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Sample records for aided image analysis

  1. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  2. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Mansoor, Awais; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Jain, Sanjay; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases. PMID:26133591

  3. Computer-aided pulmonary image analysis in small animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ziyue; Mansoor, Awais; Mollura, Daniel J.; Bagci, Ulas; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Luna, Brian; Kubler, Andre; Dey, Bappaditya; Jain, Sanjay; Foster, Brent; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Bishai, William R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated pulmonary image analysis framework for infectious lung diseases in small animal models. Methods: The authors describe a novel pathological lung and airway segmentation method for small animals. The proposed framework includes identification of abnormal imaging patterns pertaining to infectious lung diseases. First, the authors’ system estimates an expected lung volume by utilizing a regression function between total lung capacity and approximated rib cage volume. A significant difference between the expected lung volume and the initial lung segmentation indicates the presence of severe pathology, and invokes a machine learning based abnormal imaging pattern detection system next. The final stage of the proposed framework is the automatic extraction of airway tree for which new affinity relationships within the fuzzy connectedness image segmentation framework are proposed by combining Hessian and gray-scale morphological reconstruction filters. Results: 133 CT scans were collected from four different studies encompassing a wide spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities pertaining to two commonly used small animal models (ferret and rabbit). Sensitivity and specificity were greater than 90% for pathological lung segmentation (average dice similarity coefficient > 0.9). While qualitative visual assessments of airway tree extraction were performed by the participating expert radiologists, for quantitative evaluation the authors validated the proposed airway extraction method by using publicly available EXACT’09 data set. Conclusions: The authors developed a comprehensive computer-aided pulmonary image analysis framework for preclinical research applications. The proposed framework consists of automatic pathological lung segmentation and accurate airway tree extraction. The framework has high sensitivity and specificity; therefore, it can contribute advances in preclinical research in pulmonary diseases.

  4. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound images for computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie Ying; Tuomi, Adam; Beland, Michael D.; Konrad, Joseph; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We propose an adaptable framework for analyzing ultrasound (US) images quantitatively to provide computer-aided diagnosis using machine learning. Our preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis, adenomyosis, and craniosynostosis. For steatosis and adenomyosis, we collected US studies from 288 and 88 patients, respectively, as well as their biopsy or magnetic resonanceconfirmed diagnosis. Radiologists identified a region of interest (ROI) on each image. We filtered the US images for various texture responses and use the pixel intensity distribution within each ROI as feature parameterizations. Our craniosynostosis dataset consisted of 22 CT-confirmed cases and 22 age-matched controls. One physician manually measured the vectors from the center of the skull to the outer cortex at every 10 deg for each image and we used the principal directions as shape features for parameterization. These parameters and the known diagnosis were used to train classifiers. Testing with cross-validation, we obtained 72.74% accuracy and 0.71 area under receiver operating characteristics curve for steatosis (p<0.0001), 77.27% and 0.77 for adenomyosis (p<0.0001), and 88.63% and 0.89 for craniosynostosis (p=0.0006). Our framework is able to detect a variety of diseases with high accuracy. We hope to include it as a routinely available support system in the clinic. PMID:26835502

  5. Differentiation of Benign Pigmented Skin Lesions with the Aid of Computer Image Analysis: A Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Woo; Park, Young Woon; Byun, Sang Young

    2013-01-01

    Background The differential diagnosis of common pigmented skin lesions is important in cosmetic dermatology. The computer aided image analysis would be a potent ancillary diagnostic tool when patients are hesitant to undergo a skin biopsy. Objective We investigated the numerical parameters discriminating each pigmented skin lesion from another with statistical significance. Methods For each of the five magnified digital images containing clinically diagnosed nevus, lentigo and seborrheic keratosis, a total of 23 parameters describing the morphological, color, texture and topological features were calculated with the aid of a self-developed image analysis software. A novel concept of concentricity was proposed, which represents how closely the color segmentation resembles a concentric circle. Results Morphologically, seborrheic keratosis was bigger and spikier than nevus and lentigo. The color histogram revealed that nevus was the darkest and had the widest variation in tone. In the aspect of texture, the surface of the nevus showed the highest contrast and correlation. Finally, the color segmented pattern of the nevus and lentigo was far more concentric than that of seborrheic keratosis. Conclusion We found that the subtle distinctions between nevus, lentigo and seborrheic keratosis, which are likely to be unrecognized by ocular inspection, are well emphasized and detected with the aid of software. PMID:24003278

  6. High-precision image aided inertial navigation with known features: observability analysis and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Min; Hu, Xiangyun

    2014-10-17

    A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference.

  7. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Qian, Wei

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy.

  8. Positioning the image of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cooter, Roger; Stein, Claudia

    2010-03-01

    AIDS posters can be treated as material objects whose production, distribution and consumption varied across time and place. It is also possible to reconstruct and analyse the public health discourse at the time these powerful images appeared. More recently, however, these conventional historical approaches have been challenged by projects in literary and art criticism. Here, images of AIDS are considered in terms of their function in and for a new discursive regime of power centred on the human body and its visualization. How images of AIDS came to be understood in Western culture in relation to wider political and economic conditions redefines the historical task.

  9. Can Automated Imaging for Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis Aid Glaucoma Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Banister, Katie; Boachie, Charles; Bourne, Rupert; Cook, Jonathan; Burr, Jennifer M.; Ramsay, Craig; Garway-Heath, David; Gray, Joanne; McMeekin, Peter; Hernández, Rodolfo; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of automated imaging for glaucoma. Design Prospective, direct comparison study. Participants Adults with suspected glaucoma or ocular hypertension referred to hospital eye services in the United Kingdom. Methods We evaluated 4 automated imaging test algorithms: the Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) glaucoma probability score (GPS), the HRT Moorfields regression analysis (MRA), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx enhanced corneal compensation; Glaucoma Diagnostics (GDx), Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) nerve fiber indicator (NFI), and Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT; Heidelberg Engineering) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) classification. We defined abnormal tests as an automated classification of outside normal limits for HRT and OCT or NFI ≥ 56 (GDx). We conducted a sensitivity analysis, using borderline abnormal image classifications. The reference standard was clinical diagnosis by a masked glaucoma expert including standardized clinical assessment and automated perimetry. We analyzed 1 eye per patient (the one with more advanced disease). We also evaluated the performance according to severity and using a combination of 2 technologies. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity and specificity, likelihood ratios, diagnostic, odds ratio, and proportion of indeterminate tests. Results We recruited 955 participants, and 943 were included in the analysis. The average age was 60.5 years (standard deviation, 13.8 years); 51.1% were women. Glaucoma was diagnosed in at least 1 eye in 16.8%; 32% of participants had no glaucoma-related findings. The HRT MRA had the highest sensitivity (87.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.2%–92.1%), but lowest specificity (63.9%; 95% CI, 60.2%–67.4%); GDx had the lowest sensitivity (35.1%; 95% CI, 27.0%–43.8%), but the highest specificity (97.2%; 95% CI, 95.6%–98.3%). The HRT GPS sensitivity was 81.5% (95% CI, 73.9%–87.6%), and

  10. Analysis of the impact of digital watermarking on computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Juan; Gomez-Flores, Wilfrido; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Medical images (MI) are relevant sources of information for detecting and diagnosing a large number of illnesses and abnormalities. Due to their importance, this study is focused on breast ultrasound (BUS), which is the main adjunct for mammography to detect common breast lesions among women worldwide. On the other hand, aiming to enhance data security, image fidelity, authenticity, and content verification in e-health environments, MI watermarking has been widely used, whose main goal is to embed patient meta-data into MI so that the resulting image keeps its original quality. In this sense, this paper deals with the comparison of two watermarking approaches, namely spread spectrum based on the discrete cosine transform (SS-DCT) and the high-capacity data-hiding (HCDH) algorithm, so that the watermarked BUS images are guaranteed to be adequate for a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system, whose two principal outcomes are lesion segmentation and classification. Experimental results show that HCDH algorithm is highly recommended for watermarking medical images, maintaining the image quality and without introducing distortion into the output of CADx.

  11. Incorporating Colour Information for Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Melanoma from Dermoscopy Images: A Retrospective Survey and Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most life-threatening form of skin cancer. Although advanced melanoma is often considered as incurable, if detected and excised early, the prognosis is promising. Today, clinicians use computer vision in an increasing number of applications to aid early detection of melanoma through dermatological image analysis (dermoscopy images, in particular). Colour assessment is essential for the clinical diagnosis of skin cancers. Due to this diagnostic importance, many studies have either focused on or employed colour features as a constituent part of their skin lesion analysis systems. These studies range from using low-level colour features, such as simple statistical measures of colours occurring in the lesion, to availing themselves of high-level semantic features such as the presence of blue-white veil, globules, or colour variegation in the lesion. This paper provides a retrospective survey and critical analysis of contributions in this research direction. PMID:28096807

  12. A Computer-Aided Analysis Method of SPECT Brain Images for Quantitative Treatment Monitoring: Performance Evaluations and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wentao; Huang, Qiu; Wan, Jieqing; Huang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The objective and quantitative analysis of longitudinal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are significant for the treatment monitoring of brain disorders. Therefore, a computer aided analysis (CAA) method is introduced to extract a change-rate map (CRM) as a parametric image for quantifying the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in longitudinal SPECT brain images. The performances of the CAA-CRM approach in treatment monitoring are evaluated by the computer simulations and clinical applications. The results of computer simulations show that the derived CRMs have high similarities with their ground truths when the lesion size is larger than system spatial resolution and the change rate is higher than 20%. In clinical applications, the CAA-CRM approach is used to assess the treatment of 50 patients with brain ischemia. The results demonstrate that CAA-CRM approach has a 93.4% accuracy of recovered region's localization. Moreover, the quantitative indexes of recovered regions derived from CRM are all significantly different among the groups and highly correlated with the experienced clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, the proposed CAA-CRM approach provides a convenient solution to generate a parametric image and derive the quantitative indexes from the longitudinal SPECT brain images for treatment monitoring. PMID:28251150

  13. A Computer-Aided Analysis Method of SPECT Brain Images for Quantitative Treatment Monitoring: Performance Evaluations and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiujuan; Wei, Wentao; Huang, Qiu; Song, Shaoli; Wan, Jieqing; Huang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The objective and quantitative analysis of longitudinal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are significant for the treatment monitoring of brain disorders. Therefore, a computer aided analysis (CAA) method is introduced to extract a change-rate map (CRM) as a parametric image for quantifying the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in longitudinal SPECT brain images. The performances of the CAA-CRM approach in treatment monitoring are evaluated by the computer simulations and clinical applications. The results of computer simulations show that the derived CRMs have high similarities with their ground truths when the lesion size is larger than system spatial resolution and the change rate is higher than 20%. In clinical applications, the CAA-CRM approach is used to assess the treatment of 50 patients with brain ischemia. The results demonstrate that CAA-CRM approach has a 93.4% accuracy of recovered region's localization. Moreover, the quantitative indexes of recovered regions derived from CRM are all significantly different among the groups and highly correlated with the experienced clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, the proposed CAA-CRM approach provides a convenient solution to generate a parametric image and derive the quantitative indexes from the longitudinal SPECT brain images for treatment monitoring.

  14. Computer aided detection and classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell subtypes based on microscopic image analysis.

    PubMed

    MoradiAmin, Morteza; Memari, Ahmad; Samadzadehaghdam, Nasser; Kermani, Saeed; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2016-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer that starts from the early version of white blood cells called lymphocytes in the bone marrow. It can spread to different parts of the body rapidly and if not treated, would probably be deadly within a couple of months. Leukemia cells are categorized into three types of L1, L2, and L3. The cancer is detected through screening of blood and bone marrow smears by pathologists. But manual examination of blood samples is a time-consuming and boring procedure as well as limited by human error risks. So to overcome these limitations a computer-aided detection system, capable of discriminating cancer from noncancer cases and identifying the cancerous cell subtypes, seems to be necessary. In this article an automatic detection method is proposed; first cell nucleus is segmented by fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Then a rich set of features including geometric, first- and second-order statistical features are obtained from the nucleus. A principal component analysis is used to reduce feature matrix dimensionality. Finally, an ensemble of SVM classifiers with different kernels and parameters is applied to classify cells into four groups, that is noncancerous, L1, L2, and L3. Results show that the proposed method can be used as an assistive diagnostic tool in laboratories.

  15. Computerized nipple identification for multiple image analysis in computer-aided diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Chuan; Chan Heangping; Paramagul, Chintana; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Labomir M.; Petrick, Nicholas

    2004-10-01

    Correlation of information from multiple-view mammograms (e.g., MLO and CC views, bilateral views, or current and prior mammograms) can improve the performance of breast cancer diagnosis by radiologists or by computer. The nipple is a reliable and stable landmark on mammograms for the registration of multiple mammograms. However, accurate identification of nipple location on mammograms is challenging because of the variations in image quality and in the nipple projections, resulting in some nipples being nearly invisible on the mammograms. In this study, we developed a computerized method to automatically identify the nipple location on digitized mammograms. First, the breast boundary was obtained using a gradient-based boundary tracking algorithm, and then the gray level profiles along the inside and outside of the boundary were identified. A geometric convergence analysis was used to limit the nipple search to a region of the breast boundary. A two-stage nipple detection method was developed to identify the nipple location using the gray level information around the nipple, the geometric characteristics of nipple shapes, and the texture features of glandular tissue or ducts which converge toward the nipple. At the first stage, a rule-based method was designed to identify the nipple location by detecting significant changes of intensity along the gray level profiles inside and outside the breast boundary and the changes in the boundary direction. At the second stage, a texture orientation-field analysis was developed to estimate the nipple location based on the convergence of the texture pattern of glandular tissue or ducts towards the nipple. The nipple location was finally determined from the detected nipple candidates by a rule-based confidence analysis. In this study, 377 and 367 randomly selected digitized mammograms were used for training and testing the nipple detection algorithm, respectively. Two experienced radiologists identified the nipple locations

  16. Texture Analysis of Supraspinatus Ultrasound Image for Computer Aided Diagnostic System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung Eun; Jang, Won Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for recognizing a rotator cuff supraspinatus tendon tear using a texture analysis based on a histogram, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and gray level run length matrix (GLRLM). Methods First, we applied a total of 57 features (5 first order descriptors, 40 GLCM features, and 12 GLRLM features) to each rotator cuff region of interest. Our results show that first order statistics (mean, skewness, entropy, energy, smoothness), GLCM (correlation, contrast, energy, entropy, difference entropy, homogeneity, maximum probability, sum average, sum entropy), and GLRLM features are helpful to distinguish a normal supraspinatus tendon and an abnormal supraspinatus tendon. The statistical significance of these features is verified using a t-test. The support vector machine classification showed accuracy using feature combinations. Support Vector Machine offers good performance with a small amount of training data. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are used to evaluate performance of a classification test. Results From the results, first order statics features and GLCM and GLRLM features afford 95%, 85%, and 100% accuracy, respectively. First order statistics and GLCM and GLRLM features in combination provided 100% accuracy. Combinations that include GLRLM features had high accuracy. GLRLM features were confirmed as highly accurate features for classified normal and abnormal. Conclusions This algorithm will be helpful to diagnose supraspinatus tendon tear on ultrasound images. PMID:27895962

  17. Computer-Aided Image Analysis and Fractal Synthesis in the Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Aggressiveness in Prostate Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The subjective evaluation of tumor aggressiveness is a cornerstone of the contemporary tumor pathology. A large intra- and interobserver variability is a known limiting factor of this approach. This fundamental weakness influences the statistical deterministic models of progression risk assessment. It is unlikely that the recent modification of tumor grading according to Gleason criteria for prostate carcinoma will cause a qualitative change and improve significantly the accuracy. The Gleason system does not allow the identification of low aggressive carcinomas by some precise criteria. The ontological dichotomy implies the application of an objective, quantitative approach for the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness as an alternative. That novel approach must be developed and validated in a manner that is independent of the results of any subjective evaluation. For example, computer-aided image analysis can provide information about geometry of the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei. A series of the interrelated complexity measures characterizes unequivocally the complex tumor images. Using those measures, carcinomas can be classified into the classes of equivalence and compared with each other. Furthermore, those measures define the quantitative criteria for the identification of low- and high-aggressive prostate carcinomas, the information that the subjective approach is not able to provide. The co-application of those complexity measures in cluster analysis leads to the conclusion that either the subjective or objective classification of tumor aggressiveness for prostate carcinomas should comprise maximal three grades (or classes). Finally, this set of the global fractal dimensions enables a look into dynamics of the underlying cellular system of interacting cells and the reconstruction of the temporal-spatial attractor based on the Taken's embedding theorem. Both computer-aided image analysis and the subsequent fractal synthesis could be performed

  18. Computer-Aided Image Analysis and Fractal Synthesis in the Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Aggressiveness in Prostate Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    The subjective evaluation of tumor aggressiveness is a cornerstone of the contemporary tumor pathology. A large intra- and interobserver variability is a known limiting factor of this approach. This fundamental weakness influences the statistical deterministic models of progression risk assessment. It is unlikely that the recent modification of tumor grading according to Gleason criteria for prostate carcinoma will cause a qualitative change and improve significantly the accuracy. The Gleason system does not allow the identification of low aggressive carcinomas by some precise criteria. The ontological dichotomy implies the application of an objective, quantitative approach for the evaluation of tumor aggressiveness as an alternative. That novel approach must be developed and validated in a manner that is independent of the results of any subjective evaluation. For example, computer-aided image analysis can provide information about geometry of the spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei. A series of the interrelated complexity measures characterizes unequivocally the complex tumor images. Using those measures, carcinomas can be classified into the classes of equivalence and compared with each other. Furthermore, those measures define the quantitative criteria for the identification of low- and high-aggressive prostate carcinomas, the information that the subjective approach is not able to provide. The co-application of those complexity measures in cluster analysis leads to the conclusion that either the subjective or objective classification of tumor aggressiveness for prostate carcinomas should comprise maximal three grades (or classes). Finally, this set of the global fractal dimensions enables a look into dynamics of the underlying cellular system of interacting cells and the reconstruction of the temporal-spatial attractor based on the Taken’s embedding theorem. Both computer-aided image analysis and the subsequent fractal synthesis could be performed

  19. Computer-aided analysis of thermal images of solar cells and solar PV/T collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, R.; Rao, K. H. S.; Tscharner, R.

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to measure IR emissivities of various types of solar cells and to analyze temperature distributions of solar cell arrays mounted in photovoltaic (PV) panels and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. In the first case, IR images of samples of mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline cells at fixed temperature were recorded, and emissivity values ranging from 0.21 to 0.58 were found. In the second case, a commercial PV panel was operated in reversed bias mode, thus heating up the individual cells. A 'chessboard' pattern in the temperature distribution detected by the IRT imaging system made it possible to visualize differences in cell performance without needing access to the cells themselves. Finally, a 'hot spot' was produced by shadowing one of the cells. Within a few minutes the cell temperature rose from the normal panel temperature of 45 C to 56 C due to reversed bias heating.

  20. Computer-aided global breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy: performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Zheng, Bin; Cheng, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used increasingly in breast cancer diagnosis and assessment of cancer treatment efficacy. In this study, we applied a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to automatically segment breast regions depicting on MR images and used the kinetic image features computed from the global breast MR images acquired before neoadjuvant chemotherapy to build a new quantitative model to predict response of the breast cancer patients to the chemotherapy. To assess performance and robustness of this new prediction model, an image dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 151 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was retrospectively assembled and used. Among them, 63 patients had "complete response" (CR) to chemotherapy in which the enhanced contrast levels inside the tumor volume (pre-treatment) was reduced to the level as the normal enhanced background parenchymal tissues (post-treatment), while 88 patients had "partially response" (PR) in which the high contrast enhancement remain in the tumor regions after treatment. We performed the studies to analyze the correlation among the 22 global kinetic image features and then select a set of 4 optimal features. Applying an artificial neural network trained with the fusion of these 4 kinetic image features, the prediction model yielded an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.83+/-0.04. This study demonstrated that by avoiding tumor segmentation, which is often difficult and unreliable, fusion of kinetic image features computed from global breast MR images without tumor segmentation can also generate a useful clinical marker in predicting efficacy of chemotherapy.

  1. Parallel Algorithms for Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    8217 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. TITLE (aid Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED PARALLEL ALGORITHMS FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS TECHNICAL 6. PERFORMING O4G. REPORT NUMBER TR-1180...Continue on reverse side it neceesary aid Identlfy by block number) Image processing; image analysis ; parallel processing; cellular computers. 20... IMAGE ANALYSIS TECHNICAL 6. PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER TR-1180 - 7. AUTHOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Azriel Rosenfeld AFOSR-77-3271 9

  2. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  5. A Dose-Volume Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Aided High-Dose-Rate Image-Based Interstitial Brachytherapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshida, Mineo; Furuya, Seiichi; Tanaka, Eiichi; Uegaki, Tadaaki; Kuriyama, Keiko; Matsumoto, Hisanobu; Yamada, Shigetoshi; Ban, Chiaki

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of our novel image-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for uterine cervical cancer, we evaluated the dose-volume histogram (DVH) according to the recommendations of the Gynecological GEC-ESTRO Working Group for image-based intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). Methods and Materials: Between June 2005 and June 2007, 18 previously untreated cervical cancer patients were enrolled. We implanted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-available plastic applicators by our unique ambulatory technique. Total treatment doses were 30-36 Gy (6 Gy per fraction) combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Treatment plans were created based on planning computed tomography with MRI as a reference. DVHs of the high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV), intermediate-risk CTV (IR CTV), and the bladder and rectum were calculated. Dose values were biologically normalized to equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Results: The median D90 (HR CTV) and D90 (IR CTV) per fraction were 6.8 Gy (range, 5.5-7.5) and 5.4 Gy (range, 4.2-6.3), respectively. The median V100 (HR CTV) and V100 (IR CTV) were 98.4% (range, 83-100) and 81.8% (range, 64-93.8), respectively. When the dose of EBRT was added, the median D90 and D100 of HR CTV were 80.6 Gy (range, 65.5-96.6) and 62.4 Gy (range, 49-83.2). The D{sub 2cc} of the bladder was 62 Gy (range, 51.4-89) and of the rectum was 65.9 Gy (range, 48.9-76). Conclusions: Although the targets were advanced and difficult to treat effectively by ICBT, MRI-aided image-based ISBT showed favorable results for CTV and organs at risk compared with previously reported image-based ICBT results.

  6. Assessing the performance of four different categories of histological criteria in brain tumours grading by means of a computer-aided diagnosis image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, S; Konstandinou, C; Sidiropoulos, K; Ravazoula, P; Kalatzis, I; Asvestas, P; Cavouras, D; Glotsos, D

    2015-10-01

    Brain tumours are considered one of the most lethal and difficult to treat forms of cancer, with unknown aetiology and lack of any realistic screening. In this study, we examine, whether the combination of descriptive criteria, used by expert histopathologists in assessing histologic tissue samples, and quantitative image analysis features may improve the diagnostic accuracy of brain tumour grading. Data comprised 61 cases of brain cancers (astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas) collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Incorporating physician's descriptive criteria and image analysis's quantitative features into a discriminant function, a computer-aided diagnosis system was designed for discriminating low-grade from high-grade brain tumours. Physician's descriptive features, when solely used in the system, proved of high discrimination accuracy (93.4%). When verbal descriptive features were combined with quantitative image analysis features in the system, discrimination accuracy improved to 98.4%. The generalization of the proposed system to unseen data converged to an overall prediction accuracy of 86.7% ± 5.4%. Considering that histological grading affects treatment selection and diagnostic errors may be notable in clinical practice, the utilization of the proposed system may safeguard against diagnostic misinterpretations in every day clinical practice.

  7. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended for use by a patient who has limited dark adaptation or impaired vision to amplify ambient light....

  8. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended for use by a patient who has limited dark adaptation or impaired vision to amplify ambient light....

  9. DIDA - Dynamic Image Disparity Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-31

    Understanding, Dynamic Image Analysis , Disparity Analysis, Optical Flow, Real-Time Processing ___ 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revere side If necessary aid identify...three aspects of dynamic image analysis must be studied: effectiveness, generality, and efficiency. In addition, efforts must be made to understand the...environment. A better understanding of the need for these Limiting constraints is required. Efficiency is obviously important if dynamic image analysis is

  10. An automated normative-based fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography image-analysis procedure to aid Alzheimer disease diagnosis using statistical parametric mapping and interactive image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kewei; Ge, Xiaolin; Yao, Li; Bandy, Dan; Alexander, Gene E.; Prouty, Anita; Burns, Christine; Zhao, Xiaojie; Wen, Xiaotong; Korn, Ronald; Lawson, Michael; Reiman, Eric M.

    2006-03-01

    Having approved fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in some patients, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services suggested the need to develop and test analysis techniques to optimize diagnostic accuracy. We developed an automated computer package comparing an individual's FDG PET image to those of a group of normal volunteers. The normal control group includes FDG-PET images from 82 cognitively normal subjects, 61.89+/-5.67 years of age, who were characterized demographically, clinically, neuropsychologically, and by their apolipoprotein E genotype (known to be associated with a differential risk for AD). In addition, AD-affected brain regions functionally defined as based on a previous study (Alexander, et al, Am J Psychiatr, 2002) were also incorporated. Our computer package permits the user to optionally select control subjects, matching the individual patient for gender, age, and educational level. It is fully streamlined to require minimal user intervention. With one mouse click, the program runs automatically, normalizing the individual patient image, setting up a design matrix for comparing the single subject to a group of normal controls, performing the statistics, calculating the glucose reduction overlap index of the patient with the AD-affected brain regions, and displaying the findings in reference to the AD regions. In conclusion, the package automatically contrasts a single patient to a normal subject database using sound statistical procedures. With further validation, this computer package could be a valuable tool to assist physicians in decision making and communicating findings with patients and patient families.

  11. The fetal cardiovascular response to increased placental vascular impedance to flow determined with four-dimensional ultrasound using spatiotemporal image correlation and virtual organ computer-aided analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Neil; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia; Lee, Wesley; Myers, Stephen A.; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis F.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Erez, Offer; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if increased placental vascular impedance to flow is associated with changes in fetal cardiac function using spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL). Study Design A cross-sectional study was performed in fetuses with an umbilical artery pulsatility index > 95th percentile (ABN). Ventricular volume (end-systole, end-diastole), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), adjusted CO, and ejection fraction (EF) were compared to those of 184 normal fetuses (NL). Results 1) 34 fetuses were evaluated at a median gestational age of 28.3 (range 20.6 – 36.9) weeks; 2) mean ventricular volumes were lower for ABN than NL (end-systole, end-diastole) with a proportionally greater decrease for left ventricular volume (vs. right); 3) mean left and right SV, CO, and adjusted CO were lower for ABN (vs. NL); 4) right ventricular volume, SV, CO, and adjusted CO exceeded the left in ABN fetuses; 5) mean EF was greater for ABN than NL; and 6) median left EF was greater (vs. right) in ABN fetuses. Conclusion Increased placental vascular impedance to flow is associated with changes in fetal cardiac function. PMID:23220270

  12. Wavelet-aided pavement distress image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Peisen S.; Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2003-11-01

    A wavelet-based pavement distress detection and evaluation method is proposed. This method consists of two main parts, real-time processing for distress detection and offline processing for distress evaluation. The real-time processing part includes wavelet transform, distress detection and isolation, and image compression and noise reduction. When a pavement image is decomposed into different frequency subbands by wavelet transform, the distresses, which are usually irregular in shape, appear as high-amplitude wavelet coefficients in the high-frequency details subbands, while the background appears in the low-frequency approximation subband. Two statistical parameters, high-amplitude wavelet coefficient percentage (HAWCP) and high-frequency energy percentage (HFEP), are established and used as criteria for real-time distress detection and distress image isolation. For compression of isolated distress images, a modified EZW (Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelet coding) is developed, which can simultaneously compress the images and reduce the noise. The compressed data are saved to the hard drive for further analysis and evaluation. The offline processing includes distress classification, distress quantification, and reconstruction of the original image for distress segmentation, distress mapping, and maintenance decision-making. The compressed data are first loaded and decoded to obtain wavelet coefficients. Then Radon transform is then applied and the parameters related to the peaks in the Radon domain are used for distress classification. For distress quantification, a norm is defined that can be used as an index for evaluating the severity and extent of the distress. Compared to visual or manual inspection, the proposed method has the advantages of being objective, high-speed, safe, automated, and applicable to different types of pavements and distresses.

  13. Informatics in radiology: Hesse rendering for computer-aided visualization and analysis of anomalies at chest CT and breast MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Wiemker, Rafael; Dharaiya, Ekta D; Bülow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A volume-rendering (VR) technique known as Hesse rendering applies image-enhancement filters to three-dimensional imaging volumes and depicts the filter responses in a color-coded fashion. Unlike direct VR, which makes use of intensities, Hesse rendering operates on the basis of shape properties, such that nodular structures in the resulting renderings have different colors than do tubular structures and thus are easily visualized. The renderings are mouse-click sensitive and can be used to navigate to locations of possible anomalies in the original images. Hesse rendering is meant to complement rather than replace conventional section-by-section viewing or VR. Although it is a pure visualization technique that involves no internal segmentation or explicit object detection, Hesse rendering, like computer-aided detection, may be effective for quickly calling attention to points of interest in large stacks of images and for helping radiologists to avoid oversights.

  14. Computer aided engineering analysis of automotive bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Glance, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a general purpose, computer-aided engineering design methodology which has been employed in the design of automotive bumper systems. A comparison of computer-aided analysis predictions with actual test data is presented. Two case histories of bumper system designs are discussed.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence in clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Doi, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is rapidly entering the radiology mainstream. It has already become a part of the routine clinical work for the detection of breast cancer with mammograms. The computer output is used as a "second opinion" in assisting radiologists' image interpretations. The computer algorithm generally consists of several steps that may include image processing, image feature analysis, and data classification via the use of tools such as artificial neural networks (ANN). In this article, we will explore these and other current processes that have come to be referred to as "artificial intelligence." One element of CAD, temporal subtraction, has been applied for enhancing interval changes and for suppressing unchanged structures (eg, normal structures) between 2 successive radiologic images. To reduce misregistration artifacts on the temporal subtraction images, a nonlinear image warping technique for matching the previous image to the current one has been developed. Development of the temporal subtraction method originated with chest radiographs, with the method subsequently being applied to chest computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine bone scans. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction method for bone scans was demonstrated by an observer study in which reading times and diagnostic accuracy improved significantly. An additional prospective clinical study verified that the temporal subtraction image could be used as a "second opinion" by radiologists with negligible detrimental effects. ANN was first used in 1990 for computerized differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in CAD. Since then, ANN has been widely used in CAD schemes for the detection and diagnosis of various diseases in different imaging modalities, including the differential diagnosis of lung nodules and interstitial lung diseases in chest radiography, CT, and position emission tomography/CT. It is likely that CAD will be integrated into picture archiving and

  16. Images of AIDS among teenagers and young adults.

    PubMed

    Redjimi, G; Lert, F

    1993-01-01

    This study analyzed images of AIDS and HIV-1 seropositivity among young people. The method employed is content analysis of 307 screen plays written by participants aged 15-25 as part of a competition organized by Médecins du Monde, APS, CRIPS. The participants were instructed to write a screen play for a 13-minute film on the theme of "Living in the city with HIV". In most stories, the seropositive hero was a young male or female heterosexual. Only a few scenarios involved drug abusers or homosexuals. Despite the absence of evidence of stigmatizating attitudes, HIV infection is often seen as a punitive consequence of a promiscuous sexual lifestyle. The announcement of seropositivity is perceived as a violent break with everyday life associated with introspection, and rejection of close friends and family. To cope with such a dramatic situation, the subject has to undergo a violent crisis. Life as portrayed in the scenarios is similar to life for people with HIV as it appears in personal testimonies. The majority of storylines concerning young heterosexuals show that participants understood that anybody can be affected by AIDS. There was no division into risk groups and the tolerant positions adopted demonstrate the impact of the associative movement and of information campaigns in France. However, the recurrence of the notion of 'illness as punishment' indicates that much work remains if AIDS is to be dissociated from moral connotations.

  17. Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Matters NIH Research Matters January 13, 2014 Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery An international research team ... may play a role in triggering the disease. Genetic factors are also thought to play a role. ...

  18. Nurse Aide. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for nurse aide (NA) is a competency list verified by expert workers that evolved from a job analysis. It identifies occupational, academic, and employability competencies needed to enter the occupation; lists and clusters them into broader units; and details the competency builders needed to…

  19. Computer-aided 2D and 3D quantification of human stem cell fate from in vitro samples using Volocity high performance image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Piltti, Katja M; Haus, Daniel L; Do, Eileen; Perez, Harvey; Anderson, A J; Cummings, B J

    2011-11-01

    Accurate automated cell fate analysis of immunostained human stem cells from 2- and 3-dimensional (2D-3D) images would improve efficiency in the field of stem cell research. Development of an accurate and precise tool that reduces variability and the time needed for human stem cell fate analysis will improve productivity and interpretability of the data across research groups. In this study, we have created protocols for high performance image analysis software Volocity® to classify and quantify cytoplasmic and nuclear cell fate markers from 2D-3D images of human neural stem cells after in vitro differentiation. To enhance 3D image capture efficiency, we optimized the image acquisition settings of an Olympus FV10i® confocal laser scanning microscope to match our quantification protocols and improve cell fate classification. The methods developed in this study will allow for a more time efficient and accurate software based, operator validated, stem cell fate classification and quantification from 2D and 3D images, and yield the highest ≥94.4% correspondence with human recognized objects.

  20. Image analysis in medical imaging: recent advances in selected examples.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, G

    2010-01-01

    Medical imaging has developed into one of the most important fields within scientific imaging due to the rapid and continuing progress in computerised medical image visualisation and advances in analysis methods and computer-aided diagnosis. Several research applications are selected to illustrate the advances in image analysis algorithms and visualisation. Recent results, including previously unpublished data, are presented to illustrate the challenges and ongoing developments.

  1. Computer aided nonlinear electrical networks analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slapnicar, P.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques used in simulating an electrical circuit with nonlinear elements for use in computer-aided circuit analysis programs are described. Elements of the circuit include capacitors, resistors, inductors, transistors, diodes, and voltage and current sources (constant or time varying). Simulation features are discussed for dc, ac, and/or transient circuit analysis. Calculations are based on the model approach of formulating the circuit equations. A particular solution of transient analysis for nonlinear storage elements is described.

  2. Beyond Linear Syntax: An Image-Oriented Communication Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Pilato, Sam; Roy, Deb

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a novel AAC communication aid based on semantic rather than syntactic schema, leading to more natural message construction. Users interact with a two-dimensional spatially organized image schema, which depicts the semantic structure and contents of the message. An overview of the interface design is presented followed by…

  3. Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world that includes age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, the review is devoted to retinal imaging and image analysis methods and their clinical implications. Methods for 2-D fundus imaging and techniques for 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are reviewed. Special attention is given to quantitative techniques for analysis of fundus photographs with a focus on clinically relevant assessment of retinal vasculature, identification of retinal lesions, assessment of optic nerve head (ONH) shape, building retinal atlases, and to automated methods for population screening for retinal diseases. A separate section is devoted to 3-D analysis of OCT images, describing methods for segmentation and analysis of retinal layers, retinal vasculature, and 2-D/3-D detection of symptomatic exudate-associated derangements, as well as to OCT-based analysis of ONH morphology and shape. Throughout the paper, aspects of image acquisition, image analysis, and clinical relevance are treated together considering their mutually interlinked relationships. PMID:21743764

  4. Principles and clinical applications of image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1988-12-01

    Image processing has traveled to the lunar surface and back, finding its way into the clinical laboratory. Advances in digital computers have improved the technology of image analysis, resulting in a wide variety of medical applications. Offering improvements in turnaround time, standardized systems, increased precision, and walkaway automation, digital image analysis has likely found a permanent home as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of microscopic as well as macroscopic laboratory images.

  5. Interfacing Computer Aided Parallelization and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    When porting sequential applications to parallel computer architectures, the program developer will typically go through several cycles of source code optimization and performance analysis. We have started a project to develop an environment where the user can jointly navigate through program structure and performance data information in order to make efficient optimization decisions. In a prototype implementation we have interfaced the CAPO computer aided parallelization tool with the Paraver performance analysis tool. We describe both tools and their interface and give an example for how the interface helps within the program development cycle of a benchmark code.

  6. Computer-aided detection of polyps in optical colonoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    We present a computer-aided detection algorithm for polyps in optical colonoscopy images. Polyps are the precursors to colon cancer. In the US alone, 14 million optical colonoscopies are performed every year, mostly to screen for polyps. Optical colonoscopy has been shown to have an approximately 25% polyp miss rate due to the convoluted folds and bends present in the colon. In this work, we present an automatic detection algorithm to detect these polyps in the optical colonoscopy images. We use a machine learning algorithm to infer a depth map for a given optical colonoscopy image and then use a detailed pre-built polyp profile to detect and delineate the boundaries of polyps in this given image. We have achieved the best recall of 84.0% and the best specificity value of 83.4%.

  7. Computer-aided interpretation approach for optical tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe J.; Scheel, Alexander K.; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2010-11-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) in human finger joints using optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a classification algorithm that makes use of a so-called self-organizing mapping scheme to classify fingers as either affected or unaffected by RA. Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple image features, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging, and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used to produce ground truth benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities, while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances are reached when combining the minimum/maximum ratio of the absorption coefficient and image variance. In this case, sensitivities and specificities over 0.9 can be achieved. These values are much higher than values obtained when only single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities remained well below 0.8.

  8. Computer-aided interpretation approach for optical tomographic images.

    PubMed

    Klose, Christian D; Klose, Alexander D; Netz, Uwe J; Scheel, Alexander K; Beuthan, Jurgen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) in human finger joints using optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a classification algorithm that makes use of a so-called self-organizing mapping scheme to classify fingers as either affected or unaffected by RA. Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple image features, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging, and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used to produce ground truth benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities, while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances are reached when combining the minimum/maximum ratio of the absorption coefficient and image variance. In this case, sensitivities and specificities over 0.9 can be achieved. These values are much higher than values obtained when only single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities remained well below 0.8.

  9. Training Aids for Online Instruction: An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Robin Frederick

    This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…

  10. Micro-optical imaging concepts for an intraocular vision aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eix, Ilos; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus D.

    2004-03-01

    About 10 million people around the world are suffering from blindness, where the path of light is disturbed due to an opaque, irreversible damaged, and inoperable cornea. Although vision is not given to this group of population, the retina is still intact. To date, there is no artificial implant which is able to replace the natural cornea. The work presented here describes an approach to build and implant a micro-optical and microelectronic system to be used as an intraocular vision aid. By overcoming the disturbed light path, it yields to an improved visual acuity of the patient. The main aspect of this bio-mimetic system is to transfer information representing the patient's field of view to the retina. An image of the field of view is captured in real-time outside the eye. After employing data processing, it is wireless transferred to the implanted part of the vision aid. From there, the information emerging from a micro display is imaged to the retina via a micro-optical system. The limited display resolution available inside the eye and the limited dimensions of the eyeball build the constrains of the optical system. A combination of a spatial light modulator together with an imaging lens system realizes intelligent spatial information distribution schemes onto the retina. This ensures a high outcome of visual acuity in the central region of the retina. Various retinal acuities can be realized. The employment of in-vivo adjustment mechanisms of the focal plane is discussed.

  11. Digital image processing in cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jäger, A; Döler, W; Schormann, T

    1989-01-01

    Digital image processing methods were applied to improve the practicability of cephalometric analysis. The individual X-ray film was digitized by the aid of a high resolution microscope-photometer. Digital processing was done using a VAX 8600 computer system. An improvement of the image quality was achieved by means of various digital enhancement and filtering techniques.

  12. Computer-aided kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daw-Tung; Lei, Chung-Chih; Hung, Siu-Wan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an effective model-based approach for computer-aided kidney segmentation of abdominal CT images with anatomic structure consideration is presented. This automatic segmentation system is expected to assist physicians in both clinical diagnosis and educational training. The proposed method is a coarse to fine segmentation approach divided into two stages. First, the candidate kidney region is extracted according to the statistical geometric location of kidney within the abdomen. This approach is applicable to images of different sizes by using the relative distance of the kidney region to the spine. The second stage identifies the kidney by a series of image processing operations. The main elements of the proposed system are: 1) the location of the spine is used as the landmark for coordinate references; 2) elliptic candidate kidney region extraction with progressive positioning on the consecutive CT images; 3) novel directional model for a more reliable kidney region seed point identification; and 4) adaptive region growing controlled by the properties of image homogeneity. In addition, in order to provide different views for the physicians, we have implemented a visualization tool that will automatically show the renal contour through the method of second-order neighborhood edge detection. We considered segmentation of kidney regions from CT scans that contain pathologies in clinical practice. The results of a series of tests on 358 images from 30 patients indicate an average correlation coefficient of up to 88% between automatic and manual segmentation.

  13. Federal Aid to Education: A Student Level Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.; Torrence, Patricia T.

    A study that examined the magnitude of federal aid to individual students and the targeting of those funds based on need found that although federal aid to education averages 7 percent nationwide, little work has been done that disaggregates these amounts by locality. The study included an intradistrict analysis of federal-education aid per pupil.…

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  15. Computer aided diagnosis of osteoporosis using multi-slice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Eiji; Saita, Shinsuke; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Ito, Masako; Nishitani, Hiromu; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    The patients of osteoporosis comprised about 11 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems the aging society has. In order to prevent the osteoporosis, it is necessary to do early detection and treatment. The development of Multislice CT technology made it possible to perform the three dimensional (3-D) image analysis with higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. The 3-D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used as a support to diagnose osteoporosis and at the same time can be used for lung cancer screening which may lead to its early detection. We develop an automatic extraction algorithm of vertebra, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the computer aided diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  16. Image Analysis and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the research program on Image Analysis and Modeling supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency...The objective is to achieve a better understanding of image structure and to use this knowledge to develop improved image models for use in image ... analysis and processing tasks such as information extraction, image enhancement and restoration, and coding. The ultimate objective of this research is

  17. Feature-aided multiple target tracking in the image plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew P.; Sullivan, Kevin J.; Miller, David J.

    2006-05-01

    Vast quantities of EO and IR data are collected on airborne platforms (manned and unmanned) and terrestrial platforms (including fixed installations, e.g., at street intersections), and can be exploited to aid in the global war on terrorism. However, intelligent preprocessing is required to enable operator efficiency and to provide commanders with actionable target information. To this end, we have developed an image plane tracker which automatically detects and tracks multiple targets in image sequences using both motion and feature information. The effects of platform and camera motion are compensated via image registration, and a novel change detection algorithm is applied for accurate moving target detection. The contiguous pixel blob on each moving target is segmented for use in target feature extraction and model learning. Feature-based target location measurements are used for tracking through move-stop-move maneuvers, close target spacing, and occlusion. Effective clutter suppression is achieved using joint probabilistic data association (JPDA), and confirmed target tracks are indicated for further processing or operator review. In this paper we describe the algorithms implemented in the image plane tracker and present performance results obtained with video clips from the DARPA VIVID program data collection and from a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight.

  18. An Imaging Sensor-Aided Vision Navigation Approach that Uses a Geo-Referenced Image Database

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Hu, Qingwu; Wu, Meng; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID) for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m. PMID:26828496

  19. An Imaging Sensor-Aided Vision Navigation Approach that Uses a Geo-Referenced Image Database.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hu, Qingwu; Wu, Meng; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-28

    In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID) for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m.

  20. Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

  1. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  2. Image-based computer-aided prognosis of lung cancer: predicting patient recurrent-free survival via a variational Bayesian mixture modeling framework for cluster analysis of CT histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohamatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided prognosis (CAP) scheme that utilizes quantitatively derived image information to predict patient recurrent-free survival for lung cancers. Our scheme involves analyzing CT histograms to evaluate the volumetric distribution of CT values within pulmonary nodules. A variational Bayesian mixture modeling framework translates the image-derived features into an image-based risk score for predicting the patient recurrence-free survival. Using our dataset of 454 patients with NSCLC, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of the CAP scheme which can provide a quantitative risk score that is strongly correlated with prognostic factors.

  3. Image-analysis library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    MATHPAC image-analysis library is collection of general-purpose mathematical and statistical routines and special-purpose data-analysis and pattern-recognition routines for image analysis. MATHPAC library consists of Linear Algebra, Optimization, Statistical-Summary, Densities and Distribution, Regression, and Statistical-Test packages.

  4. Basics of image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging technology has emerged as a powerful tool for quality and safety inspection of food and agricultural products and in precision agriculture over the past decade. Image analysis is a critical step in implementing hyperspectral imaging technology; it is aimed to improve the qualit...

  5. Computer Aided Modeling and Post Processing with NASTRAN Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroughs, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Computer aided engineering systems are invaluable tools in performing NASTRAN finite element analysis. These techniques are implemented in both the pre-processing and post-processing phases of the NASTRAN analysis. The finite element model development, or pre-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided modeling program called Supertabl, and the review and interpretation of the results of the NASTRAN analysis, or post-processing phase, was automated with a computer aided plotting program called Output Display. An intermediate program, Nasplot, which was developed in-house, has also helped to cut down on the model checkout time and reduce errors in the model. An interface has been established between the finite element computer aided engineering system and the Learjet computer aided design system whereby data can be transferred back and forth between the two. These systems have significantly improved productivity and the ability to perform NASTRAN analysis in response to product development requests.

  6. Is Health Aid Reaching the Poor? Analysis of Household Data from Aid Recipient Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bendavid, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which the narrowing of child mortality across wealth gradients has been related to foreign aid to the health sector in low- and middle-income countries. Methods Mortality and wealth data on 989,901 under-5 children from 957,674 households in 49 aid recipient countries in Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean between 1993 and 2012 were used in the analysis. Declines in under-5 mortality in the four poorest wealth quantiles were compared to the decline among the wealthiest at varying levels of health aid per capita using fixed effects multivariable regression models and controlling for maternal education, urbanization, and domestic spending on health among recipient countries. Results Each additional dollar in total health aid per capita was associated with 5.7 fewer deaths per 10,000 child-years among children in the poorest relative to the wealthiest households (p<0.001). This was also true when measured in percent declines (1.90% faster decline in under-5 mortality among the poorest compared with the wealthiest with each dollar in total health aid, p = 0.008). The association was stronger when using health aid specifically for malaria than total health aid, 12.60% faster decline among the poorest compared with the wealthiest with each dollar in malaria aid, p = 0.001. Conclusions Foreign aid to the health sector is preferentially related to reductions in under-5 mortality among the poorest compared with the wealthiest. Health aid addressing malaria, which imposes a disproportionate burden among the poor, may explain the observed effect. PMID:24404148

  7. Interactive Image Processing As An Aid To Designing Robot Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Cotter, S. M.; Page, G. J.; Hopkins, S. H.

