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Sample records for aided manufacturing cam

  1. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  2. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  3. Leadless chip carrier packaging and CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) supported wire wrap interconnect technology for subnanosecond ECL (Emitter Coupled Logic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, B. K.

    1982-12-01

    This document is the third year interim report for a four-year program to refine and develop Computer-Aided Design protocols for implementation of subnanosceond Emitter Coupled Logic in High-Speed Computer Modules using a wire wrap interconnection medium. The software and user manual for implementation guides are not part of the actual report. This report describes the results of work conducted in the third year of a four year program to develop rapid methods for designing and prototyping high-speed digital processor systems using subnanosecond emitter coupled logic (ECL). The third year effort was divided into two separate sets of tasks. In Task 1, described in Sections 3 - 7 of this report, we have nearly completed development of new sets of design rules, interconnection protocols, special components, and logic panels, for a technology based upon specially designed leadless ceramic chip carriers developed at Mayo Foundation. Task 2, described in Sections 8 and IX of this report, continued the development of a comprehensive computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software package which is specifically tailored to support the peculiar design requirements of processors operating in a high clock rate, transmission line environment, either with subnanosecond ECL components or with any other families of subnanosecond devices.

  4. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  5. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  6. Buying CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloy, Jim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer numerical control (CNC) computer applications is described. Tips for helping educate the CAM buyer on what to look for and what to avoid when searching for the most appropriate instructional CAM package are provided. (KR)

  7. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark.

    SciTech Connect

    Domm, T.C.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-10-13

    The Benchmark Project was created from a desire to identify best practices and improve the overall efficiency and performance of the Y-12 Plant's systems and personnel supporting the manufacturing mission. The mission of the benchmark team was to search out industry leaders in manufacturing and evaluate their engineering practices and processes to determine direction and focus for Y-12 modernization efforts. The companies visited included several large established companies and a new, small, high-tech machining firm. As a result of this effort, changes are recommended that will enable Y-12 to become a more modern, responsive, cost-effective manufacturing facility capable of supporting the needs of the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) into the 21st century. The benchmark team identified key areas of interest, both focused and general. The focus areas included Human Resources, Information Management, Manufacturing Software Tools, and Standards/Policies and Practices. Areas of general interest included Infrastructure, Computer Platforms and Networking, and Organizational Structure. The results of this benchmark showed that all companies are moving in the direction of model-based engineering and manufacturing. There was evidence that many companies are trying to grasp how to manage current and legacy data. In terms of engineering design software tools, the companies contacted were somewhere between 3-D solid modeling and surfaced wire-frame models. The manufacturing computer tools were varied, with most companies using more than one software product to generate machining data and none currently performing model-based manufacturing (MBM) from a common model. The majority of companies were closer to identifying or using a single computer-aided design (CAD) system than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Internet was a technology that all companies were looking to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for

  8. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Domm, T.D.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-04-26

    single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Inteznet was a technology that all companies were considering to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for business, as the small firm was doing Successfully. Because PrdEngineer is the de facto CAD standard fbr the NWC, the Benchmark Team targeted companies using Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) software tools. Most of the companies used Pm'Engineer for design to some degree, but found the PTC CAM product, PdManufacture lacking as compared to alternate CAM solutions. All of the companies visited fOund the data exchange between CAD/CAM systems problematic. It was apparent that these companies were trying to consolidate their software tools to reduce translation but had not been able to do so because no single solution had all the needed capabilities. In regard to organizational slructure and human resoukes, two companies were found to be using product or program teams. These teams consisted of the technical staff capable of completing the entire task and were xmintained throughout the project. This same strategy was evident at another of the companies but with more mobility of members. For all eornpanies visited except the small ~ work structure breakdown and responsibility were essentially the same as Y-12's at this time. The functions of numerical control (NC), desi~ and process planning were separate and distinct. The team made numerous recommendations that are detailed in the report.

