hemodynamic recordings from the human brain. PMID:20824156

  8. Theoretical analysis of multispectral image segmentation criteria.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, I B; Bresler, Y

    1999-01-01

    Markov random field (MRF) image segmentation algorithms have been extensively studied, and have gained wide acceptance. However, almost all of the work on them has been experimental. This provides a good understanding of the performance of existing algorithms, but not a unified explanation of the significance of each component. To address this issue, we present a theoretical analysis of several MRF image segmentation criteria. Standard methods of signal detection and estimation are used in the theoretical analysis, which quantitatively predicts the performance at realistic noise levels. The analysis is decoupled into the problems of false alarm rate, parameter selection (Neyman-Pearson and receiver operating characteristics), detection threshold, expected a priori boundary roughness, and supervision. Only the performance inherent to a criterion, with perfect global optimization, is considered. The analysis indicates that boundary and region penalties are very useful, while distinct-mean penalties are of questionable merit. Region penalties are far more important for multispectral segmentation than for greyscale. This observation also holds for Gauss-Markov random fields, and for many separable within-class PDFs. To validate the analysis, we present optimization algorithms for several criteria. Theoretical and experimental results agree fairly well. PMID:18267494

  9. Multiple-reader studies, digital mammography, computer-aided diagnosis, and the Holy Grail of imaging physics: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert F.; Beiden, Sergey V.; Campbell, Gregory

    2001-06-01

    There are multiple sources of variability in clinical studies of imaging systems. The variation of the reader `mindset' establishes the need for ROC analysis to control for that fundamental variable. The demonstration of the range of reader skills in mammography shows the need for a multivariate approach to ROC analysis. The multiple-reader, multiple-case (MRMC) ROC experimental paradigm addresses this need and several practical solutions to the problem of analysis of MRMC data have been developed. We review the application of these methods to an important clinical comparison of digital and conventional mammography.

  10. White Paper Report of the 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: Integrating Multidisciplinary Strategies for Imaging Services in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Mazal, Jonathan; Lexa, Frank; Starikovsky, Anna; Jimenez, Pablo; Jain, Sanjay; DeStigter, Kristen K.; Nathan, Robert; Krebs, Elizabeth; Noble, Vicki; Marks, William; Hirsh, Richard N.; Short, Brad; Sydnor, Ryan; Timmreck-Jackson, Emily; Lungren, Matthew P.; Maxfield, Charles; Azene, Ezana M.; Garra, Brian S.; Choi, Brian G.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries discussed data, experiences and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world, where widespread shortages of imaging services significantly reduce health care quality and increase health care disparity. This white paper from the 2011 RAD-AID Conference represents consensus advocacy of multidisciplinary strategies to improve planning, accessibility and quality of imaging services in the developing world. Conference presenters and participants discussed numerous solutions to imaging and healthcare disparities including: (1) economic development for radiology service planning, (2) public health mechanisms to address disease and prevention at the population and community levels, (3) comparative clinical models to implement various clinical and workflow strategies adapted to unique developing world community contexts, (4) education to improve training and optimize service quality, and (5) technology innovation to bring new technical capabilities to limited-resource regions. PMID:22748790

  11. White paper report of the 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: integrating multidisciplinary strategies for imaging services in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Everton, Kathryn L; Mazal, Jonathan; Mollura, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    The 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries discussed data, experiences, and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world, where widespread shortages of imaging services significantly reduce health care quality and increase health care disparities. This white paper from the 2011 RAD-AID conference represents consensus advocacy of multidisciplinary strategies to improve the planning, accessibility, and quality of imaging services in the developing world. Conference presenters and participants discussed numerous solutions to imaging and health care disparities, including (1) economic development for radiologic service planning, (2) public health mechanisms to address disease and prevention at the population and community levels, (3) comparative clinical models to implement various clinical and workflow strategies adapted to unique developing world community contexts, (4) education to improve training and optimize service quality, and (5) technology innovation to bring new technical capabilities to limited-resource regions. PMID:22748790

  12. Three-dimensional automatic computer-aided evaluation of pleural effusions on chest CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Mark; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2011-03-01