    1983-10-01

    Interactive image processing has proved to be a valuable aid to prototype development for industrial inspection systems. This paper advocates extending its use to exploratory analysis of robot vision applications. Preliminary studies have shown that it is equally effective in this role, although it is not usually possible to achieve the computational speeds needed for real-time control of the robot using a software-based image processor. Its use, as in inspection research, is likely to be limited to algorithm design/selection. The Autoview image processor (British Robotic Systems Ltd.) has recently been interfaced to a Placemate 5 robot (Pendar Robotics Ltd.) and further programmable manipulation devices, including an xy-coordinate table and a stepping turntable are currently being connected. Using these and similar devices, research will be conducted into such tasks as assembly, Dalletisinq and robot-assisted inspection.

  8. Nurse Aide. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for nurses' aides. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify…

  9. SMART USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA) TO CHARACTERIZE SPERM MOTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) has evolved over the past fifteen years to provide an objective, practical means of measuring and characterizing the velocity and parttern of sperm motion. CASA instruments use video frame-grabber boards to capture multiple images of spermato...

  10. Multisensor Image Analysis System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    AD-A263 679 II Uli! 91 Multisensor Image Analysis System Final Report Authors. Dr. G. M. Flachs Dr. Michael Giles Dr. Jay Jordan Dr. Eric...or decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 93-09739 *>ft s n~. now illlllM3lMVf Multisensor Image Analysis System Final...Multisensor Image Analysis System 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED FINAL: LQj&tt-Z JZOfVL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 93 > 6. AUTHOR(S) Drs. Gerald

  11. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  12. Analysis of Interval Changes on Mammograms for Computer Aided Diagnosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    research groups are in the process of developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods which can provide a second opinion to the radiologist for the...benign lesions. 3- 8 Knowledge from di- features between current and previous mammograms of the verse areas such as signal and image processing , pattern...December 1999 2673 Sanjay-Gopal et al: A regional registration technique 26732673-p i n- iimages . The 74 temporal image pairs were comprised of 43 Cj

  13. FFDM image quality assessment using computerized image texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Rachelle; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality (IQ) are routinely obtained during the evaluation of imaging systems. These measures, however, do not necessarily correlate with the IQ of the actual clinical images, which can also be affected by factors such as patient positioning. No quantitative method currently exists to evaluate clinical IQ. Therefore, we investigated the potential of using computerized image texture analysis to quantitatively assess IQ. Our hypothesis is that image texture features can be used to assess IQ as a measure of the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To test feasibility, the "Rachel" anthropomorphic breast phantom (Model 169, Gammex RMI) was imaged with a Senographe 2000D FFDM system (GE Healthcare) using 220 unique exposure settings (target/filter, kVs, and mAs combinations). The mAs were varied from 10%-300% of that required for an average glandular dose (AGD) of 1.8 mGy. A 2.5cm2 retroareolar region of interest (ROI) was segmented from each image. The SNR was computed from the ROIs segmented from images linear with dose (i.e., raw images) after flat-field and off-set correction. Image texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, and fractal dimension were computed from the Premium ViewTM postprocessed image ROIs. Multiple linear regression demonstrated a strong association between the computed image texture features and SNR (R2=0.92, p<=0.001). When including kV, target and filter as additional predictor variables, a stronger association with SNR was observed (R2=0.95, p<=0.001). The strong associations indicate that computerized image texture analysis can be used to measure image SNR and potentially aid in automating IQ assessment as a component of the clinical workflow. Further work is underway to validate our findings in larger clinical datasets.

  14. Fetal cardiac ventricular volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction determined with four-dimensional ultrasound using Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™)

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Neil; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S.; Myers, Stephen A.; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis F.; Lee, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantify fetal cardiovascular parameters with Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™) utilizing the sub-feature: “Contour Finder: Trace”. Study Design A cross-sectional study was designed consisting of patients with normal pregnancies between 19 and 40 weeks of gestation. After STIC datasets were acquired, analysis was performed offline (4DView) and the following cardiovascular parameters were evaluated: ventricular volume in end systole and end diastole, stroke volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction. To account for fetal size, cardiac output was also expressed as a function of head circumference, abdominal circumference, or femoral diaphysis length. Regression models were fitted for each cardiovascular parameter to assess the effect of gestational age and paired comparisons were made between the left and right ventricles. Results 1) Two hundred and seventeen patients were retrospectively identified, of whom 184 had adequate STIC datasets (85% acceptance); 2) ventricular volume, stroke volume, cardiac output, and adjusted cardiac output increased with gestational age; whereas, the ejection fraction decreased as gestation advanced; 3) the right ventricle was larger than the left in both systole (Right: 0.50 ml, IQR: 0.2 – 0.9; vs. Left: 0.27 ml, IQR: 0.1 – 0.5; p<0.001) and diastole (Right: 1.20 ml, IQR: 0.7 – 2.2; vs. Left: 1.03 ml, IQR: 0.5 – 1.7; p<0.001); 4) there were no differences between the left and right ventricle with respect to stroke volume, cardiac output, or adjusted cardiac output; and 5) the left ventricular ejection fraction was greater than the right (Left: 72.2%, IQR: 64 – 78; vs. Right: 62.4%, IQR: 56 – 69; p<0.001). Conclusion Fetal echocardiography, utilizing STIC and VOCAL™ with the sub-feature: “Contour Finder: Trace”, allows assessment of fetal cardiovascular parameters. Normal fetal cardiovascular physiology is characterized by ventricular

  15. Comparison of image features calculated in different dimensions for computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Lee, Michael C.; Boroczky, Lilla; Cann, Aaron D.; Borczuk, Alain C.; Kawut, Steven M.; Powell, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Features calculated from different dimensions of images capture quantitative information of the lung nodules through one or multiple image slices. Previously published computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have used either twodimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) features, though there has been little systematic analysis of the relevance of the different dimensions and of the impact of combining different dimensions. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of combining features calculated in different dimensions. We have performed CADx experiments on 125 pulmonary nodules imaged using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). The CADx system computed 192 2D, 2.5D, and 3D image features of the lesions. Leave-one-out experiments were performed using five different combinations of features from different dimensions: 2D, 3D, 2.5D, 2D+3D, and 2D+3D+2.5D. The experiments were performed ten times for each group. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the performance. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were applied to compare the classification results from these five different combinations of features. Our results showed that 3D image features generate the best result compared with other combinations of features. This suggests one approach to potentially reducing the dimensionality of the CADx data space and the computational complexity of the system while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain. PMID:26346558

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis with optical tomography, Part 2: image classification.

    PubMed

    Montejo, Ludguier D; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K; Netz, Uwe J; Blaschke, Sabine; Müller, Gerhard A; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2013-07-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper on the application of computer-aided diagnosis to diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A comprehensive analysis of techniques for the classification of DOT images of proximal interphalangeal joints of subjects with and without RA is presented. A method for extracting heuristic features from DOT images was presented in Part 1. The ability of five classification algorithms to accurately label each DOT image as belonging to a subject with or without RA is analyzed here. The algorithms of interest are the k-nearest-neighbors, linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, self-organizing maps, and support vector machines (SVM). With a polynomial SVM classifier, we achieve 100.0% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Lower bounds for these results (at 95.0% confidence level) are 96.4% and 93.8%, respectively. Image features most predictive of RA are from the spatial variation of optical properties and the absolute range in feature values. The optimal classifiers are low-dimensional combinations (<7 features). These results underscore the high potential for DOT to become a clinically useful diagnostic tool and warrant larger prospective clinical trials to conclusively demonstrate the ultimate clinical utility of this approach.

  18. Computer-aided classification of lung nodules on computed tomography images via deep learning technique.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kai-Lung; Hsu, Che-Hao; Hidayati, Shintami Chusnul; Cheng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has a poor prognosis when not diagnosed early and unresectable lesions are present. The management of small lung nodules noted on computed tomography scan is controversial due to uncertain tumor characteristics. A conventional computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme requires several image processing and pattern recognition steps to accomplish a quantitative tumor differentiation result. In such an ad hoc image analysis pipeline, every step depends heavily on the performance of the previous step. Accordingly, tuning of classification performance in a conventional CAD scheme is very complicated and arduous. Deep learning techniques, on the other hand, have the intrinsic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature and tuning of performance in a seamless fashion. In this study, we attempted to simplify the image analysis pipeline of conventional CAD with deep learning techniques. Specifically, we introduced models of a deep belief network and a convolutional neural network in the context of nodule classification in computed tomography images. Two baseline methods with feature computing steps were implemented for comparison. The experimental results suggest that deep learning methods could achieve better discriminative results and hold promise in the CAD application domain.

  19. AIDS Education for Tanzanian Youth: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigler, Melissa H.; Kugler, K. C.; Komro, K. A.; Leshabari, M. T.; Klepp, K. I.

    2006-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical technique that can be used to identify mechanisms by which intervention programs achieve their effects. This paper presents the results of a mediation analysis of Ngao, an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education program that was implemented with school children in Grades 6 and 7 in Tanzania in the…

  20. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  1. Computer Aided Data Analysis in Sociometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeheine, Rolf

    1978-01-01

    A computer program which analyzes sociometric data is presented. The SDAS program provides classical sociometric analysis. Multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis techniques may be combined with the MSP program. (JKS)

  2. Prototypical Images in Condom Scripts among AIDS-Bereaved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Warren A.; Rubin, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five HIV-negative late adolescents (13 women and 12 men) who had lost a parent to AIDS generated vignettes in which the characters were deciding whether to use a condom (condom scripts). Two clinically trained judges rated the interpersonal tone of the condom scripts on 17 semantic differential scales. Three other clinically trained raters…

  3. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that 2.2% of Nigeria's adult population was infected with HIV by the end of 1995. A 1993-94 sentinel surveillance report found a 3.8% HIV seroprevalence level among sexually active Nigerians sampled. HIV prevalence is rising in the country. Incidence and prevalence data are presented on HIV and AIDS in sections on antenatal clinics, HIV-1 and HIV-2, group variations, regional variations, age variations, prostitutes, and infection by blood. The Nigerian government has projected that there could be 7 million people infected with HIV in the country by the year 2000. Background is presented on the economy, living standards, health, and population. Vulnerability is then considered with regard to population mobility, drug trafficking, the vulnerability of women, the international sex trade, the military presence in Liberia, sexual attitudes, poverty, and ignorance. The responses of the government and the domestic nongovernment sector are then presented followed by description of external assistance from the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the British Overseas Development Agency, the World Health Organization, the private sector, and the European Commission.

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis in radiological imaging: current status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Kunio

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Many different types of CAD schemes are being developed for detection and/or characterization of various lesions in medical imaging, including conventional projection radiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasound imaging. Commercial systems for detection of breast lesions on mammograms have been developed and have received FDA approval for clinical use. CAD may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a "second opinion". The purpose of CAD is to improve the quality and productivity of physicians in their interpretation of radiologic images. The quality of their work can be improved in terms of the accuracy and consistency of their radiologic diagnoses. In addition, the productivity of radiologists is expected to be improved by a reduction in the time required for their image readings. The computer output is derived from quantitative analysis of radiologic images by use of various methods and techniques in computer vision, artificial intelligence, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computer output may indicate a number of important parameters, for example, the locations of potential lesions such as lung cancer and breast cancer, the likelihood of malignancy of detected lesions, and the likelihood of various diseases based on differential diagnosis in a given image and clinical parameters. In this review article, the basic concept of CAD is first defined, and the current status of CAD research is then described. In addition, the potential of CAD in the future is discussed and predicted.

  5. Highly automated computer-aided diagnosis of neurological disorders using functional brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spetsieris, P. G.; Ma, Y.; Dhawan, V.; Moeller, J. R.; Eidelberg, D.

    2006-03-01

    We have implemented a highly automated analytical method for computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of neurological disorders using functional brain imaging that is based on the Scaled Subprofile Model (SSM). Accurate diagnosis of functional brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease is often difficult clinically, particularly in early stages. Using principal component analysis (PCA) in conjunction with SSM on brain images of patients and normals, we can identify characteristic abnormal network covariance patterns which provide a subject dependent scalar score that not only discriminates a particular disease but also correlates with independent measures of disease severity. These patterns represent disease-specific brain networks that have been shown to be highly reproducible in distinct groups of patients. Topographic Profile Rating (TPR) is a reverse SSM computational algorithm that can be used to determine subject scores for new patients on a prospective basis. In our implementation, reference values for a full range of patients and controls are automatically accessed for comparison. We also implemented an automated recalibration step to produce reference scores for images generated in a different imaging environment from that used in the initial network derivation. New subjects under the same setting can then be evaluated individually and a simple report is generated indicating the subject's classification. For scores near the normal limits, additional criteria are used to make a definitive diagnosis. With further refinement, automated TPR can be used to efficiently assess disease severity, monitor disease progression and evaluate treatment efficacy.

  6. Computer-aided detection of HER2 amplification status using FISH images: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Surti, Urvashi; Bhargava, Rohit; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    The amplification status of human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2) genes is strongly associated with clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Tumor Marker Guidelines Panel has recommended routine testing of HER2 status on all newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancers since 2001. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides superior accuracy as compared with other approaches, current manual FISH analysis methods are somewhat subjective, tedious, and may introduce interreader variability. The goal of this preliminary study is to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to assess HER2 status using FISH images. Forty FISH images were selected for this study from our genetic laboratory. The CAD scheme first applies an adaptive, iterative threshold method followed by a labeling algorithm to segment cells of possible interest. A set of classification rules is then used to identify analyzable interphase cells and discard nonanalyzable cells due to cell overlapping and/or other image staining debris (or artifacts). The scheme then maps the detected analyzable cells onto two other gray scale images corresponding to the red and green color of the original image followed by application of a raster scan and labeling algorithms to separately detect the HER-2/neu ("red") and CEP17 ("green") FISH signals. A simple distance based criterion is applied to detect and merge split FISH signals within each cell. The CAD scheme computes the ratio between independent "red" and "green" FISH signals of all analyzable cells identified on an image. If the ratio is >= 2.0, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from a HER2+ case; otherwise, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from HER2- case. When we applied the CAD scheme to the testing dataset, the average computed HER2 amplification ratios were 1.06+/-0.25 and 2.53+/-0.81 for HER2- and HER2+ samples, respectively. The

  7. Computer aided diagnosis based on medical image processing and artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoitsis, John; Valavanis, Ioannis; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G.; Golemati, Spyretta; Nikita, Alexandra; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2006-12-01

    Advances in imaging technology and computer science have greatly enhanced interpretation of medical images, and contributed to early diagnosis. The typical architecture of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system includes image pre-processing, definition of region(s) of interest, features extraction and selection, and classification. In this paper, the principles of CAD systems design and development are demonstrated by means of two examples. The first one focuses on the differentiation between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atheromatous plaques. For each plaque, a vector of texture and motion features was estimated, which was then reduced to the most robust ones by means of ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA). Using fuzzy c-means, the features were then clustered into two classes. Clustering performances of 74%, 79%, and 84% were achieved for texture only, motion only, and combinations of texture and motion features, respectively. The second CAD system presented in this paper supports the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and is able to characterize liver tissue from Computed Tomography (CT) images as normal, hepatic cyst, hemangioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Five texture feature sets were extracted for each lesion, while a genetic algorithm based feature selection method was applied to identify the most robust features. The selected feature set was fed into an ensemble of neural network classifiers. The achieved classification performance was 100%, 93.75% and 90.63% in the training, validation and testing set, respectively. It is concluded that computerized analysis of medical images in combination with artificial intelligence can be used in clinical practice and may contribute to more efficient diagnosis.

  8. MOVANAID: An Interactive Aid for Analysis of Movement Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, George E.; And Others

    A computer-drive interactive aid for movement analysis, called MOVANAID, has been developed to be of assistance in the performance of certain Army intelligence processing tasks in a tactical environment. It can compute fastest travel times and paths through road networks for military units of various types, as well as fastest times in which…

  9. Image analysis library software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Bryant, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Image Analysis Library consists of a collection of general purpose mathematical/statistical routines and special purpose data analysis/pattern recognition routines basic to the development of image analysis techniques for support of current and future Earth Resources Programs. Work was done to provide a collection of computer routines and associated documentation which form a part of the Image Analysis Library.

  10. Synthesis Sheets: An Aid To Synthetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, W. Clark

    1973-01-01

    Describes the development of a scheme which allows the production of a complete synthesis tree through the backward analysis of a target molecule into precursor and pathway catalogues. The logical organizing framework will find applications to teaching of multistep organic synthesis. (CC)

  11. Computer aided morphometric analysis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Gupta, J; Miglani, R

    2016-01-01

    We compared the changes in the cells in the basal layer of normal mucosa, oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computer aided image analysis of tissue sections. We investigated three morphometric parameters: nuclear area (NA), cell area (CA) and their ratio (NA:CA). NA and NA:CA ratio showed a statistically significant increase from dysplasia to increasing grades of OSCC. Nuclear size was useful for differentiating normal tissue, potentially malignant leukoplakia and OSCC.

  12. Digital Image Analysis of Cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Image analysis is the extraction of meaningful information from images, mainly digital images by means of digital processing techniques. The field was established in the 1950s and coincides with the advent of computer technology, as image analysis is profoundly reliant on computer processing. As t...

  13. Medical Image Analysis Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  14. [PIV: a computer-aided portal image verification system].

    PubMed

    Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wu, Jing

    2002-12-01

    Portal image verification (PIV) is one of the key actions in QA procedure for sophisticated accurate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a PIV software as a tool for improving the accuracy and visualization of portal field verification and computing field placement errors. PIV was developed in the visual C++ integrated environment under Windows 95 operating system. It can improve visualization by providing tools for image processing and multimode images display. Semi-automatic register methods make verification more accurate than view-box method. It can provide useful quantitative errors for regular fields. PIV is flexible and accurate. It is an effective tool for portal field verification.

  15. A Computer Aided Statistical Covariance Program for Missile System Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    ENGINEERING RESEARCH OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY A COMPUTER AIDED STATISTICAL COVARIANCE PROGRAM FOR MISSILE SYSTEM ANALYSI. TO D JN2 U. S. Army Missile...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Office of Engineering Rsch, Oklahoma State Univ Agiculture...ANALYSIS by James R. Rowland and V. M. Gupta School of Electrical Engineering V Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Office of Engineering

  16. Computer-aided diagnostics of screening mammography using content-based image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Soiron, Michael; de Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; de A. Araújo, Arnaldo

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of death among women in occidental countries. In the last years, screening mammography has been established worldwide for early detection of breast cancer, and computer-aided diagnostics (CAD) is being developed to assist physicians reading mammograms. A promising method for CAD is content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Recently, we have developed a classification scheme of suspicious tissue pattern based on the support vector machine (SVM). In this paper, we continue moving towards automatic CAD of screening mammography. The experiments are based on in total 10,509 radiographs that have been collected from different sources. From this, 3,375 images are provided with one and 430 radiographs with more than one chain code annotation of cancerous regions. In different experiments, this data is divided into 12 and 20 classes, distinguishing between four categories of tissue density, three categories of pathology and in the 20 class problem two categories of different types of lesions. Balancing the number of images in each class yields 233 and 45 images remaining in each of the 12 and 20 classes, respectively. Using a two-dimensional principal component analysis, features are extracted from small patches of 128 x 128 pixels and classified by means of a SVM. Overall, the accuracy of the raw classification was 61.6 % and 52.1 % for the 12 and the 20 class problem, respectively. The confusion matrices are assessed for detailed analysis. Furthermore, an implementation of a SVM-based CBIR system for CADx in screening mammography is presented. In conclusion, with a smarter patch extraction, the CBIR approach might reach precision rates that are helpful for the physicians. This, however, needs more comprehensive evaluation on clinical data.

  17. Deep Learning in Medical Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Guorong; Suk, Heung-Il

    2017-03-09

    This review covers computer-assisted analysis of images in the field of medical imaging. Recent advances in machine learning, especially with regard to deep learning, are helping to identify, classify, and quantify patterns in medical images. At the core of these advances is the ability to exploit hierarchical feature representations learned solely from data, instead of features designed by hand according to domain-specific knowledge. Deep learning is rapidly becoming the state of the art, leading to enhanced performance in various medical applications. We introduce the fundamentals of deep learning methods and review their successes in image registration, detection of anatomical and cellular structures, tissue segmentation, computer-aided disease diagnosis and prognosis, and so on. We conclude by discussing research issues and suggesting future directions for further improvement. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 19 is June 4, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  18. Computer aided lytic bone metastasis detection using regular CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; O'Connor, Stacy D.; Summers, Ronald

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a computer aided detection system to find lytic bone metastases in the spine. The CAD system is designed to run on routine chest and/or abdominal CT exams (5mm slice thickness) obtained during a patient's evaluation for other indications. The system can therefore serve as a background procedure to detect bone metastases. The spine is first automatically extracted based on adaptive thresholding, morphological operation, and region growing. The spinal cord is then traced from thoracic spine to lumbar spine using a dynamic graph search to set up a local spine coordinate system. A watershed algorithm is then applied to detect potential lytic bone lesions. A set of 26 quantitative features (density, shape and location) are computed for each detection. After a filter on the features, Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used as classifiers to determine if a detection is a true lesion. The SVM was trained using ground truth segmentation manually defined by experts.

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  20. Automated image analysis of uterine cervical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Gu, Jia; Ferris, Daron; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality of women in developing countries. If detected early and treated adequately, cervical cancer can be virtually prevented. Cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician with a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. In colposcopy, epithelium that turns white after application of acetic acid is called acetowhite epithelium. Acetowhite epithelium is one of the major diagnostic features observed in detecting cancer and pre-cancerous regions. Automatic extraction of acetowhite regions from cervical images has been a challenging task due to specular reflection, various illumination conditions, and most importantly, large intra-patient variation. This paper presents a multi-step acetowhite region detection system to analyze the acetowhite lesions in cervical images automatically. First, the system calibrates the color of the cervical images to be independent of screening devices. Second, the anatomy of the uterine cervix is analyzed in terms of cervix region, external os region, columnar region, and squamous region. Third, the squamous region is further analyzed and subregions based on three levels of acetowhite are identified. The extracted acetowhite regions are accompanied by color scores to indicate the different levels of acetowhite. The system has been evaluated by 40 human subjects' data and demonstrates high correlation with experts' annotations.

  1. Computer-aided prognosis on breast cancer with hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images: A review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Mei; Li, Yan; Xu, Jun; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lin-Wei; Liu, Wen-Lou; Liu, Juan

    2017-03-01

    With the advance of digital pathology, image analysis has begun to show its advantages in information analysis of hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images. Generally, histological features in hematoxylin and eosin images are measured to evaluate tumor grade and prognosis for breast cancer. This review summarized recent works in image analysis of hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images for breast cancer prognosis. First, prognostic factors for breast cancer based on hematoxylin and eosin histopathology images were summarized. Then, usual procedures of image analysis for breast cancer prognosis were systematically reviewed, including image acquisition, image preprocessing, image detection and segmentation, and feature extraction. Finally, the prognostic value of image features and image feature-based prognostic models was evaluated. Moreover, we discussed the issues of current analysis, and some directions for future research.

  2. Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential.

    PubMed

    Patton, Niall; Aslam, Tariq M; MacGillivray, Thomas; Deary, Ian J; Dhillon, Baljean; Eikelboom, Robert H; Yogesan, Kanagasingam; Constable, Ian J

    2006-01-01

    As digital imaging and computing power increasingly develop, so too does the potential to use these technologies in ophthalmology. Image processing, analysis and computer vision techniques are increasing in prominence in all fields of medical science, and are especially pertinent to modern ophthalmology, as it is heavily dependent on visually oriented signs. The retinal microvasculature is unique in that it is the only part of the human circulation that can be directly visualised non-invasively in vivo, readily photographed and subject to digital image analysis. Exciting developments in image processing relevant to ophthalmology over the past 15 years includes the progress being made towards developing automated diagnostic systems for conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and retinopathy of prematurity. These diagnostic systems offer the potential to be used in large-scale screening programs, with the potential for significant resource savings, as well as being free from observer bias and fatigue. In addition, quantitative measurements of retinal vascular topography using digital image analysis from retinal photography have been used as research tools to better understand the relationship between the retinal microvasculature and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, advances in electronic media transmission increase the relevance of using image processing in 'teleophthalmology' as an aid in clinical decision-making, with particular relevance to large rural-based communities. In this review, we outline the principles upon which retinal digital image analysis is based. We discuss current techniques used to automatically detect landmark features of the fundus, such as the optic disc, fovea and blood vessels. We review the use of image analysis in the automated diagnosis of pathology (with particular reference to diabetic retinopathy). We also review its role in defining and performing quantitative measurements of vascular topography

  3. Computer-aided solar astronomy: an image-processing example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Bertrand; Serfaty, Veronique; Zavidovique, Bertrand

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a complete pattern recognition procedure for extracting magnetic features in solar images, for tracking each feature from an image to another, thus deriving rotational and meridional motions with unequaled accuracy, and for tracking some of these features concurrently within a multispectral image flow, thus building the corresponding 3D magnetic structure and its evolution over time. The segmentation procedures lean upon the `translation' of the physical knowledge into an algorithmic functional decomposition. This methodology enables a fast and robust design of algorithms and leads to a higher accuracy. A multiresolution elastic matching is then used to track features and extract the surface motion of the sun. This matching implies designing an optimization scheme that fits the anisotropy of the motion as well as a target selection that requires no precomputed threshold. The multispectral images are segmented in a cooperative way, thus giving 3D structures. We introduce a fast algorithm to build the 3D connection between planar sections and show how the volumic information is necessary to tracking, based on the same elastic matching scheme.

  4. Computer aided detection of oral lesions on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galib, S.; Islam, F.; Abir, M.; Lee, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions in mandibular region from dental CT images is proposed. Two methods were developed to recognize two types of lesions namely (1) Close border (CB) lesions and (2) Open border (OB) lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. For the detection of CB lesions, fifteen features were extracted from each initial lesion candidates and multi layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to classify suspicious regions. Moreover, OB lesions were detected using a rule based image processing method, where no feature extraction or classification algorithm were used. The results were validated using a CT dataset of 52 patients, where 22 patients had abnormalities and 30 patients were normal. Using non-training dataset, CB detection algorithm yielded 71% sensitivity with 0.31 false positives per patient. Furthermore, OB detection algorithm achieved 100% sensitivity with 0.13 false positives per patient. Results suggest that, the proposed framework, which consists of two methods, has the potential to be used in clinical context, and assist radiologists for better diagnosis.

  5. Intelligent Behavioral Action Aiding for Improved Autonomous Image Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    86  5.3.4  Steerable cameras...86  5.3.5  Landmark tracking using 2 pairs of steerable cameras ................................ 87  5.3.6 Use of side images...uncertainty [11] compared to using any landmarks. In the same research, it is also mentioned that if a robot’s steerable camera pans and identifies

  6. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  7. Interactive Image Analysis System Design,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    This report describes a design for an interactive image analysis system (IIAS), which implements terrain data extraction techniques. The design... analysis system. Additionally, the system is fully capable of supporting many generic types of image analysis and data processing, and is modularly...employs commercially available, state of the art minicomputers and image display devices with proven software to achieve a cost effective, reliable image

  8. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  9. Brain Imaging Analysis

    PubMed Central

    BOWMAN, F. DUBOIS

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of brain imaging technologies has led to intense neuroscientific inquiry into the human brain. Studies often investigate brain function related to emotion, cognition, language, memory, and numerous other externally induced stimuli as well as resting-state brain function. Studies also use brain imaging in an attempt to determine the functional or structural basis for psychiatric or neurological disorders and, with respect to brain function, to further examine the responses of these disorders to treatment. Neuroimaging is a highly interdisciplinary field, and statistics plays a critical role in establishing rigorous methods to extract information and to quantify evidence for formal inferences. Neuroimaging data present numerous challenges for statistical analysis, including the vast amounts of data collected from each individual and the complex temporal and spatial dependence present. We briefly provide background on various types of neuroimaging data and analysis objectives that are commonly targeted in the field. We present a survey of existing methods targeting these objectives and identify particular areas offering opportunities for future statistical contribution. PMID:25309940

  10. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis...

  12. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis...

  13. Automated Tumor Volumetry Using Computer-Aided Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bilello, Michel; Sadaghiani, Mohammed Salehi; Akbari, Hamed; Atthiah, Mark A.; Ali, Zarina S.; Da, Xiao; Zhan, Yiqang; O'Rourke, Donald; Grady, Sean M.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Accurate segmentation of brain tumors, and quantification of tumor volume, is important for diagnosis, monitoring, and planning therapeutic intervention. Manual segmentation is not widely used because of time constraints. Previous efforts have mainly produced methods that are tailored to a particular type of tumor or acquisition protocol and have mostly failed to produce a method that functions on different tumor types and is robust to changes in scanning parameters, resolution, and image quality, thereby limiting their clinical value. Herein, we present a semiautomatic method for tumor segmentation that is fast, accurate, and robust to a wide variation in image quality and resolution. Materials and Methods A semiautomatic segmentation method based on the geodesic distance transform was developed and validated by using it to segment 54 brain tumors. Glioblastomas, meningiomas, and brain metastases were segmented. Qualitative validation was based on physician ratings provided by three clinical experts. Quantitative validation was based on comparing semiautomatic and manual segmentations. Results Tumor segmentations obtained using manual and automatic methods were compared quantitatively using the Dice measure of overlap. Subjective evaluation was performed by having human experts rate the computerized segmentations on a 0–5 rating scale where 5 indicated perfect segmentation. Conclusions The proposed method addresses a significant, unmet need in the field of neuro-oncology. Specifically, this method enables clinicians to obtain accurate and reproducible tumor volumes without the need for manual segmentation. PMID:25770633

  14. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  15. Reflections on ultrasound image analysis.

    PubMed

    Alison Noble, J

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) image analysis has advanced considerably in twenty years. Progress in ultrasound image analysis has always been fundamental to the advancement of image-guided interventions research due to the real-time acquisition capability of ultrasound and this has remained true over the two decades. But in quantitative ultrasound image analysis - which takes US images and turns them into more meaningful clinical information - thinking has perhaps more fundamentally changed. From roots as a poor cousin to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) image analysis, both of which have richer anatomical definition and thus were better suited to the earlier eras of medical image analysis which were dominated by model-based methods, ultrasound image analysis has now entered an exciting new era, assisted by advances in machine learning and the growing clinical and commercial interest in employing low-cost portable ultrasound devices outside traditional hospital-based clinical settings. This short article provides a perspective on this change, and highlights some challenges ahead and potential opportunities in ultrasound image analysis which may both have high impact on healthcare delivery worldwide in the future but may also, perhaps, take the subject further away from CT and MR image analysis research with time.

  16. Spreadsheet-Like Image Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    1 " DTIC AD-A254 395 S LECTE D, ° AD-E402 350 Technical Report ARPAD-TR-92002 SPREADSHEET-LIKE IMAGE ANALYSIS Paul Willson August 1992 U.S. ARMY...August 1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS SPREADSHEET-LIKE IMAGE ANALYSIS 6. AUTHOR(S) Paul Willson 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Image analysis , nondestructive inspection, spreadsheet, Macintosh software, 14 neural network, signal processing

  17. Knowledge-Based Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    UNCLASSIF1 ED ETL-025s N IIp ETL-0258 AL Ai01319 S"Knowledge-based image analysis u George C. Stockman Barbara A. Lambird I David Lavine Laveen N. Kanal...extraction, verification, region classification, pattern recognition, image analysis . 3 20. A. CT (Continue on rever.. d. It necessary and Identify by...UNCLgSTFTF n In f SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Date Entered) .L1 - I Table of Contents Knowledge Based Image Analysis I Preface

  18. Medical image analysis with artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Trundle, P; Ren, J

    2010-12-01

    Given that neural networks have been widely reported in the research community of medical imaging, we provide a focused literature survey on recent neural network developments in computer-aided diagnosis, medical image segmentation and edge detection towards visual content analysis, and medical image registration for its pre-processing and post-processing, with the aims of increasing awareness of how neural networks can be applied to these areas and to provide a foundation for further research and practical development. Representative techniques and algorithms are explained in detail to provide inspiring examples illustrating: (i) how a known neural network with fixed structure and training procedure could be applied to resolve a medical imaging problem; (ii) how medical images could be analysed, processed, and characterised by neural networks; and (iii) how neural networks could be expanded further to resolve problems relevant to medical imaging. In the concluding section, a highlight of comparisons among many neural network applications is included to provide a global view on computational intelligence with neural networks in medical imaging.

  19. Computer-aided diagnostic approach of dermoscopy images acquiring relevant features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillejos-Fernández, H.; Franco-Arcega, A.; López-Ortega, O.

    2016-09-01

    In skin cancer detection, automated analysis of borders, colors, and structures of a lesion relies upon an accurate segmentation process and it is an important first step in any Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. However, irregular and disperse lesion borders, low contrast, artifacts in images and variety of colors within the interest region make the problem difficult. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach of automatic classification which considers specific lesion features. First, for the selection of lesion skin we employ the segmentation algorithm W-FCM.1 Then, in the feature extraction stage we consider several aspects: the area of the lesion, which is calculated by correlating axes and we calculate the specific the value of asymmetry in both axes. For color analysis we employ an ensemble of clusterers including K-Means, Fuzzy K-Means and Kohonep maps, all of which estimate the presence of one or more colors defined in ABCD rule and the values for each of the segmented colors. Another aspect to consider is the type of structures that appear in the lesion Those are defined by using the ell-known GLCM method. During the classification stage we compare several methods in order to define if the lesion is benign or malignant. An important contribution of the current approach in segmentation-classification problem resides in the use of information from all color channels together, as well as the measure of each color in the lesion and the axes correlation. The segmentation and classification measures have been performed using sensibility, specificity, accuracy and AUC metric over a set of dermoscopy images from ISDIS data set

  20. A review of computer-aided diagnosis in thoracic and colonic imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging has been indispensable in medicine since the discovery of x-rays. Medical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and on the causes of their symptoms and diseases. As imaging technologies advance, a large number of medical images are produced which physicians/radiologists must interpret. Thus, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making based on medical images. Consequently, computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) has been investigated and has been an active research area in medical imaging. CAD is defined as detection and/or diagnosis made by a radiologist/physician who takes into account the computer output as a “second opinion”. In CAD research, detection and diagnosis of lung and colorectal cancer in thoracic and colonic imaging constitute major areas, because lung and colorectal cancers are the leading and second leading causes, respectively, of cancer deaths in the U.S. and also in other countries. In this review, CAD of the thorax and colon, including CAD for detection and diagnosis of lung nodules in thoracic CT, and that for detection of polyps in CT colonography, are reviewed. PMID:23256078

  1. A novel computer-aided lung nodule detection system for CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Maxine; Deklerck, Rudi; Jansen, Bart; Bister, Michel; Cornelis, Jan

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The paper presents a complete computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. A new mixed feature selection and classification methodology is applied for the first time on a difficult medical image analysis problem. Methods: The CAD system was trained and tested on images from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) on the National Cancer Institute website. The detection stage of the system consists of a nodule segmentation method based on nodule and vessel enhancement filters and a computed divergence feature to locate the centers of the nodule clusters. In the subsequent classification stage, invariant features, defined on a gauge coordinates system, are used to differentiate between real nodules and some forms of blood vessels that are easily generating false positive detections. The performance of the novel feature-selective classifier based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is compared with that of two other established classifiers, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and fixed-topology neural networks. A set of 235 randomly selected cases from the LIDC database was used to train the CAD system. The system has been tested on 125 independent cases from the LIDC database. Results: The overall performance of the fixed-topology ANN classifier slightly exceeds that of the other classifiers, provided the number of internal ANN nodes is chosen well. Making educated guesses about the number of internal ANN nodes is not needed in the new feature-selective classifier, and therefore this classifier remains interesting due to its flexibility and adaptability to the complexity of the classification problem to be solved. Our fixed-topology ANN classifier with 11 hidden nodes reaches a detection sensitivity of 87.5% with an average of four false positives per scan, for nodules with diameter greater than or equal to 3 mm. Analysis of the false positive items

  2. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  3. Multidisciplinary Expert-aided Analysis and Design (MEAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Thomas C.; Taylor, James

    1989-01-01

    The MEAD Computer Program (MCP) is being developed under the Multidisciplinary Expert-Aided Analysis and Design (MEAD) Project as a CAD environment in which integrated flight, propulsion, and structural control systems can be designed and analyzed. The MCP has several embedded computer-aided control engineering (CACE) packages, a user interface (UI), a supervisor, a data-base manager (DBM), and an expert system (ES). The supervisor monitors and coordinates the operation of the CACE packages, the DBM; the ES, and the UI. The DBM tracks the control design process. Models created or installed by the MCP are tracked by date and version, and results are associated with the specific model version with which they were generated. The ES is used to relieve the control engineer from tedious and cumbersome tasks in the iterative design process. The UI provides the capability for a novice as well as an expert to utilize the MCP easily and effectively. The MCP version 2(MCP-2.0) is fully developed for flight control system design and analysis. Propulsion system modeling, analysis, and simulation is also supported; the same is true for structural models represented in state-space form. The ultimate goal is to cover the integration of flight, propulsion, and structural control engineering, including all discipline-specific functionality and interfaces. The current MCP-2.0 components and functionality are discussed.

  4. Spotlight-8 Image Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert; Wright, Ted

    2006-01-01

    Spotlight is a cross-platform GUI-based software package designed to perform image analysis on sequences of images generated by combustion and fluid physics experiments run in a microgravity environment. Spotlight can perform analysis on a single image in an interactive mode or perform analysis on a sequence of images in an automated fashion. Image processing operations can be employed to enhance the image before various statistics and measurement operations are performed. An arbitrarily large number of objects can be analyzed simultaneously with independent areas of interest. Spotlight saves results in a text file that can be imported into other programs for graphing or further analysis. Spotlight can be run on Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Apple OS X platforms.

  5. Financial Aid Tipping Points: An Analysis of Aid and Academic Achievement at a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…

  6. Oncological image analysis: medical and molecular image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Michael

    2007-03-01

    This paper summarises the work we have been doing on joint projects with GE Healthcare on colorectal and liver cancer, and with Siemens Molecular Imaging on dynamic PET. First, we recall the salient facts about cancer and oncological image analysis. Then we introduce some of the work that we have done on analysing clinical MRI images of colorectal and liver cancer, specifically the detection of lymph nodes and segmentation of the circumferential resection margin. In the second part of the paper, we shift attention to the complementary aspect of molecular image analysis, illustrating our approach with some recent work on: tumour acidosis, tumour hypoxia, and multiply drug resistant tumours.

  7. Hyperspectral image analysis. A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Amigo, José Manuel; Babamoradi, Hamid; Elcoroaristizabal, Saioa

    2015-10-08

    This tutorial aims at providing guidelines and practical tools to assist with the analysis of hyperspectral images. Topics like hyperspectral image acquisition, image pre-processing, multivariate exploratory analysis, hyperspectral image resolution, classification and final digital image processing will be exposed, and some guidelines given and discussed. Due to the broad character of current applications and the vast number of multivariate methods available, this paper has focused on an industrial chemical framework to explain, in a step-wise manner, how to develop a classification methodology to differentiate between several types of plastics by using Near infrared hyperspectral imaging and Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis. Thus, the reader is guided through every single step and oriented in order to adapt those strategies to the user's case.

  8. Computer-based image analysis in breast pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gandomkar, Ziba; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI) has the potential to be utilized in telepathology, teleconsultation, quality assurance, clinical education, and digital image analysis to aid pathologists. In this paper, the potential added benefits of computer-assisted image analysis in breast pathology are reviewed and discussed. One of the major advantages of WSI systems is the possibility of doing computer-based image analysis on the digital slides. The purpose of computer-assisted analysis of breast virtual slides can be (i) segmentation of desired regions or objects such as diagnostically relevant areas, epithelial nuclei, lymphocyte cells, tubules, and mitotic figures, (ii) classification of breast slides based on breast cancer (BCa) grades, the invasive potential of tumors, or cancer subtypes, (iii) prognosis of BCa, or (iv) immunohistochemical quantification. While encouraging results have been achieved in this area, further progress is still required to make computer-based image analysis of breast virtual slides acceptable for clinical practice. PMID:28066683

  9. HIV/AIDS counseling: analysis based on Paulo Freire.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Karla Corrêa Lima; Barroso, Maria Grasiela Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the strategies health professionals use in HIV/AIDS counseling. This study is a qualitative research, based on Paulo Freire's theory and practice. Bardin's content analysis was used as the analysis technique. For the studied group, the counseling is focused on cognition, although new concepts permeating this subject are emerging. The main difficulties in counseling are related to the clients and the institution. The main facility is related to the team, which according to the group has a good relationship. Counseling represents a moment of distress, especially because it brings up existential questions to the counselor. It can be inferred that counseling is a special moment, but it does not constitute an educational moment yet. To obtain this goal, a counseling methodology is proposed, based on Paulo Freire's principles and concepts.

  10. Transactional Analysis of Communication Styles in HIV/AIDS Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, M; Carr, S C; Fardell, S; Maffesoni, G; Cunningham, J

    1997-01-01

    Television advertising has been an important medium for health promotion campaigns addressing HIV/AIDS. This study sought to evaluate the 'Grim Reaper' and 'Multiple Beds' advertisements frequently broadcasted throughout Australia. Our model for evaluation was based on a theoretical synthesis of television advertising, transactional analysis (TA) and recall congruence. Eighty-three participants viewed each advertisement and rated which ego state the source of the message was attempting to 'hook' in the audience. They also predicted their own ego state during sexual intercourse and rated the effectiveness of the advertisements. As predicted by TA theory, a crossed transaction was associated with significantly less psychological impact than a parallel transaction for the 'Grim Reaper' advertisement. A similar trend was apparent for the 'Multiple Beds' advertisement. Important issues which warrant further research in order to evaluate whether transactional analysis could be a useful tool in promoting health are discussed.

  11. High Tech Aids Low Vision: A Review of Image Processing for the Visually Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Moshtael, Howard; Aslam, Tariq; Underwood, Ian; Dhillon, Baljean

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in digital image processing provide promising methods for maximizing the residual vision of the visually impaired. This paper seeks to introduce this field to the readership and describe its current state as found in the literature. A systematic search revealed 37 studies that measure the value of image processing techniques for subjects with low vision. The techniques used are categorized according to their effect and the principal findings are summarized. The majority of participants preferred enhanced images over the original for a wide range of enhancement types. Adapting the contrast and spatial frequency content often improved performance at object recognition and reading speed, as did techniques that attenuate the image background and a technique that induced jitter. A lack of consistency in preference and performance measures was found, as well as a lack of independent studies. Nevertheless, the promising results should encourage further research in order to allow their widespread use in low-vision aids. PMID:26290777

  12. High Tech Aids Low Vision: A Review of Image Processing for the Visually Impaired.

    PubMed

    Moshtael, Howard; Aslam, Tariq; Underwood, Ian; Dhillon, Baljean

    2015-08-01

    Recent advances in digital image processing provide promising methods for maximizing the residual vision of the visually impaired. This paper seeks to introduce this field to the readership and describe its current state as found in the literature. A systematic search revealed 37 studies that measure the value of image processing techniques for subjects with low vision. The techniques used are categorized according to their effect and the principal findings are summarized. The majority of participants preferred enhanced images over the original for a wide range of enhancement types. Adapting the contrast and spatial frequency content often improved performance at object recognition and reading speed, as did techniques that attenuate the image background and a technique that induced jitter. A lack of consistency in preference and performance measures was found, as well as a lack of independent studies. Nevertheless, the promising results should encourage further research in order to allow their widespread use in low-vision aids.

  13. Underwater terrain-aided navigation based on multibeam bathymetric sonar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziqi; Bian, Hongyu; Zielinski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Underwater terrain-aided navigation is used to complement traditional inertial navigation employed by autonomous underwater vehicles during lengthy missions. It can provide fixed estimations by matching real-time depth data with a digital terrain map. This study presents the concept of using image processing techniques in the underwater terrain matching process. A traditional gray-scale histogram of an image is enriched by incorporation with spatial information in pixels. Edge corner pixels are then defined and used to construct an edge corner histogram, which it employs as a template to scan the digital terrain map and estimate the fixes of the vehicle by searching the correlation peak. Simulations are performed to investigate the robustness of the proposed method, particularly in relation to its sensitivity to background noise, the scale of real-time images, and the travel direction of the vehicle. At an image resolution of 1 m2/pixel, the accuracy of localization is more than 10 meters.

  14. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 8: Need Analysis. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The eighth module in a 17-module self-instructional program on student financial aid administration (designed for novice student financial aid administrators and other personnel) focuses on need analysis. It provides an introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs authorized by the Higher Education Act Title IV. After…

  15. Radiologist and automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    1999-07-01

    Significant advances are being made in the area of automated medical image analysis. Part of the progress is due to the general advances being made in the types of algorithms used to process images and perform various detection and recognition tasks. A more important reason for this growth in medical image analysis processes, may be due however to a very different reason. The use of computer workstations, digital image acquisition technologies and the use of CRT monitors for display of medical images for primary diagnostic reading is becoming more prevalent in radiology departments around the world. With the advance in computer- based displays, however, has come the realization that displaying images on a CRT monitor is not the same as displaying film on a viewbox. There are perceptual, cognitive and ergonomic issues that must be considered if radiologists are to accept this change in technology and display. The bottom line is that radiologists' performance must be evaluated with these new technologies and image analysis techniques in order to verify that diagnostic performance is at least as good with these new technologies and image analysis procedures as with film-based displays. The goal of this paper is to address some of the perceptual, cognitive and ergonomic issues associated with reading radiographic images from digital displays.