  9. CAD/CAM method application for ear shell auto-manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarng, Soon Suck; Ting, Gao

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering technique of the rapid hearing aid production with a rapid shell modelling (RSM) Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). It will be worthwhile to describe how the virtual ear shell designed with RSM from an ear impression. And the virtual ear shell model is then used as the template to manufacture the actual ear shell by a Rapid Production (RP) machine. Some detailed description of the whole processing will be given in this thesis. The CAD/CAM method processing will enhance and provide outstanding, high-quality hearing aid shell production capabilities to customers. It reduces the time and the cost of designing products and facilitates direct and indirect manufacturing by creating actual parts directly from digital input. It determines that this technique has made a large impact on hearing aid processing and fitting.

  10. CAD/CAM method application for ear shell auto-manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarng, Soon Suck; Ting, Gao

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents the engineering technique of the rapid hearing aid production with a rapid shell modelling (RSM) Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). It will be worthwhile to describe how the virtual ear shell designed with RSM from an ear impression. And the virtual ear shell model is then used as the template to manufacture the actual ear shell by a Rapid Production (RP) machine. Some detailed description of the whole processing will be given in this thesis. The CAD/CAM method processing will enhance and provide outstanding, high-quality hearing aid shell production capabilities to customers. It reduces the time and the cost of designing products and facilitates direct and indirect manufacturing by creating actual parts directly from digital input. It determines that this technique has made a large impact on hearing aid processing and fitting.

  11. CIM's bridge from CADD to CAM: Data management requirements for manufacturing engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Manufacturing engineering represents the crossroads of technical data management in a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environment. Process planning, numerical control programming and tool design are the key functions which translate information from as engineered to as assembled. In order to transition data from engineering to manufacturing, it is necessary to introduce a series of product interpretations which contain an interim introduction of technical parameters. The current automation of the product definition and the production process places manufacturing engineering in the center of CAD/CAM with the responsibility of communicating design data to the factory floor via a manufacturing model of the data. A close look at data management requirements for manufacturing engineering is necessary in order to establish the overall specifications for CADD output, CAM input, and CIM integration. The functions and issues associated with the orderly evolution of computer aided engineering and manufacturing are examined.

  12. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/industry project designated Intergrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies.

  13. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  14. Automated fabrication of mobility aids (AFMA): below-knee CASD/CAM testing and evaluation program results.

    PubMed

    Houston, V L; Burgess, E M; Childress, D S; Lehneis, H R; Mason, C P; Garbarini, M A; LaBlanc, K P; Boone, D A; Chan, R B; Harlan, J H

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 the Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service, under the directorship of Margaret J. Giannini, M.D., began a nationally directed computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) research program for the Automated Fabrication of Mobility Aids (AFMA). Under this program CAD/CAM research and development centers were established at the Prosthetics Research Study in Seattle, WA; at Northwestern University and the VA Lakeside Medical Center in Chicago, IL; and at the VA Medical Center and New York University Medical Center in New York, NY. These three centers conducted a collaborative program: (a) to introduce CAD/CAM technologies to prosthetists, physicians, therapists, and rehabilitation health care professionals in the United States; (b) to evaluate the feasibility of using CAD/CAM systems in clinical prosthetics settings; (c) to test and evaluate the University College London-Bioengineering Center's and the University of British Columbia-Medical Engineering Resource Unit's respective systems for the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture of prosthetic sockets (CASD/CAM) for below-knee amputees; and, (d) to obtain quantitative data for refinement of the CASD/CAM systems tested, and for the development of new, enhanced, more efficacious, and expedient systems. PMID:1432729

  15. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/Industry project designated Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 repesentatives from aerospace and computer companies. The IPAD accomplishments to date in development of requirements and prototype software for various levels of company-wide CAD/CAM data management are summarized and plans for development of technology for management of distributed CAD/CAM data and information required to control future knowledge-based CAD/CAM systems are discussed.

  16. Manufacturing cost/design system: A CAD/CAM dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshigian, H. H.; Rachowitz, B. I.; Judson, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Manufacturing Cost/Design System (MC/DS) will provide the aerospace design engineer a tool with which to perform heretofore impractical design manufacturing cost tradeoffs. The Air Force Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Office has initiated the development and demonstration of an MC/DS which, when fully implemented, will integrate both design and manufacturing data bases to provide real time visibility into the manufacturing costs associated with various design options. The first release of a computerized system will be made before the end of 1981.