    The ability to estimate the volume of pleural effusions is desirable as it can provide information about the severity of the condition and the need for thoracentesis. We present here an improved version of an automated program to measure the volume of pleural effusions using regular chest CT images. First, the lungs are segmented using region growing, mathematical morphology, and anatomical knowledge. The visceral and parietal layers of the pleura are then extracted based on anatomical landmarks, curve fitting and active contour models. The liver and compressed tissues are segmented out using thresholding. The pleural space is then fitted to a Bezier surface which is subsequently projected onto the individual two-dimensional slices. Finally, the volume of the pleural effusion is quantified. Our method was tested on 15 chest CT studies and validated against three separate manual tracings. The Dice coefficients were 0.74+/-0.07, 0.74+/-0.08, and 0.75+/-0.07 respectively, comparable to the variation between two different manual tracings.

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis and lipidomics analysis to detect and treat breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Retter, Felix; Steinbrücker, Frank; Görke, Robert; Burgeth, Bernhard; Schlossbauer, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Multi-modality diagnosis techniques are more and more replacing traditional medical imaging for breast cancer detection. Newly emerging advances in both intelligent cancer detection systems and lipidomics technologies offer an excellent opportunity to detect tumors and to understand regulation at the molecular level in many diseases such as cancer. In this paper, we present a detailed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems combining motion artefact reduction and automated feature extraction and classification, and a novel data mining approach for visualization of gene therapy leading to apoptosis in U87 MG glioblastoma cells, a secondary tumor of breast cancer. The achieved results show that the CAD system represents a robust and integrative tool for reliable small contrast enhancing lesions. Graph-clustering methods are introduced as powerful correlation networks which enable a simultaneous exploration and visualization of co-regulation in glioblastoma data. These new paradigms are providing unique "fingerprints" by revealing how the intricate interactions at the lipidome level can be employed to induce apoptosis (cell death) and are thus opening a new window to biomedical frontiers.

  14. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units. PMID:22900432

  15. Computer-aided techniques for chromogenic immunohistochemistry: status and directions.

    PubMed

    Di Cataldo, Santa; Ficarra, Elisa; Macii, Enrico

    2012-10-01

    Although immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a popular imaging technique, the quantitative analysis of IHC images via computer-aided methods is an emerging field that is gaining more and more importance thanks to the new developments in digital high-throughput scanners. In this paper, we discuss the main steps of IHC and review the techniques for computer-aided chromogenic IHC analysis, including methods to determine the location of interest of the antigens and quantify their activations. Moreover, we discuss the issues arising from the standardization of the immunostaining process, that are generally overlooked by the current literature, and finally provide requirements for reliable computer-aided IHC quantification. PMID:22980752

  16. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  17. Innocent Victims, Fighter Cells, and White Uncles: A Discourse Analysis of Children's Books about AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenreich, Megan; Siegel, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine a set of 26 children's books on HIV/AIDS published between 1989-1999 to identify the ways in which these texts construct HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS. We explore how this marginalized group is depicted in these books, and how well-meaning teachers may in fact be reproducing dominant discourses about HIV/AIDS…

  18. Image analysis of Renaissance copperplate prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, S. Blair

    2008-02-01

    From the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, prints were a common form of visual communication, analogous to photographs. Copperplate prints have many finely engraved black lines which were used to create the illusion of continuous tone. Line densities generally are 100-2000 lines per square centimeter and a print can contain more than a million total engraved lines 20-300 micrometers in width. Because hundreds to thousands of prints were made from a single copperplate over decades, variation among prints can have historical value. The largest variation is plate-related, which is the thinning of lines over successive editions as a result of plate polishing to remove time-accumulated corrosion. Thinning can be quantified with image analysis and used to date undated prints and books containing prints. Print-related variation, such as over-inking of the print, is a smaller but significant source. Image-related variation can introduce bias if images were differentially illuminated or not in focus, but improved imaging technology can limit this variation. The Print Index, the percentage of an area composed of lines, is proposed as a primary measure of variation. Statistical methods also are proposed for comparing and identifying prints in the context of a print database.

  19. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.

    2016-07-01

    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  20. A fully automated multi-modal computer aided diagnosis approach to coronary calcium scoring of MSCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-03-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. However, it can be difficult for a human observer to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the feasibility and requirement for an automated scoring method to reduce the subjectivity and reproducibility error inherent with manual clinical calcium scoring.