  16. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  17. Histopathological Image Analysis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Boucheron, Laura; Can, Ali; Madabhushi, Anant; Rajpoot, Nasir; Yener, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic increases in computational power and improvement in image analysis algorithms have allowed the development of powerful computer-assisted analytical approaches to radiological data. With the recent advent of whole slide digital scanners, tissue histopathology slides can now be digitized and stored in digital image form. Consequently, digitized tissue histopathology has now become amenable to the application of computerized image analysis and machine learning techniques. Analogous to the role of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms in medical imaging to complement the opinion of a radiologist, CAD algorithms have begun to be developed for disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction to complement to the opinion of the pathologist. In this paper, we review the recent state of the art CAD technology for digitized histopathology. This paper also briefly describes the development and application of novel image analysis technology for a few specific histopathology related problems being pursued in the United States and Europe. PMID:20671804

  18. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  19. Feasibility Testing of an Automated Image-Capture Method to Aid Dietary Recall

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Estrin, Deborah; Kim, Donnie H.; Burke, Jeff; Goldman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives The accuracy of dietary recalls might be enhanced by providing participants with photo images of foods they consumed during the test period. Subjects/Methods We examined the feasibility of a system (Image-Diet Day) that is a user-initiated camera-equipped mobile phone that is programmed to automatically capture and transmit images to a secure website in conjunction with computer-assisted, multi-pass, 24-hour dietary recalls in 14 participants during 2007. Participants used the device during eating periods on each of the three independent days. Image processing filters successfully eliminated underexposed, over-exposed, and blurry images. Captured images were accessed by participants using the ImageViewer software while completing the 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. Results None of the participants reported difficulty using the ImageViewer. Images were deemed “helpful” or “sort of helpful” by 93% of participants. A majority (79%) of users reported having no technical problems, but 71% rated the burden of wearing the device as somewhat to very difficult, owing to issues such as limited battery life, self-consciousness about wearing the device in public, and concerns about the camera’s field of view. Conclusion Overall, these findings suggest that automated imaging is a promising technology to facilitate dietary recall. The challenge of managing the thousands of images generated can be met. Smaller devices with a broader field of view may aid in overcoming user’s self-consciousness with using or wearing the device PMID:21587282

  20. Computer aided analysis, simulation and optimisation of thermal sterilisation processes.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, C M; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-04-01

    Although thermal sterilisation is a widely employed industrial process, little work is reported in the available literature including patents on the mathematical analysis and simulation of these processes. In the present work, software packages have been developed for computer aided optimum design of thermal sterilisation processes. Systems involving steam sparging, jacketed heating/cooling, helical coils submerged in agitated vessels and systems that employ external heat exchangers (double pipe, shell and tube and plate exchangers) have been considered. Both batch and continuous operations have been analysed and simulated. The dependence of del factor on system / operating parameters such as mass or volume of substrate to be sterilised per batch, speed of agitation, helix diameter, substrate to steam ratio, rate of substrate circulation through heat exchanger and that through holding tube have been analysed separately for each mode of sterilisation. Axial dispersion in the holding tube has also been adequately accounted for through an appropriately defined axial dispersion coefficient. The effect of exchanger characteristics/specifications on the system performance has also been analysed. The multiparameter computer aided design (CAD) software packages prepared are thus highly versatile in nature and they permit to make the most optimum choice of operating variables for the processes selected. The computed results have been compared with extensive data collected from a number of industries (distilleries, food processing and pharmaceutical industries) and pilot plants and satisfactory agreement has been observed between the two, thereby ascertaining the accuracy of the CAD softwares developed. No simplifying assumptions have been made during the analysis and the design of associated heating / cooling equipment has been performed utilising the most updated design correlations and computer softwares.

  1. Using a targeting metric to predict the utility of an EO imager as a pilotage aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmerhausen, Richard H.; Bui, Trang

    2006-05-01

    Army aviators use both image intensified goggles and thermal imagers as night vision aids when flying helicopters at night. The Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric can be used to predict how well these imagers support the pilotage task under different illumination and thermal contrast conditions. The TTP metric predicts the field performance of the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System, the Apache Helicopter Pilot's Night Vision System, and the Advanced Helicopter Pilotage system. These three systems represent diverse technologies: image intensified goggles, a first generation thermal imager, and a second-generation thermal imager. The ability of the TTP metric to predict the behavior of these diverse systems is evidence of its suitability as a pilotage metric. This paper discusses the application of the TTP metric to helicopter pilotage. Data from field surveys of Army aviators are used to validate the use of the TTP metric to predict pilotage system performance. Since knowledge of scene contrast is necessary to make sensor design trades using the TTP metric, a discussion of the terrain thermal contrast available in the mid-wave and long-wave infrared is also provided.

  2. Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit (FIIAT) is a C library that provides image analysis functions in a single, portable package. It provides basic low-level filtering, texture analysis, and subwindow descriptor for applications dealing with image interpretation and object recognition. Designed with spaceflight in mind, it addresses: Ease of integration (minimal external dependencies) Fast, real-time operation using integer arithmetic where possible (useful for platforms lacking a dedicated floatingpoint processor) Written entirely in C (easily modified) Mostly static memory allocation 8-bit image data The basic goal of the FIIAT library is to compute meaningful numerical descriptors for images or rectangular image regions. These n-vectors can then be used directly for novelty detection or pattern recognition, or as a feature space for higher-level pattern recognition tasks. The library provides routines for leveraging training data to derive descriptors that are most useful for a specific data set. Its runtime algorithms exploit a structure known as the "integral image." This is a caching method that permits fast summation of values within rectangular regions of an image. This integral frame facilitates a wide range of fast image-processing functions. This toolkit has applicability to a wide range of autonomous image analysis tasks in the space-flight domain, including novelty detection, object and scene classification, target detection for autonomous instrument placement, and science analysis of geomorphology. It makes real-time texture and pattern recognition possible for platforms with severe computational restraints. The software provides an order of magnitude speed increase over alternative software libraries currently in use by the research community. FIIAT can commercially support intelligent video cameras used in intelligent surveillance. It is also useful for object recognition by robots or other autonomous vehicles

  3. Computer-Aided Assessment of Tumor Grade for Breast Cancer in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an AZ of 0.7940. PMID:25810750

  4. GPS-aided method for platform attitude determination based on target images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Teng; Xu, Lijun; Tian, Xiangrui; Li, Xiaolu

    2017-03-10

    Attitude measurement error is one of the main factors that deteriorates the imaging accuracy of laser scanning. In view of the fact that the inertial navigation system (INS) with high accuracy is very costly, a low-cost but effective GPS-aided method based on the target images is proposed to measure the platform attitude angles in this paper. Based on the relationship between the attitude change of the platform and the displacement of two adjacent images, the attitude change can be derived by the proposed method. To quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the platform attitude angles measured by the proposed method, an outdoor experiment was carried out in comparison with the GPS/INS method. The preliminary results demonstrated that the measurement accuracy using the proposed method was better than 0.05° (RMSE).

  5. Study on computer-aided diagnosis of hepatic MR imaging and mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuejun

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that the liver is an organ easily attacked by diseases. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for helping radiologists to differentiate hepatic diseases more efficiently. Our software named LIVERANN integrated the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with different pulse sequences to classify the five categories of hepatic diseases by using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The intensity and homogeneity within the region of interest (ROI) delineated by a radiologist were automatically calculated to obtain numerical data by the program for input signals to the ANN. Outputs were the five pathological categories of hepatic diseases (hepatic cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplasia in cirrhosis, cavernous hemangioma, and metastasis). The experiment demonstrated a testing accuracy of 93% from 80 patients. In order to differentiate the cirrhosis from normal liver, the volume ratio of left to whole (LTW) was proposed to quantify the degree of cirrhosis by three-dimensional (3D) volume analysis. The liver region was firstly extracted from computed tomography (CT) or MR slices based on edge detection algorithms, and then separated into left lobe and right lobe by the hepatic umbilical fissure. The volume ratio of these two parts showed that the LTW ratio in the liver was significantly improved in the differentiation performance, with (25.6%{+-}4.3%) in cirrhosis versus the normal liver (16.4%{+-}5.4%). In addition, the application of the ANN method for detecting clustered microcalcifications in masses on mammograms was described here as well. A new structural ANN, so-called a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN), was integrated with our triple-ring filter (TRF) method in our CAD system. As the result, the sensitivity of detecting clusters was improved from 90% by our previous TRF method to 95% by using both SIANN and TRF.

  6. Image-based retrieval system and computer-aided diagnosis system for renal cortical scintigraphy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumcuoğlu, Erkan; Nar, Fatih; Uğur, Omer; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Aslan, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    Cortical renal (kidney) scintigraphy images are 2D images (256x256) acquired in three projection angles (posterior, right-posterior-oblique and left-posterior-oblique). These images are used by nuclear medicine specialists to examine the functional morphology of kidney parenchyma. The main visual features examined in reading the images are: size, location, shape and activity distribution (pixel intensity distribution within the boundary of each kidney). Among the above features, activity distribution (in finding scars if any) was found to have the least interobserver reproducibility. Therefore, in this study, we developed an image-based retrieval (IBR) and a computer-based diagnosis (CAD) system, focused on this feature in particular. The developed IBR and CAD algorithms start with automatic segmentation, boundary and landmark detection. Then, shape and activity distribution features are computed. Activity distribution feature is obtained using the acquired image and image set statistics of the normal patients. Active Shape Model (ASM) technique is used for more accurate kidney segmentation. In the training step of ASM, normal patient images are used. Retrieval performance is evaluated by calculating precision and recall. CAD performance is evaluated by specificity and sensitivity. To our knowledge, this paper is the first IBR or CAD system reported in the literature on renal cortical scintigraphy images.

  7. Optimal Image Stitching for Concrete Bridge Bottom Surfaces Aided by 3d Structure Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yahui; Yao, Jian; Liu, Kang; Lu, Xiaohu; Xia, Menghan

    2016-06-01

    Crack detection for bridge bottom surfaces via remote sensing techniques is undergoing a revolution in the last few years. For such applications, a large amount of images, acquired with high-resolution industrial cameras close to the bottom surfaces with some mobile platform, are required to be stitched into a wide-view single composite image. The conventional idea of stitching a panorama with the affine model or the homographic model always suffers a series of serious problems due to poor texture and out-of-focus blurring introduced by depth of field. In this paper, we present a novel method to seamlessly stitch these images aided by 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces, which are extracted from 3D camera data. First, we propose to initially align each image in geometry based on its rough position and orientation acquired with both a laser range finder (LRF) and a high-precision incremental encoder, and these images are divided into several groups with the rough position and orientation data. Secondly, the 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces are extracted from the 3D cloud points acquired with 3D cameras, which impose additional strong constraints on geometrical alignment of structure lines in adjacent images to perform a position and orientation optimization in each group to increase the local consistency. Thirdly, a homographic refinement between groups is applied to increase the global consistency. Finally, we apply a multi-band blending algorithm to generate a large-view single composite image as seamlessly as possible, which greatly eliminates both the luminance differences and the color deviations between images and further conceals image parallax. Experimental results on a set of representative images acquired from real bridge bottom surfaces illustrate the superiority of our proposed approaches.

  8. Investigation of computer-aided colonic crypt pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xin; Pan, Yinsheng; Sivak, Michael V., Jr.; Olowe, Kayode; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2007-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Approximately 50% of these deaths could be prevented by earlier detection through screening. Magnification chromoendoscopy is a technique which utilizes tissue stains applied to the gastrointestinal mucosa and high-magnification endoscopy to better visualize and characterize lesions. Prior studies have shown that shapes of colonic crypts change with disease and show characteristic patterns. Current methods for assessing colonic crypt patterns are somewhat subjective and not standardized. Computerized algorithms could be used to standardize colonic crypt pattern assessment. We have imaged resected colonic mucosa in vitro (N = 70) using methylene blue dye and a surgical microscope to approximately simulate in vivo imaging with magnification chromoendoscopy. We have developed a method of computerized processing to analyze the crypt patterns in the images. The quantitative image analysis consists of three steps. First, the crypts within the region of interest of colonic tissue are semi-automatically segmented using watershed morphological processing. Second, crypt size and shape parameters are extracted from the segmented crypts. Third, each sample is assigned to a category according to the Kudo criteria. The computerized classification is validated by comparison with human classification using the Kudo classification criteria. The computerized colonic crypt pattern analysis algorithm will enable a study of in vivo magnification chromoendoscopy of colonic crypt pattern correlated with risk of colorectal cancer. This study will assess the feasibility of screening and surveillance of the colon using magnification chromoendoscopy.

  9. Meshfree analysis with the aid of NURBS boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Sheng-Wei; Lin, Shih-Po

    2016-09-01

    We present a meshfree analysis framework to integrate the geometric exactness of non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS)-based isogeometric analysis (IGA) (Hughes et al., Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 194:4135-4195, 2005) with the flexibility of meshfree approximations. In the framework, only the NURBS boundary surface immediately available from CAD tools is used to describe the exact problem domain, and meshfree particles are inserted inside the boundary surface, in a flexible manner, for construction of the approximation for analysis. Nitche's method is employed for imposing essential boundary conditions and the domain integration in the Galerkin formulation is performed based on variationally consistent integration (VCI) to recover integration exactness. The NURBS boundary surface from CAD serves as an aid in selecting particle distributions and as the integration net for the boundary integration required both for the Nitche's method and the VCI. As shown in numerical studies, the VCI is essential for the solution accuracy of the method. Several benchmarks are tested to examine the effectiveness of the proposed framework and numerical results are compared with those obtained by the IGA.

  10. Image analysis for DNA sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Kannappan; Huang, Thomas S.

    1991-07-01

    There is a great deal of interest in automating the process of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) sequencing to support the analysis of genomic DNA such as the Human and Mouse Genome projects. In one class of gel-based sequencing protocols autoradiograph images are generated in the final step and usually require manual interpretation to reconstruct the DNA sequence represented by the image. The need to handle a large volume of sequence information necessitates automation of the manual autoradiograph reading step through image analysis in order to reduce the length of time required to obtain sequence data and reduce transcription errors. Various adaptive image enhancement, segmentation and alignment methods were applied to autoradiograph images. The methods are adaptive to the local characteristics of the image such as noise, background signal, or presence of edges. Once the two-dimensional data is converted to a set of aligned one-dimensional profiles waveform analysis is used to determine the location of each band which represents one nucleotide in the sequence. Different classification strategies including a rule-based approach are investigated to map the profile signals, augmented with the original two-dimensional image data as necessary, to textual DNA sequence information.

  11. Computer-aided diagnostic method for classification of Alzheimer's disease with atrophic image features on MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Yoshiura, Takashi; Kumazawa, Seiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Mihara, Futoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shuji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2008-03-01

    Our goal for this study was to attempt to develop a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) method for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with atrophic image features derived from specific anatomical regions in three-dimensional (3-D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Specific regions related to the cerebral atrophy of AD were white matter and gray matter regions, and CSF regions in this study. Cerebral cortical gray matter regions were determined by extracting a brain and white matter regions based on a level set based method, whose speed function depended on gradient vectors in an original image and pixel values in grown regions. The CSF regions in cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles were extracted by wrapping the brain tightly with a zero level set determined from a level set function. Volumes of the specific regions and the cortical thickness were determined as atrophic image features. Average cortical thickness was calculated in 32 subregions, which were obtained by dividing each brain region. Finally, AD patients were classified by using a support vector machine, which was trained by the image features of AD and non-AD cases. We applied our CAD method to MR images of whole brains obtained from 29 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 25 non-AD cases. As a result, the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by our computerized method was 0.901 based on a leave-one-out test in identification of AD cases among 54 cases including 8 AD patients at early stages. The accuracy for discrimination between 29 AD patients and 25 non-AD subjects was 0.840, which was determined at the point where the sensitivity was the same as the specificity on the ROC curve. This result showed that our CAD method based on atrophic image features may be promising for detecting AD patients by using 3-D MR images.

  12. Quantitative analysis of qualitative images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-03-01

    We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

  13. Errors from Image Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, William Monford

    2015-02-23

    Presenting a systematic study of the standard analysis of rod-pinch radiographs for obtaining quantitative measurements of areal mass densities, and making suggestions for improving the methodology of obtaining quantitative information from radiographed objects.

  14. Functional Analysis of HIV/AIDS Stigma: Consensus or Divergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia

    2011-01-01

    Functional theory proposes that attitudes may serve a variety of purposes for individuals. This study aimed to determine whether stigmatized attitudes toward HIV/AIDS serve the same function for all (consensus function) or serve different functions for different individuals (divergence function) by assessing various aspects of HIV/AIDS stigma…

  15. HIV/AIDS in Communities of Color: A Lasswellian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble Michael N.; Bride, Brian E.

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has changed drastically since the introduction of life-saving drugs known as highly active antiretroviral treatment. These same drugs have created a schism between the haves and the have-nots in society. The demographics of the disease have also changed alongside treatment. This article explores the changing face of HIV/AIDS in the 21st…

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis of carotid atherosclerosis based on ultrasound image statistics, laws' texture and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Mougiakakou, Stavroula G R; Golemati, Spyretta; Gousias, Ioannis; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative characterisation of carotid atherosclerosis and classification into symptomatic or asymptomatic is crucial in planning optimal treatment of atheromatous plaque. The computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system described in this paper can analyse ultrasound (US) images of carotid artery and classify them into symptomatic or asymptomatic based on their echogenicity characteristics. The CAD system consists of three modules: a) the feature extraction module, where first-order statistical (FOS) features and Laws' texture energy can be estimated, b) the dimensionality reduction module, where the number of features can be reduced using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and c) the classifier module consisting of a neural network (NN) trained by a novel hybrid method based on genetic algorithms (GAs) along with the back propagation algorithm. The hybrid method is able to select the most robust features, to adjust automatically the NN architecture and to optimise the classification performance. The performance is measured by the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The CAD design and development is based on images from 54 symptomatic and 54 asymptomatic plaques. This study demonstrates the ability of a CAD system based on US image analysis and a hybrid trained NN to identify atheromatous plaques at high risk of stroke.

  17. 75 FR 53968 - Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... proposed order. This matter involves the public relations, marketing, and sales services that respondents... Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in...

  18. Age-based computer-aided diagnosis approach for pancreatic cancer on endoscopic ultrasound images

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Murat; Cakiroglu, Murat; Kocaman, Orhan; Kurt, Mevlut; Yilmaz, Bulent; Can, Guray; Korkmaz, Ugur; Dandil, Emre; Eksi, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to develop a high-performance computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system with image processing and pattern recognition in diagnosing pancreatic cancer by using endosonography images. Materials and Methods: On the images, regions of interest (ROI) of three groups of patients (<40, 40-60 and >60) were extracted by experts; features were obtained from images using three different techniques and were trained separately for each age group with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to diagnose cancer. The study was conducted on endosonography images of 202 patients with pancreatic cancer and 130 noncancer patients. Results: 122 features were identified from the 332 endosonography images obtained in the study, and the 20 most appropriate features were selected by using the relief method. Images classified under three age groups (in years; <40, 40-60 and >60) were tested via 200 random tests and the following ratios were obtained in the classification: accuracy: 92%, 88.5%, and 91.7%, respectively; sensitivity: 87.5%, 85.7%, and 93.3%, respectively; and specificity: 94.1%, 91.7%, and 88.9%, respectively. When all the age groups were assessed together, the following values were obtained: accuracy: 87.5%, sensitivity: 83.3%, and specificity: 93.3%. Conclusions: It was observed that the CAD system developed in the study performed better in diagnosing pancreatic cancer images based on classification by patient age compared to diagnosis without classification. Therefore, it is imperative to take patient age into consideration to ensure higher performance. PMID:27080608

  19. Computer aided diagnosis for severity assessment of pneumoconiosis using CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Kato, Katsuya; Kishimoto, Takumi; Ashizawa, Kazuto

    2016-03-01

    240,000 participants have a screening for diagnosis of pneumoconiosis every year in Japan. Radiograph is used for staging of severity in pneumoconiosis worldwide. This paper presents a method for quantitative assessment of severity in pneumoconiosis using both size and frequency of lung nodules that detected by thin-section CT images. This method consists of three steps. First, thoracic organs (body, ribs, spine, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart, and pulmonary blood vessels) are segmented. Second, lung nodules that have radius over 1.5mm are detected. These steps used functions of our developed computer aided detection system of chest CT images. Third, severity in pneumoconiosis is quantified using size and frequency of lung nodules. This method was applied to nine pneumoconiosis patients. The initial results showed that proposed method can assess severity in pneumoconiosis quantitatively. This paper demonstrates effectiveness of our method in diagnosis and prognosis of pneumoconiosis in CT screening.

  20. Multi-Source Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    three sensor systems, but at some test sites only one or two types were utilized. Sensor characteristics were evaluated in relationship to the targets...Multi-source image analysis is an evaluation of remote sensor imagery for military geographic information. The imagery is confined to radar, thermal...heating affect a TIR scanner’s recorded temperature, careful image evaluation can be used to extract valuable military geographic information

  1. Multispectral Imaging Broadens Cellular Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Amnis Corporation, a Seattle-based biotechnology company, developed ImageStream to produce sensitive fluorescence images of cells in flow. The company responded to an SBIR solicitation from Ames Research Center, and proposed to evaluate several methods of extending the depth of field for its ImageStream system and implement the best as an upgrade to its commercial products. This would allow users to view whole cells at the same time, rather than just one section of each cell. Through Phase I and II SBIR contracts, Ames provided Amnis the funding the company needed to develop this extended functionality. For NASA, the resulting high-speed image flow cytometry process made its way into Medusa, a life-detection instrument built to collect, store, and analyze sample organisms from erupting hydrothermal vents, and has the potential to benefit space flight health monitoring. On the commercial end, Amnis has implemented the process in ImageStream, combining high-resolution microscopy and flow cytometry in a single instrument, giving researchers the power to conduct quantitative analyses of individual cells and cell populations at the same time, in the same experiment. ImageStream is also built for many other applications, including cell signaling and pathway analysis; classification and characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations; quantitative morphology; apoptosis (cell death) assays; gene expression analysis; analysis of cell conjugates; molecular distribution; and receptor mapping and distribution.

  2. Multivariate image analysis in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Nattkemper, Tim W

    2004-10-01

    In recent years, multivariate imaging techniques are developed and applied in biomedical research in an increasing degree. In research projects and in clinical studies as well m-dimensional multivariate images (MVI) are recorded and stored to databases for a subsequent analysis. The complexity of the m-dimensional data and the growing number of high throughput applications call for new strategies for the application of image processing and data mining to support the direct interactive analysis by human experts. This article provides an overview of proposed approaches for MVI analysis in biomedicine. After summarizing the biomedical MVI techniques the two level framework for MVI analysis is illustrated. Following this framework, the state-of-the-art solutions from the fields of image processing and data mining are reviewed and discussed. Motivations for MVI data mining in biology and medicine are characterized, followed by an overview of graphical and auditory approaches for interactive data exploration. The paper concludes with summarizing open problems in MVI analysis and remarks upon the future development of biomedical MVI analysis.

  3. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis Scheme For Detection Of Fatty Liver In Vivo Based On Ultrasound Kurtosis Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hsiang-Yang; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a common disease caused by alcoholism, obesity, and diabetes, resulting in triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes. Kurtosis coefficient, a measure of the peakedness of the probability distribution, has been applied to the analysis of backscattered statistics for characterizing fatty liver. This study proposed ultrasound kurtosis imaging as a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) method to visually and quantitatively stage the fatty liver. A total of 107 patients were recruited to participate in the experiments. The livers were scanned using a clinical ultrasound scanner with a 3.5-MHz curved transducer to acquire the raw ultrasound backscattered signals for kurtosis imaging. The kurtosis image was constructed using the sliding window technique. Experimental results showed that kurtosis imaging has the ability to visualize and quantify the variation of backscattered statistics caused by fatty infiltration. The kurtosis coefficient corresponding to liver parenchyma decreased from 5.41 ± 0.89 to 3.68 ± 0.12 with increasing the score of fatty liver from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe), indicating that fatty liver reduces the degree of peakedness of backscattered statistics. The best performance of kurtosis imaging was found when discriminating between normal and fatty livers with scores ≥1: the area under the curve (AUC) is 0.92 at a cutoff value of 4.36 (diagnostic accuracy =86.9 %, sensitivity =86.7 %, specificity =87.0 %). The current findings suggest that kurtosis imaging may be useful in designing CAD tools to assist in physicians in early detection of fatty liver.

  4. Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) in USN Shipyards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    D-Ri38 398 METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM / (COMPUTER-HIDED DESIGN/COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING) IN USN SHIPYARDS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE...Monterey, California DT I ~" t • EB3 1984 THESIS METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM IN USN SHIPYARDS by Richard B. Grahlman March 1984 Thesis...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM Mastrch 1984 i in UM Sipyads. PERFORMIANG ORG. REPORT NUM8ER 7- AUHOW11111 4

  5. From Medical Image Computing to Computer Aided Intervention: Development of a Research Interface for Image Guided Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Papademetris, Xenophon; DeLorenzo, Christine; Flossmann, Sven; Neff, Markus; Vives, Kenneth P.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Duncan, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper describes the development and application of a research interface to integrate research image analysis software with a commercial image guided surgery navigation system. This interface enables bi-directional transfer of data such as images, visualizations and tool positions in real time. Methods We describe both the design and the application programming interface of the research interface, as well as show the function of an example client program. The resulting interface provides a practical and versatile link for bringing image analysis research techniques into the operating room (OR). Results We present examples from the successful use of this research interface in both phantom experiments and in real neurosurgeries. In particular we demonstrate that the integrated dual-computer system achieves tool tracking performance that is comparable to the more typical single-computer scenario. Conclusions Network interfaces for this type are viable solutions for the integration of commercial image-guided navigation systems and research software. PMID:19301361

  6. Quantitative histogram analysis of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, Oliver; Ferreira, Sérgio T.

    2006-11-01

    A routine for histogram analysis of images has been written in the object-oriented, graphical development environment LabVIEW. The program converts an RGB bitmap image into an intensity-linear greyscale image according to selectable conversion coefficients. This greyscale image is subsequently analysed by plots of the intensity histogram and probability distribution of brightness, and by calculation of various parameters, including average brightness, standard deviation, variance, minimal and maximal brightness, mode, skewness and kurtosis of the histogram and the median of the probability distribution. The program allows interactive selection of specific regions of interest (ROI) in the image and definition of lower and upper threshold levels (e.g., to permit the removal of a constant background signal). The results of the analysis of multiple images can be conveniently saved and exported for plotting in other programs, which allows fast analysis of relatively large sets of image data. The program file accompanies this manuscript together with a detailed description of two application examples: The analysis of fluorescence microscopy images, specifically of tau-immunofluorescence in primary cultures of rat cortical and hippocampal neurons, and the quantification of protein bands by Western-blot. The possibilities and limitations of this kind of analysis are discussed. Program summaryTitle of program: HAWGC Catalogue identifier: ADXG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXG_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Mobile Intel Pentium III, AMD Duron Installations: No installation necessary—Executable file together with necessary files for LabVIEW Run-time engine Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: WindowsME/2000/XP Programming language used: LabVIEW 7.0 Memory required to execute with typical data:˜16MB for starting and ˜160MB used for

  7. Histology image analysis for carcinoma detection and grading

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Thoma, George R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the image analysis techniques in the domain of histopathology, specifically, for the objective of automated carcinoma detection and classification. As in other biomedical imaging areas such as radiology, many computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems have been implemented to aid histopathologists and clinicians in cancer diagnosis and research, which have been attempted to significantly reduce the labor and subjectivity of traditional manual intervention with histology images. The task of automated histology image analysis is usually not simple due to the unique characteristics of histology imaging, including the variability in image preparation techniques, clinical interpretation protocols, and the complex structures and very large size of the images themselves. In this paper we discuss those characteristics, provide relevant background information about slide preparation and interpretation, and review the application of digital image processing techniques to the field of histology image analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to state-of-the-art image segmentation methods for feature extraction and disease classification. Four major carcinomas of cervix, prostate, breast, and lung are selected to illustrate the functions and capabilities of existing CAD systems. PMID:22436890

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2007-03-01

    Multislice CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multislice CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. Moreover, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by using a lung cancer screening algorithm built into mobile helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening done in the region without the hospital. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  9. The response of the Italian press to AIDS: a 22-month analysis.

    PubMed

    Aloisi; Girardi, E; Ippolito, G

    2001-01-01

    This study analyses the way in which the Italian press reported Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) over a 22-month period from September 1993 to June 1995, when no national AIDS information campaigns were made in Italy. During this period we collected, read, and categorized every article relating to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and AIDS in fourteen newspapers and two news magazines with the highest national circulation. Articles were then assigned to one of six content categories: statistics, basic science, cure and vaccine, education/awareness and prevention issue, government or non-goverment organizations response, and people with AIDS (PWA) personal portrayals. A total of 4,228 articles referring to HIV/AIDS were identified. Analysis of the featured topics reveals several clear differences in the coverage of aspects of AIDS. The major category was represented by government or non-goverment organization response which accounted for 1,341 articles. Overall, this analysis suggests that, even long after the beginning of the epidemic, the press continues to see AIDS as an important issue. However, the articles explaining scientifically the AIDS epidemic were very few. The majority of AIDS-related information was spread in consequence of sensational events. Further analysis of PWA coverage shows that most articles discussed news that could provoke a negative feeling towards HIV-infected patients among the general population.

  10. Computer-aided recognition of dental implants in X-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Pedro; Queirós, Sandro; Moreira, António H. J.; Ferreira, Adriano; Ferreira, Ernesto; Duque, Duarte; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Vilaça, João. L.

    2015-03-01

    Dental implant recognition in patients without available records is a time-consuming and not straightforward task. The traditional method is a complete user-dependent process, where the expert compares a 2D X-ray image of the dental implant with a generic database. Due to the high number of implants available and the similarity between them, automatic/semi-automatic frameworks to aide implant model detection are essential. In this study, a novel computer-aided framework for dental implant recognition is suggested. The proposed method relies on image processing concepts, namely: (i) a segmentation strategy for semi-automatic implant delineation; and (ii) a machine learning approach for implant model recognition. Although the segmentation technique is the main focus of the current study, preliminary details of the machine learning approach are also reported. Two different scenarios are used to validate the framework: (1) comparison of the semi-automatic contours against implant's manual contours of 125 X-ray images; and (2) classification of 11 known implants using a large reference database of 601 implants. Regarding experiment 1, 0.97±0.01, 2.24±0.85 pixels and 11.12±6 pixels of dice metric, mean absolute distance and Hausdorff distance were obtained, respectively. In experiment 2, 91% of the implants were successfully recognized while reducing the reference database to 5% of its original size. Overall, the segmentation technique achieved accurate implant contours. Although the preliminary classification results prove the concept of the current work, more features and an extended database should be used in a future work.

  11. Computer-aided classification of Alzheimer's disease based on support vector machine with combination of cerebral image features in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongkreangkrai, C.; Vichianin, Y.; Tocharoenchai, C.; Arimura, H.; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have differentiated Alzheimer's disease (AD) using cerebral image features derived from MR brain images. In this study, we were interested in combining hippocampus and amygdala volumes and entorhinal cortex thickness to improve the performance of AD differentiation. Thus, our objective was to investigate the useful features obtained from MRI for classification of AD patients using support vector machine (SVM). T1-weighted MR brain images of 100 AD patients and 100 normal subjects were processed using FreeSurfer software to measure hippocampus and amygdala volumes and entorhinal cortex thicknesses in both brain hemispheres. Relative volumes of hippocampus and amygdala were calculated to correct variation in individual head size. SVM was employed with five combinations of features (H: hippocampus relative volumes, A: amygdala relative volumes, E: entorhinal cortex thicknesses, HA: hippocampus and amygdala relative volumes and ALL: all features). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the method. AUC values of five combinations were 0.8575 (H), 0.8374 (A), 0.8422 (E), 0.8631 (HA) and 0.8906 (ALL). Although “ALL” provided the highest AUC, there were no statistically significant differences among them except for “A” feature. Our results showed that all suggested features may be feasible for computer-aided classification of AD patients.

  12. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  13. Development of a Reference Image Collection Library for Histopathology Image Processing, Analysis and Decision Support Systems Research.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, Spiros; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Asvestas, Pantelis; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Xenogiannopoulos, George; Cavouras, Dionisis; Glotsos, Dimitris

    2017-01-12

    Histopathology image processing, analysis and computer-aided diagnosis have been shown as effective assisting tools towards reliable and intra-/inter-observer invariant decisions in traditional pathology. Especially for cancer patients, decisions need to be as accurate as possible in order to increase the probability of optimal treatment planning. In this study, we propose a new image collection library (HICL-Histology Image Collection Library) comprising 3831 histological images of three different diseases, for fostering research in histopathology image processing, analysis and computer-aided diagnosis. Raw data comprised 93, 116 and 55 cases of brain, breast and laryngeal cancer respectively collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. The 3831 images were generated from the most representative regions of the pathology, specified by an experienced histopathologist. The HICL Image Collection is free for access under an academic license at http://medisp.bme.teiath.gr/hicl/ . Potential exploitations of the proposed library may span over a board spectrum, such as in image processing to improve visualization, in segmentation for nuclei detection, in decision support systems for second opinion consultations, in statistical analysis for investigation of potential correlations between clinical annotations and imaging findings and, generally, in fostering research on histopathology image processing and analysis. To the best of our knowledge, the HICL constitutes the first attempt towards creation of a reference image collection library in the field of traditional histopathology, publicly and freely available to the scientific community.

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis of knee-joint disorders via vibroarthrographic signal analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunfeng; Krishnan, Sridhar; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M

    2010-01-01

    The knee is the lower-extremity joint that supports nearly the entire weight of the human body. It is susceptible to osteoarthritis and other knee-joint disorders caused by degeneration or loss of articular cartilage. The detection of a knee-joint abnormality at an early stage is important, because it helps increase therapeutic options that may slow down the degenerative process. Imaging-based arthrographic modalities can provide anatomical images of the joint cartilage surfaces, but fail to demonstrate the functional integrity of the cartilage. Knee-joint auscultation, by means of recording the vibroarthrographic (VAG) signal during bending motion of a knee, could be used to develop a noninvasive diagnostic tool. Computer-aided analysis of VAG signals could provide quantitative indices for screening of degenerative conditions of the cartilage surface and staging of osteoarthritis. In addition, the diagnosis of knee-joint pathology by means of VAG signal analysis may reduce the number of semi-invasive diagnostic arthroscopic examinations. This article reviews studies related to VAG signal analysis, first summarizing the pilot studies that demonstrated the diagnostic potential of knee-joint auscultation for the detection of degenerative diseases, and then describing the details of recent progress in analysis of VAG signals using temporal analysis, frequency-domain analysis, time-frequency analysis, and statistical modeling. The decision-making methods used in the related studies are summarized, followed by a comparison of the diagnostic performance achieved by different pattern classifiers. The final section is a perspective on the future and further development of VAG signal analysis.

  15. A Unified Mathematical Approach to Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-31

    describes four instances of the paradigm in detail. Directions for ongoing and future research are also indicated. Keywords: Image processing; Algorithms; Segmentation; Boundary detection; tomography; Global image analysis .

  16. Efficient 3D texture feature extraction from CT images for computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fangfang; Wang, Huafeng; Song, Bowen; Zhang, Guopeng; Lu, Hongbing; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhao, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Texture feature from chest CT images for malignancy assessment of pulmonary nodules has become an un-ignored and efficient factor in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx). In this paper, we focus on extracting as fewer as needed efficient texture features, which can be combined with other classical features (e.g. size, shape, growing rate, etc.) for assisting lung nodule diagnosis. Based on a typical calculation algorithm of texture features, namely Haralick features achieved from the gray-tone spatial-dependence matrices, we calculated two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) Haralick features from the CT images of 905 nodules. All of the CT images were downloaded from the Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI), which is the largest public chest database. 3D Haralick feature model of thirteen directions contains more information from the relationships on the neighbor voxels of different slices than 2D features from only four directions. After comparing the efficiencies of 2D and 3D Haralick features applied on the diagnosis of nodules, principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm was used to extract as fewer as needed efficient texture features. To achieve an objective assessment of the texture features, the support vector machine classifier was trained and tested repeatedly for one hundred times. And the statistical results of the classification experiments were described by an average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The mean value (0.8776) of the area under the ROC curves in our experiments can show that the two extracted 3D Haralick projected features have the potential to assist the classification of benign and malignant nodules.

  17. The Work of Teacher Aides in Australia: An Analysis of Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Although teacher aides are often employed in schools to provide support for students with disabilities and special education needs, there is limited Australian research on their work and employer expectations. This article provides an analysis of advertisements for teacher aide positions, and compares the content of advertisements with role…

  18. Image guidance could aid performance of atraumatic cochlear implantation surgical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Jack H.; Labadie, Robert F.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2013-03-01

    It is widely believed that major factors in achieving atraumatic insertion of the electrode array into the cochlea in cochlear implant (CI) surgery include amount of tissue resection, selection of the entry point, and angle of insertion. Our group is interested in developing an image guidance (IG) system for electrode insertion if IG can improve outcomes. Thus, in this work we conducted the first study evaluating whether IG could aid atraumatic electrode insertion. To do this, we measured the performance of experienced surgeons when tasked to perform cochleostomy resection and to select CI insertion trajectories in virtual 3D surgical field-of-view simulation software. This software, which simulates views through the surgical microscope, was designed to allow a user to manually perform cochleostomy resection and to select a preferred insertion trajectory in one of two modes: (a) where the traditional approach is simulated and sub-surface anatomy is not visible; and (b) where an IG approach is simulated and the surgical view is augmented with rendering of subsurface intra-cochlear structures. We used this software to compare two surgeons' performance in selecting insertion trajectories with and without IG. Our results show that when using virtual IG, both surgeons could choose insertion trajectories with less variability, select higher quality insertion trajectories, and create the cochleostomy with substantially less tissue resection. These results suggest that IG could indeed aid performance of atraumatic cochlear implantation techniques.

  19. Aspect-Aided Dynamic Non-Negative Sparse Representation-Based Microwave Image Classification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Yang, Qiuyue; Liu, Miaomiao; Jia, Yunjian; Liu, Shujun; Li, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Classification of target microwave images is an important application in much areas such as security, surveillance, etc. With respect to the task of microwave image classification, a recognition algorithm based on aspect-aided dynamic non-negative least square (ADNNLS) sparse representation is proposed. Firstly, an aspect sector is determined, the center of which is the estimated aspect angle of the testing sample. The training samples in the aspect sector are divided into active atoms and inactive atoms by smooth self-representative learning. Secondly, for each testing sample, the corresponding active atoms are selected dynamically, thereby establishing dynamic dictionary. Thirdly, the testing sample is represented with ℓ1-regularized non-negative sparse representation under the corresponding dynamic dictionary. Finally, the class label of the testing sample is identified by use of the minimum reconstruction error. Verification of the proposed algorithm was conducted using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) database which was acquired by synthetic aperture radar. Experiment results validated that the proposed approach was able to capture the local aspect characteristics of microwave images effectively, thereby improving the classification performance. PMID:27598172

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2005-04-01

    Mass screening based on helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router. This electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system were developed so as not to loosen the communication among staffs of hospital. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  1. Aspect-Aided Dynamic Non-Negative Sparse Representation-Based Microwave Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Yang, Qiuyue; Liu, Miaomiao; Jia, Yunjian; Liu, Shujun; Li, Guojun

    2016-09-02

    Classification of target microwave images is an important application in much areas such as security, surveillance, etc. With respect to the task of microwave image classification, a recognition algorithm based on aspect-aided dynamic non-negative least square (ADNNLS) sparse representation is proposed. Firstly, an aspect sector is determined, the center of which is the estimated aspect angle of the testing sample. The training samples in the aspect sector are divided into active atoms and inactive atoms by smooth self-representative learning. Secondly, for each testing sample, the corresponding active atoms are selected dynamically, thereby establishing dynamic dictionary. Thirdly, the testing sample is represented with ℓ 1 -regularized non-negative sparse representation under the corresponding dynamic dictionary. Finally, the class label of the testing sample is identified by use of the minimum reconstruction error. Verification of the proposed algorithm was conducted using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) database which was acquired by synthetic aperture radar. Experiment results validated that the proposed approach was able to capture the local aspect characteristics of microwave images effectively, thereby improving the classification performance.

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis for osteoporosis using chest 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, K.; Matsuhiro, M.; Suzuki, H.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2016-03-01

    The patients of osteoporosis comprised of about 13 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems the aging society has. In order to prevent the osteoporosis, it is necessary to do early detection and treatment. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving the three dimensional (3-D) image analysis with higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. The 3-D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used as a support to diagnose osteoporosis and at the same time can be used for lung cancer diagnosis which may lead to early detection. We develop automatic extraction and partitioning algorithm for spinal column by analyzing vertebral body structure, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis diagnosis support system obtained high extraction rate of the thoracic vertebral in both normal and low doses.

  3. Performance analysis of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids

    PubMed Central

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Comparison of the performance of hearing instrument batteries from various manufacturers can enable otologists, audiologists, or final consumers to select the best products, maximizing the use of these materials. Aim: To analyze the performance of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids available in the Brazilian marketplace. Methods: Hearing aid batteries in four sizes were acquired from ten manufacturers and subjected to the same test conditions in an acoustic laboratory. Results: The results obtained in the laboratory contrasted with the values reported by manufacturers highlighted significant discrepancies, besides the fact that certain brands in certain sizes perform better on some tests, but does not indicate which brand is the best in all sizes. Conclusions: It was possible to investigate the performance of ten brands of hearing aid batteries and describe the procedures to be followed for leakage, accidental intake, and disposal. PMID:25992026

  4. MRI-aided tissues interface characterization: An accurate signal propagation time calculation method for UWB breast tumor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Xiao, Xia; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2016-12-01

    Radar-based ultrawideband (UWB) microwave imaging is expected to be a safe, low-cost tool for breast cancer detection. However, since radar wave travels at different speeds in different tissues, propagation time is hard to be estimated in heterogeneous breast. Wrongly estimated propagation time leads to error of tumor location in resulting image, aka imaging error. In this paper, we develop a magnetic resonance imaging-aided (MRI-aided) propagation time calculation technique which is independent from radar imaging system but can help decrease the imaging error. The technique can eliminate the influence of the rough interface between fat layer and gland layer in breast and get relative accurate thicknesses of two layers. The propagation time in each layer is calculated and summed. The summed propagation time is used in Confocal imaging algorithm to increase the accuracy of resulting image. 25 patients' breast models with glands of varying size are classified into four categories for imaging simulation tests. Imaging accuracy in terms of tumor location along x-direction has been improved for 21 among 25 cases, as a result, overall around 50% improvement compared to conventional UWB imaging.

  5. Toward image analysis and decision support for ultrasound technology.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Gillian; Padman, Rema; Maharaja, Nisha

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is a low cost and efficient method of detecting diseases and abnormalities in the body. Yet there is a lack of precision and reliability associated with the technology, partly due to the operator dependent nature of ultrasound scanning. When scanning is performed to an agreed protocol, ultrasound has been shown to be highly reliable. This research aims to minimize these limitations that arise during ultrasound training, scanning and reporting by developing and evaluating an image analysis and decision support system that can aid the decision making process. We hypothesize that this intervention will likely increase the role of ultrasound in diagnosis when compared with other imaging technologies, particularly in low resource settings.

  6. Computer-aided prognosis of neuroblastoma: classification of stromal development on whole-slide images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin

    2008-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is a cancer of the nervous system and one of the most common tumors in children. In clinical practice, pathologists examine the haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue slides under the microscope for the diagnosis. According to the International Neuroblastoma Classification System, neuroblastoma tumors are categorized into favorable and unfavorable histologies. The subsequent treatment planning is based on this classification. However, this qualitative evaluation is time consuming, prone to error and subject to inter- and intra-reader variations and sampling bias. To overcome these shortcomings, we are developing a computerized system for the quantitative analysis of neuroblastoma slides. In this study, we present a novel image analysis system to determine the degree of stromal development from digitized whole-slide neuroblastoma samples. The developed method uses a multi-resolution approach that works similar to how pathologists examine slides. Due to their very large resolutions, the whole-slide images are divided into non-overlapping image tiles and the proposed image analysis steps are applied to each image tile using a parallel computation infrastructure developed earlier by our group. The computerized system classifies image tiles as stroma-poor or stroma-rich subtypes using texture characteristics. The developed method has been independently tested on 20 whole-slide neuroblastoma slides and it has achieved 95% classification accuracy.

  7. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  8. Medical diagnosis imaging systems: image and signal processing applications aided by fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Yutaka

    2010-04-01

    First, we describe an automated procedure for segmenting an MR image of a human brain based on fuzzy logic for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. The intensity thresholds for segmenting the whole brain of a subject are automatically determined by finding the peaks of the intensity histogram. After these thresholds are evaluated in a region growing, the whole brain can be identified. Next, we describe a procedure for decomposing the obtained whole brain into the left and right cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum and the brain stem. Our method then identified the whole brain, the left cerebral hemisphere, the right cerebral hemisphere, the cerebellum and the brain stem. Secondly, we describe a transskull sonography system that can visualize the shape of the skull and brain surface from any point to examine skull fracture and some brain diseases. We employ fuzzy signal processing to determine the skull and brain surface. The phantom model, the animal model with soft tissue, the animal model with brain tissue, and a human subjects' forehead is applied in our system. The all shapes of the skin surface, skull surface, skull bottom, and brain tissue surface are successfully determined.

  9. Automated 3D Ultrasound Image Segmentation to Aid Breast Cancer Image Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:26547117

  10. Quantitative multi-image analysis for biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Martin A B; Bergholt, Mads S; Stevens, Molly M

    2016-05-01

    Imaging by Raman spectroscopy enables unparalleled label-free insights into cell and tissue composition at the molecular level. With established approaches limited to single image analysis, there are currently no general guidelines or consensus on how to quantify biochemical components across multiple Raman images. Here, we describe a broadly applicable methodology for the combination of multiple Raman images into a single image for analysis. This is achieved by removing image specific background interference, unfolding the series of Raman images into a single dataset, and normalisation of each Raman spectrum to render comparable Raman images. Multivariate image analysis is finally applied to derive the contributing 'pure' biochemical spectra for relative quantification. We present our methodology using four independently measured Raman images of control cells and four images of cells treated with strontium ions from substituted bioactive glass. We show that the relative biochemical distribution per area of the cells can be quantified. In addition, using k-means clustering, we are able to discriminate between the two cell types over multiple Raman images. This study shows a streamlined quantitative multi-image analysis tool for improving cell/tissue characterisation and opens new avenues in biomedical Raman spectroscopic imaging.

  11. Computer-aided diagnosis in medical imaging: historical review, current status and future potential.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. In this article, the motivation and philosophy for early development of CAD schemes are presented together with the current status and future potential of CAD in a PACS environment. With CAD, radiologists use the computer output as a "second opinion" and make the final decisions. CAD is a concept established by taking into account equally the roles of physicians and computers, whereas automated computer diagnosis is a concept based on computer algorithms only. With CAD, the performance by computers does not have to be comparable to or better than that by physicians, but needs to be complementary to that by physicians. In fact, a large number of CAD systems have been employed for assisting physicians in the early detection of breast cancers on mammograms. A CAD scheme that makes use of lateral chest images has the potential to improve the overall performance in the detection of lung nodules when combined with another CAD scheme for PA chest images. Because vertebral fractures can be detected reliably by computer on lateral chest radiographs, radiologists' accuracy in the detection of vertebral fractures would be improved by the use of CAD, and thus early diagnosis of osteoporosis would become possible. In MRA, a CAD system has been developed for assisting radiologists in the detection of intracranial aneurysms. On successive bone scan images, a CAD scheme for detection of interval changes has been developed by use of temporal subtraction images. In the future, many CAD schemes could be assembled as packages and implemented as a part of PACS. For example, the package for chest CAD may include the computerized detection of lung nodules, interstitial opacities, cardiomegaly, vertebral fractures, and interval changes in chest radiographs as well as the computerized classification of benign and malignant nodules and the differential diagnosis of

  12. Imaging analysis of LDEF craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radicatidibrozolo, F.; Harris, D. W.; Chakel, J. A.; Fleming, R. H.; Bunch, T. E.