  17. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  18. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  19. The Cam Shell: An Innovative Design With Materials and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Richard; Larsen, Frank M.; Kornienko, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Most of the personal audio and video recording devices currently sold on the open market all require hands to operate. Little consideration was given to designing a hands-free unit. Such a system once designed and made available to the public could greatly benefit mobile police officers, bicyclists, adventurers, street and dirt motorcyclists, horseback riders and many others. With a few design changes water sports and skiing activities could be another large area of application. The cam shell is an innovative design in which an audio and video recording device (such as palm camcorder) is housed in a body-mounted protection system. This system is based on the concept of viewing and recording at the same time. A view cam is attached to a helmet wired to a recording unit encased in a transparent body-mounted protection system. The helmet can also be controlled by remote. The operator will have full control in recording everything. However, the recording unit will be operated completely hands-free. This project will address the design considerations and their effects on material selection and manufacturing. It will enhance the understanding of the structure of materials, and how the structure affects the behavior of the material, and the role that processing play in linking the relationship between structure and properties. A systematic approach to design feasibility study, cost analysis and problem solving will also be discussed.

  20. Integrated computer aided planning and manufacture of advanced technology jet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhas, B. K.; George, Chacko; Arul Raj, A.

    1987-10-01

    This paper highlights an attempt at evolving a computer aided manufacturing system on a personal computer. A case study of an advanced technology jet engine component is included to illustrate various outputs from the system. The proposed system could be an alternate solution to sophisticated and expensive CAD/CAM workstations.

  1. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  2. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized. PMID:22692621

  3. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit. PMID:25459375

  4. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1996-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: First, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities. PMID:9462062

  5. The Impact of Numerical Control Technology and Computer Aided Manufacturing on Curriculum Development in Industrial Education and Technology. A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Klaus Dieter

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of Numerical Control Technology and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (NC/CAM) in American industry on industrial education and engineering technology education. The specific purpose was to identify a data base and rationale for curriculum development in NC/CAM through a comparison of views by…

  6. Indications for Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing in Congenital Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Medina, Miguel; Bojovic, Branko; Ahn, Edward; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2016-09-01

    The complex three-dimensional relationships in congenital craniofacial reconstruction uniquely lend themselves to the ability to accurately plan and model the result provided by computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The goal of this study was to illustrate indications where CAD/CAM would be helpful in the treatment of congenital craniofacial anomalies reconstruction and to discuss the application of this technology and its outcomes. A retrospective review was performed of all congenital craniofacial cases performed by the senior author between 2010 and 2014. Cases where CAD/CAM was used were identified, and illustrative cases to demonstrate the benefits of CAD/CAM were selected. Preoperative appearance, computerized plan, intraoperative course, and final outcome were analyzed. Preoperative planning enabled efficient execution of the operative plan with predictable results. Risk factors which made these patients good candidates for CAD/CAM were identified and compiled. Several indications, including multisuture and revisional craniosynostosis, facial bipartition, four-wall box osteotomy, reduction cranioplasty, and distraction osteogenesis could benefit most from this technology. We illustrate the use of CAD/CAM for these applications and describe the decision-making process both before and during surgery. We explore why we believe that CAD/CAM is indicated in these scenarios as well as the disadvantages and risks. PMID:27516839

  7. Development of CAD/CAM software used in laser direct manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-shan; Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Jian-jun; Jin, Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a special CAD/CAM software for rapid manufacturing thin wall metal parts by laser cladding, which is based on the developing of AutoCAD. It mainly consists of solid modeling, layering and section data processing, NC code generation module, processing path simulating and data transferring module.

  8. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities. PMID:8032444

  9. Steam turbine generators -from NC manufacturing to CAD/CAM

    SciTech Connect

    Searle, D.R.; King, F.E.; Kiniskern, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    A program has been designed to integrate engineering, manufacturing, and business systems using a common data base. There has been a significant increase in benefits obtained by extending the automation of the design/drafting function to include manufacturing operations. This extension would have been difficult without the existence of highly developed family-of-parts NC programs. The integration concept has also been applied to turbine buckets and is being extended to other turning-generator components.