    1991-01-01

    Two small craters in Al from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment tray A11E00F (no. 74, 119 micron diameter and no. 31, 158 micron diameter) were analyzed using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM), and SEM energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). High resolution images and sensitive elemental and molecular analysis were obtained with this combined approach. The result of these analyses are presented.

  13. Planning applications in image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

  14. Use of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Imaging for Quantifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided Tomography (CT) imaging was utilized to quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, NY) and mineral (North Inlet, SC) Spartina alterniflora soils. Calibration rods composed of materials with standard dens...

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  16. Precision analysis of passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years BD (BeiDou positioning system), an active satellite navigation system, has been widely applied in geodetic survey, precise engineering survey and GNC (guide, navigation and control system) of weapons because of its reliability and availability. However, it has several problems on the accuracy, anti-interference and active-positioning. A passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system is introduced in details in this paper. The configuration and the operating principle of system are presented. In analyzing the precision of location, one of the crucial aspects to be studied is how to determine the arrangement of the pseudolites to get the good GDOP, which is discussed in the different arrangements of the pseudolites in this paper. The simulation results show that the VDOP (vertical dilution of precision) of BD is improved due to introducing the pseudolites. The experiments indicate the validity of the methods and the improvement of the positioning precision in the BD aided pseudolite system.

  17. The construction of HIV/AIDS in Indian newspapers: a frame analysis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    India has the largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in Asia and the second largest in the world after South Africa (UNAIDS, 2004). The Indian media play an important role in the social construction of the HIV/AIDS problem nationally. This article uses grounded theory and the concept of media framing to understand the manner in which Indian newspapers make sense of the HIV/ AIDS problem. Specifically, this analysis focuses on the multiple and often times competing frames and resources used by stakeholders with respect the following topical categories (a) severity of HIV/AIDS in India, (b) causes and solutions, and (c) beliefs about who is at risk. The discussion elaborates on the tensions that emerge within the discursive space with respect to the HIV/AIDS frames.

  18. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-09

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies.

  19. Computer-Aided Content-Based Cueing of Remotely Sensed Images with the Image Content Engine (ICE)

    SciTech Connect

    Weinert, G F; Brase, J M; Paglieroni, D W

    2004-06-22

    Human analysts are often unable to meet time constraints on analysis and interpretation of large volumes of remotely sensed imagery. To address this problem, the Image Content Engine (ICE) system currently under development is organized into an off-line component for automated extraction of image features followed by user-interactive components for content detection and content-based query processing. The extracted features are vectors that represent attributes of three entities, namely image tiles, image regions and shapes, or suspected matches to models of objects. ICE allows users to interactively specify decision thresholds so that content (consisting of entities whose features satisfy decision criteria) can be detected. ICE presents detected content to users as a prioritized series of thumbnail images. Users can either accept the detection results or specify a new set of decision thresholds. Once accepted, ICE stores the detected content in database tables and semantic graphs. Users can interactively query the tables and graphs for locations at which prescribed relationships between detected content exist. New queries can be submitted repeatedly until a satisfactory series of prioritized thumbnail image cues is produced. Examples are provided to demonstrate how ICE can be used to assist users in quickly finding prescribed collections of entities (both natural and man-made) in a set of large USGS aerial photos retrieved from TerraserverUSA.

  20. Extracellular space preservation aids the connectomic analysis of neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Pallotto, Marta; Watkins, Paul V; Fubara, Boma; Singer, Joshua H; Briggman, Kevin L

    2015-01-01

    Dense connectomic mapping of neuronal circuits is limited by the time and effort required to analyze 3D electron microscopy (EM) datasets. Algorithms designed to automate image segmentation suffer from substantial error rates and require significant manual error correction. Any improvement in segmentation error rates would therefore directly reduce the time required to analyze 3D EM data. We explored preserving extracellular space (ECS) during chemical tissue fixation to improve the ability to segment neurites and to identify synaptic contacts. ECS preserved tissue is easier to segment using machine learning algorithms, leading to significantly reduced error rates. In addition, we observed that electrical synapses are readily identified in ECS preserved tissue. Finally, we determined that antibodies penetrate deep into ECS preserved tissue with only minimal permeabilization, thereby enabling correlated light microscopy (LM) and EM studies. We conclude that preservation of ECS benefits multiple aspects of the connectomic analysis of neural circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08206.001 PMID:26650352

  1. Clinico-Epidemiological Analysis of HIV/AIDS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ertunc, Baris; Kaya, Selcuk; Koksal, Iftihar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine clinico-epidemiological properties of HIV/AIDS patients. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 115 HIV/AIDS patients monitored in our clinic between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2013, were retrospectively evaluated. Results: For the 115 patients with a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS that we monitored, the mean age at the time of presentation was 34.5±13.21 (10–79) years. Eighty-nine (76.5%) patients were male and 27 (23.5%), female. In this study, HIV/AIDS was the most prevalent in the young male population with a low educational and sociocultural level. The most common mode of transmission in our patients was heterosexual relations: approximately 1 patient in 3 had a history of traveling to countries with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, namely, Russia and Ukraine. The examination of diagnosis with respect to years showed an increase in new cases since 2008. Only 21 (18.3%) of our patients were diagnosed through clinical symptoms, while 91 (81.7%) during routine scanning. At first presentation, 68% of our patients were stage A; 4.7%, stage B; and 27.3%, stage C. The mean length of the monitoring of our patients was 2.74 years (2–180 months). Thirteen (11.3%) patients died due to opportunistic infections and malignities. The most common opportunistic infection was tuberculosis (16.5%), followed by syphilis and HBV. Malignity, most commonly intracranial tumor, was seen in 8.6% patients. Conclusion: The disease was generally seen in the young male population with a low sociocultural level, and it was most frequently transmitted by heterosexual sexual contact. This clearly shows the importance of sufficient, accurate information, and education on the subject of the disease and its prevention. The fact that many of our patients were diagnosed in the late stage due to stigma and that diagnosis was largely made through scanning tests confirms the importance of these tests in early diagnosis. PMID:28149137

  2. Automated Microarray Image Analysis Toolbox for MATLAB

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Willse, Alan R.; Protic, Miroslava; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2005-09-01

    The Automated Microarray Image Analysis (AMIA) Toolbox for MATLAB is a flexible, open-source microarray image analysis tool that allows the user to customize analysis of sets of microarray images. This tool provides several methods of identifying and quantify spot statistics, as well as extensive diagnostic statistics and images to identify poor data quality or processing. The open nature of this software allows researchers to understand the algorithms used to provide intensity estimates and to modify them easily if desired.

  3. Multispectral Image Analysis of Hurricane Gilbert

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-19

    Classification) Multispectral Image Analysis of Hurrican Gilbert (unclassified) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kleespies, Thomas J. (GL/LYS) 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...cloud top height. component, of tle image in the red channel, and similarly for the green and blue channels. Multispectral Muti.pectral image analysis can...However, there seems to be few references to the human range of vision, the selection as to which mllti.pp.tral image analysis of scenes or

  4. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  5. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  6. A novel computer-aided detection system for pulmonary nodule identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Hao; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules from computer tomography (CT) scans is critical for assisting radiologists to identify lung lesions at an early stage. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for CADe of lung nodules using a two-stage vector quantization (VQ) scheme. The first-stage VQ aims to extract lung from the chest volume, while the second-stage VQ is designed to extract initial nodule candidates (INCs) within the lung volume. Then rule-based expert filtering is employed to prune obvious FPs from INCs, and the commonly-used support vector machine (SVM) classifier is adopted to further reduce the FPs. The proposed system was validated on 100 CT scans randomly selected from the 262 scans that have at least one juxta-pleural nodule annotation in the publicly available database - Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI). The two-stage VQ only missed 2 out of the 207 nodules at agreement level 1, and the INCs detection for each scan took about 30 seconds in average. Expert filtering reduced FPs more than 18 times, while maintaining a sensitivity of 93.24%. As it is trivial to distinguish INCs attached to pleural wall versus not on wall, we investigated the feasibility of training different SVM classifiers to further reduce FPs from these two kinds of INCs. Experiment results indicated that SVM classification over the entire set of INCs was in favor of, where the optimal operating of our CADe system achieved a sensitivity of 89.4% at a specificity of 86.8%.

  7. Multispectral texture characterization: application to computer aided diagnosis on prostatic tissue images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelifi, Riad; Adel, Mouloud; Bourennane, Salah

    2012-12-01

    Various approaches have been proposed in the literature for texture characterization of images. Some of them are based on statistical properties, others on fractal measures and some more on multi-resolution analysis. Basically, these approaches have been applied on mono-band images. However, most of them have been extended by including the additional information between spectral bands to deal with multi-band texture images. In this article, we investigate the problem of texture characterization for multi-band images. Therefore, we aim to add spectral information to classical texture analysis methods that only treat gray-level spatial variations. To achieve this goal, we propose a spatial and spectral gray level dependence method (SSGLDM) in order to extend the concept of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) by assuming the presence of texture joint information between spectral bands. Thus, we propose new multi-dimensional functions for estimating the second-order joint conditional probability density of spectral vectors. Theses functions can be represented in structure form which can help us to compute the occurrences while keeping the corresponding components of spectral vectors. In addition, new texture features measurements related to (SSGLDM) which define the multi-spectral image properties are proposed. Extensive experiments have been carried out on 624 textured multi-spectral images for use in prostate cancer diagnosis and quantitative results showed the efficiency of this method compared to the GLCM. The results indicate a significant improvement in terms of global accuracy rate. Thus, the proposed approach can provide clinically useful information for discriminating pathological tissue from healthy tissue.

  8. Learning-based image preprocessing for robust computer-aided detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghupathi, Laks; Devarakota, Pandu R.; Wolf, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that low dose computed tomography (LDCT) can be an effective screening tool to reduce lung cancer mortality. Computer-aided detection (CAD) would be a beneficial second reader for radiologists in such cases. Studies demonstrate that while iterative reconstructions (IR) improve LDCT diagnostic quality, it however degrades CAD performance significantly (increased false positives) when applied directly. For improving CAD performance, solutions such as retraining with newer data or applying a standard preprocessing technique may not be suffice due to high prevalence of CT scanners and non-uniform acquisition protocols. Here, we present a learning-based framework that can adaptively transform a wide variety of input data to boost an existing CAD performance. This not only enhances their robustness but also their applicability in clinical workflows. Our solution consists of applying a suitable pre-processing filter automatically on the given image based on its characteristics. This requires the preparation of ground truth (GT) of choosing an appropriate filter resulting in improved CAD performance. Accordingly, we propose an efficient consolidation process with a novel metric. Using key anatomical landmarks, we then derive consistent feature descriptors for the classification scheme that then uses a priority mechanism to automatically choose an optimal preprocessing filter. We demonstrate CAD prototype∗ performance improvement using hospital-scale datasets acquired from North America, Europe and Asia. Though we demonstrated our results for a lung nodule CAD, this scheme is straightforward to extend to other post-processing tools dedicated to other organs and modalities.

  9. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-21

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  10. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  11. The HIV/AIDS caregiver identity as a double-edged sword: a discourse analysis on HIV/AIDS caregiving in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Vania

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses the identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers as constructed by a group of HIV/AIDS caregivers at a non-profit organisation in South Africa. During a 12-month period data were collected through interviews with the organisation's staff and volunteers. Using discourse analysis, the study identified a caregiver identity constructed by participants. This caregiving identity acts as a double-edged sword: while the rewards of caregiving act as a buffer against stressful experiences, the prescriptive nature of the caregiver identity is taxing, and may explain burnout among HIV/AIDS caregivers. The study concludes that for support systems for HIV/AIDS caregivers to be effective, the social culture and identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers must be considered.

  12. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Min; Kang, Minah

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country.

  13. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kang, Minah

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country. PMID:26617451

  14. Shape-based computer-aided detection of lung nodules in thoracic CT images.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xujiong; Lin, Xinyu; Dehmeshki, Jamshid; Slabaugh, Greg; Beddoe, Gareth

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a new computer tomography (CT) lung nodule computer-aided detection (CAD) method is proposed for detecting both solid nodules and ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules (part solid and nonsolid). This method consists of several steps. First, the lung region is segmented from the CT data using a fuzzy thresholding method. Then, the volumetric shape index map, which is based on local Gaussian and mean curvatures, and the "dot" map, which is based on the eigenvalues of a Hessian matrix, are calculated for each voxel within the lungs to enhance objects of a specific shape with high spherical elements (such as nodule objects). The combination of the shape index (local shape information) and "dot" features (local intensity dispersion information) provides a good structure descriptor for the initial nodule candidates generation. Antigeometric diffusion, which diffuses across the image edges, is used as a preprocessing step. The smoothness of image edges enables the accurate calculation of voxel-based geometric features. Adaptive thresholding and modified expectation-maximization methods are employed to segment potential nodule objects. Rule-based filtering is first used to remove easily dismissible nonnodule objects. This is followed by a weighted support vector machine (SVM) classification to further reduce the number of false positive (FP) objects. The proposed method has been trained and validated on a clinical dataset of 108 thoracic CT scans using a wide range of tube dose levels that contain 220 nodules (185 solid nodules and 35 GGO nodules) determined by a ground truth reading process. The data were randomly split into training and testing datasets. The experimental results using the independent dataset indicate an average detection rate of 90.2%, with approximately 8.2 FP/scan. Some challenging nodules such as nonspherical nodules and low-contrast part-solid and nonsolid nodules were identified, while most tissues such as blood vessels were excluded

  15. Image analysis of weaverbird nests reveals signature weave textures.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ida E; Backes, André; Walsh, Patrick T; Morgan, Kate V; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    2015-06-01

    In nature, many animals build structures that can be readily measured at the scale of their gross morphology (e.g. length, volume and weight). Capturing individuality as can be done with the structures designed and built by human architects or artists, however, is more challenging. Here, we tested whether computer-aided image texture classification approaches can be used to describe textural variation in the nests of weaverbirds (Ploceus species) in order to attribute nests to the individual weaverbird that built them. We found that a computer-aided texture analysis approach does allow the assignment of a signature to weaverbirds' nests. We suggest that this approach will be a useful tool with which to examine individual variation across a range of animal constructions, not just for nests.

  16. Image analysis of weaverbird nests reveals signature weave textures

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ida E.; Backes, André; Walsh, Patrick T.; Morgan, Kate V.; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    In nature, many animals build structures that can be readily measured at the scale of their gross morphology (e.g. length, volume and weight). Capturing individuality as can be done with the structures designed and built by human architects or artists, however, is more challenging. Here, we tested whether computer-aided image texture classification approaches can be used to describe textural variation in the nests of weaverbirds (Ploceus species) in order to attribute nests to the individual weaverbird that built them. We found that a computer-aided texture analysis approach does allow the assignment of a signature to weaverbirds' nests. We suggest that this approach will be a useful tool with which to examine individual variation across a range of animal constructions, not just for nests. PMID:26543586

  17. Visual analysis of the computer simulation for both imaging and non-imaging optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barladian, B. K.; Potemin, I. S.; Zhdanov, D. D.; Voloboy, A. G.; Shapiro, L. S.; Valiev, I. V.; Birukov, E. D.

    2016-10-01

    Typical results of the optic simulation are images generated on the virtual sensors of various kinds. As a rule, these images represent two-dimensional distribution of the light values in Cartesian coordinates (luminance, illuminance) or in polar coordinates (luminous intensity). Using the virtual sensors allows making the calculation and design of different kinds of illumination devices, providing stray light analysis, synthesizing of photorealistic images of three-dimensional scenes under the complex illumination generated with optical systems, etc. Based on rich experience in the development and practical using of computer systems of virtual prototyping and photorealistic visualization the authors formulated a number of basic requirements for the visualization and analysis of the results of light simulations represented as two-dimensional distribution of luminance, illuminance and luminous intensity values. The requirements include the tone mapping operators, pseudo color imaging, visualization of the spherical panorama, regression analysis, the analysis of the image sections and regions, analysis of pixel values, the image data export, etc. All those requirements were successfully satisfied in designed software component for visual analysis of the light simulation results. The module "LumiVue" is an integral part of "Lumicept" modeling system and the corresponding plug-in of computer-aided design and support for CATIA product. A number of visual examples of analysis of calculated two-dimensional distribution of luminous intensity, illuminance and luminance illustrate the article. The examples are results of simulation and design of lighting optical systems, secondary optics for LEDs, stray light analysis, virtual prototyping and photorealistic rendering.

  18. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Nursing. Occupation: Home Health Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    This document contains a task analysis for health occupations (home health aid) in the nursing cluster. For each task listed, occupation, duty area, performance standard, steps, knowledge, attitudes, safety, equipment/supplies, source of analysis, and Illinois state goals for learning are listed. For the duty area of "providing therapeutic…

  19. Image analysis: a consumer's guide.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F

    1983-01-01

    The last years have seen an explosion of systems in image analysis. It is hard for the pathologist or the cytologist to make the right choice of equipment. All machines are stupid, and the only valuable thing is the human work put into it. So make your benefit of the work other people have done for you. Chose a method largely used on many systems and which has proved fertile in many domains and not only for your specific to day's application: Mathematical Morphology, to which are to be added the linear convolutions present on all machines is a strong candidate for becoming such a method. The paper illustrates a working day of an ideal system: research and diagnostic directed work during the working hours, automatic screening of cervical (or other) smears during night.

  20. Quantifying fungal infection of plant leaves by digital image analysis using Scion Image software.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, C P; Goodwin, P H; Hsiang, T

    2008-08-01

    A digital image analysis method previously used to evaluate leaf color changes due to nutritional changes was modified to measure the severity of several foliar fungal diseases. Images captured with a flatbed scanner or digital camera were analyzed with a freely available software package, Scion Image, to measure changes in leaf color caused by fungal sporulation or tissue damage. High correlations were observed between the percent diseased leaf area estimated by Scion Image analysis and the percent diseased leaf area from leaf drawings. These drawings of various foliar diseases came from a disease key previously developed to aid in visual estimation of disease severity. For leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana inoculated with different spore concentrations of the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum destructivum, a high correlation was found between the percent diseased tissue measured by Scion Image analysis and the number of leaf spots. The method was adapted to quantify percent diseased leaf area ranging from 0 to 90% for anthracnose of lily-of-the-valley, apple scab, powdery mildew of phlox and rust of golden rod. In some cases, the brightness and contrast of the images were adjusted and other modifications were made, but these were standardized for each disease. Detached leaves were used with the flatbed scanner, but a method using attached leaves with a digital camera was also developed to make serial measurements of individual leaves to quantify symptom progression. This was successfully applied to monitor anthracnose on N. benthamiana leaves. Digital image analysis using Scion Image software is a useful tool for quantifying a wide variety of fungal interactions with plant leaves.

  1. Mirror-image anterior crown fabrication with computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technology: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Chang, Won-Gun

    2013-02-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a maxillary central incisor single crown with rapid prototyping (RP) technology. A patient with a recently replaced metal ceramic crown had discomfort due to the nonanatomic lingual contour of the crown. With computer-aided design (CAD) software and rapid prototyping (RP) technology, the shape of the contralateral central incisor was duplicated and reproduced to make a mirror-image for a new crown. The prosthodontic planning and treatment approach are discussed.

  2. Clinical application of a novel computer-aided detection system based on three-dimensional CT images on pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jian-Ye; Ye, Hai-Hong; Yang, Shi-Xiong; Jin, Ren-Chao; Huang, Qi-Liang; Wei, Yong-Chu; Huang, Si-Guang; Wang, Bin-Qiang; Ye, Jia-Zhou; Qin, Jian-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical application effects of a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) system based on three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images on pulmonary nodule. 98 cases with pulmonary nodule (PN) in our hospital from Jun, 2009 to Jun, 2013 were analysed in this study. All cases underwent PN detection both by the simple spiral CT scan and by the computer-aided system based on 3D CT images, respectively. Postoperative pathological results were considered as the "gold standard", for both two checking methods, the diagnostic accuracies for determining benign and malignant PN were calculated. Under simple spiral CT scan method, 63 cases is malignant, including 50 true positive cases and 13 false positive cases from the "gold standard"; 35 cases is benign, 16 true negative case and 19 false negative cases, the Sensitivity 1 (Se1)=0.725, Specificity1 (Sp1)=0.448, Agreement rate1 (Kappa 1)=0.673, J1 (Youden's index 1)=0.173, LR(+)1=1.616, LR(-)1=0.499. Kappa 1=0.673 between the 0.4 and 0.75, has a moderate consistency. Underwent computer-aided detection (CAD) based on 3D CT method, 67cases is malignant, including 62 true positive cases and 7 false positive cases; 31 cases is benign, 24 true negative case and 7 false negative cases, Sensitivity 2 (Se2)=0.899, Specificity2 (Sp2)=0.828, Agreement rate (Kappa 2)=0.877, J2 (Youden's index 2)=0.727, LR(+)2=5.212, LR(-)2=0.123. Kappa 2=0.877 >0.75, has a good consistency. Computer-aided PN detecting system based on 3D CT images has better clinical application value, and can help doctor carry out early diagnosis of lung disease (such as cancer, etc.) through CT images.

  3. Spreadsheet-like image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Paul

    1992-08-01

    This report describes the design of a new software system being built by the Army to support and augment automated nondestructive inspection (NDI) on-line equipment implemented by the Army for detection of defective manufactured items. The new system recalls and post-processes (off-line) the NDI data sets archived by the on-line equipment for the purpose of verifying the correctness of the inspection analysis paradigms, of developing better analysis paradigms and to gather statistics on the defects of the items inspected. The design of the system is similar to that of a spreadsheet, i.e., an array of cells which may be programmed to contain functions with arguments being data from other cells and whose resultant is the output of that cell's function. Unlike a spreadsheet, the arguments and the resultants of a cell may be a matrix such as a two-dimensional matrix of picture elements (pixels). Functions include matrix mathematics, neural networks and image processing as well as those ordinarily found in spreadsheets. The system employs all of the common environmental supports of the Macintosh computer, which is the hardware platform. The system allows the resultant of a cell to be displayed in any of multiple formats such as a matrix of numbers, text, an image, or a chart. Each cell is a window onto the resultant. Like a spreadsheet if the input value of any cell is changed its effect is cascaded into the resultants of all cells whose functions use that value directly or indirectly. The system encourages the user to play what-of games, as ordinary spreadsheets do.

  4. A survey of compiler development aids. [concerning lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckles, B. P.; Hodges, B. C.; Hsia, P.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical background was established for the compilation process by dividing it into five phases and explaining the concepts and algorithms that underpin each. The five selected phases were lexical analysis, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, optimization, and code generation. Graph theoretical optimization techniques were presented, and approaches to code generation were described for both one-pass and multipass compilation environments. Following the initial tutorial sections, more than 20 tools that were developed to aid in the process of writing compilers were surveyed. Eight of the more recent compiler development aids were selected for special attention - SIMCMP/STAGE2, LANG-PAK, COGENT, XPL, AED, CWIC, LIS, and JOCIT. The impact of compiler development aids were assessed some of their shortcomings and some of the areas of research currently in progress were inspected.

  5. Naval Signal and Image Analysis Conference Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-26

    Arlington Hilton Hotel in Arlington, Virginia. The meeting was by invitation only and consisted of investigators in the ONR Signal and Image Analysis Program...in signal and image analysis . The conference provided an opportunity for technical interaction between academic researchers and Naval scientists and...plan future directions for the ONR Signal and Image Analysis Program as well as informal recommendations to the Program Officer.

  6. Satellite image analysis using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    The tremendous backlog of unanalyzed satellite data necessitates the development of improved methods for data cataloging and analysis. Ford Aerospace has developed an image analysis system, SIANN (Satellite Image Analysis using Neural Networks) that integrates the technologies necessary to satisfy NASA's science data analysis requirements for the next generation of satellites. SIANN will enable scientists to train a neural network to recognize image data containing scenes of interest and then rapidly search data archives for all such images. The approach combines conventional image processing technology with recent advances in neural networks to provide improved classification capabilities. SIANN allows users to proceed through a four step process of image classification: filtering and enhancement, creation of neural network training data via application of feature extraction algorithms, configuring and training a neural network model, and classification of images by application of the trained neural network. A prototype experimentation testbed was completed and applied to climatological data.

  7. Computer Aided Setup Planning Using Tolerance Analysis for Prismatic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahid, Abedini; Mohsen, Shakeri; Sajad, Kafashi

    2011-01-01

    Computer aided process planning (CAPP) is the bridge between CAD and CAM. Setup planning is the major key to transform design concept into manufacturing domain, which is mainly experience based activity in modern manufacturing industry. Setup planning is a complicated non-linear task constrained by many factors such as tool approach direction, geometric feature relationship, fixturing constrain, tolerance requirement and manufacturing practice. The objective of setup planning is to determine the number of setup needed, the orientation of the workpiece and the machining surfaces in each setup. This paper focuses on the development of a formalized procedure for automatic generation of setup plan. Tolerance relations are used as critical constraints for setup planning. The tasks that are performed are: (a) identifying groups of features that can be machined in a single setup, (b) determining a suitable work piece orientation, i.e. the suitable datum planes for each setup, (c) determining all the feasible setup plans to machine the given set of features of prismatic parts, and (d) evaluating the feasible setup plans on the basis of technological conditions. Trial runs with industrial parts indicate that the system is applicable for industrial use.

  8. Computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms: bilateral analysis for false positive reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Ta; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2006-03-01

    In this study, our purpose was to develop a false positive (FP) reduction method for computerized mass detection systems based on the analysis of bilateral mammograms. We first detect the mass candidates on each view by utilizing our unilateral computer-aided detection (CAD) system. For each detected object, the regional registration technique is used to define a region of interest (ROI) that is "symmetrical" to the object location on the contralateral mammogram. Spatial gray level dependence matrices (SGLD) texture features and morphological features are extracted from both the ROI containing the detected object on a mammogram and its corresponding ROI on the contralateral mammogram. Bilateral features are then generated from the extracted unilateral features and a final bilateral score is formed as a new feature to differentiate symmetric from asymmetric ROIs. By incorporating the unilateral features of the mass candidates and their bilateral scores, a bilateral classifier was trained to reduce the FPs. It was found that our bilateral CAD system achieved a case-based sensitivity of 70%, 80%, and 85% at 0.52, 0.83, and 1.05 FPs/image on the test data set. In comparison to the FP rates for the unilateral CAD system of 0.67, 1.11, and 1.69, respectively, at the corresponding sensitivities, the FP rates were reduced by 22%, 25%, and 37% with the bilateral symmetry information.

  9. Analysis and minimization of overtraining effect in rule-based classifiers for computer-aided diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qiang; Doi Kunio

    2006-02-15

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes have been developed to assist radiologists detect various lesions in medical images. In CAD schemes, classifiers play a key role in achieving a high lesion detection rate and a low false-positive rate. Although many popular classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks have been employed in CAD schemes for reduction of false positives, a rule-based classifier has probably been the simplest and most frequently used one since the early days of development of various CAD schemes. However, with existing rule-based classifiers, there are major disadvantages that significantly reduce their practicality and credibility. The disadvantages include manual design, poor reproducibility, poor evaluation methods such as resubstitution, and a large overtraining effect. An automated rule-based classifier with a minimized overtraining effect can overcome or significantly reduce the extent of the above-mentioned disadvantages. In this study, we developed an 'optimal' method for the selection of cutoff thresholds and a fully automated rule-based classifier. Experimental results performed with Monte Carlo simulation and a real lung nodule CT data set demonstrated that the automated threshold selection method can completely eliminate overtraining effect in the procedure of cutoff threshold selection, and thus can minimize overall overtraining effect in the constructed rule-based classifier. We believe that this threshold selection method is very useful in the construction of automated rule-based classifiers with minimized overtraining effect.

  10. Microscopy image segmentation tool: Robust image data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Valmianski, Ilya Monton, Carlos; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2014-03-15

    We present a software package called Microscopy Image Segmentation Tool (MIST). MIST is designed for analysis of microscopy images which contain large collections of small regions of interest (ROIs). Originally developed for analysis of porous anodic alumina scanning electron images, MIST capabilities have been expanded to allow use in a large variety of problems including analysis of biological tissue, inorganic and organic film grain structure, as well as nano- and meso-scopic structures. MIST provides a robust segmentation algorithm for the ROIs, includes many useful analysis capabilities, and is highly flexible allowing incorporation of specialized user developed analysis. We describe the unique advantages MIST has over existing analysis software. In addition, we present a number of diverse applications to scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  11. Microscopy image segmentation tool: robust image data analysis.

    PubMed

    Valmianski, Ilya; Monton, Carlos; Schuller, Ivan K

    2014-03-01

    We present a software package called Microscopy Image Segmentation Tool (MIST). MIST is designed for analysis of microscopy images which contain large collections of small regions of interest (ROIs). Originally developed for analysis of porous anodic alumina scanning electron images, MIST capabilities have been expanded to allow use in a large variety of problems including analysis of biological tissue, inorganic and organic film grain structure, as well as nano- and meso-scopic structures. MIST provides a robust segmentation algorithm for the ROIs, includes many useful analysis capabilities, and is highly flexible allowing incorporation of specialized user developed analysis. We describe the unique advantages MIST has over existing analysis software. In addition, we present a number of diverse applications to scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  12. Digital-image processing and image analysis of glacier ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Joan J.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides a methodology for extracting grain statistics from 8-bit color and grayscale images of thin sections of glacier ice—a subset of physical properties measurements typically performed on ice cores. This type of analysis is most commonly used to characterize the evolution of ice-crystal size, shape, and intercrystalline spatial relations within a large body of ice sampled by deep ice-coring projects from which paleoclimate records will be developed. However, such information is equally useful for investigating the stress state and physical responses of ice to stresses within a glacier. The methods of analysis presented here go hand-in-hand with the analysis of ice fabrics (aggregate crystal orientations) and, when combined with fabric analysis, provide a powerful method for investigating the dynamic recrystallization and deformation behaviors of bodies of ice in motion. The procedures described in this document compose a step-by-step handbook for a specific image acquisition and data reduction system built in support of U.S. Geological Survey ice analysis projects, but the general methodology can be used with any combination of image processing and analysis software. The specific approaches in this document use the FoveaPro 4 plug-in toolset to Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended but it can be carried out equally well, though somewhat less conveniently, with software such as the image processing toolbox in MATLAB, Image-Pro Plus, or ImageJ.

  13. Image processing software for imaging spectrometry data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazer, Alan; Martin, Miki; Lee, Meemong; Solomon, Jerry E.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging spectrometers simultaneously collect image data in hundreds of spectral channels, from the near-UV to the IR, and can thereby provide direct surface materials identification by means resembling laboratory reflectance spectroscopy. Attention is presently given to a software system, the Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for the analysis of imaging spectrometer data. SPAM requires only modest computational resources and is composed of one main routine and a set of subroutine libraries. Additions and modifications are relatively easy, and special-purpose algorithms have been incorporated that are tailored to geological applications.

  14. Image processing software for imaging spectrometry data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazer, Alan; Martin, Miki; Lee, Meemong; Solomon, Jerry E.

    1988-02-01

    Imaging spectrometers simultaneously collect image data in hundreds of spectral channels, from the near-UV to the IR, and can thereby provide direct surface materials identification by means resembling laboratory reflectance spectroscopy. Attention is presently given to a software system, the Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for the analysis of imaging spectrometer data. SPAM requires only modest computational resources and is composed of one main routine and a set of subroutine libraries. Additions and modifications are relatively easy, and special-purpose algorithms have been incorporated that are tailored to geological applications.

  15. An automatic variational level set segmentation framework for computer aided dental X-rays analysis in clinical environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Fevens, Thomas; Krzyzak, Adam; Li, Song

    2006-03-01

    An automatic variational level set segmentation framework for Computer Aided Dental X-rays Analysis (CADXA) in clinical environments is proposed. Designed for clinical environments, the segmentation contains two stages: a training stage and a segmentation stage. During the training stage, first, manually chosen representative images are segmented using hierarchical level set region detection. Then the window based feature extraction followed by principal component analysis (PCA) is applied and results are used to train a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. During the segmentation stage, dental X-rays are classified first by the trained SVM. The classifier provides initial contours which are close to correct boundaries for three coupled level sets driven by a proposed pathologically variational modeling which greatly accelerates the level set segmentation. Based on the segmentation results and uncertainty maps that are built based on a proposed uncertainty measurement, a computer aided analysis scheme is applied. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to provide an automatic pathological segmentation which naturally segments those problem areas. Based on the segmentation results, the analysis scheme is able to provide indications of possible problem areas of bone loss and decay to the dentists. As well, the experimental results show that the proposed segmentation framework is able to speed up the level set segmentation in clinical environments.

  16. Mobility aid for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A project to develop an effective mobility aid for blind pedestrians which acquires consecutive images of the scenes before a moving pedestrian, which locates and identifies the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles in the path, which presents path and obstacle information to the pedestrian, and which operates in real-time is discussed. The mobility aid has three principal components: an image acquisition system, an image interpretation system, and an information presentation system. The image acquisition system consists of a miniature, solid-state TV camera which transforms the scene before the blind pedestrian into an image which can be received by the image interpretation system. The image interpretation system is implemented on a microprocessor which has been programmed to execute real-time feature extraction and scene analysis algorithms for locating and identifying the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles. Identity and location information is presented to the pedestrian by means of tactile coding and machine-generated speech.

  17. Image registration with uncertainty analysis

    DOEpatents

    Simonson, Katherine M [Cedar Crest, NM

    2011-03-22

    In an image registration method, edges are detected in a first image and a second image. A percentage of edge pixels in a subset of the second image that are also edges in the first image shifted by a translation is calculated. A best registration point is calculated based on a maximum percentage of edges matched. In a predefined search region, all registration points other than the best registration point are identified that are not significantly worse than the best registration point according to a predetermined statistical criterion.

  18. Hyperspectral image classification using functional data analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Xiao, Guangrun; Xia, Tian; Tang, Y Y; Li, Luoqing

    2014-09-01

    The large number of spectral bands acquired by hyperspectral imaging sensors allows us to better distinguish many subtle objects and materials. Unlike other classical hyperspectral image classification methods in the multivariate analysis framework, in this paper, a novel method using functional data analysis (FDA) for accurate classification of hyperspectral images has been proposed. The central idea of FDA is to treat multivariate data as continuous functions. From this perspective, the spectral curve of each pixel in the hyperspectral images is naturally viewed as a function. This can be beneficial for making full use of the abundant spectral information. The relevance between adjacent pixel elements in the hyperspectral images can also be utilized reasonably. Functional principal component analysis is applied to solve the classification problem of these functions. Experimental results on three hyperspectral images show that the proposed method can achieve higher classification accuracies in comparison to some state-of-the-art hyperspectral image classification methods.

  19. Digital breast tomosynthesis: computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on planar projection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach to detect microcalcification clusters (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) via its planar projection (PPJ) image. With IRB approval, two-view (cranio-caudal and mediolateral oblique views) DBTs of human subject breasts were obtained with a GE GEN2 prototype DBT system that acquires 21 projection angles spanning 60° in 3° increments. A data set of 307 volumes (154 human subjects) was divided by case into independent training (127 with MCs) and test sets (104 with MCs and 76 free of MCs). A simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization was used to enhance microcalcifications and suppress noise. During the MSBF regularized reconstruction, the DBT volume was separated into high frequency (HF) and low frequency components representing microcalcifications and larger structures. At the final iteration, maximum intensity projection was applied to the regularized HF volume to generate a PPJ image that contained MCs with increased contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and reduced search space. High CNR objects in the PPJ image were extracted and labeled as microcalcification candidates. Convolution neural network trained to recognize the image pattern of microcalcifications was used to classify the candidates into true calcifications and tissue structures and artifacts. The remaining microcalcification candidates were grouped into MCs by dynamic conditional clustering based on adaptive CNR threshold and radial distance criteria. False positive (FP) clusters were further reduced using the number of candidates in a cluster, CNR and size of microcalcification candidates. At 85% sensitivity an FP rate of 0.71 and 0.54 was achieved for view- and case-based sensitivity, respectively, compared to 2.16 and 0.85 achieved in DBT. The improvement was significant (p-value = 0.003) by JAFROC analysis.

  20. Computer-aided-analysis of linear control system robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Ray, Laura R.

    1990-01-01

    Stochastic robustness is a simple technique used to estimate the stability and performance robustness of linear, time-invariant systems. The use of high-speed graphics workstations and control system design software in stochastic robustness analysis is discussed and demonstrated. It is shown that stochastic robustness makes good use of modern computational and graphic tools, and it is easily implemented using commercial control system design and analysis software.

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  2. A Mathematical Framework for Image Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    The results reported here were derived from the research project ’A Mathematical Framework for Image Analysis ’ supported by the Office of Naval...Research, contract N00014-88-K-0289 to Brown University. A common theme for the work reported is the use of probabilistic methods for problems in image ... analysis and image reconstruction. Five areas of research are described: rigid body recognition using a decision tree/combinatorial approach; nonrigid

  3. 78 FR 300 - IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 2 (Thursday, January 3, 2013)] [Notices] [Pages 300-303] [FR Doc No: 2012-31571] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 101 0023] IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed...

  4. 77 FR 50508 - Brain-Pad, Inc; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Brain-Pad, Inc; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Brain-Pad, File No. 122 3073'' on your comment, and file your... must receive it on or before September 17, 2012. Write ``Brain-Pad, File No. 122 3073'' on your...

  5. 63 FR 69292 - Max F. James; Analysis to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Max F. James; Analysis to Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent... final approval, to a proposed consent order from Max F. James (hereinafter ``James'' or...

  6. 77 FR 17479 - Star Pipe Products, Ltd.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

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  7. 77 FR 64519 - Magnesium Elektron; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

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  8. 78 FR 46950 - Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... Write ``Ecobaby Organics, File No. 122 3129'' on your comment and file your comment online at https... consider your comment, we must receive it on or before August 26, 2013. Write ``Ecobaby Organics, File...

  9. Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS); University of Minnesota Subsystem Cost/Benefits Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourey, Eugene D., Comp.

    The Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS) provides a basis of unification for library service program development in Minnesota for eventual linkage to the national information network. A prototype plan for communications functions is illustrated. A cost/benefits analysis was made to show the cost/effectiveness potential for MCALS. System…

  10. Graphical and Normative Analysis of Binocular Vision by Mini Computer: A Teaching Aid and Clinical Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Martin; Schor, Clifton

    1981-01-01

    An inexpensive computer graphics systems (Commodore PET), used as a video aid for teaching students advanced case analysis, is described. The course provides students with the analytical tools for evaluating with graphical and statistical techniques and treating with lenses, prisms, and orthoptics various anomalies of binocular vision. (MLW)

  11. 75 FR 10798 - Richard J. Stanton; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Richard J. Stanton; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade... invited to submit written comments electronically or in paper form. Comments should refer to ``Richard J... ``Richard J. Stanton, File No. 072 3165'' reference both in the text and on the envelope, and should...

  12. 77 FR 14523 - Western Digital Corporation; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Western Digital Corporation; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment AGENCY... Comment part of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Western Digital, File No. 111 0122... consider your comment, we must receive it on or before April 4, 2012. Write ``Western Digital, File No....

  13. 48 CFR 915.404-2-70 - Audit as an aid in proposal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Audit as an aid in proposal analysis. (a) When a contract price will be based on cost or pricing data... (2) $1,000,000 for all other contract types, including initial prices, estimated costs of cost-reimbursement contracts, interim and final price redeterminations, and target and settlement of...

  14. Image Reconstruction Using Analysis Model Prior

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Du, Huiqian; Lam, Fan; Mei, Wenbo; Fang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The analysis model has been previously exploited as an alternative to the classical sparse synthesis model for designing image reconstruction methods. Applying a suitable analysis operator on the image of interest yields a cosparse outcome which enables us to reconstruct the image from undersampled data. In this work, we introduce additional prior in the analysis context and theoretically study the uniqueness issues in terms of analysis operators in general position and the specific 2D finite difference operator. We establish bounds on the minimum measurement numbers which are lower than those in cases without using analysis model prior. Based on the idea of iterative cosupport detection (ICD), we develop a novel image reconstruction model and an effective algorithm, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance. Simulation results on synthetic and practical magnetic resonance (MR) images are also shown to illustrate our theoretical claims. PMID:27379171

  15. Time-efficient sparse analysis of histopathological whole slide images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Hui; Veillard, Antoine; Roux, Ludovic; Loménie, Nicolas; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Histopathological examination is a powerful standard for the prognosis of critical diseases. But, despite significant advances in high-speed and high-resolution scanning devices or in virtual exploration capabilities, the clinical analysis of whole slide images (WSI) largely remains the work of human experts. We propose an innovative platform in which multi-scale computer vision algorithms perform fast analysis of a histopathological WSI. It relies on application-driven for high-resolution and generic for low-resolution image analysis algorithms embedded in a multi-scale framework to rapidly identify the high power fields of interest used by the pathologist to assess a global grading. GPU technologies as well speed up the global time-efficiency of the system. Sparse coding and dynamic sampling constitute the keystone of our approach. These methods are implemented within a computer-aided breast biopsy analysis application based on histopathology images and designed in collaboration with a pathology department. The current ground truth slides correspond to about 36,000 high magnification (40×) high power fields. The processing time to achieve automatic WSI analysis is on a par with the pathologist's performance (about ten minutes a WSI), which constitutes by itself a major contribution of the proposed methodology.

  16. Computer-aided analysis of Riemann sheet structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hameren, André; Kleiss, Ronald

    1999-02-01

    We report on experience with an investigation of the analytic structure of the solution of certain algebraic complex equations. In particular the behavior of their series expansions around the origin is discussed. The investigation imposes the need for an analysis of the singularities and the Riemann sheets of the solution, in which numerical methods are used.

  17. A Method for Microalgae Proteomics Analysis Based on Modified Filter-Aided Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Cao, Xupeng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Haowei; Xue, Song; Tian, Jing

    2017-04-11

    With the fast development of microalgal biofuel researches, the proteomics studies of microalgae increased quickly. A filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method is widely used proteomics sample preparation method since 2009. Here, a method of microalgae proteomics analysis based on modified filter-aided sample preparation (mFASP) was described to meet the characteristics of microalgae cells and eliminate the error caused by over-alkylation. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the model, the prepared sample was tested by standard LC-MS/MS and compared with the previous reports. The results showed mFASP is suitable for most of occasions of microalgae proteomics studies.

  18. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  19. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  20. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  1. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  2. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  3. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  4. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  5. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  6. Miniature spectrometer and multispectral imager as a potential diagnostic aid in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; McLean, David I.; Lui, Harvey; Palcic, Branko

    1995-04-01

    A miniature spectrometer system has been constructed for both reflectance and autofluorescence spectral measurements of skin. The system is based on PC plug-in spectrometer, therefore, it is miniature and easy to operate. The spectrometer has been used clinically to collect spectral data from various skin lesions including skin cancer. To date, 48 patients with a total of 71 diseased skin sites have been measured. Analysis of these preliminary data suggests that unique spectral characteristics exist for certain types of skin lesions, i.e. seborrheic keratosis, psoriasis, etc.. These spectral characteristics will help the differential diagnosis in Dermatology practice. In conjunction with the spectral point measurements, we are building and testing a multispectral imaging system to measure the spatial distribution of skin reflectance and autofluorescence. Preliminary results indicate that a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma has a weak autofluorescence signal at the edge of the lesion, but a higher autofluorescence signal in the central area.

  7. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  8. Computer-aided fiber analysis for crime scene forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Arndt, Christian; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-03-01

    The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers. Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric. As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type. The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features.

  9. Variance Analysis and Comparison in Computer-Aided Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, T.; Schiffer, T.; Schinko, C.; Fellner, D. W.

    2011-09-01

    The need to analyze and visualize differences of very similar objects arises in many research areas: mesh compression, scan alignment, nominal/actual value comparison, quality management, and surface reconstruction to name a few. In computer graphics, for example, differences of surfaces are used for analyzing mesh processing algorithms such as mesh compression. They are also used to validate reconstruction and fitting results of laser scanned surfaces. As laser scanning has become very important for the acquisition and preservation of artifacts, scanned representations are used for documentation as well as analysis of ancient objects. Detailed mesh comparisons can reveal smallest changes and damages. These analysis and documentation tasks are needed not only in the context of cultural heritage but also in engineering and manufacturing. Differences of surfaces are analyzed to check the quality of productions. Our contribution to this problem is a workflow, which compares a reference / nominal surface with an actual, laser-scanned data set. The reference surface is a procedural model whose accuracy and systematics describe the semantic properties of an object; whereas the laser-scanned object is a real-world data set without any additional semantic information.

  10. The effect of input data transformations on object-based image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lippitt, Christopher D; Coulter, Lloyd L; Freeman, Mary; Lamantia-Bishop, Jeffrey; Pang, Wyson; Stow, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of using spectral transform images as input data on segmentation quality and its potential effect on products generated by object-based image analysis are explored in the context of land cover classification in Accra, Ghana. Five image data transformations are compared to untransformed spectral bands in terms of their effect on segmentation quality and final product accuracy. The relationship between segmentation quality and product accuracy is also briefly explored. Results suggest that input data transformations can aid in the delineation of landscape objects by image segmentation, but the effect is idiosyncratic to the transformation and object of interest.

  11. The effect of input data transformations on object-based image analysis

    PubMed Central

    LIPPITT, CHRISTOPHER D.; COULTER, LLOYD L.; FREEMAN, MARY; LAMANTIA-BISHOP, JEFFREY; PANG, WYSON; STOW, DOUGLAS A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using spectral transform images as input data on segmentation quality and its potential effect on products generated by object-based image analysis are explored in the context of land cover classification in Accra, Ghana. Five image data transformations are compared to untransformed spectral bands in terms of their effect on segmentation quality and final product accuracy. The relationship between segmentation quality and product accuracy is also briefly explored. Results suggest that input data transformations can aid in the delineation of landscape objects by image segmentation, but the effect is idiosyncratic to the transformation and object of interest. PMID:21673829

  12. A hybrid fuzzy-neural system for computer-aided diagnosis of ultrasound kidney images using prominent features.

    PubMed

    Bommanna Raja, K; Madheswaran, M; Thyagarajah, K

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and implement a computer-aided decision support system for an automated diagnosis and classification of ultrasound kidney images. The proposed method distinguishes three kidney categories namely normal, medical renal diseases and cortical cyst. For the each pre-processed ultrasound kidney image, 36 features are extracted. Two types of decision support systems, optimized multi-layer back propagation network and hybrid fuzzy-neural system have been developed with these features for classifying the kidney categories. The performance of the hybrid fuzzy-neural system is compared with the optimized multi-layer back propagation network in terms of classification efficiency, training and testing time. The results obtained show that fuzzy-neural system provides higher classification efficiency with minimum training and testing time. It has also been found that instead of using all 36 features, ranking the features enhance classification efficiency. The outputs of the decision support systems are validated with medical expert to measure the actual efficiency. The overall discriminating capability of the systems is accessed with performance evaluation measure, f-score. It has been observed that the performance of fuzzy-neural system is superior compared to optimized multi-layer back propagation network. Such hybrid fuzzy-neural system with feature extraction algorithms and pre-processing scheme helps in developing computer-aided diagnosis system for ultrasound kidney images and can be used as a secondary observer in clinical decision making.

  13. Medical Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The MD Image System, a true-color image processing system that serves as a diagnostic aid and tool for storage and distribution of images, was developed by Medical Image Management Systems, Huntsville, AL, as a "spinoff from a spinoff." The original spinoff, Geostar 8800, developed by Crystal Image Technologies, Huntsville, incorporates advanced UNIX versions of ELAS (developed by NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory for analysis of Landsat images) for general purpose image processing. The MD Image System is an application of this technology to a medical system that aids in the diagnosis of cancer, and can accept, store and analyze images from other sources such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  14. Optical Analysis of Microscope Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biles, Jonathan R.

    Microscope images were analyzed with coherent and incoherent light using analog optical techniques. These techniques were found to be useful for analyzing large numbers of nonsymbolic, statistical microscope images. In the first part phase coherent transparencies having 20-100 human multiple myeloma nuclei were simultaneously photographed at 100 power magnification using high resolution holographic film developed to high contrast. An optical transform was obtained by focussing the laser onto each nuclear image and allowing the diffracted light to propagate onto a one dimensional photosensor array. This method reduced the data to the position of the first two intensity minima and the intensity of successive maxima. These values were utilized to estimate the four most important cancer detection clues of nuclear size, shape, darkness, and chromatin texture. In the second part, the geometric and holographic methods of phase incoherent optical processing were investigated for pattern recognition of real-time, diffuse microscope images. The theory and implementation of these processors was discussed in view of their mutual problems of dimness, image bias, and detector resolution. The dimness problem was solved by either using a holographic correlator or a speckle free laser microscope. The latter was built using a spinning tilted mirror which caused the speckle to change so quickly that it averaged out during the exposure. To solve the bias problem low image bias templates were generated by four techniques: microphotography of samples, creation of typical shapes by computer graphics editor, transmission holography of photoplates of samples, and by spatially coherent color image bias removal. The first of these templates was used to perform correlations with bacteria images. The aperture bias was successfully removed from the correlation with a video frame subtractor. To overcome the limited detector resolution it is necessary to discover some analog nonlinear intensity

  15. Learning from Monet: A Fundamentally New Approach to Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2009-03-01

    The hands and minds of artists are intimately involved in the creative process, intrinsically making paintings complex images to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the painter David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists as early as Jan van Eyck (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of making those discoveries, Hockney and I developed new insights that are now being applied in a fundamentally new approach to image analysis. Very recent results from this new approach include identifying from Impressionist paintings by Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and others the precise locations the artists stood when making a number of their paintings. The specific deviations we find when accurately comparing these examples with photographs taken from the same locations provide us with key insights into what the artists' visual skills informed them were the ways to represent these two-dimensional images of three-dimensional scenes to viewers. As will be discussed, these results also have implications for improving the representation of certain scientific data. Acknowledgment: I am grateful to David Hockney for the many invaluable insights into imaging gained from him in our collaboration.

  16. A Canonical Correlation Analysis of AIDS Restriction Genes and Metabolic Pathways Identifies Purine Metabolism as a Key Cooperator

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hanhui; Yuan, Jinjin; Wang, Zhengwu; Huang, Aiqiong; Liu, Xiaolong; Han, Xiao; Chen, Yahong

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus causes a severe disease in humans, referred to as immune deficiency syndrome. Studies on the interaction between host genetic factors and the virus have revealed dozens of genes that impact diverse processes in the AIDS disease. To resolve more genetic factors related to AIDS, a canonical correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between AIDS restriction and metabolic pathway gene expression. The results show that HIV-1 postentry cellular viral cofactors from AIDS restriction genes are coexpressed in human transcriptome microarray datasets. Further, the purine metabolism pathway comprises novel host factors that are coexpressed with AIDS restriction genes. Using a canonical correlation analysis for expression is a reliable approach to exploring the mechanism underlying AIDS. PMID:27462363

  17. Development of an undergraduate optics laboratory based on the analysis of digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramil, Alberto; López, Ana J.; Fiorucci, M. Paula; Vincitorio, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present an experience based on the use of digital images and computer processing techniques for enhanced optics laboratory teaching aids. The use of digital images offers the possibility of analysing some phenomena quantitatively, which would be very difficult to do with the traditional equipment available in teaching labs. In order to obtain high quality teaching material, a number of practical aspects should be taken into account during the process of image acquisition and subsequent analysis. Examples of quantitative experiments are presented; they cover the usual topics at undergraduate level, both geometrical and physical optics and even spectral analysis of the light.

  18. Imaging flow cytometry for phytoplankton analysis.

    PubMed

    Dashkova, Veronika; Malashenkov, Dmitry; Poulton, Nicole; Vorobjev, Ivan; Barteneva, Natasha S

    2017-01-01

    This review highlights the concepts and instrumentation of imaging flow cytometry technology and in particular its use for phytoplankton analysis. Imaging flow cytometry, a hybrid technology combining speed and statistical capabilities of flow cytometry with imaging features of microscopy, is rapidly advancing as a cell imaging platform that overcomes many of the limitations of current techniques and contributed significantly to the advancement of phytoplankton analysis in recent years. This review presents the various instrumentation relevant to the field and currently used for assessment of complex phytoplankton communities' composition and abundance, size structure determination, biovolume estimation, detection of harmful algal bloom species, evaluation of viability and metabolic activity and other applications. Also we present our data on viability and metabolic assessment of Aphanizomenon sp. cyanobacteria using Imagestream X Mark II imaging cytometer. Herein, we highlight the immense potential of imaging flow cytometry for microalgal research, but also discuss limitations and future developments.

  19. Digital Image Analysis for DETCHIP® Code Determination

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Marcus; Wilson, Mark V.; Rouhier, Kerry A.; Symonsbergen, David J.; Bastola, Kiran; Thapa, Ishwor; Holmes, Andrea E.

    2013-01-01

    DETECHIP® is a molecular sensing array used for identification of a large variety of substances. Previous methodology for the analysis of DETECHIP® used human vision to distinguish color changes induced by the presence of the analyte of interest. This paper describes several analysis techniques using digital images of DETECHIP®. Both a digital camera and flatbed desktop photo scanner were used to obtain Jpeg images. Color information within these digital images was obtained through the measurement of red-green-blue (RGB) values using software such as GIMP, Photoshop and ImageJ. Several different techniques were used to evaluate these color changes. It was determined that the flatbed scanner produced in the clearest and more reproducible images. Furthermore, codes obtained using a macro written for use within ImageJ showed improved consistency versus pervious methods. PMID:25267940

  20. A Metric for Reducing False Positives in the Computer-Aided Detection of Breast Cancer from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Screening Examinations of High-Risk Women.

    PubMed

    Levman, Jacob E D; Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Warner, Ellen; Causer, Petrina; Martel, Anne L

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-enabled cancer screening has been shown to be a highly sensitive method for the early detection of breast cancer. Computer-aided detection systems have the potential to improve the screening process by standardizing radiologists to a high level of diagnostic accuracy. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. This study compares the performance of a proposed method for computer-aided detection (based on the second-order spatial derivative of the relative signal intensity) with the signal enhancement ratio (SER) on MRI-based breast screening examinations. Comparison is performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis as well as free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve analysis. A modified computer-aided detection system combining the proposed approach with the SER method is also presented. The proposed method provides improvements in the rates of false positive markings over the SER method in the detection of breast cancer (as assessed by FROC analysis). The modified computer-aided detection system that incorporates both the proposed method and the SER method yields ROC results equal to that produced by SER while simultaneously providing improvements over the SER method in terms of false positives per noncancerous exam. The proposed method for identifying malignancies outperforms the SER method in terms of false positives on a challenging dataset containing many small lesions and may play a useful role in breast cancer screening by MRI as part of a computer-aided detection system.

  1. Clinical analysis of HIV/AIDS patients with drug eruption in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Ye; Jin, Yong-Mei; He, Li-Ping; Bai, Jin-Song; Liu, Jun; Yu, Min; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wen, Jing; Kuang, Yi-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Drug eruption is the most common clinical presentation in patients with HIV/AIDS. The systemic clinical and risk factors associated with drug eruption remain unknown. A retrospective analysis in HIV/AIDS patients with drug eruption was carried out with demographic data, epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, laboratory data and follow-up data. The risk factors correlated with prognosis were assessed by case control analysis. A total of 134 out of 1817 HIV/AIDS patients (7.4%) presented drug eruptions. The major class of sensitizing drug was HAART drugs (47.7%), followed by antibiotics (47.0%). Nevirapine (39.6%) was the most common sensitizing drug in the HAART regimens. The patients received HAART or had allergic history were prone to develop drug eruption. The alanine aminotransferase, albumin, globulin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lymphocytes, red blood cells (RBC) and eosinophils of the drug eruption patients were significantly different the control patients. The allergic history, opportunistic infection, viral load, CD4 cell count, high globulin and low albumin were the risk factors correlated with death in HIV/AIDS patients with drug eruption. It is proposed that patients with higher viral loads, higher globulin levels and lower white blood cells (WBC) should be given special attention for the prevention of complications and death. PMID:27796328

  2. Computer-Aided Energy Analysis for Buildings: An Assessment of Its Value for Students of Technology and Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that computer aided energy analysis improves students' (N=29) comprehension and prediction accuracy of energy consumption in buildings and confirms that a reasonably accurate building energy analysis computer program can be designed for student users. (Author/SK)

  3. BRAF Pyrosequencing Analysis Aided by a Lookup Table

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Matthew T.; Harrington, Colleen; Beierl, Katie; Chen, Guoli; Thiess, Michele; O'Neill, Alan; Taube, Janis M.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Eshleman, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives BRAF mutations have substantial therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic significance, so detecting and specifying them is an important part of the workload of molecular pathology laboratories. Pyrosequencing assays are well suited for this analysis but can produce complex results. Therefore, we introduce a pyrosequencing lookup table based on Pyromaker that assists the user in generating hypotheses for solving complex pyrosequencing results. Methods The lookup table contains all known mutations in the sequenced region and the positions in the dispensation sequence at which changes would occur with those mutations. We demonstrate the lookup table using a homebrew dispensation sequence for BRAF codons 596 to 605 as well as a commercially available kit-based dispensation sequence for codons 599 to 600. Results These results demonstrate that the homebrew dispensation sequence unambiguously identifies all known BRAF mutations in this region, whereas the kit-based dispensation sequence has one unresolvable degeneracy that could be solved with the addition of two injections. Conclusions Using the lookup table and confirmatory virtual pyrogram, we unambiguously solved clinical pyrograms of the complex mutations V600K (c.1798_1799delGTinsAA), V600R (c.1798_1799delGTinsAG), V600D (c.1799_1800delTGinsAT), V600E (c.1799_1800delTGinsAA), and V600_K601delinsE (c.1799_1801delTGA). In addition, we used the approach to hypothesize and confirm a new mutation in human melanoma, V600_K601delinsEI (c.1799_1802delTGAAinsAAAT). PMID:24713734

  4. Materials characterization through quantitative digital image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Philliber; B. Antoun; B. Somerday; N. Yang

    2000-07-01

    A digital image analysis system has been developed to allow advanced quantitative measurement of microstructural features. This capability is maintained as part of the microscopy facility at Sandia, Livermore. The system records images digitally, eliminating the use of film. Images obtained from other sources may also be imported into the system. Subsequent digital image processing enhances image appearance through the contrast and brightness adjustments. The system measures a variety of user-defined microstructural features--including area fraction, particle size and spatial distributions, grain sizes and orientations of elongated particles. These measurements are made in a semi-automatic mode through the use of macro programs and a computer controlled translation stage. A routine has been developed to create large montages of 50+ separate images. Individual image frames are matched to the nearest pixel to create seamless montages. Results from three different studies are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  5. Imaging System and Method for Biomedical Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-11

    compressive decoding of sparse objects” by A. Coskum et al. 136 Analyst No. 17, pp. 3512–3518, (7 September 2011). Their fluorescent microscopy lensless ...prior art concept is a lensless imaging system proposed in a research paper entitled “ Lensless wide-field fluorescent imaging on a chip using...analysis. [0008] An article published by Sang Jun Moon et al., “Integrating Micro-fluidics and Lensless Imaging for Point-of- Care,” 24 Biosens

  6. Theory of Image Analysis and Recognition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    Narendra Ahuja Image models Ramalingam Chellappa Image models Matti Pietikainen * Texture analysis b David G. Morgenthaler’ 3D digital geometry c Angela Y. Wu...Restoration Parameter Choice A Quantitative Guide," TR-965, October 1980. 70. Matti Pietikainen , "On the Use of Hierarchically Computed ’Mexican Hat...81. Matti Pietikainen and Azriel Rosenfeld, "Image Segmenta- tion by Texture Using Pyramid Node Linking," TR-1008, February 1981. 82. David G. 1

  7. Analysis of dynamic brain imaging data.

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, P P; Pesaran, B

    1999-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques for probing brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, intrinsic and extrinsic contrast optical imaging, and magnetoencephalography, generate large data sets with complex content. In this paper we develop appropriate techniques for analysis and visualization of such imaging data to separate the signal from the noise and characterize the signal. The techniques developed fall into the general category of multivariate time series analysis, and in particular we extensively use the multitaper framework of spectral analysis. We develop specific protocols for the analysis of fMRI, optical imaging, and MEG data, and illustrate the techniques by applications to real data sets generated by these imaging modalities. In general, the analysis protocols involve two distinct stages: "noise" characterization and suppression, and "signal" characterization and visualization. An important general conclusion of our study is the utility of a frequency-based representation, with short, moving analysis windows to account for nonstationarity in the data. Of particular note are 1) the development of a decomposition technique (space-frequency singular value decomposition) that is shown to be a useful means of characterizing the image data, and 2) the development of an algorithm, based on multitaper methods, for the removal of approximately periodic physiological artifacts arising from cardiac and respiratory sources. PMID:9929474

  8. Multiscale Morphological Filtering for Analysis of Noisy and Complex Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kher, A.; Mitra, S.

    1993-01-01

    Images acquired with passive sensing techniques suffer from illumination variations and poor local contrasts that create major difficulties in interpretation and identification tasks. On the other hand, images acquired with active sensing techniques based on monochromatic illumination are degraded with speckle noise. Mathematical morphology offers elegant techniques to handle a wide range of image degradation problems. Unlike linear filters, morphological filters do not blur the edges and hence maintain higher image resolution. Their rich mathematical framework facilitates the design and analysis of these filters as well as their hardware implementation. Morphological filters are easier to implement and are more cost effective and efficient than several conventional linear filters. Morphological filters to remove speckle noise while maintaining high resolution and preserving thin image regions that are particularly vulnerable to speckle noise were developed and applied to SAR imagery. These filters used combination of linear (one-dimensional) structuring elements in different (typically four) orientations. Although this approach preserves more details than the simple morphological filters using two-dimensional structuring elements, the limited orientations of one-dimensional elements approximate the fine details of the region boundaries. A more robust filter designed recently overcomes the limitation of the fixed orientations. This filter uses a combination of concave and convex structuring elements. Morphological operators are also useful in extracting features from visible and infrared imagery. A multiresolution image pyramid obtained with successive filtering and a subsampling process aids in the removal of the illumination variations and enhances local contrasts. A morphology-based interpolation scheme was also introduced to reduce intensity discontinuities created in any morphological filtering task. The generality of morphological filtering techniques in

  9. Three-parameter probability distribution density for statistical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schau, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Statistical analysis of 2-D image data or data gathered from a scanning radiometer requires that both the non-Gaussian nature and finite sample size of the process be considered. To aid the statistical analysis of this data, a higher moment description density function has been defined, and parameters have been identified with the estimated moments of the data. It is shown that the first two moments may be computed from a knowledge of the Weiner spectrum, whereas all higher moments require the complex spatial frequency spectrum. Parameter identification is carried out for a three-parameter density function and applied to a scene in the IR region, 8-14 microns. Results indicate that a three-parameter distribution density generally provides different probabilities than does a two-parameter Gaussian description if maximum entropy (minimum bias) forms are sought.

  10. COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR AIDING IN DIAGNOSING OSTEOARTHRITIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Veronezi, Carlos Cassiano Denipotti; de Azevedo Simões, Priscyla Waleska Targino; dos Santos, Robson Luiz; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Meláo, Suelen; de Mattos, Merisandra Côrtes; Cechinel, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the advantages of applying artificial neural networks to recognize patterns on lumbar spine radiographies in order to aid in the process of diagnosing primary osteoarthritis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study with a quantitative approach and an emphasis on diagnosis. The training set was composed of images collected between January and July 2009 from patients who had undergone lateral-view digital radiographies of the lumbar spine, which were provided by a radiology clinic located in the municipality of Criciúma (SC). Out of the total of 260 images gathered, those with distortions, those presenting pathological conditions that altered the architecture of the lumbar spine and those with patterns that were difficult to characterize were discarded, resulting in 206 images. The image data base (n = 206) was then subdivided, resulting in 68 radiographies for the training stage, 68 images for tests and 70 for validation. A hybrid neural network based on Kohonen self-organizing maps and on Multilayer Perceptron networks was used. Results: After 90 cycles, the validation was carried out on the best results, achieving accuracy of 62.85%, sensitivity of 65.71% and specificity of 60%. Conclusions: Even though the effectiveness shown was moderate, this study is still innovative. The values show that the technique used has a promising future, pointing towards further studies on image and cycle processing methodology with a larger quantity of radiographies. PMID:27027010

  11. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used.

  12. A group intervention to improve body image satisfaction and dietary habits in gay and bisexual men living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Matthew B; Torino, Jenny A; Swift, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    A healthy diet is essential to maintaining a strong immune system for people living with HIV and AIDS. Prior studies have shown that HIV-positive gay and bisexual men are more susceptible to poor body image, which can negatively impact dietary habits. Interventions that simultaneously address body image and nutrition are therefore critical for this population. This paper describes the curriculum for a 14-week group designed to improve body image satisfaction and dietary habits in gay and bisexual men living with HIV/AIDS.

  13. Machine learning applications in cell image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, Andrey

    2017-04-04

    Machine learning (ML) refers to a set of automatic pattern recognition methods that have been successfully applied across various problem domains, including biomedical image analysis. This review focuses on ML applications for image analysis in light microscopy experiments with typical tasks of segmenting and tracking individual cells, and modelling of reconstructed lineage trees. After describing a typical image analysis pipeline and highlighting challenges of automatic analysis (for example, variability in cell morphology, tracking in presence of clutters) this review gives a brief historical outlook of ML, followed by basic concepts and definitions required for understanding examples. This article then presents several example applications at various image processing stages, including the use of supervised learning methods for improving cell segmentation, and the application of active learning for tracking. The review concludes with remarks on parameter setting and future directions.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/icb.2017.16.

  14. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework

    PubMed Central

    Alioscha-Perez, Mitchel; Benadiba, Carine; Goossens, Katty; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Willaert, Ronnie; Sahli, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput) automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale). Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i) first the input image is decomposed into a ‘cartoon’ part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii) on the ‘cartoon’ image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii) quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in osteoblasts

  15. Bilateral analysis based false positive reduction for computer-aided mass detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yita; Wei Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman; Zhou Chuan; Ge Jun; Shi Jiazheng; Zhang Yiheng; Chan Heangping

    2007-08-15

    We have developed a false positive (FP) reduction method based on analysis of bilateral mammograms for computerized mass detection systems. The mass candidates on each view were first detected by our unilateral computer-aided detection (CAD) system. For each detected object, a regional registration technique was used to define a region of interest (ROI) that is ''symmetrical'' to the object location on the contralateral mammogram. Texture features derived from the spatial gray level dependence matrices and morphological features were extracted from the ROI containing the detected object on a mammogram and its corresponding ROI on the contralateral mammogram. Bilateral features were then generated from corresponding pairs of unilateral features for each object. Two linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers were trained from the unilateral and the bilateral feature spaces, respectively. Finally, the scores from the unilateral LDA classifier and the bilateral LDA asymmetry classifier were fused with a third LDA whose output score was used to distinguish true mass from FPs. A data set of 341 cases of bilateral two-view mammograms was used in this study, of which 276 cases with 552 bilateral pairs contained 110 malignant and 166 benign biopsy-proven masses and 65 cases with 130 bilateral pairs were normal. The mass data set was divided into two subsets for twofold cross-validation training and testing. The normal data set was used for estimation of FP rates. It was found that our bilateral CAD system achieved a case-based sensitivity of 70%, 80%, and 85% at average FP rates of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.95 FPs/image, respectively, on the test data sets with malignant masses. In comparison to the average FP rates for the unilateral CAD system of 0.58, 1.33, and 1.63, respectively, at the corresponding sensitivities, the FP rates were reduced by 40%, 44%, and 42% with the bilateral symmetry information. The improvement was statistically significance (p<0.05) as estimated by

  16. Bilateral analysis based false positive reduction for computer-aided mass detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Ta; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Sahiner, Berkman; Zhou, Chuan; Ge, Jun; Shi, Jiazheng; Zhang, Yiheng; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2007-08-01

    We have developed a false positive (FP) reduction method based on analysis of bilateral mammograms for computerized mass detection systems. The mass candidates on each view were first detected by our unilateral computer-aided detection (CAD) system. For each detected object, a regional registration technique was used to define a region of interest (ROI) that is "symmetrical" to the object location on the contralateral mammogram. Texture features derived from the spatial gray level dependence matrices and morphological features were extracted from the ROI containing the detected object on a mammogram and its corresponding ROI on the contralateral mammogram. Bilateral features were then generated from corresponding pairs of unilateral features for each object. Two linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers were trained from the unilateral and the bilateral feature spaces, respectively. Finally, the scores from the unilateral LDA classifier and the bilateral LDA asymmetry classifier were fused with a third LDA whose output score was used to distinguish true mass from FPs. A data set of 341 cases of bilateral two-view mammograms was used in this study, of which 276 cases with 552 bilateral pairs contained 110 malignant and 166 benign biopsy-proven masses and 65 cases with 130 bilateral pairs were normal. The mass data set was divided into two subsets for twofold cross-validation training and testing. The normal data set was used for estimation of FP rates. It was found that our bilateral CAD system achieved a case-based sensitivity of 70%, 80%, and 85% at average FP rates of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.95 FPs/image, respectively, on the test data sets with malignant masses. In comparison to the average FP rates for the unilateral CAD system of 0.58, 1.33, and 1.63, respectively, at the corresponding sensitivities, the FP rates were reduced by 40%, 44%, and 42% with the bilateral symmetry information. The improvement was statistically significance (p < 0.05) as estimated by

  17. A Quantitative Method for Microtubule Analysis in Fluorescence Images.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaodong; Li, Lingfei; Hu, Jiongyu; Zhang, Qiong; Dang, Yongming; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-12-01

    Microtubule analysis is of significant value for a better understanding of normal and pathological cellular processes. Although immunofluorescence microscopic techniques have proven useful in the study of microtubules, comparative results commonly rely on a descriptive and subjective visual analysis. We developed an objective and quantitative method based on image processing and analysis of fluorescently labeled microtubular patterns in cultured cells. We used a multi-parameter approach by analyzing four quantifiable characteristics to compose our quantitative feature set. Then we interpreted specific changes in the parameters and revealed the contribution of each feature set using principal component analysis. In addition, we verified that different treatment groups could be clearly discriminated using principal components of the multi-parameter model. High predictive accuracy of four commonly used multi-classification methods confirmed our method. These results demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of our method in the analysis of microtubules in fluorescence images. Application of the analytical methods presented here provides information concerning the organization and modification of microtubules, and could aid in the further understanding of structural and functional aspects of microtubules under normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Consumer preferences for hearing aid attributes: a comparison of rating and conjoint analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Bridges, John F P; Lataille, Angela T; Buttorff, Christine; White, Sharon; Niparko, John K

    2012-03-01

    Low utilization of hearing aids has drawn increased attention to the study of consumer preferences using both simple ratings (e.g., Likert scale) and conjoint analyses, but these two approaches often produce inconsistent results. The study aims to directly compare Likert scales and conjoint analysis in identifying important attributes associated with hearing aids among those with hearing loss. Seven attributes of hearing aids were identified through qualitative research: performance in quiet settings, comfort, feedback, frequency of battery replacement, purchase price, water and sweat resistance, and performance in noisy settings. The preferences of 75 outpatients with hearing loss were measured with both a 5-point Likert scale and with 8 paired-comparison conjoint tasks (the latter being analyzed using OLS [ordinary least squares] and logistic regression). Results were compared by examining implied willingness-to-pay and Pearson's Rho. A total of 56 respondents (75%) provided complete responses. Two thirds of respondents were male, most had sensorineural hearing loss, and most were older than 50; 44% of respondents had never used a hearing aid. Both methods identified improved performance in noisy settings as the most valued attribute. Respondents were twice as likely to buy a hearing aid with better functionality in noisy environments (p < .001), and willingness to pay for this attribute ranged from US$2674 on the Likert to US$9000 in the conjoint analysis. The authors find a high level of concordance between the methods-a result that is in stark contrast with previous research. The authors conclude that their result stems from constraining the levels on the Likert scale.

  19. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-01-01

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  20. On image analysis in fractography (Methodological Notes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtremel', M. A.

    2015-10-01

    As other spheres of image analysis, fractography has no universal method for information convolution. An effective characteristic of an image is found by analyzing the essence and origin of every class of objects. As follows from the geometric definition of a fractal curve, its projection onto any straight line covers a certain segment many times; therefore, neither a time series (one-valued function of time) nor an image (one-valued function of plane) can be a fractal. For applications, multidimensional multiscale characteristics of an image are necessary. "Full" wavelet series break the law of conservation of information.

  1. An Analysis of the Role of Teachers' Aides in a State Secondary School: Perceptions of Teaching Staff and Teachers' Aides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dianne; Paatsch, Louise; Toe, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, one of the major roles of the teachers' aide (TA) is to assist students with disabilities to access their education. Researchers have identified the inconsistencies in defining the roles of the TA, in a variety of settings, by TAs, teachers, parents, and other research participants. Four main themes that have been…

  2. Faith-based aid, globalisation and the humanitarian frontline: an analysis of Western-based Muslim aid organisations.

    PubMed

    De Cordier, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    This paper focuses on the emergence and modus operandi of Muslim faith-based aid organisations from the West, particularly those from the United Kingdom. Through case studies of Islamic Relief Worldwide and Muslim Hands, it examines the actual and potential added value generated by these humanitarian players in Muslim-majority contexts at times when aid actors from or associated with the West are being perceived by some as instrumental to the political agendas of Western powers, or are being confronted with the consequences thereof. The study analyses Muslim faith-based aid organisations' transnational networks, their implementing partnerships with local faith-based non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and their security position within and their access to insecure contexts, drawing on field examples and opinion from Central Asia, Iraq and Pakistan. It thereby argues that there is ground for an expansion of the role of Muslim aid actors, because of the existence of social and political realities in the field that cannot be always effectively tackled by the dominant international development approaches.

  3. Trustworthy patient decision aids: a qualitative analysis addressing the risk of competing interests

    PubMed Central

    Elwyn, Glyn; Dannenberg, Michelle; Blaine, Arianna; Poddar, Urbashi; Durand, Marie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim in this study was to examine the competing interest policies and procedures of organisations who develop and maintain patient decision aids. Design Descriptive and thematic analysis of data collected from a cross-sectional survey of patient decision aid developer's competing interest policies and disclosure forms. Results We contacted 25 organisations likely to meet the inclusion criteria. 12 eligible organisations provided data. 11 organisations did not reply and 2 declined to participate. Most patient decision aid developers recognise the need to consider the issue of competing interests. Assessment processes vary widely and, for the most part, are insufficiently robust to minimise the risk of competing interests. Only half of the 12 organisations had competing interest policies. Some considered disclosure to be sufficient, while others imposed differing levels of exclusion. Conclusions Patient decision aid developers do not have a consistent approach to managing competing interests. Some have developed policies and procedures, while others pay no attention to the issue. As is the case for clinical practice guidelines, increasing attention will need to be given to how the competing interests of contributors of evidence-based publications may influence materials, especially if they are designed for patient use. PMID:27612542

  4. On the convergence of nanotechnology and Big Data analysis for computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose F; Paulovich, Fernando V; de Oliveira, Maria Cf; de Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-04-01

    An overview is provided of the challenges involved in building computer-aided diagnosis systems capable of precise medical diagnostics based on integration and interpretation of data from different sources and formats. The availability of massive amounts of data and computational methods associated with the Big Data paradigm has brought hope that such systems may soon be available in routine clinical practices, which is not the case today. We focus on visual and machine learning analysis of medical data acquired with varied nanotech-based techniques and on methods for Big Data infrastructure. Because diagnosis is essentially a classification task, we address the machine learning techniques with supervised and unsupervised classification, making a critical assessment of the progress already made in the medical field and the prospects for the near future. We also advocate that successful computer-aided diagnosis requires a merge of methods and concepts from nanotechnology and Big Data analysis.

  5. Edge enhanced morphology for infrared image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiangzhi; Liu, Haonan

    2017-01-01

    Edge information is one of the critical information for infrared images. Morphological operators have been widely used for infrared image analysis. However, the edge information in infrared image is weak and the morphological operators could not well utilize the edge information of infrared images. To strengthen the edge information in morphological operators, the edge enhanced morphology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are given and analyzed. Secondly, the pseudo operators which are derived from the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are defined. Finally, the applications for infrared image analysis are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed edge enhanced morphological operators. The proposed edge enhanced morphological operators are useful for the applications related to edge features, which could be extended to wide area of applications.

  6. The Dark Side of EDX Tomography: Modeling Detector Shadowing to Aid 3D Elemental Signal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Catriona S M; Rossouw, David; Saghi, Zineb; Burdet, Pierre; Leary, Rowan K; Midgley, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    A simple model is proposed to account for the loss of collected X-ray signal by the shadowing of X-ray detectors in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The model is intended to aid the analysis of three-dimensional elemental data sets acquired using energy-dispersive X-ray tomography methods where shadow-free specimen holders are unsuitable or unavailable. The model also provides a useful measure of the detection system geometry.

  7. Independent Component Analysis-Support Vector Machine-Based Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's with Visual Support.

    PubMed

    Khedher, Laila; Illán, Ignacio A; Górriz, Juan M; Ramírez, Javier; Brahim, Abdelbasset; Meyer-Baese, Anke

    2017-05-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems constitute a powerful tool for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but limitations on interpretability and performance exist. In this work, a fully automatic CAD system based on supervised learning methods is proposed to be applied on segmented brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) participants for automatic classification. The proposed CAD system possesses two relevant characteristics: optimal performance and visual support for decision making. The CAD is built in two stages: a first feature extraction based on independent component analysis (ICA) on class mean images and, secondly, a support vector machine (SVM) training and classification. The obtained features for classification offer a full graphical representation of the images, giving an understandable logic in the CAD output, that can increase confidence in the CAD support. The proposed method yields classification results up to 89% of accuracy (with 92% of sensitivity and 86% of specificity) for normal controls (NC) and AD patients, 79% of accuracy (with 82% of sensitivity and 76% of specificity) for NC and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 85% of accuracy (with 85% of sensitivity and 86% of specificity) for MCI and AD patients.

  8. Active imaging with the aids of polarization retrieve in turbid media system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Qiangqiang; Sun, Yongxuan; Shen, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Guo, Zhongyi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel active imaging based on the polarization retrieve (PR) method in turbid media system. In our simulations, the Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm has been used to investigate the scattering process between the incident photons and the scattering particles, and the visually concordant object but with different polarization characteristics in different regions, has been selected as the original target that is placed in the turbid media. Under linearly and circularly polarized illuminations, the simulation results demonstrate that the corresponding polarization properties can provide additional information for the imaging, and the contrast of the polarization image can also be enhanced greatly compared to the simplex intensity image in the turbid media. Besides, the polarization image adjusted by the PR method can further enhance the visibility and contrast. In addition, by PR imaging method, with the increasing particles' size in Mie's scale, the visibility can be enhanced, because of the increased forward scattering effect. In general, in the same circumstance, the circular polarization images can offer a better contrast and visibility than that of linear ones. The results indicate that the PR imaging method is more applicable to the scattering media system with relatively larger particles such as aerosols, heavy fog, cumulus, and seawater, as well as to biological tissues and blood media.

  9. Bridging the integration gap between imaging and information systems: a uniform data concept for content-based image retrieval in computer-aided diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Welter, Petra; Riesmeier, Jörg; Fischer, Benedikt; Grouls, Christoph; Kuhl, Christiane; Deserno, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that content-based image retrieval (CBIR) can be extremely useful for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). However, CBIR has not been established in clinical practice yet. As a widely unattended gap of integration, a unified data concept for CBIR-based CAD results and reporting is lacking. Picture archiving and communication systems and the workflow of radiologists must be considered for successful data integration to be achieved. We suggest that CBIR systems applied to CAD should integrate their results in a picture archiving and communication systems environment such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting documents. A sample DICOM structured reporting template adaptable to CBIR and an appropriate integration scheme is presented. The proposed CBIR data concept may foster the promulgation of CBIR systems in clinical environments and, thereby, improve the diagnostic process.

  10. Image calibration and registration in cone-beam computed tomogram for measuring the accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Walter Y. H.; Ngan, Henry Y. T.; Wat, Peter Y. P.; Luk, Henry W. K.; Goto, Tazuko K.; Pow, Edmond H. N.

    2015-02-01

    Medical radiography is the use of radiation to "see through" a human body without breaching its integrity (surface). With computed tomography (CT)/cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be produced. These imagings not only facilitate disease diagnosis but also enable computer-aided surgical planning/navigation. In dentistry, the common method for transfer of the virtual surgical planning to the patient (reality) is the use of surgical stent either with a preloaded planning (static) like a channel or a real time surgical navigation (dynamic) after registration with fiducial markers (RF). This paper describes using the corner of a cube as a radiopaque fiducial marker on an acrylic (plastic) stent, this RF allows robust calibration and registration of Cartesian (x, y, z)- coordinates for linking up the patient (reality) and the imaging (virtuality) and hence the surgical planning can be transferred in either static or dynamic way. The accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery was measured with reference to coordinates. In our preliminary model surgery, a dental implant was planned virtually and placed with preloaded surgical guide. The deviation of the placed implant apex from the planning was x=+0.56mm [more right], y=- 0.05mm [deeper], z=-0.26mm [more lingual]) which was within clinically 2mm safety range. For comparison with the virtual planning, the physically placed implant was CT/CBCT scanned and errors may be introduced. The difference of the actual implant apex to the virtual apex was x=0.00mm, y=+0.21mm [shallower], z=-1.35mm [more lingual] and this should be brought in mind when interpret the results.

  11. Computer-aided screening system for cervical precancerous cells based on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray images and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusman, Yessi; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Hasikin, Khairunnisa; Kurnia, Rahmadi; Osman, Noor Azuan Bin Abu; Teoh, Kean Hooi

    2016-10-01

    The capability of field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDX) to scan material structures at the microlevel and characterize the material with its elemental properties has inspired this research, which has developed an FE-SEM/EDX-based cervical cancer screening system. The developed computer-aided screening system consisted of two parts, which were the automatic features of extraction and classification. For the automatic features extraction algorithm, the image and spectra of cervical cells features extraction algorithm for extracting the discriminant features of FE-SEM/EDX data was introduced. The system automatically extracted two types of features based on FE-SEM/EDX images and FE-SEM/EDX spectra. Textural features were extracted from the FE-SEM/EDX image using a gray level co-occurrence matrix technique, while the FE-SEM/EDX spectra features were calculated based on peak heights and corrected area under the peaks using an algorithm. A discriminant analysis technique was employed to predict the cervical precancerous stage into three classes: normal, low-grade intraepithelial squamous lesion (LSIL), and high-grade intraepithelial squamous lesion (HSIL). The capability of the developed screening system was tested using 700 FE-SEM/EDX spectra (300 normal, 200 LSIL, and 200 HSIL cases). The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity performances were 98.2%, 99.0%, and 98.0%, respectively.

  12. Identification and Analysis of Distinct Features in Imaging Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zaunbrecher, K. N.; Johnston, S. W.; Sites, J. R.

    2012-06-01

    Electroluminescence and photoluminescence (EL and PL) are two imaging techniques employed at NREL that are used to qualitatively evaluate solar cells. In this work, imaging lab-scale CdTe and CIGS devices provides information about small-area PV response, which will aid in determining the effects of non-uniformities on cell performance. EL, PL, and dark lock-in thermography signatures are first catalogued. Their responses to varying conditions are then studied. Further analysis includes acquiring spectral data, making microscopy measurements, and correlating luminescence to device performance. The goal of this work is to quantitatively determine non-uniformity effects on cell performance using rapid imaging techniques.

  13. MRI Image Processing Based on Fractal Analysis

    PubMed

    Marusina, Mariya Y; Mochalina, Alexandra P; Frolova, Ekaterina P; Satikov, Valentin I; Barchuk, Anton A; Kuznetcov, Vladimir I; Gaidukov, Vadim S; Tarakanov, Segrey A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cancer is one of the most common causes of human mortality, with about 14 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths reported in in 2012. Early diagnosis of cancer through screening allows interventions to reduce mortality. Fractal analysis of medical images may be useful for this purpose. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined magnetic resonance (MR) images of healthy livers and livers containing metastases from colorectal cancer. The fractal dimension and the Hurst exponent were chosen as diagnostic features for tomographic imaging using Image J software package for image processings FracLac for applied for fractal analysis with a 120x150 pixel area. Calculations of the fractal dimensions of pathological and healthy tissue samples were performed using the box-counting method. Results: In pathological cases (foci formation), the Hurst exponent was less than 0.5 (the region of unstable statistical characteristics). For healthy tissue, the Hurst index is greater than 0.5 (the zone of stable characteristics). Conclusions: The study indicated the possibility of employing fractal rapid analysis for the detection of focal lesions of the liver. The Hurst exponent can be used as an important diagnostic characteristic for analysis of medical images.

  14. Retinal imaging analysis based on vessel detection.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Arshad; Hazim Alkawaz, Mohammed; Rehman, Amjad; Saba, Tanzila

    2017-03-13

    With an increase in the advancement of digital imaging and computing power, computationally intelligent technologies are in high demand to be used in ophthalmology cure and treatment. In current research, Retina Image Analysis (RIA) is developed for optometrist at Eye Care Center in Management and Science University. This research aims to analyze the retina through vessel detection. The RIA assists in the analysis of the retinal images and specialists are served with various options like saving, processing and analyzing retinal images through its advanced interface layout. Additionally, RIA assists in the selection process of vessel segment; processing these vessels by calculating its diameter, standard deviation, length, and displaying detected vessel on the retina. The Agile Unified Process is adopted as the methodology in developing this research. To conclude, Retina Image Analysis might help the optometrist to get better understanding in analyzing the patient's retina. Finally, the Retina Image Analysis procedure is developed using MATLAB (R2011b). Promising results are attained that are comparable in the state of art.

  15. Rock fracture image acquisition and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Zongpu, Jia; Chen, Liwan

    2007-12-01

    As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, this paper presents: rock fracture image acquisition and analysis. Rock fracture images are acquired by using UV light illumination and visible optical illumination. To present fracture network reasonable, we set up some models to characterize the network, based on the models, we used Best fit Ferret method to auto-determine fracture zone, then, through skeleton fractures to obtain endpoints, junctions, holes, particles, and branches. Based on the new parameters and a part of common parameters, the fracture network density, porosity, connectivity and complexities can be obtained, and the fracture network is characterized. In the following, we first present a basic consideration and basic parameters for fractures (Primary study of characteristics of rock fractures), then, set up a model for fracture network analysis (Fracture network analysis), consequently to use the model to analyze fracture network with different images (Two dimensional fracture network analysis based on slices), and finally give conclusions and suggestions.

  16. Nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided signal amplification strategy for biochemical analysis: status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Qing, Taiping; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Xu, Fengzhou; Wen, Li; Shangguan, Jingfang; Mao, Zhengui; Lei, Yanli

    2016-04-01

    Owing to their highly efficient catalytic effects and substrate specificity, the nucleic acid tool enzymes are applied as 'nano-tools' for manipulating different nucleic acid substrates both in the test-tube and in living organisms. In addition to the function as molecular scissors and molecular glue in genetic engineering, the application of nucleic acid tool enzymes in biochemical analysis has also been extensively developed in the past few decades. Used as amplifying labels for biorecognition events, the nucleic acid tool enzymes are mainly applied in nucleic acids amplification sensing, as well as the amplification sensing of biorelated variations of nucleic acids. With the introduction of aptamers, which can bind different target molecules, the nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided signal amplification strategies can also be used to sense non-nucleic targets (e.g., ions, small molecules, proteins, and cells). This review describes and discusses the amplification strategies of nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided biosensors for biochemical analysis applications. Various analytes, including nucleic acids, ions, small molecules, proteins, and cells, are reviewed briefly. This work also addresses the future trends and outlooks for signal amplification in nucleic acid tool enzymes-aided biosensors.

  17. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids. [Root-cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems based on research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. Our research in fault diagnosis at PNL grew out of our work in root-cause analysis (RCA). Our approach consists of those major activities which we categorize as (1) determining knowledge requirements, (2) constructing models, and (3) developing the requirements for representation schemes. We group knowledge for fault diagnosis into two broad groups: cognitive task and process-system knowledge. Our research indicates that a useful representation scheme can be developed employing function and object hierarchies, task required inference, and task specified reasoning control. Formal modeling of the reasoning task determines the required task inference and control. This research has focused on the use of the representation scheme for fault diagnosis. However, preliminary analysis indicates that this same scheme may be useful in automating control tasks. The next phase of this research is to develop a prototype. The prototype system has been specified and we are presently developing knowledge models of the components and system. 19 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Towards the routine use of brain imaging to aid the clinical diagnosis of disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M R; Davis, M H; Rodd, J M; Robson, T; Ali, A; Owen, A M; Pickard, J D

    2009-09-01

    Clinical audits have highlighted the many challenges and dilemmas faced by clinicians assessing persons with disorders of consciousness (vegetative state and minimally conscious state). The diagnostic decision-making process is highly subjective, dependent upon the skills of the examiner and invariably dictated by the patients' ability to move or speak. Whilst a considerable amount has been learnt since Jennett and Plum coined the term 'vegetative state', the assessment process remains largely unchanged; conducted at the bedside, using behavioural assessment tools, which are susceptible to environmental and physiological factors. This has created a situation where the rate of misdiagnosis is unacceptably high (up to 43%). In order to address these problems, various functional brain imaging paradigms, which do not rely upon the patient's ability to move or speak, have been proposed as a source of additional information to inform the diagnostic decision making process. Although accumulated evidence from brain imaging, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has been encouraging, the empirical evidence is still based on relatively small numbers of patients. It remains unclear whether brain imaging is capable of informing the diagnosis beyond the behavioural assessment and whether brain imaging has any prognostic utility. In this study, we describe the functional brain imaging findings from a group of 41 patients with disorders of consciousness, who undertook a hierarchical speech processing task. We found, contrary to the clinical impression of a specialist team using behavioural assessment tools, that two patients referred to the study with a diagnosis of vegetative state did in fact demonstrate neural correlates of speech comprehension when assessed using functional brain imaging. These fMRI findings were found to have no association with the patient's behavioural presentation at the time of investigation and thus provided additional diagnostic

  19. Holographic imaging through a scattering medium by diffuser-aided statistical averaging.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Michael J; Kumar, Manish; Rand, Stephen C; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a practical digital holographic method capable of imaging through a diffusive or scattering medium. The method relies on statistical averaging from a rotating ground glass diffuser to negate the adverse effects caused by speckle introduced by a static diffuser or scattering medium. In particular, a setup based on Fourier transform holography is used to show that an image can be recovered after scattering by introducing an additional diffuser in the optical setup. This method is capable of recovering object information from behind a scattering layer in biomedical or military imaging applications.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis for classifying benign versus malignant thyroid nodules based on ultrasound images: A comparison with radiologist-based assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yongjun; Paul, Anjan Kumar; Kim, Namkug Baek, Jung Hwan; Choi, Young Jun; Ha, Eun Ju; Lee, Kang Dae; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Shin, DaeSeock; Kim, Nakyoung

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a semiautomated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for thyroid cancer using two-dimensional ultrasound images that can be used to yield a second opinion in the clinic to differentiate malignant and benign lesions. Methods: A total of 118 ultrasound images that included axial and longitudinal images from patients with biopsy-confirmed malignant (n = 30) and benign (n = 29) nodules were collected. Thyroid CAD software was developed to extract quantitative features from these images based on thyroid nodule segmentation in which adaptive diffusion flow for active contours was used. Various features, including histogram, intensity differences, elliptical fit, gray-level co-occurrence matrixes, and gray-level run-length matrixes, were evaluated for each region imaged. Based on these imaging features, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to differentiate benign and malignant nodules. Leave-one-out cross-validation with sequential forward feature selection was performed to evaluate the overall accuracy of this method. Additionally, analyses with contingency tables and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to compare the performance of CAD with visual inspection by expert radiologists based on established gold standards. Results: Most univariate features for this proposed CAD system attained accuracies that ranged from 78.0% to 83.1%. When optimal SVM parameters that were established using a grid search method with features that radiologists use for visual inspection were employed, the authors could attain rates of accuracy that ranged from 72.9% to 84.7%. Using leave-one-out cross-validation results in a multivariate analysis of various features, the highest accuracy achieved using the proposed CAD system was 98.3%, whereas visual inspection by radiologists reached 94.9% accuracy. To obtain the highest accuracies, “axial ratio” and “max probability” in axial images were most frequently included in the

  1. Use of computer aided drafting for analysis and control of posture in manual work.

    PubMed

    Ulin, S S; Armstrong, T J; Radwin, R G

    1990-06-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) in conjunction with digitised anthropometric manikins can be used for analysis and control of stressful work postures, one of the most frequently cited occupational risk factors of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. This paper describes the use of macros for manipulating manikins and workstation components and for designing the workplace. AutoCAD, a popular computer aided design software package, was used to demonstrate the feasibility of these concepts. Specifically, macros are used for drawing work equipment using parametric designs, manipulating manikins and analysing jobs. In comparing the macros to the use of primitive CAD commands, the macros not only decrease the amount of time needed to create workstation components, but they also make the task easier for the user and decrease the risk of errors. Despite the limitation of anthropometric data and manikins, CAD is an effective method for identifying postural stresses and redesigning the workstation to control the identified stresses.

  2. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  3. Single particle raster image analysis of diffusion.