  10. FastCam optomechanical system design and manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murga, Gaizka; Sanquirce, Rubén; Campo, Ramón; Oscoz, Alex; López, Roberto; Rebolo, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    FastCam is an instrument jointly developed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT), designed to obtain high spatial resolution images in the optical wavelength range from ground-based telescopes (http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam and http://www.iac.es/telescopes/Manuales/manualfastcam.pdf). The instrument is equipped with a very low noise and very fast readout speed EMCCD camera which provides short exposure images to an FPGA-based processor which performs the selection, recenterg and combination of images in real-time (applying Lucky Imaging techniques) to provide diffraction limited resolution images in 1-4 m class telescopes from 500 to 1100 nm. IDOM has contributed to this new state-of-the-art instrument with the design of an optomechanical system conceived to maximize the image scale stability of the system for astrometry. The combination of aluminum plates, carbon fiber (CFRP) rods and stainless steel mounts in the optical bench defines an athermalized and stiff design to meet the requirements of thermal and mechanical stability. This work has been done with the support of the Aerospace Subprogramme of the Spanish Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI) and the INTEK programme of the Basque Development Agency (SPRI).

  11. CAD/CAM software for an industrial laser manufacturing tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassen Boehlen, Ines; Fieret, Jim; Holmes, Andrew S.; Lee, Kin W.

    2003-07-01

    A facility for rapid prototyping of MEMS devices is crucial for the development of novel miniaturized components in all sectors of high-tech industry, e.g. telecommunications, information technology, micro-optics and aerospace. To overcome the disadvantages of existing techniques in terms of cost and flexibility, a new approach has been taken to provide a tool for rapid prototyping and small-scale production: Complex CAD/CAM software has been developed that automatically generates the tool paths according to a CAD drawing of the MEMS device. As laser ablation is a much more complicated process than mechanical machining, for which such software has already been in use for many years, the generation of these tool paths relies not only on geometric considerations, but also on a sophisticated simulation module taking into account various material and laser parameters and micro-effects. The following laser machining options have been implemented: cutting, hole drilling, slot cutting, 2D area clearing, pocketing and 2½D surface machining. Once the tool paths are available, a post processor translates this information into CNC commands that control a scanner head. This scanner head then guides the beam of a UV solid-state laser to machine the desired structure by direct laser ablation.

  12. Integrated CAD/CAM/CNC system based on STEP-NC and intelligent manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Tian, Xitian; Zhang, Zhenming; Xu, Jianxin; Zhu, Mingquan

    2005-12-01

    In order to realize bi-direction exchange of information and knowledge sharing between CAD/CAM systems and CNC machines, a method of information integration was proposed based on process data model and STEP-NC neutral file. A frame of integrated CAD/CAM/CNC systems was established, and the key integration techniques including process data modeling based on XML form and automatic feature recognition were studied. Since the STEP-NC based CNC (STEP- CNC) system can undertake various intelligent functions that cannot be performed by the conventional CNC based on ISO 6983, the intelligent manufacturing functions of STEP- CNC system was also discussed. The presented methodology combining with the modern net and communication technologies provides an effective means for developing intelligent, integrated manufacturing systems for the 21 century.

  13. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance. PMID:25683749

  14. Career Focus: CAD/CAM. A New Dimension in Design and Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Many a great idea has first taken shape as a simple drawing sketched by hand on a piece of paper, but in an increasingly high-tech world, such drawings are more often being created--or at the very least perfected--with the aid of a computer. And in today's highly automated workplace, manufacturing a finished product from that great idea will…