    PubMed

    Longfils, M; Schuster, E; Lorén, N; Särkkä, A; Rudemo, M

    2017-04-01

    As a complement to the standard RICS method of analysing Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy images with estimation of the image correlation function, we introduce the method SPRIA, Single Particle Raster Image Analysis. Here, we start by identifying individual particles and estimate the diffusion coefficient for each particle by a maximum likelihood method. Averaging over the particles gives a diffusion coefficient estimate for the whole image. In examples both with simulated and experimental data, we show that the new method gives accurate estimates. It also gives directly standard error estimates. The method should be possible to extend to study heterogeneous materials and systems of particles with varying diffusion coefficient, as demonstrated in a simple simulation example. A requirement for applying the SPRIA method is that the particle concentration is low enough so that we can identify the individual particles. We also describe a bootstrap method for estimating the standard error of standard RICS.

  4. Functional data analysis in brain imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian Siva

    2010-01-01

    Functional data analysis (FDA) considers the continuity of the curves or functions, and is a topic of increasing interest in the statistics community. FDA is commonly applied to time-series and spatial-series studies. The development of functional brain imaging techniques in recent years made it possible to study the relationship between brain and mind over time. Consequently, an enormous amount of functional data is collected and needs to be analyzed. Functional techniques designed for these data are in strong demand. This paper discusses three statistically challenging problems utilizing FDA techniques in functional brain imaging analysis. These problems are dimension reduction (or feature extraction), spatial classification in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, and the inverse problem in magneto-encephalography studies. The application of FDA to these issues is relatively new but has been shown to be considerably effective. Future efforts can further explore the potential of FDA in functional brain imaging studies.

  5. Particle Pollution Estimation Based on Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenbin; Tsow, Francis; Zou, Yi; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particles can cause various diseases, and an easily accessible method to monitor the particles can help raise public awareness and reduce harmful exposures. Here we report a method to estimate PM air pollution based on analysis of a large number of outdoor images available for Beijing, Shanghai (China) and Phoenix (US). Six image features were extracted from the images, which were used, together with other relevant data, such as the position of the sun, date, time, geographic information and weather conditions, to predict PM2.5 index. The results demonstrate that the image analysis method provides good prediction of PM2.5 indexes, and different features have different significance levels in the prediction. PMID:26828757

  6. Particle Pollution Estimation Based on Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenbin; Tsow, Francis; Zou, Yi; Tao, Nongjian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particles can cause various diseases, and an easily accessible method to monitor the particles can help raise public awareness and reduce harmful exposures. Here we report a method to estimate PM air pollution based on analysis of a large number of outdoor images available for Beijing, Shanghai (China) and Phoenix (US). Six image features were extracted from the images, which were used, together with other relevant data, such as the position of the sun, date, time, geographic information and weather conditions, to predict PM2.5 index. The results demonstrate that the image analysis method provides good prediction of PM2.5 indexes, and different features have different significance levels in the prediction.

  7. Image Processing and Computer Aided Diagnosis in Computed Tomography of the Breast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    proposed by Hebert and Leahy 5. 2.2 Test Images Images were acquired with a Siemens prototype digital mammography system ( Mammomat Novation DR; Siemens ...of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired on Siemens prototype FFDM system (a) with and (b) without an anti-scatter grid; (b) the MAP algorithm...cancer detection," Proc. SPIE (2005). 11. R. Hebert, T. Leahy, "A generalized EM algorithm for 3-D Bayesian reconstruction from Poisson data using

  8. Sensitive test for sea mine identification based on polarization-aided image processing.

    PubMed

    Leonard, I; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C

    2013-12-02

    Techniques are widely sought to detect and identify sea mines. This issue is characterized by complicated mine shapes and underwater light propagation dependencies. In a preliminary study we use a preprocessing step for denoising underwater images before applying the algorithm for mine detection. Once a mine is detected, the protocol for identifying it is activated. Among many correlation filters, we have focused our attention on the asymmetric segmented phase-only filter for quantifying the recognition rate because it allows us to significantly increase the number of reference images in the fabrication of this filter. Yet they are not entirely satisfactory in terms of recognition rate and the obtained images revealed to be of low quality. In this report, we propose a way to improve upon this preliminary study by using a single wavelength polarimetric camera in order to denoise the images. This permits us to enhance images and improve depth visibility. We present illustrative results using in situ polarization imaging of a target through a milk-water mixture and demonstrate that our challenging objective of increasing the detection rate and decreasing the false alarm rate has been achieved.

  9. Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis of splenic enlargement using wave pattern of spleen in abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Won; Cho, June-Sik; Noh, Seung-Moo; Park, Jong Won

    2006-03-01

    It is known that the spleen accompanied by liver cirrhosis is hypertrophied or enlarged. We have examined a wave pattern at the left boundary of spleen on the abdominal CT images having liver cirrhosis, and found that they are different from those on the images having a normal liver. It is noticed that the abdominal CT images of patient with liver cirrhosis shows strong bending in the wave pattern. In the case of normal liver, the images may also have a wave pattern, but its bends are not strong. Therefore, the total waving area of the spleen with liver cirrhosis is found to be greater than that of the spleen with a normal liver. Moreover, we found that the waves of the spleen from the image with liver cirrhosis have the higher degree of circularity compared to the normal liver case. Based on the two observations above, we propose an automatic method to diagnose splenic enlargement by using the wave pattern of the spleen in abdominal CT images. The proposed automatic method improves the diagnostic performance compared with the conventional process based on the size of spleen.

  11. On Two-Dimensional ARMA Models for Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-24

    2-D ARMA models for image analysis . Particular emphasis is placed on restoration of noisy images using 2-D ARMA models. Computer results are...is concluded that the models are very effective linear models for image analysis . (Author)

  12. VAICo: visual analysis for image comparison.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Johanna; Gröller, M Eduard; Bruckner, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Scientists, engineers, and analysts are confronted with ever larger and more complex sets of data, whose analysis poses special challenges. In many situations it is necessary to compare two or more datasets. Hence there is a need for comparative visualization tools to help analyze differences or similarities among datasets. In this paper an approach for comparative visualization for sets of images is presented. Well-established techniques for comparing images frequently place them side-by-side. A major drawback of such approaches is that they do not scale well. Other image comparison methods encode differences in images by abstract parameters like color. In this case information about the underlying image data gets lost. This paper introduces a new method for visualizing differences and similarities in large sets of images which preserves contextual information, but also allows the detailed analysis of subtle variations. Our approach identifies local changes and applies cluster analysis techniques to embed them in a hierarchy. The results of this process are then presented in an interactive web application which allows users to rapidly explore the space of differences and drill-down on particular features. We demonstrate the flexibility of our approach by applying it to multiple distinct domains.

  13. Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of Model Equations on Interactions of the HIV/AIDS Virus and the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parumasur, N.; Willie, R.

    2008-09-01

    We consider a simple HIV/AIDs finite dimensional mathematical model on interactions of the blood cells, the HIV/AIDs virus and the immune system for consistence of the equations to the real biomedical situation that they model. A better understanding to a cure solution to the illness modeled by the finite dimensional equations is given. This is accomplished through rigorous mathematical analysis and is reinforced by numerical analysis of models developed for real life cases.

  14. From Image Analysis to Computer Vision: Motives, Methods, and Milestones.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    images. Initially, work on digital image analysis dealt with specific classes of images such as text, photomicrographs, nuclear particle tracks, and aerial...photographs; but by the 1960’s, general algorithms and paradigms for image analysis began to be formulated. When the artificial intelligence...scene, but eventually from image sequences obtained by a moving camera; at this stage, image analysis had become scene analysis or computer vision

  15. Computer-aided detection of renal calculi from noncontrast CT images using TV-flow and MSER features

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jianfei; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Renal calculi are common extracolonic incidental findings on computed tomographic colonography (CTC). This work aims to develop a fully automated computer-aided diagnosis system to accurately detect renal calculi on CTC images. Methods: The authors developed a total variation (TV) flow method to reduce image noise within the kidneys while maintaining the characteristic appearance of renal calculi. Maximally stable extremal region (MSER) features were then calculated to robustly identify calculi candidates. Finally, the authors computed texture and shape features that were imported to support vector machines for calculus classification. The method was validated on a dataset of 192 patients and compared to a baseline approach that detects calculi by thresholding. The authors also compared their method with the detection approaches using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing. Results: At a false positive rate of 8 per patient, the sensitivities of the new method and the baseline thresholding approach were 69% and 35% (p < 1e − 3) on all calculi from 1 to 433 mm{sup 3} in the testing dataset. The sensitivities of the detection methods using anisotropic diffusion and nonsmoothing were 36% and 0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the new method increased to 90% if only larger and more clinically relevant calculi were considered. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrated that TV-flow and MSER features are efficient means to robustly and accurately detect renal calculi on low-dose, high noise CTC images. Thus, the proposed method can potentially improve diagnosis.

  16. [Cap image--a new kind of computer-assisted video image analysis system for dynamic capillary microscopy].

    PubMed

    Klyscz, T; Jünger, M; Jung, F; Zeintl, H

    1997-06-01

    We describe a newly developed multi-function video image analysis system for the computer-aided evaluation of capillaroscopic findings in microcirculation research. The Cap image analysis system comprises an IBM-compatible PC with a Matrox image processing card and real-time video tape digitalization. The video recorder is driven by a personal computer to which it is connected via an RS-232 interface. In contrast to currently available systems, the program presented here makes it possible to select any of several integrated image analysis functions, depending on the quality of the video image. Some examples of the analysis functions available are measurements of erythrocyte flow velocity using the line shift diagram method, the spatial correlation method, and the auto flying spot method. The standard features of the new program include a number of special functions and automatic movement correction. The system thus makes it possible not only to measure numerous morphological parameters such as capillary diameter, length, torquation index and capillary density, but also to perform video densitometric analysis, for example using fluorescent dyes.

  17. Selecting an image analysis minicomputer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, R.

    1981-01-01

    Factors to be weighed when selecting a minicomputer system as the basis for an image analysis computer facility vary depending on whether the user organization procures a new computer or selects an existing facility to serve as an image analysis host. Some conditions not directly related to hardware or software should be considered such as the flexibility of the computer center staff, their encouragement of innovation, and the availability of the host processor to a broad spectrum of potential user organizations. Particular attention must be given to: image analysis software capability; the facilities of a potential host installation; the central processing unit; the operating system and languages; main memory; disk storage; tape drives; hardcopy output; and other peripherals. The operational environment, accessibility; resource limitations; and operational supports are important. Charges made for program execution and data storage must also be examined.

  18. Computer aided diagnosis for osteoporosis based on vertebral column structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Eiji; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Harada, Masafumi; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-03-01

    Patients of osteoporosis are comprised of about 11 million people in Japan and it is one of the problems that have gained society. For preventing the osteoporosis, obtaining early detection and treatment are necessary. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving for three dimensional (3D) image analysis, higher body axis resolution and shorter scan time. 3D image analysis using multi-slice CT images of thoracic vertebra can be used for supporting diagnosis of osteoporosis. Simultaneously, this analysis can be used for lung cancer diagnosis which may lead to early detection. We develop automatic extraction and partitioning algorithm for spinal column by analyzing vertebral body structure, and the analysis algorithm of the vertebral body using shape analysis and a bone density measurement for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. An effective result was provided for the case including an insufficient complicated vertebral body bone fracture by the conventional method.

  19. Computer-aided classification of zoom-endoscopical images using Fourier filters.

    PubMed

    Häfner, Michael; Brunauer, Leonhard; Payer, Hannes; Resch, Robert; Gangl, Alfred; Uhl, Andreas; Wrba, Friedrich; Vécsei, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes an application of machine learning techniques and evolutionary algorithms to colon cancer diagnosis. We propose an automated classification system for endoscopical images, which is supposed to support physicians in making correct decisions. Classification is done according to the pit-pattern scheme, which defines two/six different classes based on the occurrence of patterns on the mucosa. All discriminative information for classification is obtained by filtering an image's frequency domain. A major part of this paper is devoted to the search for proper frequency filters. An extensive experimental study compares different search strategies and the resulting classification accuracies. We result in a top classification accuracy of 96.9% and 86.8% for the two- and six-classes case, respectively, using a database of 484 zoom-endoscopic images. We observe a tendency toward the employment of lower frequency filter structures for the best classification settings.

  20. A Comparison of Local Variance, Fractal Dimension, and Moran's I as Aids to Multispectral Image Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Sig-NganLam, Nina; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of traditional multispectral maximum-likelihood image classification is limited by the skewed statistical distributions of reflectances from the complex heterogenous mixture of land cover types in urban areas. This work examines the utility of local variance, fractal dimension and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation in segmenting multispectral satellite imagery. Tools available in the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) were used to analyze Landsat 7 imagery of Atlanta, Georgia. Although segmentation of panchromatic images is possible using indicators of spatial complexity, different land covers often yield similar values of these indices. Better results are obtained when a surface of local fractal dimension or spatial autocorrelation is combined as an additional layer in a supervised maximum-likelihood multispectral classification. The addition of fractal dimension measures is particularly effective at resolving land cover classes within urbanized areas, as compared to per-pixel spectral classification techniques.

  1. Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2003-11-25

    AXSIA performs automated factor analysis of hyperspectral images. In such images, a complete spectrum is collected an each point in a 1-, 2- or 3- dimensional spatial array. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques have proven effective for extracting the essential information from high dimensional data sets into a limted number of factors that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the pure components comprising the sample. AXSIA provides tools to estimate different types of factor models including Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), PCA with factor rotation, and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR-ALS). As part of the analysis process, AXSIA can automatically estimate the number of pure components that comprise the data and can scale the data to account for Poisson noise. The data analysis methods are fundamentally based on eigenanalysis of the data crossproduct matrix coupled with orthogonal eigenvector rotation and constrained alternating least squares refinement. A novel method for automatically determining the number of significant components, which is based on the eigenvalues of the crossproduct matrix, has also been devised and implemented. The data can be compressed spectrally via PCA and spatially through wavelet transforms, and algorithms have been developed that perform factor analysis in the transform domain while retaining full spatial and spectral resolution in the final result. These latter innovations enable the analysis of larger-than core-memory spectrum-images. AXSIA was designed to perform automated chemical phase analysis of spectrum-images acquired by a variety of chemical imaging techniques. Successful applications include Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence

  2. Comprehensive Retinal Image Analysis for Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Computer aided analysis plays a nontrivial role in assisting the diagnosis of various eye pathologies. In this paper, we propose a framework to help diagnose the presence of Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy Of Prematurity (APROP), a pathology that is characterised by rapid onset and increased tortuosity of blood vessels close to the optic disc (OD). We quantify vessel characteristics that are of clinical relevance to APROP such as tortuosity and the extent of branching i.e., vessel segment count in the defined diagnostic region. We have adapted three vessel segmentation techniques: matched filter response, scale space theory and morphology with local entropy based thresholding. The proposed feature set equips us to build a linear discriminant classifier to discriminate APROP images from clinically healthy images. We have studied 36 images from 21 APROP subjects against a control group of 15 clinically healthy age matched infants. All subjects are age matched ranging from 33−40 weeks of post menstrual age. Experimental results show that we attain 100% recall and 95.45% precision, when the vessel network obtained from morphology is used for feature extraction. PMID:27711231

  3. Grieving experiences amongst adolescents orphaned by AIDS: Analysis from event history calendars.

    PubMed

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2012-09-07

    Mental health is an essential component of adolescent health and wellbeing. Mental health practitioners assess adolescents' mental health status to identify possible issues that may lead to mental health problems. However, very few of the tools used to assess the mental health status of adolescents include assessment for grieving and coping patterns. The current tools used for assessing an individual's mental health are lengthy and not comprehensive. The purpose of this study was to assess grieving patterns of adolescents orphaned by AIDS and to appraise the usefulness of an event history calendar as an assessment tool for identifying grieving experiences, in order to guide and support these adolescents through the grieving process. One hundred and two adolescents aged 14-18 years, who had been orphaned by AIDS, completed an event history calendar, reviewed it with the researcher and reported their perceptions of it. Thematic analysis of the event history calendar content revealed that it is an effective, time-efficient, adolescent-friendly tool that facilitated identification and discussion of the orphaned adolescents' grieving patterns. Crying, isolation, silence and violent outbursts were the main grieving patterns reported by adolescents orphaned by AIDS. The researcher recommends use of the event history calendar for identification of orphaned adolescents' grieving experiences. Early identification would enable mental health practitioners to support them in order to prevent the occurrence of mental illness due to maladaptive grieving.

  4. Objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software.

    PubMed

    Pham, Annette M; Tollefson, Travis T

    2010-05-01

    Facial analysis is an integral part of the surgical planning process. Clinical photography has long been an invaluable tool in the surgeon's practice not only for accurate facial analysis but also for enhancing communication between the patient and surgeon, for evaluating postoperative results, for medicolegal documentation, and for educational and teaching opportunities. From 35-mm slide film to the digital technology of today, clinical photography has benefited greatly from technological advances. With the development of computer imaging software, objective facial analysis becomes easier to perform and less time consuming. Thus, while the original purpose of facial analysis remains the same, the process becomes much more efficient and allows for some objectivity. Although clinical judgment and artistry of technique is never compromised, the ability to perform objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software may become the standard in facial plastic surgery practices in the future.

  5. Computer-Assisted Digital Image Analysis of Plus Disease in Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Pavlina S; VanderVeen, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the current state and role of computer-assisted analysis in diagnosis of plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity. Diagnosis and documentation of retinopathy of prematurity are increasingly being supplemented by digital imaging. The incorporation of computer-aided techniques has the potential to add valuable information and standardization regarding the presence of plus disease, an important criterion in deciding the necessity of treatment of vision-threatening retinopathy of prematurity. A review of literature found that several techniques have been published examining the process and role of computer aided analysis of plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity. These techniques use semiautomated image analysis techniques to evaluate retinal vascular dilation and tortuosity, using calculated parameters to evaluate presence or absence of plus disease. These values are then compared with expert consensus. The study concludes that computer-aided image analysis has the potential to use quantitative and objective criteria to act as a supplemental tool in evaluating for plus disease in the setting of retinopathy of prematurity.

  6. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Evaluation of Model-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Analysis With Pyramid Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Image Analysis aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging technique 18,5,17,6. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model based on pyramid images for ventilation analysis. We have further extended the method for ventilation analysis to pulmonary perfusion. This paper focuses on the clinical evaluation of our method for

  7. Motion Analysis From Television Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberberg, George G.; Keller, Patrick N.

    1982-02-01

    The Department of Defense ranges have relied on photographic instrumentation for gathering data of firings for all types of ordnance. A large inventory of cameras are available on the market that can be used for these tasks. A new set of optical instrumentation is beginning to appear which, in many cases, can directly replace photographic cameras for a great deal of the work being performed now. These are television cameras modified so they can stop motion, see in the dark, perform under hostile environments, and provide real time information. This paper discusses techniques for modifying television cameras so they can be used for motion analysis.

  8. Fluorescence spectroscopy as an aid to imaging latent fingermarks in the ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Bramble, S K

    1996-11-01

    Two- and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopic data have been recorded from sebum-rich latent fingermarks on quartz and white card. The fingermark residue was found to fluoresce between 310 to 380 nm and have an excitation range between 260 to 300 nm. The data are used to describe the results observed when imaging the inherent ultraviolet photoluminescence of latent fingermarks.

  9. Segmentation of PET Images for Computer-Aided Functional Quantification of Tuberculosis in Small Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Brent; Bagci, Ulas; Xu, Ziyue; Dey, Bappaditya; Luna, Brian; Bishai, William; Jain, Sanjay; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary infections often cause spatially diffuse and multi-focal radiotracer uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) images, which makes accurate quantification of the disease extent challenging. Image segmentation plays a vital role in quantifying uptake due to the distributed nature of immuno-pathology and associated metabolic activities in pulmonary infection, specifically tuberculosis (TB). For this task, thresholding-based segmentation methods may be better suited over other methods; however, performance of the thresholding-based methods depend on the selection of thresholding parameters, which are often suboptimal. Several optimal thresholding techniques have been proposed in the literature, but there is currently no consensus on how to determine the optimal threshold for precise identification of spatially diffuse and multi-focal radiotracer uptake. In this study, we propose a method to select optimal thresholding levels by utilizing a novel intensity affinity metric within the affinity propagation clustering framework. We tested the proposed method against 70 longitudinal PET images of rabbits infected with TB. The overall dice similarity coefficient between the segmentation from the proposed method and two expert segmentations was found to be 91.25 ± 8.01% with a sensitivity of 88.80 ± 12.59% and a specificity of 96.01 ± 9.20%. High accuracy and heightened efficiency of our proposed method, as compared to other PET image segmentation methods, were reported with various quantification metrics. PMID:24235292

  10. Analysis of computer-aided detection techniques and signal characteristics for clustered microcalcifications on digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.

    2016-10-01

    With IRB approval, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images of human subjects were collected using a GE GEN2 DBT prototype system. Corresponding digital mammograms (DMs) of the same subjects were collected retrospectively from patient files. The data set contained a total of 237 views of DBT and equal number of DM views from 120 human subjects, each included 163 views with microcalcification clusters (MCs) and 74 views without MCs. The data set was separated into training and independent test sets. The pre-processing, object prescreening and segmentation, false positive reduction and clustering strategies for MC detection by three computer-aided detection (CADe) systems designed for DM, DBT, and a planar projection image generated from DBT were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves based on features extracted from microcalcifications and free-response ROC (FROC) curves based on scores from MCs were used to quantify the performance of the systems. Jackknife FROC (JAFROC) and non-parametric analysis methods were used to determine the statistical difference between the FROC curves. The difference between the CADDM and CADDBT systems when the false positive rate was estimated from cases without MCs did not reach statistical significance. The study indicates that the large search space in DBT may not be a limiting factor for CADe to achieve similar performance as that observed in DM.

  11. Detection of cyst using image segmentation and building knowledge-based intelligent decision support system as an aid to telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janet, J.; Natesan, T. R.; Santhosh, Ramamurthy; Ibramsha, Mohideen

    2005-02-01

    An intelligent decision support tool to the Radiologist in telemedicine is described. Medical prescriptions are given based on the images of cyst that has been transmitted over computer networks to the remote medical center. The digital image, acquired by sonography, is converted into an intensity image. This image is then subjected to image preprocessing which involves correction methods to eliminate specific artifacts. The image is resized into a 256 x 256 matrix by using bilinear interpolation method. The background area is detected using distinct block operation. The area of the cyst is calculated by removing the background area from the original image. Boundary enhancement and morphological operations are done to remove unrelated pixels. This gives us the cyst volume. This segmented image of the cyst is sent to the remote medical center for analysis by Knowledge based artificial Intelligent Decision Support System (KIDSS). The type of cyst is detected and reported to the control mechanism of KIDSS. Then the inference engine compares this with the knowledge base and gives appropriate medical prescriptions or treatment recommendations by applying reasoning mechanisms at the remote medical center.

  12. Multilocus Genetic Analysis of Brain Images

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Kohannim, Omid; Stein, Jason L.; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The quest to identify genes that influence disease is now being extended to find genes that affect biological markers of disease, or endophenotypes. Brain images, in particular, provide exquisitely detailed measures of anatomy, function, and connectivity in the living brain, and have identified characteristic features for many neurological and psychiatric disorders. The emerging field of imaging genomics is discovering important genetic variants associated with brain structure and function, which in turn influence disease risk and fundamental cognitive processes. Statistical approaches for testing genetic associations are not straightforward to apply to brain images because the data in brain images is spatially complex and generally high dimensional. Neuroimaging phenotypes typically include 3D maps across many points in the brain, fiber tracts, shape-based analyses, and connectivity matrices, or networks. These complex data types require new methods for data reduction and joint consideration of the image and the genome. Image-wide, genome-wide searches are now feasible, but they can be greatly empowered by sparse regression or hierarchical clustering methods that isolate promising features, boosting statistical power. Here we review the evolution of statistical approaches to assess genetic influences on the brain. We outline the current state of multivariate statistics in imaging genomics, and future directions, including meta-analysis. We emphasize the power of novel multivariate approaches to discover reliable genetic influences with small effect sizes. PMID:22303368

  13. Curvelet Based Offline Analysis of SEM Images

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Syed Hamad; Haq, Nuhman ul; Hayat, Khizar; Naz, Saeeda; Haque, Ihsan ul

    2014-01-01

    Manual offline analysis, of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image, is a time consuming process and requires continuous human intervention and efforts. This paper presents an image processing based method for automated offline analyses of SEM images. To this end, our strategy relies on a two-stage process, viz. texture analysis and quantification. The method involves a preprocessing step, aimed at the noise removal, in order to avoid false edges. For texture analysis, the proposed method employs a state of the art Curvelet transform followed by segmentation through a combination of entropy filtering, thresholding and mathematical morphology (MM). The quantification is carried out by the application of a box-counting algorithm, for fractal dimension (FD) calculations, with the ultimate goal of measuring the parameters, like surface area and perimeter. The perimeter is estimated indirectly by counting the boundary boxes of the filled shapes. The proposed method, when applied to a representative set of SEM images, not only showed better results in image segmentation but also exhibited a good accuracy in the calculation of surface area and perimeter. The proposed method outperforms the well-known Watershed segmentation algorithm. PMID:25089617

  14. Fourier analysis: from cloaking to imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kedi; Cheng, Qiluan; Wang, Guo Ping

    2016-04-01

    Regarding invisibility cloaks as an optical imaging system, we present a Fourier approach to analytically unify both Pendry cloaks and complementary media-based invisibility cloaks into one kind of cloak. By synthesizing different transfer functions, we can construct different devices to realize a series of interesting functions such as hiding objects (events), creating illusions, and performing perfect imaging. In this article, we give a brief review on recent works of applying Fourier approach to analysis invisibility cloaks and optical imaging through scattering layers. We show that, to construct devices to conceal an object, no constructive materials with extreme properties are required, making most, if not all, of the above functions realizable by using naturally occurring materials. As instances, we experimentally verify a method of directionally hiding distant objects and create illusions by using all-dielectric materials, and further demonstrate a non-invasive method of imaging objects completely hidden by scattering layers.

  15. Flexibility analysis of biomacromolecules with application to computer-aided drug design.

    PubMed

    Fulle, Simone; Gohlke, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Flexibility characteristics of biomacromolecules can be efficiently determined down to the atomic level by a graph-theoretical technique as implemented in the FIRST (Floppy Inclusion and Rigid Substructure Topology) and ProFlex software packages. The method has been successfully applied to a series of protein and nucleic acid structures. Here, we describe practical guidelines for setting up and performing a flexibility analysis, discuss current bottlenecks of the approach, and provide sample applications as to how this technique can support computer-aided drug design approaches.

  16. Computer-Aided Analysis of Patents for Product Technology Maturity Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanhong; Gan, Dequan; Guo, Yingchun; Zhang, Peng

    Product technology maturity foresting is vital for any enterprises to hold the chance for innovation and keep competitive for a long term. The Theory of Invention Problem Solving (TRIZ) is acknowledged both as a systematic methodology for innovation and a powerful tool for technology forecasting. Based on TRIZ, the state -of-the-art on the technology maturity of product and the limits of application are discussed. With the application of text mining and patent analysis technologies, this paper proposes a computer-aided approach for product technology maturity forecasting. It can overcome the shortcomings of the current methods.

  17. Strengthening capacity for AIDS vaccine research: analysis of the Pfizer Global Health Fellows Program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Methods This case study helps to extend our understanding by analyzing how the Pfizer Global Health Fellows (GHF) program helped develop capacity of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), looking specifically at Fellowship activities in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. From 2005–2009, 8 Pfizer GHF worked with IAVI and local research centers to strengthen capacity to conduct and monitor vaccine trials to meet international standards and expand trial activities. Data collection for the case study included review of Fellow job descriptions, online journals, evaluation reports, and interviews with Fellows and IAVI staff. Qualitative methods were used to analyze factors which influenced the process and outcomes of capacity strengthening. Results Fellows filled critical short-term expert staffing needs at IAVI as well as providing technical assistance and staff development activities. Capacity building included assistance in establishing operating procedures for the start-up period of research centers; training staff in Good Clinical Practice (GCP); developing monitoring capacity (staff and systems) to assure that centers are audit-ready at all times; and strategic planning for data management systems. Factors key to the success of volunteering partnerships included similarities in mission between the corporate and NGO partners, expertise and experience of Fellows, and attitudes of partner organization staff. Conclusion By developing standard operating procedures, ensuring that monitoring and regulatory

  18. Markov model aided decoding for image transmission using soft-decision-feedback.

    PubMed

    Link, R; Kallel, S

    2000-01-01

    Soft-decision-feedback MAP decoders are developed for joint source/channel decoding (JSCD) which uses the residual redundancy in two-dimensional sources. The source redundancy is described by a second order Markov model which is made available to the receiver for row-by-row decoding, wherein the output for one row is used to aid the decoding of the next row. Performance can be improved by generalizing so as to increase the vertical depth of the decoder. This is called sheet decoding, and entails generalizing trellis decoding of one-dimensional data to trellis decoding of two-dimensional data (2-D). The proposed soft-decision-feedback sheet decoder is based on the Bahl algorithm, and it is compared to a hard-decision-feedback sheet decoder which is based on the Viterbi algorithm. The method is applied to 3-bit DPCM picture transmission over a binary symmetric channel, and it is found that the soft-decision-feedback decoder with vertical depth V performs approximately as well as the hard-decision-feedback decoder with vertical depth V+1. Because the computational requirement of the decoders depends exponentially on the vertical depth, the soft-decision-feedbark decoder offers significant reduction in complexity. For standard monochrome Lena, at a channel bit error rate of 0.05, the V=1 and V=2 soft-decision-feedback decoder JSCD gains in RSNR are 5.0 and 6.3 dB, respectively.

  19. Measuring toothbrush interproximal penetration using image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, Mark S.; Lyons, Elizabeth K.

    1994-09-01

    An image analysis method of measuring the effectiveness of a toothbrush in reaching the interproximal spaces of teeth is described. Artificial teeth are coated with a stain that approximates real plaque and then brushed with a toothbrush on a brushing machine. The teeth are then removed and turned sideways so that the interproximal surfaces can be imaged. The areas of stain that have been removed within masked regions that define the interproximal regions are measured and reported. These areas correspond to the interproximal areas of the tooth reached by the toothbrush bristles. The image analysis method produces more precise results (10-fold decrease in standard deviation) in a fraction (22%) of the time as compared to our prior visual grading method.

  20. Clinical Verification of Image Warping as a Potential Aid for the Visually Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshin, David

    1996-01-01

    The bulk of this research was to designed determine potential of the Programmable Remapper (PR) as a device to enhance vision for the visually handicapped. This research indicated that remapping would have potential as a low vision device if the eye position could be monitored with feedback to specify the proper location of the remapped image. This must be accomplished at high rate so that there is no lag of the image behind the eye position. Since at this time, there is no portable eye monitor device (at a reasonable cost) that will operate under the required conditions, it would not be feasible to continue with remapping experiments for patients with central field defects. However, since patients with peripheral field defects do not have the same eye positioning requirements, they may indeed benefit from this technology. Further investigations must be performed to determine plausibility of this application of remapping.

  1. Unsupervised hyperspectral image analysis using independent component analysis (ICA)

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Chiang; I. W. Ginsberg

    2000-06-30

    In this paper, an ICA-based approach is proposed for hyperspectral image analysis. It can be viewed as a random version of the commonly used linear spectral mixture analysis, in which the abundance fractions in a linear mixture model are considered to be unknown independent signal sources. It does not require the full rank of the separating matrix or orthogonality as most ICA methods do. More importantly, the learning algorithm is designed based on the independency of the material abundance vector rather than the independency of the separating matrix generally used to constrain the standard ICA. As a result, the designed learning algorithm is able to converge to non-orthogonal independent components. This is particularly useful in hyperspectral image analysis since many materials extracted from a hyperspectral image may have similar spectral signatures and may not be orthogonal. The AVIRIS experiments have demonstrated that the proposed ICA provides an effective unsupervised technique for hyperspectral image classification.

  2. Enhanced Image-Aided Navigation Algorithm with Automatic Calibration and Affine Distortion Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    frame, but it does accelerate with respect to the true inertial frame due to the relative rotation between celestial bodies . However, for terrestrial...Earth, and vehicle-fixed navigation frame. . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Earth-fixed navigation frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 Aircraft body ...distorted image with new SIFT features. . . . . . 65 3.12 Sample nearest neighbor feature match. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.13 Nature of visual

  3. Digital image analysis of haematopoietic clusters.

    PubMed

    Benzinou, A; Hojeij, Y; Roudot, A-C

    2005-02-01

    Counting and differentiating cell clusters is a tedious task when performed with a light microscope. Moreover, biased counts and interpretation are difficult to avoid because of the difficulties to evaluate the limits between different types of clusters. Presented here, is a computer-based application able to solve these problems. The image analysis system is entirely automatic, from the stage screening, to the statistical analysis of the results of each experimental plate. Good correlations are found with measurements made by a specialised technician.

  4. A Computer-Aided Type-II Fuzzy Image Processing for Diagnosis of Meniscus Tear.

    PubMed

    Zarandi, M H Fazel; Khadangi, A; Karimi, F; Turksen, I B

    2016-12-01

    Meniscal tear is one of the prevalent knee disorders among young athletes and the aging population, and requires correct diagnosis and surgical intervention, if necessary. Not only the errors followed by human intervention but also the obstacles of manual meniscal tear detection highlight the need for automatic detection techniques. This paper presents a type-2 fuzzy expert system for meniscal tear diagnosis using PD magnetic resonance images (MRI). The scheme of the proposed type-2 fuzzy image processing model is composed of three distinct modules: Pre-processing, Segmentation, and Classification. λ-nhancement algorithm is used to perform the pre-processing step. For the segmentation step, first, Interval Type-2 Fuzzy C-Means (IT2FCM) is applied to the images, outputs of which are then employed by Interval Type-2 Possibilistic C-Means (IT2PCM) to perform post-processes. Second stage concludes with re-estimation of "η" value to enhance IT2PCM. Finally, a Perceptron neural network with two hidden layers is used for Classification stage. The results of the proposed type-2 expert system have been compared with a well-known segmentation algorithm, approving the superiority of the proposed system in meniscal tear recognition.

  5. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and computer aided diagnosis of human cervical tissue specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazant-Hegemark, F.; Stone, N.; Read, M. D.; McCarthy, K.; Wang, R. K.

    2007-07-01

    The keyword for management of cervical cancer is prevention. The present program within the UK, the 'National Health Service (NHS) cervical screening programme' (NHSCSP), is based on cytology. Although the program has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, this program requires patient follow ups and relies on diagnostic biopsying. There is potential for reducing costs and workload within the NHS, and relieving anxiety of patients. In this study, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was investigated for its capability to improve this situation. Our time domain bench top system used a superluminescent diode (Superlum), centre wave length ~1.3 μm, resolution (air) ~15 μm. Tissue samples were obtained according to the ethics approval by Gloucestershire LREC, Nr. 05/Q2005/123. 1387 images of 199 participants have been compared with histopathology results and categorized accordingly. Our OCT images do not reach the clarity and resolution of histopathology. Further, establishing and recognizing features of diagnostic significance seems difficult. Automated classification would allow one to take decision-making to move from the subjective appraisal of a physician to an objective assessment. Hence we investigated a classification algorithm for its ability in recognizing pre-cancerous stages from OCT images. The initial results show promise.

  6. COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory



    COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF PLANAR GAMMA CAMERA IMAGES

    T Martonen1 and J Schroeter2

    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 USA and 2Curriculum in Toxicology, Unive...

  7. Scale Free Reduced Rank Image Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Paul

    In the traditional Guttman-Harris type image analysis, a transformation is applied to the data matrix such that each column of the transformed data matrix is the best least squares estimate of the corresponding column of the data matrix from the remaining columns. The model is scale free. However, it assumes (1) that the correlation matrix is…

  8. Using Image Analysis to Build Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Drake; Swope, John

    2010-01-01

    Content area reading remains a primary concern of history educators. In order to better prepare students for encounters with text, the authors propose the use of two image analysis strategies tied with a historical theme to heighten student interest in historical content and provide a basis for improved reading comprehension.

  9. Visualization of parameter space for image analysis.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, A Johannes; Bray, Mark-Anthony P; Carpenter, Anne E; Ruddle, Roy A

    2011-12-01

    Image analysis algorithms are often highly parameterized and much human input is needed to optimize parameter settings. This incurs a time cost of up to several days. We analyze and characterize the conventional parameter optimization process for image analysis and formulate user requirements. With this as input, we propose a change in paradigm by optimizing parameters based on parameter sampling and interactive visual exploration. To save time and reduce memory load, users are only involved in the first step--initialization of sampling--and the last step--visual analysis of output. This helps users to more thoroughly explore the parameter space and produce higher quality results. We describe a custom sampling plug-in we developed for CellProfiler--a popular biomedical image analysis framework. Our main focus is the development of an interactive visualization technique that enables users to analyze the relationships between sampled input parameters and corresponding output. We implemented this in a prototype called Paramorama. It provides users with a visual overview of parameters and their sampled values. User-defined areas of interest are presented in a structured way that includes image-based output and a novel layout algorithm. To find optimal parameter settings, users can tag high- and low-quality results to refine their search. We include two case studies to illustrate the utility of this approach.

  10. ImageJ: Image processing and analysis in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasband, W. S.

    2012-06-01

    ImageJ is a public domain Java image processing program inspired by NIH Image. It can display, edit, analyze, process, save and print 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit images. It can read many image formats including TIFF, GIF, JPEG, BMP, DICOM, FITS and "raw". It supports "stacks", a series of images that share a single window. It is multithreaded, so time-consuming operations such as image file reading can be performed in parallel with other operations.

  11. Computer-Aided Quantification of Interstitial Lung Disease from High Resolution Computed Tomography Images in Systemic Sclerosis: Correlation with Visual Reader-Based Score and Physiologic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Bosello, Silvia; Bichisecchi, Elisabetta; Giuseppetti, Gianmarco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of a computerized-aided method (CaM) for quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis and to determine its correlation with the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. All patients underwent chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scored by two radiologists adopting the CoVR. All HRCT images were then analysed by a CaM using a DICOM software. The relationships among the lung segmentation analysis, the readers, and the PFTs results were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed for determination of CaM extent threshold. Results. A strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (P < 0.0001). The CaM showed a significant negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC) (P < 0.0001) and the single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLco) (P < 0.0001). A CaM optimal extent threshold of 20% represented the best compromise between sensitivity (75.6%) and specificity (97.4%). Conclusions. CaM quantification of SSc-ILD can be useful in the assessment of extent of lung disease and may provide reliable tool in daily clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:25629053

  12. Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kamezawa, Hidemi; Jin, Ze; Nakamoto, Takahiro; Soufi, Mazen

    2015-09-01

    Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics have been constructed for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy in radiological physics. Computational image analysis has been established based on applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. This review paper will introduce how computational image analysis is useful in radiation therapy with respect to radiological physics.

  13. Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics

    SciTech Connect

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Kamezawa, Hidemi; Jin, Ze; Nakamoto, Takahiro; Soufi, Mazen

    2015-09-30

    Good relationships between computational image analysis and radiological physics have been constructed for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy in radiological physics. Computational image analysis has been established based on applied mathematics, physics, and engineering. This review paper will introduce how computational image analysis is useful in radiation therapy with respect to radiological physics.

  14. False-positive reduction using Hessian features in computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules on thoracic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Ge, Zhanyu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Bogot, Naama; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2005-04-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for lung nodules in thoracic CT volumes. During false positive (FP) reduction, the image structures around the identified nodule candidates play an important role in differentiating nodules from vessels. In our previous work, we exploited shape and first-order derivative information of the images by extracting ellipsoid and gradient field features. The purpose of this study was to explore the object shape information using second-order derivatives and the Hessian matrix to further improve the performance of our detection system. Eight features related to the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix were extracted from a volume of interest containing the object, and were combined with ellipsoid and gradient field features to discriminate nodules from FPs. A data set of 82 CT scans from 56 patients was used to evaluate the usefulness of the FP reduction technique. The classification accuracy was assessed using the area Az under the receiving operating characteristic curve and the number of FPs per section at 80% sensitivity. In the combined feature space, we obtained a test Az of 0.97 +/- 0.01, and 0.27 FPs/section at 80% sensitivity. Our results indicate that combining the Hessian, ellipsoid and gradient field features can significantly improve the performance of our FP reduction stage.

  15. Process evaluation of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, James; Hatcher, Abigail; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Busza, Joanna; Kim, Julia; Watts, Charlotte; Morison, Linda; Porter, John; Pronyk, Paul; Bonell, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    The Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) combines microfinance, gender/HIV training and community mobilization (CM) in South Africa. A trial found reduced intimate partner violence among clients but less evidence for impact on sexual behaviour among clients' households or communities. This process evaluation examined how feasible IMAGE was to deliver and how accessible and acceptable it was to intended beneficiaries during a trial and subsequent scale-up. Data came from attendance registers, financial records, observations, structured questionnaires (378) and focus group discussions and interviews (128) with clients and staff. Gender/HIV training and CM were managed initially by an academic unit ('linked' model) and later by the microfinance institution (MFI) ('parallel' model). Microfinance and gender/HIV training were feasible to deliver and accessible and acceptable to most clients. Though participation in CM was high for some clients, others experienced barriers to collective action, a finding which may help explain lack of intervention effects among household/community members. Delivery was feasible in the short term but both models were considered unsustainable in the longer term. A linked model involving a MFI and a non-academic partner agency may be more sustainable and is being tried. Feasible models for delivering microfinance and health promotion require further investigation.

  16. Anniversary Paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM

    SciTech Connect

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-12-15

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists' goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists--as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation--focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous--from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects--collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the

  17. Anniversary Paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM

    PubMed Central

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-01-01

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists’ goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists—as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation—focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous—from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects—collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the

  18. Automated retinal image analysis over the internet.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Madore, Benjamin; Leotta, Matthew J; Sofka, Michal; Yang, Gehua; Majerovics, Anna; Tanenbaum, Howard L; Stewart, Charles V; Roysam, Badrinath

    2008-07-01

    Retinal clinicians and researchers make extensive use of images, and the current emphasis is on digital imaging of the retinal fundus. The goal of this paper is to introduce a system, known as retinal image vessel extraction and registration system, which provides the community of retinal clinicians, researchers, and study directors an integrated suite of advanced digital retinal image analysis tools over the Internet. The capabilities include vasculature tracing and morphometry, joint (simultaneous) montaging of multiple retinal fields, cross-modality registration (color/red-free fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms), and generation of flicker animations for visualization of changes from longitudinal image sequences. Each capability has been carefully validated in our previous research work. The integrated Internet-based system can enable significant advances in retina-related clinical diagnosis, visualization of the complete fundus at full resolution from multiple low-angle views, analysis of longitudinal changes, research on the retinal vasculature, and objective, quantitative computer-assisted scoring of clinical trials imagery. It could pave the way for future screening services from optometry facilities.

  19. Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian J; Nidey, Nichole; Miller, Steven F; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Baum, Christian L; Hamilton, Grant S; Wehby, George L; Dunnwald, Martine

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging method that provides reproducible, sensitive, and unbiased assessments of postsurgical scarring. We used this approach to investigate the possibility that genetic variants in orofacial clefting genes are associated with suboptimal healing. Red-green-blue digital images of postsurgical scars of 68 patients, following unilateral cleft lip repair, were captured using the 3dMD imaging system. Morphometric and colorimetric data of repaired regions of the philtrum and upper lip were acquired using ImageJ software, and the unaffected contralateral regions were used as patient-specific controls. Repeatability of the method was high with intraclass correlation coefficient score > 0.8. This method detected a very significant difference in all three colors, and for all patients, between the scarred and the contralateral unaffected philtrum (p ranging from 1.20(-05) to 1.95(-14) ). Physicians' clinical outcome ratings from the same images showed high interobserver variability (overall Pearson coefficient = 0.49) as well as low correlation with digital image analysis results. Finally, we identified genetic variants in TGFB3 and ARHGAP29 associated with suboptimal healing outcome.

  20. Digital imaging analysis to assess scar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian J.; Nidey, Nichole; Miller, Steven F.; Moreno, Lina M.; Baum, Christian L.; Hamilton, Grant S.; Wehby, George L.; Dunnwald, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the link between the genetic background of patients and wound clinical outcomes, it is critical to have a reliable method to assess the phenotypic characteristics of healed wounds. In this study, we present a novel imaging method that provides reproducible, sensitive and unbiased assessments of post-surgical scarring. We used this approach to investigate the possibility that genetic variants in orofacial clefting genes are associated with suboptimal healing. Red-green-blue (RGB) digital images of post-surgical scars of 68 patients, following unilateral cleft lip repair, were captured using the 3dMD image system. Morphometric and colorimetric data of repaired regions of the philtrum and upper lip were acquired using ImageJ software and the unaffected contralateral regions were used as patient-specific controls. Repeatability of the method was high with interclass correlation coefficient score > 0.8. This method detected a very significant difference in all three colors, and for all patients, between the scarred and the contralateral unaffected philtrum (P ranging from 1.20−05 to 1.95−14). Physicians’ clinical outcome ratings from the same images showed high inter-observer variability (overall Pearson coefficient = 0.49) as well as low correlation with digital image analysis results. Finally, we identified genetic variants in TGFB3 and ARHGAP29 associated with suboptimal healing outcome. PMID:24635173

  1. Automated Analysis of Fluorescence Microscopy Images to Identify Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Doktycz, M. J.; Qi, H.; Morrell-Falvey, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    The identification of protein interactions is important for elucidating biological networks. One obstacle in comprehensive interaction studies is the analyses of large datasets, particularly those containing images. Development of an automated system to analyze an image-based protein interaction dataset is needed. Such an analysis system is described here, to automatically extract features from fluorescence microscopy images obtained from a bacterial protein interaction assay. These features are used to relay quantitative values that aid in the automated scoring of positive interactions. Experimental observations indicate that identifying at least 50% positive cells in an image is sufficient to detect a protein interaction. Based on this criterion, the automated system presents 100% accuracy in detecting positive interactions for a dataset of 16 images. Algorithms were implemented using MATLAB and the software developed is available on request from the authors. PMID:23165043

  2. Automated Analysis of Fluorescence Microscopy Images to Identify Protein-Protein Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Venkatraman, S.; Doktycz, M. J.; Qi, H.; ...

    2006-01-01

    The identification of protein interactions is important for elucidating biological networks. One obstacle in comprehensive interaction studies is the analyses of large datasets, particularly those containing images. Development of an automated system to analyze an image-based protein interaction dataset is needed. Such an analysis system is described here, to automatically extract features from fluorescence microscopy images obtained from a bacterial protein interaction assay. These features are used to relay quantitative values that aid in the automated scoring of positive interactions. Experimental observations indicate that identifying at least 50% positive cells in an image is sufficient to detect a protein interaction.more » Based on this criterion, the automated system presents 100% accuracy in detecting positive interactions for a dataset of 16 images. Algorithms were implemented using MATLAB and the software developed is available on request from the authors.« less

  3. ALISA: adaptive learning image and signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ALISA (Adaptive Learning Image and Signal Analysis) is an adaptive statistical learning engine that may be used to detect and classify the surfaces and boundaries of objects in images. The engine has been designed, implemented, and tested at both the George Washington University and the Research Institute for Applied Knowledge Processing in Ulm, Germany over the last nine years with major funding from Robert Bosch GmbH and Lockheed-Martin Corporation. The design of ALISA was inspired by the multi-path cortical- column architecture and adaptive functions of the mammalian visual cortex.

  4. Characterization of microrod arrays by image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillebrand, Reinald; Grimm, Silko; Giesa, Reiner; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Mathwig, Klaus; Gösele, Ulrich; Steinhart, Martin

    2009-04-01

    The uniformity of the properties of array elements was evaluated by statistical analysis of microscopic images of array structures, assuming that the brightness of the array elements correlates quantitatively or qualitatively with a microscopically probed quantity. Derivatives and autocorrelation functions of cumulative frequency distributions of the object brightnesses were used to quantify variations in object properties throughout arrays. Thus, different specimens, the same specimen at different stages of its fabrication or use, and different imaging conditions can be compared systematically. As an example, we analyzed scanning electron micrographs of microrod arrays and calculated the percentage of broken microrods.

  5. Automated initial guess in digital image correlation aided by Fourier-Mellin transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Yuejiao; Tian, Long

    2017-01-01

    The state-of-the-art digital image correlation (DIC) method using iterative spatial-domain cross correlation, e.g., the inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm, for full-field displacement mapping requires an initial guess of deformation, which should be sufficiently close to the true value to ensure a rapid and accurate convergence. Although various initial guess approaches have been proposed, automated, robust, and fast initial guess remains to be a challenging task, especially when large rotation occurs to the deformed images. An integrated scheme, which combines the Fourier-Mellin transform-based cross correlation (FMT-CC) for seed point initiation with a reliability-guided displacement tracking (RGDT) strategy for the remaining points, is proposed to provide accurate initial guess for DIC calculation, even in the presence of large rotations. By using FMT-CC algorithm, the initial guess of the seed point can be automatically and accurately determined between pairs of interrogation subsets with up to ±180 deg of rotation even in the presence of large translation. Then the initial guess of the rest of the calculation points can be accurately predicted by the robust RGDT scheme. The robustness and effectiveness of the present initial guess approach are verified by numerical simulation tests and real experiment.

  6. Modeling error in assessment of mammographic image features for improved computer-aided mammography training: initial experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2011-03-01

    In this study we investigate the hypothesis that there exist patterns in erroneous assessment of BI-RADS image features among radiology trainees when performing diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. We also investigate whether these error making patterns can be captured by individual user models. To test our hypothesis we propose a user modeling algorithm that uses the previous readings of a trainee to identify whether certain BI-RADS feature values (e.g. "spiculated" value for "margin" feature) are associated with higher than usual likelihood that the feature will be assessed incorrectly. In our experiments we used readings of 3 radiology residents and 7 breast imaging experts for 33 breast masses for the following BI-RADS features: parenchyma density, mass margin, mass shape and mass density. The expert readings were considered as the gold standard. Rule-based individual user models were developed and tested using the leave one-one-out crossvalidation scheme. Our experimental evaluation showed that the individual user models are accurate in identifying cases for which errors are more likely to be made. The user models captured regularities in error making for all 3 residents. This finding supports our hypothesis about existence of individual error making patterns in assessment of mammographic image features using the BI-RADS lexicon. Explicit user models identifying the weaknesses of each resident could be of great use when developing and adapting a personalized training plan to meet the resident's individual needs. Such approach fits well with the framework of adaptive computer-aided educational systems in mammography we have proposed before.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction using ultrasound images with DWT, GLCM and HOS methods: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Vidya, K Sudarshan; Ng, E Y K; Acharya, U Rajendra; Chou, Siaw Meng; Tan, Ru San; Ghista, Dhanjoo N

    2015-07-01

    Myocardial Infarction (MI) or acute MI (AMI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Precise and timely identification of MI and extent of muscle damage helps in early treatment and reduction in the time taken for further tests. MI diagnosis using 2D echocardiography is prone to inter-/intra-observer variability in the assessment. Therefore, a computerised scheme based on image processing and artificial intelligent techniques can reduce the workload of clinicians and improve the diagnosis accuracy. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) of infarcted and normal ultrasound images will be useful for clinicians. In this study, the performance of CAD approach using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), second order statistics calculated from Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Higher-Order Spectra (HOS) texture descriptors are compared. The proposed system is validated using 400 MI and 400 normal ultrasound images, obtained from 80 patients with MI and 80 normal subjects. The extracted features are ranked based on t-value and fed to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to obtain the best performance using minimum number of features. The features extracted from DWT coefficients obtained an accuracy of 99.5%, sensitivity of 99.75% and specificity of 99.25%; GLCM have achieved an accuracy of 85.75%, sensitivity of 90.25% and specificity of 81.25%; and HOS obtained an accuracy of 93.0%, sensitivity of 94.75% and specificity of 91.25%. Among the three techniques presented DWT yielded the highest classification accuracy. Thus, the proposed CAD approach may be used as a complementary tool to assist cardiologists in making a more accurate diagnosis for the presence of MI.

  8. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shengyong; Zhao, Mingzhu; Wu, Guang; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed. PMID:22272215

  9. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  10. A feasibility assessment of automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cervical cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Zheng, Bin

    2012-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides a promising molecular imaging tool to detect cervical cancer. Since manual FISH analysis is difficult, time-consuming, and inconsistent, the automated FISH image scanning systems have been developed. Due to limited focal depth of scanned microscopic image, a FISH-probed specimen needs to be scanned in multiple layers that generate huge image data. To improve diagnostic efficiency of using automated FISH image analysis, we developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme. In this experiment, four pap-smear specimen slides were scanned by a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system that acquired two spectrum images simultaneously, which represent images of interphase cells and FISH-probed chromosome X. During image scanning, once detecting a cell signal, system captured nine image slides by automatically adjusting optical focus. Based on the sharpness index and maximum intensity measurement, cells and FISH signals distributed in 3-D space were projected into a 2-D con-focal image. CAD scheme was applied to each con-focal image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm and detect FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform. The ratio of abnormal cells was calculated to detect positive cases. In four scanned specimen slides, CAD generated 1676 con-focal images that depicted analyzable cells. FISH-probed signals were independently detected by our CAD algorithm and an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying automated FISH image and signal analysis to assist cyto-geneticists in detecting cervical cancers.

  11. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? ... the ear through a speaker. How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

  12. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  13. An application of computer aided requirements analysis to a real time deep space system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farny, A. M.; Morris, R. V.; Hartsough, C.; Callender, E. D.; Teichroew, D.; Chikofsky, E.

    1981-01-01

    The entire procedure of incorporating the requirements and goals of a space flight project into integrated, time ordered sequences of spacecraft commands, is called the uplink process. The Uplink Process Control Task (UPCT) was created to examine the uplink process and determine ways to improve it. The Problem Statement Language/Problem Statement Analyzer (PSL/PSA) designed to assist the designer/analyst/engineer in the preparation of specifications of an information system is used as a supporting tool to aid in the analysis. Attention is given to a definition of the uplink process, the definition of PSL/PSA, the construction of a PSA database, the value of analysis to the study of the uplink process, and the PSL/PSA lessons learned.

  14. Perception and visualization of human posture information for computer-aided ergonomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Zhang, X; Chaffin, D

    1997-08-01

    This article reports three experiments that examined the effects of photographic method, computerized visualization scheme, and posture complexity on posture perception and specification for computer-aided ergonomic analysis. The subjects were presented with photographs of working postures, and were required to manipulate human forms generated by an ergonomics software program to match the postures in the photographs. The first experiment showed a clear advantage of using a three-dimensional (3-D) human form graphic with two photographs when complex, asymmetric postures were analysed. However, the use of a 3-D human graphic display and two photographs jeopardized the subjects' posture specification performance when simple, symmetric postures were analysed. The results of the second and the third experiment demonstrated the importance of achieving congruency between photographic and computer display perspectives in improving posture specification performance. Implications for ergonomic job analysis and ergonomics software design are discussed.

  15. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 6: Environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the external environment of the FBI Fingerprint Identification Division are presented. Possible trends in the future environment of the Division that may have an effect on the work load were projected to determine if future work load will lie within the capability range of the proposed new system, AIDS 3. Two working models of the environment were developed, the internal and external model, and from these scenarios the projection of possible future work load volume and mixture was developed. Possible drivers of work load change were identified and assessed for upper and lower bounds of effects. Data used for the study were derived from historical information, analysis of the current situation and from interviews with various agencies who are users of or stakeholders in the present system.

  16. Computer-aided teniae coli detection using height maps from computed tomographic colonography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhuoshi; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for colonic polyps and cancer screening. Teniae coli are three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle on the colon surface. They are parallel, equally distributed on the colon wall, and form a triple helix structure from the appendix to the sigmoid colon. Because of their characteristics, teniae coli are important anatomical meaningful landmarks on human colon. This paper proposes a novel method for teniae coli detection on CT colonography. We first unfold the three-dimensional (3D) colon using a reversible projection technique and compute the two-dimensional (2D) height map of the unfolded colon. The height map records the elevation of colon surface relative to the unfolding plane, where haustral folds corresponding to high elevation points and teniae to low elevation points. The teniae coli are detected on the height map and then projected back to the 3D colon. Since teniae are located where the haustral folds meet, we break down the problem by first detecting haustral folds. We apply 2D Gabor filter banks to extract fold features. The maximum response of the filter banks is then selected as the feature image. The fold centers are then identified based on piecewise thresholding on the feature image. Connecting the fold centers yields a path of the folds. Teniae coli are finally extracted as lines running between the fold paths. Experiments were carried out on 7 cases. The proposed method yielded a promising result with an average normalized RMSE of 5.66% and standard deviation of 4.79% of the circumference of the colon.

  17. Analysis for organic residues from aids to polymerization used to make plastics intended for food contact.

    PubMed

    Fordham, P J; Gramshaw, J W; Castle, L

    2001-05-01

    Polymers intended for food contact use have been analysed for organic residues which could be attributed to a range of substances employed as polymerization aids (e.g. initiators and catalysts). A wide range of polymers was extracted with solvents and the extracts analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The overwhelming majority of substances identified were not derived from aids to polymerization but were oligomers, additives and adventitious contaminants. However, a small number of substances were identified as initiator residues. These included tetramethylsuccinonitrile (TMSN) which was observed in two polymers and it derived from recombination of two azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) initiator radicals. Methyl benzoate, benzoic acid, biphenyl and phenyl benzoate were detected in one poly(methyl methacrylate) sample and in two polyvinylchlorides and they are thought to be derived from benzoyl peroxide initiator. TMSN was subsequently targeted for analysis of poly-(methyl methacrylate) plastics using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR) and GC-MS. NMR detected the presence of cyanoisopropyl radical residues in the plastic at 470-3400 mg/kg whereas GC-MS detected TMSN at only 65-540 mg/kg in the samples. It is concluded that the bulk of cyanoisopropyl residues detected by NMR were either polymer-bound or were the products of side-reactions of the initiator radical. The migration of TMSN itself into the food simulants 3% aqueous acetic acid, 15% aqueous ethanol, and olive oil, at 40 degrees C for 10 days, was measured using GC-MS. Migration was very low with < 1 microg/kg released from a finished article (a drinking straw) and < 5 microg/kg from resin pellets. The overall conclusions from this work are that organic residues from aids to polymerization are generally found at reassuringly low levels in plastics intended for food contact and their potential for migration to foods is correspondingly low.

  18. Automated quantitative image analysis of nanoparticle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Chaitanya R.; Gao, Bo; Tao, Andrea R.; Arya, Gaurav

    2015-05-01

    The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated manner. The software outputs averages and distributions in the size, radius of gyration, fractal dimension, backbone length, end-to-end distance, anisotropic ratio, and aspect ratio of NP clusters as a function of time along with bootstrapped error bounds for all calculated properties. The polydispersity in the NP building blocks and biases in the sampling of NP clusters are accounted for through the use of probabilistic weights. This software, named Particle Image Characterization Tool (PICT), has been made publicly available and could be an invaluable resource for researchers studying NP assembly. To demonstrate its practical utility, we used PICT to analyze scanning electron microscopy images taken during the assembly of surface-functionalized metal NPs of differing shapes and sizes within a polymer matrix. PICT is used to characterize and analyze the morphology of NP clusters, providing quantitative information that can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms governing NP assembly.The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated

  19. Evidential Reasoning in Expert Systems for Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    techniques to image analysis (IA). There is growing evidence that these techniques offer significant improvements in image analysis , particularly in the...2) to provide a common framework for analysis, (3) to structure the ER process for major expert-system tasks in image analysis , and (4) to identify...approaches to three important tasks for expert systems in the domain of image analysis . This segment concluded with an assessment of the strengths

  20. Impact of image normalization and quantization on the performance of sonar computer-aided detection/computer-aided classification (CAD/CAC) algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciany, Charles M.; Zurawski, William C.

    2007-04-01

    Raytheon has extensively processed high-resolution sonar images with its CAD/CAC algorithms to provide real-time classification of mine-like bottom objects in a wide range of shallow-water environments. The algorithm performance is measured in terms of probability of correct classification (Pcc) as a function of false alarm rate, and is impacted by variables associated with both the physics of the problem and the signal processing design choices. Some examples of prominent variables pertaining to the choices of signal processing parameters are image resolution (i.e., pixel dimensions), image normalization scheme, and pixel intensity quantization level (i.e., number of bits used to represent the intensity of each image pixel). Improvements in image resolution associated with the technology transition from sidescan to synthetic aperture sonars have prompted the use of image decimation algorithms to reduce the number of pixels per image that are processed by the CAD/CAC algorithms, in order to meet real-time processor throughput requirements. Additional improvements in digital signal processing hardware have also facilitated the use of an increased quantization level in converting the image data from analog to digital format. This study evaluates modifications to the normalization algorithm and image pixel quantization level within the image processing prior to CAD/CAC processing, and examines their impact on the resulting CAD/CAC algorithm performance. The study utilizes a set of at-sea data from multiple test exercises in varying shallow water environments.

  1. BioImage Suite: An integrated medical image analysis suite: An update.

    PubMed

    Papademetris, Xenophon; Jackowski, Marcel P; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; DiStasio, Marcello; Okuda, Hirohito; Constable, R Todd; Staib, Lawrence H

    2006-01-01

    BioImage Suite is an NIH-supported medical image analysis software suite developed at Yale. It leverages both the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and the Insight Toolkit (ITK) and it includes many additional algorithms for image analysis especially in the areas of segmentation, registration, diffusion weighted image processing and fMRI analysis. BioImage Suite has a user-friendly user interface developed in the Tcl scripting language. A final beta version is freely available for download.

  2. White paper report of the 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: integrating multidisciplinary strategies for imaging services in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Everton, Kathryn L; Mazal, Jonathan; Mollura, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    The 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries discussed data, experiences, and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world, where widespread shortages of imaging services significantly reduce health care quality and increase health care disparities. This white paper from the 2011 RAD-AID conference represents consensus advocacy of multidisciplinary strategies to improve the planning, accessibility, and quality of imaging services in the developing world. Conference presenters and participants discussed numerous solutions to imaging and health care disparities, including (1) economic development for radiologic service planning, (2) public health mechanisms to address disease and prevention at the population and community levels, (3) comparative clinical models to implement various clinical and workflow strategies adapted to unique developing world community contexts, (4) education to improve training and optimize service quality, and (5) technology innovation to bring new technical capabilities to limited-resource regions.

  3. Computer-aided analysis of star shot films for high-accuracy radiation therapy treatment units.

    PubMed

    Depuydt, Tom; Penne, Rudi; Verellen, Dirk; Hrbacek, Jan; Lang, Stephanie; Leysen, Katrien; Vandevondel, Iwein; Poels, Kenneth; Reynders, Truus; Gevaert, Thierry; Duchateau, Michael; Tournel, Koen; Boussaer, Marlies; Cosentino, Dorian; Garibaldi, Cristina; Solberg, Timothy; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-05-21

    As mechanical stability of radiation therapy treatment devices has gone beyond sub-millimeter levels, there is a rising demand for simple yet highly accurate measurement techniques to support the routine quality control of these devices. A combination of using high-resolution radiosensitive film and computer-aided analysis could provide an answer. One generally known technique is the acquisition of star shot films to determine the mechanical stability of rotations of gantries and the therapeutic beam. With computer-aided analysis, mechanical performance can be quantified as a radiation isocenter radius size. In this work, computer-aided analysis of star shot film is further refined by applying an analytical solution for the smallest intersecting circle problem, in contrast to the gradient optimization approaches used until today. An algorithm is presented and subjected to a performance test using two different types of radiosensitive film, the Kodak EDR2 radiographic film and the ISP EBT2 radiochromic film. Artificial star shots with a priori known radiation isocenter size are used to determine the systematic errors introduced by the digitization of the film and the computer analysis. The estimated uncertainty on the isocenter size measurement with the presented technique was 0.04 mm (2σ) and 0.06 mm (2σ) for radiographic and radiochromic films, respectively. As an application of the technique, a study was conducted to compare the mechanical stability of O-ring gantry systems with C-arm-based gantries. In total ten systems of five different institutions were included in this study and star shots were acquired for gantry, collimator, ring, couch rotations and gantry wobble. It was not possible to draw general conclusions about differences in mechanical performance between O-ring and C-arm gantry systems, mainly due to differences in the beam-MLC alignment procedure accuracy. Nevertheless, the best performing O-ring system in this study, a BrainLab/MHI Vero system

  4. Computer-aided analysis of star shot films for high-accuracy radiation therapy treatment units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depuydt, Tom; Penne, Rudi; Verellen, Dirk; Hrbacek, Jan; Lang, Stephanie; Leysen, Katrien; Vandevondel, Iwein; Poels, Kenneth; Reynders, Truus; Gevaert, Thierry; Duchateau, Michael; Tournel, Koen; Boussaer, Marlies; Cosentino, Dorian; Garibaldi, Cristina; Solberg, Timothy; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-05-01

    As mechanical stability of radiation therapy treatment devices has gone beyond sub-millimeter levels, there is a rising demand for simple yet highly accurate measurement techniques to support the routine quality control of these devices. A combination of using high-resolution radiosensitive film and computer-aided analysis could provide an answer. One generally known technique is the acquisition of star shot films to determine the mechanical stability of rotations of gantries and the therapeutic beam. With computer-aided analysis, mechanical performance can be quantified as a radiation isocenter radius size. In this work, computer-aided analysis of star shot film is further refined by applying an analytical solution for the smallest intersecting circle problem, in contrast to the gradient optimization approaches used until today. An algorithm is presented and subjected to a performance test using two different types of radiosensitive film, the Kodak EDR2 radiographic film and the ISP EBT2 radiochromic film. Artificial star shots with a priori known radiation isocenter size are used to determine the systematic errors introduced by the digitization of the film and the computer analysis. The estimated uncertainty on the isocenter size measurement with the presented technique was 0.04 mm (2σ) and 0.06 mm (2σ) for radiographic and radiochromic films, respectively. As an application of the technique, a study was conducted to compare the mechanical stability of O-ring gantry systems with C-arm-based gantries. In total ten systems of five different institutions were included in this study and star shots were acquired for gantry, collimator, ring, couch rotations and gantry wobble. It was not possible to draw general conclusions about differences in mechanical performance between O-ring and C-arm gantry systems, mainly due to differences in the beam-MLC alignment procedure accuracy. Nevertheless, the best performing O-ring system in this study, a BrainLab/MHI Vero system

  5. The synthesis and analysis of color images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for performing the synthesis and analysis of digital color images. The method is based on two principles. First, image data are represented with respect to the separate physical factors, surface reflectance and the spectral power distribution of the ambient light, that give rise to the perceived color of an object. Second, the encoding is made efficient by using a basis expansion for the surface spectral reflectance and spectral power distribution of the ambient light that takes advantage of the high degree of correlation across the visible wavelengths normally found in such functions. Within this framework, the same basic methods can be used to synthesize image data for color display monitors and printed materials, and to analyze image data into estimates of the spectral power distribution and surface spectral reflectances. The method can be applied to a variety of tasks. Examples of applications include the color balancing of color images, and the identification of material surface spectral reflectance when the lighting cannot be completely controlled.

  6. Image analysis for measuring rod network properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongjae; Choi, Jungkyu; Nam, Jaewook

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, metallic nanowires have been attracting significant attention as next-generation flexible transparent conductive films. The performance of films depends on the network structure created by nanowires. Gaining an understanding of their structure, such as connectivity, coverage, and alignment of nanowires, requires the knowledge of individual nanowires inside the microscopic images taken from the film. Although nanowires are flexible up to a certain extent, they are usually depicted as rigid rods in many analysis and computational studies. Herein, we propose a simple and straightforward algorithm based on the filtering in the frequency domain for detecting the rod-shape objects inside binary images. The proposed algorithm uses a specially designed filter in the frequency domain to detect image segments, namely, the connected components aligned in a certain direction. Those components are post-processed to be combined under a given merging rule in a single rod object. In this study, the microscopic properties of the rod networks relevant to the analysis of nanowire networks were measured for investigating the opto-electric performance of transparent conductive films and their alignment distribution, length distribution, and area fraction. To verify and find the optimum parameters for the proposed algorithm, numerical experiments were performed on synthetic images with predefined properties. By selecting proper parameters, the algorithm was used to investigate silver nanowire transparent conductive films fabricated by the dip coating method.

  7. National Responses to HIV/AIDS and Non-Communicable Diseases in Developing Countries: Analysis of Strategic Parallels and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Setswe, Geoffrey; Elliott, Julian; Oldenburg, Brian

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) epidemics may have many important similarities in their aetiology, pathogenesis and management. Evidence about the similarities and differences between the national responses HIV/AIDS and NCDs is essential for an integrated response. The objective of this study was to examine the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in selected developing countries. This study applied a strategic level comparative case study approach as its study design. The main construct was national response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs. The 4 overarching themes were policy response, institutional mechanism, programmatic response and strategic information. Four countries were purposively selected as cases. Data were collected and triangulated from a multiple sources. The focus of analysis included identifying items for comparison, characteristics to be compared, degrees of similarity, and strategic importance of similarities. Analysis of data was qualitative content analysis with within-case, between-case, and across-case comparisons. While the nature of the disease and the contents of national HIV/AIDS and NCD policies are different, the policy processes involved are largely similar. Functional characteristics of programmatic response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs are similar. But the internal constituents are different. Though both HIV and NCDs require both a multi-sectorial response and a national coordination mechanism, the model and the complexity of the coordination are different. Strategic information frameworks for HIV/AIDS and NCDs use similar models. However, the indicators, targets and priorities are different. In conclusion, the national responses between HIV/AIDS and NCDs are largely similar in approaches and functions but different in content. Significance for public health This study explores the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The identified

  8. An Analysis of Teacher Aide Administrative Practices in Kansas Public Schools, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Robert C.

    Responses to a questionnaire sent to all Kansas public school districts with enrollments of 500 and over revealed several characteristics of teacher aide utilization in the state. Such utilization is increasing, especially among larger districts where paid aides predominated over volunteers. In most districts all aides were paid, usually by the…

  9. Checkerboard II: An Analysis of Tax Effort, Equalization and Extraordinary Needs Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widerquist, Karl

    2001-01-01

    A proposal in the New York State Assembly in 2000 considered eliminating Tax Equalization Aid to school districts in order to fund the elimination of aid caps, called Transition Adjustment. In response to that proposal, this report examines the equalizing or disequalizing effects of three types of New York state aid to school…

  10. Computerized image analysis of digitized infrared images of breasts from a scanning infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Jonathan F.; Lipari, Charles A.; Elliot, Robert L.

    1998-10-01

    Infrared imaging of the breasts has been shown to be of value in risk assessment, detection, diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. However, infrared imaging has not been widely accepted for a variety of reasons, including the lack of standardization of the subjective visual analysis method. The subjective nature of the standard visual analysis makes it difficult to achieve equivalent results with different equipment and different interpreters of the infrared patterns of the breasts. Therefore, this study was undertaken to develop more objective analysis methods for infrared images of the breasts by creating objective semiquantitative and quantitative analysis of computer assisted image analysis determined mean temperatures of whole breasts and quadrants of the breasts. When using objective quantitative data on whole breasts (comparing differences in means of left and right breasts), semiquantitative data on quadrants of the breast (determining an index by summation of scores for each quadrant), or summation of quantitative data on quadrants of the breasts there was a decrease in the number of abnormal patterns (positives) in patients being screen for breast cancer and an increases in the number of abnormal patterns (true positives) in the breast cancer patients. It is hoped that the decrease in positives in women being screened for breast cancer will translate into a decrease in the false positives but larger numbers of women with longer follow-up will be needed to clarify this. Also a much larger group of breast cancer patients will need to be studied in order to see if there is a true increase in the percentage of breast cancer patients presenting with abnormal infrared images of the breast with these objective image analysis methods.

  11. Vibration signature analysis of AFM images

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, G.A.; Fu, J.; Pandit, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    Vibration signature analysis has been commonly used for the machine condition monitoring and the control of errors. However, it has been rarely employed for the analysis of the precision instruments such as an atomic force microscope (AFM). In this work, an AFM was used to collect vibration data from a sample positioning stage under different suspension and support conditions. Certain structural characteristics of the sample positioning stage show up as a result of the vibration signature analysis of the surface height images measured using an AFM. It is important to understand these vibration characteristics in order to reduce vibrational uncertainty, improve the damping and structural design, and to eliminate the imaging imperfections. The choice of method applied for vibration analysis may affect the results. Two methods, the data dependent systems (DDS) analysis and the Welch`s periodogram averaging method were investigated for application to this problem. Both techniques provide smooth spectrum plots from the data. Welch`s periodogram provides a coarse resolution as limited by the number of samples and requires a choice of window to be decided subjectively by the user. The DDS analysis provides sharper spectral peaks at a much higher resolution and a much lower noise floor. A decomposition of the signal variance in terms of the frequencies is provided as well. The technique is based on an objective model adequacy criterion.

  12. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  13. High resolution multidetector CT aided tissue analysis and quantification of lung fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavaletta, Vanessa A.; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian; Robb, Richard A.

    2006-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, also known as Idiopathic Usual Interstitial Pneumontis, pathologically) is a progressive diffuse lung disease which has a median survival rate of less than four years with a prevalence of 15-20/100,000 in the United States. Global function changes are measured by pulmonary function tests and the diagnosis and extent of pulmonary structural changes are typically assessed by acquiring two-dimensional high resolution CT (HRCT) images. The acquisition and analysis of volumetric high resolution Multi-Detector CT (MDCT) images with nearly isotropic pixels offers the potential to measure both lung function and structure. This paper presents a new approach to three dimensional lung image analysis and classification of normal and abnormal structures in lungs with IPF.

  14. Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

    2015-03-07

    We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients.

  15. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold-rolling material and Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 were selected as typical hot-rolling and cold-rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape-rolling process were developed. These models utilize the upper-bound and the slab methods of analysis, and are capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll-separating force, roll torque and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design (CAD) system is also capable of simulating the actual rolling process and thereby designing roll-pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or similar shape. The predictions from the CAD system were verified with respect to cold rolling of mild steel plates. The system is being applied to cold and hot isothermal rolling of an airfoil shape, and will be verified with respect to laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.

  16. Photomat: A Mobile Tool for Aiding in Student Construction of Research Questions and Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Tia Renee; Dasgupta, Chandan; Silva, Alexandra; Lyons, Leilah; Moher, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile software tool, PhotoMAT (Photo Management and Analysis Tool), and students' experiences with this tool within a scaffolded curricular unit--Neighborhood Safari. PhotoMAT was designed to support learners' investigations of backyard animal behavior and works with image sets obtained using fixed-position field cameras…

  17. Computer-Aided Characterization of Breast Masses on Volumetric Ultrasound Images: An Adjunct to Mammography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    ductal carcinoma in-situ, one was medullary carcinoma, and 4 were other invasive carcinoma. Of the biopsy-proven benign masses, 18 were fibroadenoma , 12...shadows that are sometimes associated with fibroadenomas could be avoided. Let P denote the mean grayscale value within the darkest posterior strip...Skaane P, Engedal K. Analysis of sonographic features in differentiation of fibroadenoma and invasive ductal carcinoma. AJR 1998; 170:109-114. 10

  18. Machine learning for medical images analysis.

    PubMed

    Criminisi, A

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the application of machine learning for the analysis of medical images. Specifically: (i) We show how a special type of learning models can be thought of as automatically optimized, hierarchically-structured, rule-based algorithms, and (ii) We discuss how the issue of collecting large labelled datasets applies to both conventional algorithms as well as machine learning techniques. The size of the training database is a function of model complexity rather than a characteristic of machine learning methods.

  19. Global Methods for Image Motion Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    including the time for reviewing instructions , searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing...thanks go to Pankaj who inspired me in research , to Prasad from whom I have learned so much, and to Ronie and Laureen, the memories of whose company...of images to determine egomotion and to extract information from the scene. Research in motion analysis has been focussed on the problems of

  20. A computer-aided automated methodology for the detection and classification of occlusal caries from photographic color images.

    PubMed

    Berdouses, Elias D; Koutsouri, Georgia D; Tripoliti, Evanthia E; Matsopoulos, George K; Oulis, Constantine J; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present a computer-aided automated methodology for the assessment of carious lesions, according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II), which are located on the occlusal surfaces of posterior permanent teeth from photographic color tooth images. The proposed methodology consists of two stages: (a) the detection of regions of interest and (b) the classification of the detected regions according to ICDAS ΙΙ. In the first stage, pre-processing, segmentation and post-processing mechanisms were employed. For each pixel of the detected regions, a 15×15 neighborhood is used and a set of intensity-based and texture-based features were extracted. A correlation based technique was applied to select a subset of 36 features which were given as input into the classification stage, where five classifiers (J48, Random Tree, Random Forests, Support Vector Machines and Naïve Bayes) were compared to conclude to the best one, in our case, to Random Forests. The methodology was evaluated on a set of 103 digital color images where 425 regions of interest from occlusal surfaces of extracted permanent teeth were manually segmented and classified, based on visual assessments by two experts. The methodology correctly detected 337 out of 340 regions in the detection stage with accuracy of detection 80%. For the classification stage an overall accuracy 83% is achieved. The proposed methodology provides an objective and fully automated caries diagnostic system for occlusal carious lesions with similar or better performance of a trained dentist taking into consideration the available medical knowledge.

  1. A fully automated multi-modal computer aided diagnosis approach to coronary calcium scoring of MSCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-03-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. However, it can be difficult for a human observer to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the feasibility and requirement for an automated scoring method to reduce the subjectivity and reproducibility error inherent with manual clinical calcium scoring.

  2. Multivariate Analysis Strategies for Processing ToF-SIMS Images of Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Bonnie J.; Rayal, Gaurav; Castner, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a hyperspectral imaging technique. Each pixel in a two-dimensional ToF-SIMS image (or each voxel in a three-dimensional ToF-SIMS image) contains a full mass spectrum. Thus, multivariate analysis methods are being increasingly used to process biomaterial ToF-SIMS images so the maximum amount of information can be extracted from the images. This study examines the use of principal component analysis (PCA) and maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF) on four different ToF-SIMS images. These images were selected because they represent significant challenges for biomedical ToF-SIMS image processing (topographical features, low count rates, surface contaminants, etc.). With PCA four different types of scaling methods (auto, root mean, filter, and shift variance scaling) were used. The effect of two preprocessing methods (normalization and mean centering) was also examined for both PCA and MAF. The more computational intense MAF provided the best results for all the images investigated in this study, doing the best job of reducing the number of variables required to describe the image, enhancing image contrast and recovering key spectral features. MAF was particularly good at identifying subtle features that were often lost in PCA and impossible to visualize in single peak images. However, the combination of PCA with either root mean or shift variance scaling provided similar results to MAF. Thus, these combinations offer promising alternatives to MAF for working with large data sets encountered in three-dimensional imaging. Also, the new method of filter scaling is promising for processing low count rate images with salt and pepper noise. Normalization proved an important tool for deconvoluting chemical effects from topographic and/or matrix effects. Mean centering aided in reducing the dimensionality of the data, but in one case resulted in a loss of information. PMID:17335898

  3. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  4. Automated discovery of meniscal tears on MR imaging: a novel high-performance computer-aided detection application for radiologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Safdar, Nabile; Siddiqui, Khan; Kim, Woojin; Liu, Weimin; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Chang, Chein-I.; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Knee-related injuries including meniscal tears are common in both young athletes and the aging population and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and radiologists' experienced skills, confidence in detection of meniscal tears can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of meniscal tears can be challenging. This paper develops a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) diagnostic system for automatic detection of meniscal tears in the knee. Evaluation of this CAD system using an archived database of images from 40 individuals with suspected knee injuries indicates that the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed CAD system are 83.87% and 75.19%, respectively, compared to the mean sensitivity and specificity of 77.41% and 81.39%, respectively obtained by experienced radiologists in routine diagnosis without using the CAD. The experimental results suggest that the developed CAD system has great potential and promise in automatic detection of both simple and complex meniscal tears of knees.

  5. Tomographic spectral imaging: analysis of localized corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2005-02-01

    Microanalysis is typically performed to analyze the near surface of materials. There are many instances where chemical information about the third spatial dimension is essential to the solution of materials analyses. The majority of 3D analyses however focus on limited spectral acquisition and/or analysis. For truly comprehensive 3D chemical characterization, 4D spectral images (a complete spectrum from each volume element of a region of a specimen) are needed. Furthermore, a robust statistical method is needed to extract the maximum amount of chemical information from that extremely large amount of data. In this paper, an example of the acquisition and multivariate statistical analysis of 4D (3-spatial and 1-spectral dimension) x-ray spectral images is described. The method of utilizing a single- or dual-beam FIB (w/o or w/SEM) to get at 3D chemistry has been described by others with respect to secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The basic methodology described in those works has been modified for comprehensive x-ray microanalysis in a dual-beam FIB/SEM (FEI Co. DB-235). In brief, the FIB is used to serially section a site-specific region of a sample and then the electron beam is rastered over the exposed surfaces with x-ray spectral images being acquired at each section. All this is performed without rotating or tilting the specimen between FIB cutting and SEM imaging/x-ray spectral image acquisition. The resultant 4D spectral image is then unfolded (number of volume elements by number of channels) and subjected to the same multivariate curve resolution (MCR) approach that has proven successful for the analysis of lower-dimension x-ray spectral images. The TSI data sets can be in excess of 4Gbytes. This problem has been overcome (for now) and images up to 6Gbytes have been analyzed in this work. The method for analyzing such large spectral images will be described in this presentation. A comprehensive 3D chemical analysis was performed on several corrosion specimens

  6. Difficult Decisions: AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on public education about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Discusses the problems of a second epidemic of fear and anxiety. Presents several questions for classroom discussion and analysis of the public fear of AIDS. Gives some statistics highlighting misinformation about AIDS. (CW)

  7. Image analysis from root system pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casaroli, D.; Jong van Lier, Q.; Metselaar, K.

    2009-04-01

    Root research has been hampered by a lack of good methods and by the amount of time involved in making measurements. In general the studies from root system are made with either monolith or minirhizotron method which is used as a quantitative tool but requires comparison with conventional destructive methods. This work aimed to analyze roots systems images, obtained from a root atlas book, to different crops in order to find the root length and root length density and correlate them with the literature. Five crops images from Zea mays, Secale cereale, Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa and Panicum miliaceum were divided in horizontal and vertical layers. Root length distribution was analyzed for horizontal as well as vertical layers. In order to obtain the root length density, a cuboidal volume was supposed to correspond to each part of the image. The results from regression analyses showed root length distributions according to horizontal or vertical layers. It was possible to find the root length distribution for single horizontal layers as a function of vertical layers, and also for single vertical layers as a function of horizontal layers. Regression analysis showed good fits when the root length distributions were grouped in horizontal layers according to the distance from the root center. When root length distributions were grouped according to soil horizons the fits worsened. The resulting root length density estimates were lower than those commonly found in literature, possibly due to (1) the fact that the crop images resulted from single plant situations, while the analyzed field experiments had more than one plant; (2) root overlapping may occur in the field; (3) root experiments, both in the field and image analyses as performed here, are subject to sampling errors; (4) the (hand drawn) images used in this study may have omitted some of the smallest roots.

  8. Image analysis applied to luminescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Eric; Lelievre-Berna, Eddy; Fafeur, Veronique; Vandenbunder, Bernard

    1998-04-01

    We have developed a novel approach to study luminescent light emission during migration of living cells by low-light imaging techniques. The equipment consists in an anti-vibration table with a hole for a direct output under the frame of an inverted microscope. The image is directly captured by an ultra low- light level photon-counting camera equipped with an image intensifier coupled by an optical fiber to a CCD sensor. This installation is dedicated to measure in a dynamic manner the effect of SF/HGF (Scatter Factor/Hepatocyte Growth Factor) both on activation of gene promoter elements and on cell motility. Epithelial cells were stably transfected with promoter elements containing Ets transcription factor-binding sites driving a luciferase reporter gene. Luminescent light emitted by individual cells was measured by image analysis. Images of luminescent spots were acquired with a high aperture objective and time exposure of 10 - 30 min in photon-counting mode. The sensitivity of the camera was adjusted to a high value which required the use of a segmentation algorithm dedicated to eliminate the background noise. Hence, image segmentation and treatments by mathematical morphology were particularly indicated in these experimental conditions. In order to estimate the orientation of cells during their migration, we used a dedicated skeleton algorithm applied to the oblong spots of variable intensities emitted by the cells. Kinetic changes of luminescent sources, distance and speed of migration were recorded and then correlated with cellular morphological changes for each spot. Our results highlight the usefulness of the mathematical morphology to quantify kinetic changes in luminescence microscopy.

  9. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  10. A needs analysis for computer-based telephone triage in a community AIDS clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, S. B.; Schreiner, J. G.; Borchelt, D.; Musen, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the complexity of the telephone-triage task in a community-based AIDS clinic. We identify deficiencies related to the data management for and documentation of the telephone-triage encounter, including inaccessibility of the medical record and failure to document required data elements. Our needs analysis suggests five design criteria for a computer-based system that assists nurses with the telephone-triage task: (1) online accessibility of the medical record, (2) ability to move among modules of the medical record and the triage-encounter module, (3) ease of data entry, (4) compliance with standards for documentation, and (5) notification of the primary-care physician in an appropriate and timely manner. PMID:1482941

  11. APols-aided protein precipitation: a rapid method for concentrating proteins for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhibin; Hawley, Brett; Seebun, Deeptee; Figeys, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Amphipols (APols) are a newly designed and milder class of detergent. They have been used primarily in protein structure analysis for membrane protein trapping and stabilization. We have recently demonstrated that APols can be used as an alternative detergent for proteome extraction and digestion, to achieve a "One-stop" single-tube workflow for proteomics. In this workflow, APols are removed by precipitation after protein digestion without depleting the digested peptides. Here, we took further advantage of this precipitation characteristic of APols to concentrate proteins from diluted samples. In contrast with tryptic peptides, a decrease in pH leads to the unbiased co-precipitation of APols with proteins, including globular hydrophilic proteins. We demonstrated that this precipitation is a combined effect of acid precipitation and the APols' protein interactions. Also, we have been able to demonstrate that APols-aided protein precipitation works well on diluted samples, such as secretome sample, and provides a rapid method for protein concentration.

  12. Analysis of performance losses of direct ethanol fuel cells with the aid of a reference electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangchun; Pickup, Peter G.

    The performances of direct ethanol fuel cells with different anode catalysts, different ethanol concentrations, and at different operating temperatures have been studied. The performance losses of the cell have been separated into individual electrode performance losses with the aid of a reference electrode, ethanol crossover has been quantified, and CO 2 and acetic acid production have been measured by titration. It has been shown that the cell performance strongly depends on the anode catalyst, ethanol concentration, and operating temperature. It was found that the cathode and anode exhibit different dependences on ethanol concentration and operating temperature. The performance of the cathode is very sensitive to the rate of ethanol crossover. Product analysis provides insights into the mechanisms of electro-oxidation of ethanol.

  13. Advanced tools for astronomical time series and image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    The algorithms described here, which I have developed for applications in X-ray and γ-ray astronomy, will hopefully be of use in other ways, perhaps aiding in the exploration of modern astronomy's data cornucopia. The goal is to describe principled approaches to some ubiquitous problems, such as detection and characterization of periodic and aperiodic signals, estimation of time delays between multiple time series, and source detection in noisy images with noisy backgrounds. The latter problem is related to detection of clusters in data spaces of various dimensions. A goal of this work is to achieve a unifying view of several related topics: signal detection and characterization, cluster identification, classification, density estimation, and multivariate regression. In addition to being useful for analysis of data from space-based and ground-based missions, these algorithms may be a basis for a future automatic science discovery facility, and in turn provide analysis tools for the Virtual Observatory. This chapter has ties to those by Larry Bretthorst, Tom Loredo, Alanna Connors, Fionn Murtagh, Jim Berger, David van Dyk, Vicent Martinez & Enn Saar.

  14. Hyperspectral imaging technology for pharmaceutical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Sara J.; Lodder, Robert A.

    2002-06-01

    The sensitivity and spatial resolution of hyperspectral imaging instruments are tested in this paper using pharmaceutical applications. The first experiment tested the hypothesis that a near-IR tunable diode-based remote sensing system is capable of monitoring degradation of hard gelatin capsules at a relatively long distance. Spectra from the capsules were used to differentiate among capsules exposed to an atmosphere containing imaging spectrometry of tablets permits the identification and composition of multiple individual tables to be determined simultaneously. A near-IR camera was used to collect thousands of spectra simultaneously from a field of blister-packaged tablets. The number of tablets that a typical near-IR camera can currently analyze simultaneously form a field of blister- packaged tablets. The number of tablets that a typical near- IR camera can currently analyze simultaneously was estimated to be approximately 1300. The bootstrap error-adjusted single-sample technique chemometric-imaging algorithm was used to draw probability-density contour plots that revealed tablet composition. The single-capsule analysis provides an indication of how far apart the sample and instrumentation can be and still maintain adequate S/N, while the multiple- sample imaging experiment gives an indication of how many samples can be analyzed simultaneously while maintaining an adequate S/N and pixel coverage on each sample.

  15. Image analysis of Renaissance copperplate prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, S. Blair

    2008-02-01

    From the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, prints were a common form of visual communication, analogous to photographs. Copperplate prints have many finely engraved black lines which were used to create the illusion of continuous tone. Line densities generally are 100-2000 lines per square centimeter and a print can contain more than a million total engraved lines 20-300 micrometers in width. Because hundreds to thousands of prints were made from a single copperplate over decades, variation among prints can have historical value. The largest variation is plate-related, which is the thinning of lines over successive editions as a result of plate polishing to remove time-accumulated corrosion. Thinning can be quantified with image analysis and used to date undated prints and books containing prints. Print-related variation, such as over-inking of the print, is a smaller but significant source. Image-related variation can introduce bias if images were differentially illuminated or not in focus, but improved imaging technology can limit this variation. The Print Index, the percentage of an area composed of lines, is proposed as a primary measure of variation. Statistical methods also are proposed for comparing and identifying prints in the context of a print database.

  16. Computer aided boar semen motility analysis for cereulide detection in different food matrices.

    PubMed

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2007-02-28

    Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA) study of the boar semen motility has been demonstrated to be an appropriate assay for detection of cereulide (Bacillus cereus emetic toxin). Application of the boar semen bio-assay to detect cereulide directly in foods requires investigation of potential interference of food components, preservatives and other microbial and chemical food contaminants with the bio-assay. Current study provides evidence that none of included Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A, B, C and D nor B. cereus Hemolysin BL (HBL) and non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and three mycotoxins (Sterigmatocystin, Fumonisin B1 and Patulin) exhibited a toxic impact on semen progressive motility. Aflatoxin M1, M3 and zearalenone impaired semen motility only at concentrations (0.004 mg ml(-1), 0.1 mg ml(-1) and 10 mg ml(-1), respectively) much higher than those found in foods and those permitted by legislation, in comparison to cereulide which induces motility cease at concentrations lower than 20 ng ml(-1). Ten commonly used preservatives, namely potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, (DL) malic acid, citric acid, (L+) tartaric acid, acetic acid, (DL) lactic acid, (L+) ascorbic acid, sodium chloride and sucrose induced no cease in spermatozoa motility even at preservative concentrations higher than permitted by legislation. Dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and acrylamide had no acute effect on spermatozoa motility at concentrations of 500 and 10,000 mg ml(-1), respectively. Robustness of computer aided boar semen motility analysis, tested with 14 different foods inoculated with cereulide producing B. cereus, showed distinct cereulide production in seven samples (although B. cereus growth to counts higher than 8 log CFU g(-1) was noted in 11 samples), in amounts close to those reported in foodborne outbreaks. Test evaluation in 33 samples suspected to hold cereulide showed actual cereulide presence in ten samples and no interference of food matrix

  17. Markov Random Fields, Stochastic Quantization and Image Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Markov random fields based on the lattice Z2 have been extensively used in image analysis in a Bayesian framework as a-priori models for the...of Image Analysis can be given some fundamental justification then there is a remarkable connection between Probabilistic Image Analysis , Statistical Mechanics and Lattice-based Euclidean Quantum Field Theory.

  18. Enhanced characterization of solid solitary pulmonary nodules with Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Perandini, Simone; Soardi, Gian Alberto; Motton, Massimiliano; Augelli, Raffaele; Dallaserra, Chiara; Puntel, Gino; Rossi, Arianna; Sala, Giuseppe; Signorini, Manuel; Spezia, Laura; Zamboni, Federico; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the accuracy gain of Bayesian analysis-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) vs human judgment alone in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) at computed tomography (CT). The study included 100 randomly selected SPNs with a definitive diagnosis. Nodule features at first and follow-up CT scans as well as clinical data were evaluated individually on a 1 to 5 points risk chart by 7 radiologists, firstly blinded then aware of Bayesian Inference Malignancy Calculator (BIMC) model predictions. Raters’ predictions were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and decision analysis. Overall ROC area under the curve was 0.758 before and 0.803 after the disclosure of CAD predictions (P = 0.003). A net gain in diagnostic accuracy was found in 6 out of 7 readers. Mean risk class of benign nodules dropped from 2.48 to 2.29, while mean risk class of malignancies rose from 3.66 to 3.92. Awareness of CAD predictions also determined a significant drop on mean indeterminate SPNs (15 vs 23.86 SPNs) and raised the mean number of correct and confident diagnoses (mean 39.57 vs 25.71 SPNs). This study provides evidence supporting the integration of the Bayesian analysis-based BIMC model in SPN characterization. PMID:27648166

  19. Simple Low Level Features for Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcoz, Paolo

    As human beings, we perceive the world around us mainly through our eyes, and give what we see the status of “reality”; as such we historically tried to create ways of recording this reality so we could augment or extend our memory. From early attempts in photography like the image produced in 1826 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce (Figure 2.1) to the latest high definition camcorders, the number of recorded pieces of reality increased exponentially, posing the problem of managing all that information. Most of the raw video material produced today has lost its memory augmentation function, as it will hardly ever be viewed by any human; pervasive CCTVs are an example. They generate an enormous amount of data each day, but there is not enough “human processing power” to view them. Therefore the need for effective automatic image analysis tools is great, and a lot effort has been put in it, both from the academia and the industry. In this chapter, a review of some of the most important image analysis tools are presented.

  20. Nursing image: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Adaryani, Morteza; Salsali, Mahvash; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2012-12-01

    A long-term challenge to the nursing profession is the concept of image. In this study, we used the Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis approach to analyze the concept of nursing image (NI). The aim of this concept analysis was to clarify the attributes, antecedents, consequences, and implications associated with the concept. We performed an integrative internet-based literature review to retrieve English literature published from 1980-2011. Findings showed that NI is a multidimensional, all-inclusive, paradoxical, dynamic, and complex concept. The media, invisibility, clothing style, nurses' behaviors, gender issues, and professional organizations are the most important antecedents of the concept. We found that NI is pivotal in staff recruitment and nursing shortage, resource allocation to nursing, nurses' job performance, workload, burnout and job dissatisfaction, violence against nurses, public trust, and salaries available to nurses. An in-depth understanding of the NI concept would assist nurses to eliminate negative stereotypes and build a more professional image for the nurse and the profession.

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast DCE-MRI using pharmacokinetic model and 3-D morphology analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teh-Chen; Huang, Yan-Hao; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Huang, Guei-Yu; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) consists of a large number of images in different enhancement phases which are used to identify and characterize breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-assisted algorithm for tumor segmentation and characterization using both kinetic information and morphological features of 3-D breast DCE-MRI. An integrated color map created by intersecting kinetic and area under the curve (AUC) color maps was used to detect potential breast lesions, followed by the application of a region growing algorithm to segment the tumor. Modified fuzzy c-means clustering was used to identify the most representative kinetic curve of the whole segmented tumor, which was then characterized by using conventional curve analysis or pharmacokinetic model. The 3-D morphological features including shape features (compactness, margin, and ellipsoid fitting) and texture features (based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix) of the segmented tumor were obtained to characterize the lesion. One hundred and thirty-two biopsy-proven lesions (63 benign and 69 malignant) were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed computer-aided system for breast MRI. Five combined features including rate constant (kep), volume of plasma (vp), energy (G1), entropy (G2), and compactness (C1), had the best performance with an accuracy of 91.67% (121/132), sensitivity of 91.30% (63/69), specificity of 92.06% (58/63), and Az value of 0.9427. Combining the kinetic and morphological features of 3-D breast MRI is a potentially useful and robust algorithm when attempting to differentiate benign and malignant lesions.

  2. Analysis on enhanced depth of field for integral imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young-Tae; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Kim, Nam

    2012-10-08

    Depth of field of the integral imaging microscope is studied. In the integral imaging microscope, 3-D information is encoded as a form of elemental images Distance between intermediate plane and object point decides the number of elemental image and depth of field of integral imaging microscope. From the analysis, it is found that depth of field of the reconstructed depth plane image by computational integral imaging reconstruction is longer than depth of field of optical microscope. From analyzed relationship, experiment using integral imaging microscopy and conventional microscopy is also performed to confirm enhanced depth of field of integral imaging microscopy.

  3. Roles of universal three-dimensional image analysis devices that assist surgical operations.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2014-04-01

    The circumstances surrounding medical image analysis have undergone rapid evolution. In such a situation, it can be said that "imaging" obtained through medical imaging modality and the "analysis" that we employ have become amalgamated. Recently, we feel the distance between "imaging" and "analysis" has become closer regarding the imaging analysis of any organ system, as if both terms mentioned above have become integrated. The history of medical image analysis started with the appearance of the computer. The invention of multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) used in the helical scan had a significant impact and became the basis for recent image analysis. Subsequently, curbed MPR (CPR) and other methods were developed, and the 3D diagnostic imaging and image analysis of the human body have started on a full scale. Volume rendering: the development of a new rendering algorithm and the significant improvement of memory and CPUs contributed to the development of "volume rendering," which allows 3D views with retained internal information. A new value was created by this development; computed tomography (CT) images that used to be for "diagnosis" before that time have become "applicable to treatment." In the past, before the development of volume rendering, a clinician had to mentally reconstruct an image reconfigured for diagnosis into a 3D image, but these developments have allowed the depiction of a 3D image on a monitor. Current technology: Currently, in Japan, the estimation of the liver volume and the perfusion area of the portal vein and hepatic vein are vigorously being adopted during preoperative planning for hepatectomy. Such a circumstance seems to be brought by the substantial improvement of said basic techniques and by upgrading the user interface, allowing doctors easy manipulation by themselves. The following describes the specific techniques. Future of post-processing technology: It is expected, in terms of the role of image analysis, for better or worse

  4. Covariance of lucky images: performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagigal, Manuel P.; Valle, Pedro J.; Cagigas, Miguel A.; Villó-Pérez, Isidro; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Seeliger, M.

    2017-01-01

    The covariance of ground-based lucky images is a robust and easy-to-use algorithm that allows us to detect faint companions surrounding a host star. In this paper, we analyse the relevance of the number of processed frames, the frames' quality, the atmosphere conditions and the detection noise on the companion detectability. This analysis has been carried out using both experimental and computer-simulated imaging data. Although the technique allows us the detection of faint companions, the camera detection noise and the use of a limited number of frames reduce the minimum detectable companion intensity to around 1000 times fainter than that of the host star when placed at an angular distance corresponding to the few first Airy rings. The reachable contrast could be even larger when detecting companions with the assistance of an adaptive optics system.

  5. Uses of software in digital image analysis: a forensic report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Jha, Shailendra

    2010-02-01

    Forensic image analysis is required an expertise to interpret the content of an image or the image itself in legal matters. Major sub-disciplines of forensic image analysis with law enforcement applications include photo-grammetry, photographic comparison, content analysis and image authentication. It has wide applications in forensic science range from documenting crime scenes to enhancing faint or indistinct patterns such as partial fingerprints. The process of forensic image analysis can involve several different tasks, regardless of the type of image analysis performed. Through this paper authors have tried to explain these tasks, which are described in to three categories: Image Compression, Image Enhancement & Restoration and Measurement Extraction. With the help of examples like signature comparison, counterfeit currency comparison and foot-wear sole impression using the software Canvas and Corel Draw.

  6. Machine Learning Interface for Medical Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi C; Kagen, Alexander C

    2016-10-11

    TensorFlow is a second-generation open-source machine learning software library with a built-in framework for implementing neural networks in wide variety of perceptual tasks. Although TensorFlow usage is well established with computer vision datasets, the TensorFlow interface with DICOM formats for medical imaging remains to be established. Our goal is to extend the TensorFlow API to accept raw DICOM images as input; 1513 DaTscan DICOM images were obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database. DICOM pixel intensities were extracted and shaped into tensors, or n-dimensional arrays, to populate the training, validation, and test input datasets for machine learning. A simple neural network was constructed in TensorFlow to classify images into normal or Parkinson's disease groups. Training was executed over 1000 iterations for each cross-validation set. The gradient descent optimization and Adagrad optimization algorithms were used to minimize cross-entropy between the predicted and ground-truth labels. Cross-validation was performed ten times to produce a mean accuracy of 0.938 ± 0.047 (95 % CI 0.908-0.967). The mean sensitivity was 0.974 ± 0.043 (95 % CI 0.947-1.00) and mean specificity was 0.822 ± 0.207 (95 % CI 0.694-0.950). We extended the TensorFlow API to enable DICOM compatibility in the context of DaTscan image analysis. We implemented a neural network classifier that produces diagnostic accuracies on par with excellent results from previous machine learning models. These results indicate the potential role of TensorFlow as a useful adjunct diagnostic tool in the clinical setting.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis and lipidomics analysis to detect and treat breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Retter, Felix; Steinbrücker, Frank; Görke, Robert; Burgeth, Bernhard; Schlossbauer, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Multi-modality diagnosis techniques are more and more replacing traditional medical imaging for breast cancer detection. Newly emerging advances in both intelligent cancer detection systems and lipidomics technologies offer an excellent opportunity to detect tumors and to understand regulation at the molecular level in many diseases such as cancer. In this paper, we present a detailed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems combining motion artefact reduction and automated feature extraction and classification, and a novel data mining approach for visualization of gene therapy leading to apoptosis in U87 MG glioblastoma cells, a secondary tumor of breast cancer. The achieved results show that the CAD system represents a robust and integrative tool for reliable small contrast enhancing lesions. Graph-clustering methods are introduced as powerful correlation networks which enable a simultaneous exploration and visualization of co-regulation in glioblastoma data. These new paradigms are providing unique "fingerprints" by revealing how the intricate interactions at the lipidome level can be employed to induce apoptosis (cell death) and are thus opening a new window to biomedical frontiers.

  8. Which supplementary imaging modality should be used for breast ultrasonography? Comparison of the diagnostic performance of elastography and computer-aided diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of grayscale ultrasonography (US), US elastography, and US computer-aided diagnosis (US-CAD) in the differential diagnosis of breast masses. Methods A total of 193 breast masses in 175 consecutive women (mean age, 46.4 years) from June to August 2015 were included. US and elastography images were obtained and recorded. A US-CAD system was applied to the grayscale sonograms, which were automatically analyzed and visualized in order to generate a final assessment. The final assessments of breast masses were based on the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, while elasticity scores were assigned using a 5-point scoring system. The diagnostic performance of grayscale US, elastography, and US-CAD was calculated and compared. Results Of the 193 breast masses, 120 (62.2%) were benign and 73 (37.8%) were malignant. Breast masses had significantly higher rates of malignancy in BI-RADS categories 4c and 5, elastography patterns 4 and 5, and when the US-CAD assessment was possibly malignant (all P<0.001). Elastography had higher specificity (40.8%, P=0.042) than grayscale US. US-CAD showed the highest specificity (67.5%), positive predictive value (PPV) (61.4%), accuracy (74.1%), and area under the curve (AUC) (0.762, all P<0.05) among the three diagnostic tools. Conclusion US-CAD had higher values for specificity, PPV, accuracy, and AUC than grayscale US or elastography. Computer-based analysis based on the morphologic features of US may be very useful in improving the diagnostic performance of breast US. PMID:27764908

  9. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units.

  10. Wavelet-based image analysis system for soil texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yun; Long, Zhiling; Jang, Ping-Rey; Plodinec, M. John

    2003-05-01

    Soil texture is defined as the relative proportion of clay, silt and sand found in a given soil sample. It is an important physical property of soil that affects such phenomena as plant growth and agricultural fertility. Traditional methods used to determine soil texture are either time consuming (hydrometer), or subjective and experience-demanding (field tactile evaluation). Considering that textural patterns observed at soil surfaces are uniquely associated with soil textures, we propose an innovative approach to soil texture analysis, in which wavelet frames-based features representing texture contents of soil images are extracted and categorized by applying a maximum likelihood criterion. The soil texture analysis system has been tested successfully with an accuracy of 91% in classifying soil samples into one of three general categories of soil textures. In comparison with the common methods, this wavelet-based image analysis approach is convenient, efficient, fast, and objective.

  11. Innocent Victims, Fighter Cells, and White Uncles: A Discourse Analysis of Children's Books about AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenreich, Megan; Siegel, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine a set of 26 children's books on HIV/AIDS published between 1989-1999 to identify the ways in which these texts construct HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS. We explore how this marginalized group is depicted in these books, and how well-meaning teachers may in fact be reproducing dominant discourses about HIV/AIDS…

  12. Error Patterns Analysis of Hearing Aid and Cochlear Implant Users as a Function of Noise

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Hyungi; Ma, Sunmi; Chun, Youngmyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Not all impaired listeners may have the same speech perception ability although they will have similar pure-tone threshold and configuration. For this reason, the present study analyzes error patterns in the hearing-impaired compared to normal hearing (NH) listeners as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Subjects and Methods Forty-four adults participated: 10 listeners with NH, 20 hearing aids (HA) users and 14 cochlear implants (CI) users. The Korean standardized monosyllables were presented as the stimuli in quiet and three different SNRs. Total error patterns were classified into types of substitution, omission, addition, fail, and no response, using stacked bar plots. Results Total error percent for the three groups significantly increased as the SNRs decreased. For error pattern analysis, the NH group showed substitution errors dominantly regardless of the SNRs compared to the other groups. Both the HA and CI groups had substitution errors that declined, while no response errors appeared as the SNRs increased. The CI group was characterized by lower substitution and higher fail errors than did the HA group. Substitutions of initial and final phonemes in the HA and CI groups were limited by place of articulation errors. However, the HA group had missed consonant place cues, such as formant transitions and stop consonant bursts, whereas the CI group usually had limited confusions of nasal consonants with low frequency characteristics. Interestingly, all three groups showed /k/ addition in the final phoneme, a trend that magnified as noise increased. Conclusions The HA and CI groups had their unique error patterns even though the aided thresholds of the two groups were similar. We expect that the results of this study will focus on high error patterns in auditory training of hearing-impaired listeners, resulting in reducing those errors and improving their speech perception ability. PMID:26771013

  13. Research on automatic human chromosome image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2007-11-01

    Human chromosome karyotyping is one of the essential tasks in cytogenetics, especially in genetic syndrome diagnoses. In this thesis, an automatic procedure is introduced for human chromosome image analysis. According to different status of touching and overlapping chromosomes, several segmentation methods are proposed to achieve the best results. Medial axis is extracted by the middle point algorithm. Chromosome band is enhanced by the algorithm based on multiscale B-spline wavelets, extracted by average gray profile, gradient profile and shape profile, and calculated by the WDD (Weighted Density Distribution) descriptors. The multilayer classifier is used in classification. Experiment results demonstrate that the algorithms perform well.

  14. ImageJ-MATLAB: a bidirectional framework for scientific image analysis interoperability.

    PubMed

    Hiner, Mark C; Rueden, Curtis T; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2016-10-26

    ImageJ-MATLAB is a lightweight Java library facilitating bi-directional interoperability between MATLAB and ImageJ. By defining a standard for translation between matrix and image data structures, researchers are empowered to select the best tool for their image-analysis tasks.

  15. Dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis for quantitative microcirculation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Xiaoyou; Xiu, Rui-juan

    1994-05-01

    Based on analyses of various types of digital microcirculatory image (DMCI), we summed up the image features of DMCI, the digitizing demands for digital microcirculatory imaging, and the basic characteristics of the DMCI processing. A dynamic and still imaging separation processing (DSISP) mode was designed for developing a DMCI workstation and the DMCI processing. Original images in this study were clinical microcirculatory images from human finger nail-bed and conjunctiva microvasculature, and intravital microvascular network images from animal tissue or organs. A series of dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis functions were developed in this study. The experimental results indicate most of the established analog video image analysis methods for microcirculatory measurement could be realized in a more flexible way based on the DMCI. More information can be rapidly extracted from the quality improved DMCI by employing intelligence digital image analysis methods. The DSISP mode is very suitable for building a DMCI workstation.

  16. Sparse Superpixel Unmixing for Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Software was developed that automatically detects minerals that are present in each pixel of a hyperspectral image. An algorithm based on sparse spectral unmixing with Bayesian Positive Source Separation is used to produce mineral abundance maps from hyperspectral images. A superpixel segmentation strategy enables efficient unmixing in an interactive session. The algorithm computes statistically likely combinations of constituents based on a set of possible constituent minerals whose abundances are uncertain. A library of source spectra from laboratory experiments or previous remote observations is used. A superpixel segmentation strategy improves analysis time by orders of magnitude, permitting incorporation into an interactive user session (see figure). Mineralogical search strategies can be categorized as supervised or unsupervised. Supervised methods use a detection function, developed on previous data by hand or statistical techniques, to identify one or more specific target signals. Purely unsupervised results are not always physically meaningful, and may ignore subtle or localized mineralogy since they aim to minimize reconstruction error over the entire image. This algorithm offers advantages of both methods, providing meaningful physical interpretations and sensitivity to subtle or unexpected minerals.

  17. Soil Surface Roughness through Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Saa-Requejo, A.; Valencia, J. L.; Moratiel, R.; Paz-Gonzalez, A.; Agro-Environmental Modeling

    2011-12-01

    Soil erosion is a complex phenomenon involving the detachment and transport of soil particles, storage and runoff of rainwater, and infiltration. The relative magnitude and importance of these processes depends on several factors being one of them surface micro-topography, usually quantified trough soil surface roughness (SSR). SSR greatly affects surface sealing and runoff generation, yet little information is available about the effect of roughness on the spatial distribution of runoff and on flow concentration. The methods commonly used to measure SSR involve measuring point elevation using a pin roughness meter or laser, both of which are labor intensive and expensive. Lately a simple and inexpensive technique based on percentage of shadow in soil surface image has been developed to determine SSR in the field in order to obtain measurement for wide spread application. One of the first steps in this technique is image de-noising and thresholding to estimate the percentage of black pixels in the studied area. In this work, a series of soil surface images have been analyzed applying several de-noising wavelet analysis and thresholding algorithms to study the variation in percentage of shadows and the shadows size distribution. Funding provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010- 21501/AGR and by Xunta de Galicia through project no INCITE08PXIB1621 are greatly appreciated.

  18. Monotonic correlation analysis of image quality measures for image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Lance M.; Burks, Stephen D.; Moore, Richard K.; Nguyen, Quang

    2008-04-01

    The next generation of night vision goggles will fuse image intensified and long wave infra-red to create a hybrid image that will enable soldiers to better interpret their surroundings during nighttime missions. Paramount to the development of such goggles is the exploitation of image quality (IQ) measures to automatically determine the best image fusion algorithm for a particular task. This work introduces a novel monotonic correlation coefficient to investigate how well possible IQ features correlate to actual human performance, which is measured by a perception study. The paper will demonstrate how monotonic correlation can identify worthy features that could be overlooked by traditional correlation values.

  19. 78 FR 46949 - Essentia Natural Memory Foam Company, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Essentia Natural Memory Foam Company, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment AGENCY... accepted, subject to final approval, an agreement containing a consent order from Essentia Natural Memory... marketing and sale of memory foam mattresses. According to the FTC's complaint, respondent represented...

  20. 78 FR 2398 - Motorola Mobility LLC and Google Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...The consent agreement in this matter settles alleged violations of federal law prohibiting unfair or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent order-- embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these...

  1. 75 FR 42752 - Nestle' HealthCare Nutrition, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Nestle' HealthCare Nutrition, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment AGENCY..., subject to final approval, an agreement containing a consent order from Nestle; HealthCare Nutrition, Inc... number. Comments also should not include any sensitive health information, such as medical records...

  2. 75 FR 61141 - In the Matter of The Coca-Cola Company; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... the Matter of The Coca-Cola Company; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public... written comments electronically or in paper form. Comments should refer to ``The Coca- Cola Company, File... by using the following weblink: ( https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc/coca-cola ) and...

  3. Public Discourse on HIV and AIDS: An Archival Analysis of National Newspaper Reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival analysis of…

  4. 78 FR 75350 - Goldenshores Technologies, LLC and Erik M. Geidl; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Goldenshores Technologies, LLC and Erik M. Geidl; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment... Social Security number, date of birth, driver's license number or other state identification number or... Commission is subject to delay due to heightened security screening. As a result, we encourage you to...

  5. 77 FR 35391 - Franklin Budget Car Sales, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Franklin Budget Car Sales, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... Budget Car Sales, Inc., also doing business as Franklin Toyota/Scion (``Franklin Toyota''). The...

  6. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus ... HIV/AIDS. Why Is the Study of HIV/AIDS a Priority for NIAID? Nearly 37 million people ...

  7. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... to restrict your daily activities. Properly fitted hearing aids and aural rehabilitation (techniques used to identify and ...

  8. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hearing Aids KidsHealth > For Teens > Hearing Aids Print A A ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to audiologist and found ...

  9. An SVM Based Approach for the Analysis Of Mammography Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, X.; Kapsokalivas, L.; Skaliotis, A.; Steinhöfel, K.; Tangaro, S.

    2007-09-01

    Mammography is among the most popular imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Nevertheless distinguishing between healthy and ill images is hard even for an experienced radiologist, because a single image usually includes several regions of interest (ROIs). The hardness of this classification problem along with the substantial amount of data, gathered from patients' medical history, motivates the use of a machine learning approach as part of a CAD (Computer Aided Detection) tool, aiming to assist radiologists in the characterization of mammography images. Specifically, our approach involves: i) the ROI extraction, ii) the Feature Vector extraction, iii) the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification of ROIs and iv) the characterization of the whole image. We evaluate the performance of our approach in terms of the SVM's training and testing error and in terms of ROI specificity—sensitivity. The results show a relation between the number of features used and the SVM's performance.

  10. Correlative feature analysis of FFDM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yading; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui; Sennett, Charlene

    2008-03-01

    Identifying the corresponding image pair of a lesion is an essential step for combining information from different views of the lesion to improve the diagnostic ability of both radiologists and CAD systems. Because of the non-rigidity of the breasts and the 2D projective property of mammograms, this task is not trivial. In this study, we present a computerized framework that differentiates the corresponding images from different views of a lesion from non-corresponding ones. A dual-stage segmentation method, which employs an initial radial gradient index(RGI) based segmentation and an active contour model, was initially applied to extract mass lesions from the surrounding tissues. Then various lesion features were automatically extracted from each of the two views of each lesion to quantify the characteristics of margin, shape, size, texture and context of the lesion, as well as its distance to nipple. We employed a two-step method to select an effective subset of features, and combined it with a BANN to obtain a discriminant score, which yielded an estimate of the probability that the two images are of the same physical lesion. ROC analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the individual features and the selected feature subset in the task of distinguishing between corresponding and non-corresponding pairs. By using a FFDM database with 124 corresponding image pairs and 35 non-corresponding pairs, the distance feature yielded an AUC (area under the ROC curve) of 0.8 with leave-one-out evaluation by lesion, and the feature subset, which includes distance feature, lesion size and lesion contrast, yielded an AUC of 0.86. The improvement by using multiple features was statistically significant as compared to single feature performance. (p<0.001)

  11. Computer-Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems (CAMAPPS), phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The large-signal behaviors of a regulator depend largely on the type of power circuit topology and control. Thus, for maximum flexibility, it is best to develop models for each functional block a independent modules. A regulator can then be configured by collecting appropriate pre-defined modules for each functional block. In order to complete the component model generation for a comprehensive spacecraft power system, the following modules were developed: solar array switching unit and control; shunt regulators; and battery discharger. The capability of each module is demonstrated using a simplified Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system. Large-signal behaviors of solar array power systems were analyzed. Stability of the solar array system operating points with a nonlinear load is analyzed. The state-plane analysis illustrates trajectories of the system operating point under various conditions. Stability and transient responses of the system operating near the solar array's maximum power point are also analyzed. The solar array system mode of operation is described using the DET spacecraft power system. The DET system is simulated for various operating conditions. Transfer of the software program CAMAPPS (Computer Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems) to NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) was accomplished.

  12. Computer-aided modelling and analysis of PV systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos; Kandris, Dionisis; Samarakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems.

  13. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  14. Computer-Aided Modelling and Analysis of PV Systems: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems. PMID:24772007

  15. Nonlinear analysis for image stabilization in IR imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhan-lei; Lu, Jin; Luo, Yong-hong; Zhang, Mei-sheng

    2009-07-01

    In order to acquire stabilization image for IR imaging system, an image stabilization system is required. Linear method is often used in current research on the system and a simple PID controller can meet the demands of common users. In fact, image stabilization system is a structure with nonlinear characters such as structural errors, friction and disturbances. In up-grade IR imaging system, although conventional PID controller is optimally designed, it cannot meet the demands of higher accuracy and fast responding speed when disturbances are present. To get high-quality stabilization image, nonlinear characters should be rejected. The friction and gear clearance are key factors and play an important role in the image stabilization system. The friction induces static error of system. When the system runs at low speed, stick-slip and creeping induced by friction not only decrease resolution and repeating accuracy, but also increase the tracking error and the steady state error. The accuracy of the system is also limited by gear clearance, and selfexcited vibration is brought on by serious clearance. In this paper, effects of different nonlinear on image stabilization precision are analyzed, including friction and gear clearance. After analyzing the characters and influence principle of the friction and gear clearance, a friction model is established with MATLAB Simulink toolbox, which is composed of static friction, Coulomb friction and viscous friction, and the gear clearance non-linearity model is built, providing theoretical basis for the future engineering practice.

  16. Percent area coverage through image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chung M.; Hong, Sung M.; Liu, De-Ling

    2016-09-01

    The notion of percent area coverage (PAC) has been used to characterize surface cleanliness levels in the spacecraft contamination control community. Due to the lack of detailed particle data, PAC has been conventionally calculated by multiplying the particle surface density in predetermined particle size bins by a set of coefficients per MIL-STD-1246C. In deriving the set of coefficients, the surface particle size distribution is assumed to follow a log-normal relation between particle density and particle size, while the cross-sectional area function is given as a combination of regular geometric shapes. For particles with irregular shapes, the cross-sectional area function cannot describe the true particle area and, therefore, may introduce error in the PAC calculation. Other errors may also be introduced by using the lognormal surface particle size distribution function that highly depends on the environmental cleanliness and cleaning process. In this paper, we present PAC measurements from silicon witness wafers that collected fallouts from a fabric material after vibration testing. PAC calculations were performed through analysis of microscope images and compare them to values derived through the MIL-STD-1246C method. Our results showed that the MIL-STD-1246C method does provide a reasonable upper bound to the PAC values determined through image analysis, in particular for PAC values below 0.1.

  17. The Scientific Image in Behavior Analysis.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Mickey

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the history of science, the scientific image has played a significant role in communication. With recent developments in computing technology, there has been an increase in the kinds of opportunities now available for scientists to communicate in more sophisticated ways. Within behavior analysis, though, we are only just beginning to appreciate the importance of going beyond the printing press to elucidate basic principles of behavior. The aim of this manuscript is to stimulate appreciation of both the role of the scientific image and the opportunities provided by a quick response code (QR code) for enhancing the functionality of the printed page. I discuss the limitations of imagery in behavior analysis ("Introduction"), and I show examples of what can be done with animations and multimedia for teaching philosophical issues that arise when teaching about private events ("Private Events 1 and 2"). Animations are also useful for bypassing ethical issues when showing examples of challenging behavior ("Challenging Behavior"). Each of these topics can be accessed only by scanning the QR code provided. This contingency has been arranged to help the reader embrace this new technology. In so doing, I hope to show its potential for going beyond the limitations of the printing press.

  18. "The Gallery": An Experiential Approach to Visual Aid Construction and Analysis in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyma, Adam W.

    2008-01-01

    When working with students to prepare oral presentations, the question--"What makes an effective visual aid?"--often arises. Most teachers realize the value of visual aids, but what makes them effective is sometimes unclear. There seems to be a disconnect between what the teacher, the textbook, and the student actually perceive to be a "good"…

  19. Death Anxiety in Persons with HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Lee, Brittany L.; Henderson, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most commonly cited psychological sequelae of HIV/AIDS is anxiety regarding death due to the illness (i.e., death anxiety; DA). However, extant research is inconclusive on several empirical issues, such as DA's relation to HIV/AIDS diagnostic status, the impact of illness-related symptoms on DA, and factors that may protect against DA.…

  20. Does Merit Aid Program Design Matter? A Cross-Cohort Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Thurston

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-one US states currently offer some form of merit-based postsecondary financial aid, although the generosity and eligibility requirements of merit aid programs varies from state to state. This article uses nationally representative data from high school students in the early 1990s and the early 2000s to evaluate the relationship between the…

  1. Decision aids for localized prostate cancer treatment choice: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Violette, Philippe D; Agoritsas, Thomas; Alexander, Paul; Riikonen, Jarno; Santti, Henrikki; Agarwal, Arnav; Bhatnagar, Neera; Dahm, Philipp; Montori, Victor; Guyatt, Gordon H; Tikkinen, Kari A O

    2015-01-01

    Patients who are diagnosed with localized prostate cancer need to make critical treatment decisions that are sensitive to their values and preferences. The role of decision aids in facilitating these decisions is unknown. The authors conducted a systematic review of randomized trials of decision aids for localized prostate cancer. Teams of 2 reviewers independently identified, selected, and abstracted data from 14 eligible trials (n = 3377 men), of which 10 were conducted in North America. Of these, 11 trials compared decision aids with usual care, and 3 trials compared decision aids with other decision aids. Two trials suggested a modest positive impact on decisional regret. Results across studies varied widely for decisional conflict (4 studies), satisfaction with decision (2 studies), and knowledge (2 studies). No impact on treatment choices was observed (6 studies). In conclusion, scant evidence at high risk of bias suggests the variable impact of existing decision aids on a limited set of decisional processes and outcomes. Because current decision aids provide information but do not directly facilitate shared decision making, subsequent efforts would benefit from user-centered design of decision aids that promote shared decision making.

  2. The Effect of Merit Aid on Enrollment: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Iowa's National Scholars Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds, Daniel M.; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen steadily over the past 30 years, making financial aid an important determinant of college choice for many students and a subject of concern for colleges and state governments. In this paper, we estimate the effect of rule-based merit aid assignment on students' enrollment decisions at the University of Iowa.…

  3. The Politics of Determining Merit Aid Eligibility Criteria: An Analysis of the Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the scholarly attention on the effects of merit aid on college access and choice, particularly on the significant effect that states' varied eligibility criteria play, no studies have examined the policy process through which merit aid criteria are determined. This is surprising given the recent attention to state-level policy dynamics and…

  4. Complexity and Targeting in Federal Student Aid: A Quantitative Analysis. NBER Working Paper No. 13801

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith E.

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of empirical evidence shows that some financial aid programs increase college enrollment. Puzzlingly, there is little compelling evidence that Pell Grants and Stafford Loans, the primary federal student aid programs, are effective in achieving this goal. In this paper, we provide an in-depth review of this evidence, which taken as a…

  5. Institutional Merit-Based Aid and Student Departure: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Hossler, Don; Ziskin, Mary; Berry, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of merit criteria in awarding institutional aid has grown considerably and, some argue, is supplanting need as the central factor in awarding aid. Concurrently, the accountability movement in higher education has placed greater emphasis on retention and graduation as indicators of institutional success and quality. In this context, this…

  6. Image Registration of Cone-Beam Computer Tomography and Preprocedural Computer Tomography Aids in Localization of Adrenal Veins and Decreasing Radiation Dose in Adrenal Vein Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Busser, Wendy M. H. Arntz, Mark J.; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F. M.; Deinum, Jaap; Hoogeveen, Yvonne L.; Lange, Frank de; Schultze Kool, Leo J.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeWe assessed whether image registration of cone-beam computed tomography (CT) (CBCT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) images indicating the locations of the adrenal veins can aid in increasing the success rate of first-attempts adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and therefore decreasing patient radiation dose.Materials and Methods CBCT scans were acquired in the interventional suite (Philips Allura Xper FD20) and rigidly registered to the vertebra in previously acquired CE-CT. Adrenal vein locations were marked on the CT image and superimposed with live fluoroscopy and digital-subtraction angiography (DSA) to guide the AVS. Seventeen first attempts at AVS were performed with image registration and retrospectively compared with 15 first attempts without image registration performed earlier by the same 2 interventional radiologists. First-attempt AVS was considered successful when both adrenal vein samples showed representative cortisol levels. Sampling time, dose-area product (DAP), number of DSA runs, fluoroscopy time, and skin dose were recorded.ResultsWithout image registration, the first attempt at sampling was successful in 8 of 15 procedures indicating a success rate of 53.3 %. This increased to 76.5 % (13 of 17) by adding CBCT and CE-CT image registration to AVS procedures (p = 0.266). DAP values (p = 0.001) and DSA runs (p = 0.026) decreased significantly by adding image registration guidance. Sampling and fluoroscopy times and skin dose showed no significant changes.ConclusionGuidance based on registration of CBCT and previously acquired diagnostic CE-CT can aid in enhancing localization of the adrenal veins thereby increasing the success rate of first-attempt AVS with a significant decrease in the number of used DSA runs and, consequently, radiation dose required.

  7. Confocal laser endomicroscopy and narrow-band imaging-aided endoscopy for in vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Maximilian J; Wirtz, Stefan; Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F

    2011-09-01

    New endoscopic techniques such as narrow-band imaging (NBI) and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) have improved the in vivo diagnosis of human gastrointestinal diseases in the colon. Whereas NBI may facilitate the identification of neoplastic lesions, CLE permits real-time histology of the inflamed or neoplastic colonic mucosa through the use of fluorescent dyes. These techniques have been recently adopted for use during ongoing endoscopy in mice. This protocol, which can be completed in 2 h, provides a detailed description of NBI and CLE in the mouse colon. In contrast to other techniques, this approach does not require laparotomy, and it allows direct CLE analysis of lesions identified by NBI. Mice exposed to models of colitis or colorectal cancer are anesthetized and examined with a miniaturized NBI endoscope, which provides an increased contrast of the vasculature. Upon identification of suspicious areas by NBI and the administration of fluorescent dyes, a confocal laser probe can be directed to the area of interest through the endoscope and confocal images can be obtained. Through the use of various fluorescent dyes, different aspects of the mucosa can be assessed. In addition, fluorescence-labeled antibodies can be used for molecular imaging of mice in vivo. Mouse NBI endoscopy and CLE represent reliable and fast high-quality techniques for the endoscopic characterization and molecular imaging of the mucosa in colitis and colon cancer.

  8. An analysis of drug resistance among people living with HIV/AIDS in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meiyan; Sun, Jianjun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance can facilitate better management of antiretroviral therapy, helping to prevent transmission and decrease the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS. However, there is little data about transmitted drug resistance and acquired drug resistance for HIV/AIDS patients in Shanghai. Methods A retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients who visited the Department of Infectious Disease from June 2008 to June 2015 was conducted in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze risk factors for drug resistance among HIV-infected people with virological failure. The related collected factors included patient age, gender, marital status, infection route, baseline CD4 count, antiretroviral therapy regimens, time between HIV diagnosis and initiating antiretroviral therapy. Factors with p<0.1 in the univariate logistic regression test were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression test. Results There were 575 subjects selected for this study and 369 participated in this research. For the antiretroviral therapy drugs, the rates of transmitted drug resistance and acquired drug resistance were significantly different. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) had the highest drug resistance rate (transmitted drug resistance, 10.9%; acquired drug resistance, 53.3%) and protease inhibitors (PIs) had the lowest drug resistance rate (transmitted drug resistance, 1.7%; acquired drug resistance, 2.7%). Logistic regression analysis found no factors that were related to drug resistance except marital status (married status for tenofovir: odds ratio = 6.345, 95% confidence interval = 1.553–25.921, P = 0.010) and the time span between HIV diagnosis and initiating antiretroviral therapy (≤6M for stavudine: odds ratio = 0.271, 95% confidence interval = 0.086–0.850, P = 0.025; ≤6M for didanosine: odds ratio = 0.284, 95% confidence interval = 0.096–0.842, P = 0

  9. Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dongsuk; Protano, Marion-Anna; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pierce, Mark C.; Kim, Michelle Kang; Schwarz, Richard A.; Quang, Timothy; Parikh, Neil; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Guiqi; Xue, Liyan; Wang, Xueshan; Xu, Hong; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims High-resolution microendoscopy is an optical imaging technique with the potential to improve the accuracy of endoscopic screening for esophageal squamous neoplasia. Although these microscopic images can readily be interpreted by trained personnel, quantitative image analysis software could facilitate the use of this technology in low-resource settings. In this study we developed and evaluated quantitative image analysis criteria for the evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic squamous esophageal mucosa. Methods We performed image analysis of 177 patients undergoing standard upper endoscopy for screening or surveillance of esophageal squamous neoplasia, using high-resolution microendoscopy, at 2 hospitals in China and 1 in the United States from May 2010 to October 2012. Biopsies were collected from imaged sites (n=375); a consensus diagnosis was provided by 2 expert gastrointestinal pathologists and used as the standard. Results Quantitative information from the high-resolution images was used to develop an algorithm to identify high-grade squamous dysplasia or invasive squamous cell cancer, based on histopathology findings. Optimal performance was obtained using mean nuclear area as the basis for classification, resulting in sensitivities and specificities of 93% and 92% in the training set, 87% and 97% in the test set, and 84% and 95% in an independent validation set, respectively. Conclusions High-resolution microendoscopy with quantitative image analysis can aid in the identification of esophageal squamous neoplasia. Use of software-based image guides may overcome issues of training and expertise in low-resource settings, allowing for widespread use of these optical biopsy technologies. PMID:25066838

  10. High speed image correlation for vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, T.; Wood, R.; Splitthof, K.

    2009-08-01

    Digital speckle correlation techniques have already been successfully proven to be an accurate displacement analysis tool for a wide range of applications. With the use of two cameras, three dimensional measurements of contours and displacements can be carried out. With a simple setup it opens a wide range of applications. Rapid new developments in the field of digital imaging and computer technology opens further applications for these measurement methods to high speed deformation and strain analysis, e.g. in the fields of material testing, fracture mechanics, advanced materials and component testing. The high resolution of the deformation measurements in space and time opens a wide range of applications for vibration analysis of objects. Since the system determines the absolute position and displacements of the object in space, it is capable of measuring high amplitudes and even objects with rigid body movements. The absolute resolution depends on the field of view and is scalable. Calibration of the optical setup is a crucial point which will be discussed in detail. Examples of the analysis of harmonic vibration and transient events from material research and industrial applications are presented. The results show typical features of the system.

  11. Cellular Image Analysis and Imaging by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Basiji, David A.; Ortyn, William E.; Liang, Luchuan; Venkatachalam, Vidya; Morrissey, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Imaging flow cytometry combines the statistical power and fluorescence sensitivity of standard flow cytometry with the spatial resolution and quantitative morphology of digital microscopy. The technique is a good fit for clinical applications by providing a convenient means for imaging and analyzing cells directly in bodily fluids. Examples are provided of the discrimination of cancerous from normal mammary epithelial cells and the high throughput quantitation of FISH probes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The FISH application will be further enhanced by the integration of extended depth of field imaging technology with the current optical system. PMID:17658411

  12. Paediatric x-ray radiation dose reduction and image quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, L; Ruddlesden, R; Makepeace, C; Robinson, L; Mistry, T; Starritt, H

    2013-09-01

    Collaboration of multiple staff groups has resulted in significant reduction in the risk of radiation-induced cancer from radiographic x-ray exposure during childhood. In this study at an acute NHS hospital trust, a preliminary audit identified initial exposure factors. These were compared with European and UK guidance, leading to the introduction of new factors that were in compliance with European guidance on x-ray tube potentials. Image quality was assessed using standard anatomical criteria scoring, and visual grading characteristics analysis assessed the impact on image quality of changes in exposure factors. This analysis determined the acceptability of gradual radiation dose reduction below the European and UK guidance levels. Chest and pelvis exposures were optimised, achieving dose reduction for each age group, with 7%-55% decrease in critical organ dose. Clinicians confirmed diagnostic image quality throughout the iterative process. Analysis of images acquired with preliminary and final exposure factors indicated an average visual grading analysis result of 0.5, demonstrating equivalent image quality. The optimisation process and final radiation doses are reported for Carestream computed radiography to aid other hospitals in minimising radiation risks to children.

  13. Benefits of texture analysis of dual energy CT for Computer-Aided pulmonary embolism detection.

    PubMed

    Foncubierta-Rodríguez, Antonio; Jiménez del Toro, Óscar Alfonso; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning; Depeursinge, Adrien

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is an avoidable cause of death if treated immediately but delays in diagnosis and treatment lead to an increased risk. Computer-assisted image analysis of both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) have proven useful for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Dual energy CT provides additional information over the standard single energy scan by generating four-dimensional (4D) data, in our case with 11 energy levels in 3D. In this paper a 4D texture analysis method capable of detecting pulmonary embolism in dual energy CT is presented. The method uses wavelet-based visual words together with an automatic geodesic-based region of interest detection algorithm to characterize the texture properties of each lung lobe. Results show an increase in performance with respect to the single energy CT analysis, as well as an accuracy gain compared to preliminary work on a small dataset.

  14. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  15. Analysis of breast CT lesions using computer-aided diagnosis: an application of neural networks on extracted morphologic and texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Shonket; Prionas, Nicolas D.; Lindfors, Karen K.; Boone, John M.

    2012-03-01

    Dedicated cone-beam breast CT (bCT) scanners have been developed as a potential alternative imaging modality to conventional X-ray mammography in breast cancer diagnosis. As with other modalities, quantitative imaging (QI) analysis can potentially be utilized as a tool to extract useful numeric information concerning diagnosed lesions from high quality 3D tomographic data sets. In this work, preliminary QI analysis was done by designing and implementing a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system consisting of image preprocessing, object(s) of interest (i.e. masses, microcalcifications) segmentation, structural analysis of the segmented object(s), and finally classification into benign or malignant disease. Image sets were acquired from bCT patient scans with diagnosed lesions. Iterative watershed segmentation (IWS), a hybridization of the watershed method using observer-set markers and a gradient vector flow (GVF) approach, was used as the lesion segmentation method in 3D. Eight morphologic parameters and six texture features based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) calculations were obtained per segmented lesion and combined into multi-dimensional feature input data vectors. Artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers were used by performing cross validation and network parameter optimization to maximize area under the curve (AUC) values of the resulting receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Within these ANNs, biopsy-proven diagnoses of malignant and benign lesions were recorded as target data while the feature vectors were saved as raw input data. With the image data separated into post-contrast (n = 55) and pre-contrast sets (n = 39), a maximum AUC of 0.70 +/- 0.02 and 0.80 +/- 0.02 were achieved, respectively, for each data set after ANN application.

  16. Vision-sensing image analysis for GTAW process control

    SciTech Connect

    Long, D.D.

    1994-11-01

    Image analysis of a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process was completed using video images from a charge coupled device (CCD) camera inside a specially designed coaxial (GTAW) electrode holder. Video data was obtained from filtered and unfiltered images, with and without the GTAW arc present, showing weld joint features and locations. Data Translation image processing boards, installed in an IBM PC AT 386 compatible computer, and Media Cybernetics image processing software were used to investigate edge flange weld joint geometry for image analysis.

  17. Android and ODK based data collection framework to aid in epidemiological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Raja, A.; Tridane, A.; Gaffar, A.; Lindquist, T.; Pribadi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic collection of field data, analysis and interpretation of data are key to a good healthcare service. This data is used by the subsequent decision makers to recognize preventive measures, provide timely support to the affected and to help measure the effects of their interventions. While the resources required for good disease surveillance and proactive healthcare are available more readily in developed countries, the lack of these in developing countries may compromise the quality of service provided. This combined with the critical nature of some diseases makes this an essential issue to be addressed. Taking advantage of the rapid growth of cell phone usage and related infrastructure in developed as well as developing countries, several systems have been established to address the gaps in data collection. Android, being an open sourced platform, has gained considerable popularity in this aspect. Open data kit is one such tool developed to aid in data collection. The aim of this paper is to present a prototype framework built using few such existing tools and technologies to address data collection for seasonal influenza, commonly referred to as the flu. PMID:24678381

  18. Observability Analysis of DVL/PS Aided INS for a Maneuvering AUV

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Itzik; Diamant, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Recently, ocean exploration has increased considerably through the use of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). A key enabling technology is the precision of the AUV navigation capability. In this paper, we focus on understanding the limitation of the AUV navigation system. That is, what are the observable error-states for different maneuvering types of the AUV? Since analyzing the performance of an underwater navigation system is highly complex, to answer the above question, current approaches use simulations. This, of course, limits the conclusions to the emulated type of vehicle used and to the simulation setup. For this reason, we take a different approach and analyze the system observability for different types of vehicle dynamics by finding the set of observable and unobservable states. To that end, we apply the observability Gramian approach, previously used only for terrestrial applications. We demonstrate our analysis for an underwater inertial navigation system aided by a Doppler velocity logger or by a pressure sensor. The result is a first prediction of the performance of an AUV standing, rotating at a position and turning at a constant speed. Our conclusions of the observable and unobservable navigation error states for different dynamics are supported by extensive numerical simulation. PMID:26506356

  19. Clinical analysis of non-AIDS patients pathologically diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaixiong; Ding, Haibo; Xu, Bing; You, Ruixiong; Xing, Zhen; Chen, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) was not a rare infectious disease in non-AIDS patients. However, data on the immune status were lacking in southern China for comparative analysis of differences between immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. This study was to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and treatment profiles for patients with PC. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 88 patients diagnosed with tissue-confirmed PC who were not HIV-infected from 2003 to 2013. Results Of 88 patients, 35(39.7%) were immunocompromised host. Fever and CNS symptom were significantly common in immunocompromised patients compared to immunocompetent patients (P=0.019 and P=0.036, respectively). The most frequent radiologic abnormalities were solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules, and masses or consolidations, and most lesions were located in the peripheral lung field. Cavitations and halo sign were significantly frequent in immunocompromised patients than in immunocompetent patients (P<0.05). The most frequently applied and reliable diagnostic procedure was CT-guided percutaneous translung biopsy. Treatment included antifungal drug alone in 20 patients, surgery alone in 20 including 3 treated by VATS, surgery plus antifungal drugs in 20 patients. Conclusions PC was not rare in immunocompetent host in southern China. Special differences remained in clinical manifestation and radiological findings of PC between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Future work on the mechanisms of possible differences is required. PMID:27867557

  20. Android and ODK based data collection framework to aid in epidemiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Raja, A; Tridane, A; Gaffar, A; Lindquist, T; Pribadi, K

    2014-01-01

    Periodic collection of field data, analysis and interpretation of data are key to a good healthcare service. This data is used by the subsequent decision makers to recognize preventive measures, provide timely support to the affected and to help measure the effects of their interventions. While the resources required for good disease surveillance and proactive healthcare are available more readily in developed countries, the lack of these in developing countries may compromise the quality of service provided. This combined with the critical nature of some diseases makes this an essential issue to be addressed. Taking advantage of the rapid growth of cell phone usage and related infrastructure in developed as well as developing countries, several systems have been established to address the gaps in data collection. Android, being an open sourced platform, has gained considerable popularity in this aspect. Open data kit is one such tool developed to aid in data collection. The aim of this paper is to present a prototype framework built using few such existing tools and technologies to address data collection for seasonal influenza, commonly referred to as the flu.