  15. Effects of Computer-Aided Manufacturing Technology on Precision of Clinical Metal-Free Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ki-Hong; Yeo, In-Sung; Wu, Benjamin M.; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kwon, Taek-Ka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the marginal fit of metal-free crowns made by three different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems. Materials and Methods. The maxillary left first premolar of a dentiform was prepared for all-ceramic crown restoration. Thirty all-ceramic premolar crowns were made, ten each manufactured by the Lava system, Cercon, and Cerec. Ten metal ceramic gold (MCG) crowns served as control. The marginal gap of each sample was measured under a stereoscopic microscope at 75x magnification after cementation. One-way ANOVA and the Duncan's post hoc test were used for data analysis at the significance level of 0.05. Results. The mean (standard deviation) marginal gaps were 70.5 (34.4) μm for the MCG crowns, 87.2 (22.8) μm for Lava, 58.5 (17.6) μm for Cercon, and 72.3 (30.8) μm for Cerec. There were no significant differences in the marginal fit among the groups except that the Cercon crowns had significantly smaller marginal gaps than the Lava crowns (P < 0.001).  Conclusions. Within the limitation of this study, all the metal-free restorations made by the digital CAD/CAM systems had clinically acceptable marginal accuracy. PMID:26557681

  16. Shape Optimization for Additive Manufacturing of Removable Partial Dentures--A New Paradigm for Prosthetic CAD/CAM.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Suenaga, Hanako; Li, Wei; Sasaki, Keiichi; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With ever-growing aging population and demand for denture treatments, pressure-induced mucosa lesion and residual ridge resorption remain main sources of clinical complications. Conventional denture design and fabrication are challenged for its labor and experience intensity, urgently necessitating an automatic procedure. This study aims to develop a fully automatic procedure enabling shape optimization and additive manufacturing of removable partial dentures (RPD), to maximize the uniformity of contact pressure distribution on the mucosa, thereby reducing associated clinical complications. A 3D heterogeneous finite element (FE) model was constructed from CT scan, and the critical tissue of mucosa was modeled as a hyperelastic material from in vivo clinical data. A contact shape optimization algorithm was developed based on the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) technique. Both initial and optimized dentures were prototyped by 3D printing technology and evaluated with in vitro tests. Through the optimization, the peak contact pressure was reduced by 70%, and the uniformity was improved by 63%. In vitro tests verified the effectiveness of this procedure, and the hydrostatic pressure induced in the mucosa is well below clinical pressure-pain thresholds (PPT), potentially lessening risk of residual ridge resorption. This proposed computational optimization and additive fabrication procedure provides a novel method for fast denture design and adjustment at low cost, with quantitative guidelines and computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for a specific patient. The integration of digitalized modeling, computational optimization, and free-form fabrication enables more efficient clinical adaptation. The customized optimal denture design is expected to minimize pain/discomfort and potentially reduce long-term residual ridge resorption. PMID:26161878

  17. Shape Optimization for Additive Manufacturing of Removable Partial Dentures - A New Paradigm for Prosthetic CAD/CAM

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    With ever-growing aging population and demand for denture treatments, pressure-induced mucosa lesion and residual ridge resorption remain main sources of clinical complications. Conventional denture design and fabrication are challenged for its labor and experience intensity, urgently necessitating an automatic procedure. This study aims to develop a fully automatic procedure enabling shape optimization and additive manufacturing of removable partial dentures (RPD), to maximize the uniformity of contact pressure distribution on the mucosa, thereby reducing associated clinical complications. A 3D heterogeneous finite element (FE) model was constructed from CT scan, and the critical tissue of mucosa was modeled as a hyperelastic material from in vivo clinical data. A contact shape optimization algorithm was developed based on the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) technique. Both initial and optimized dentures were prototyped by 3D printing technology and evaluated with in vitro tests. Through the optimization, the peak contact pressure was reduced by 70%, and the uniformity was improved by 63%. In vitro tests verified the effectiveness of this procedure, and the hydrostatic pressure induced in the mucosa is well below clinical pressure-pain thresholds (PPT), potentially lessening risk of residual ridge resorption. This proposed computational optimization and additive fabrication procedure provides a novel method for fast denture design and adjustment at low cost, with quantitative guidelines and computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for a specific patient. The integration of digitalized modeling, computational optimization, and free-form fabrication enables more efficient clinical adaptation. The customized optimal denture design is expected to minimize pain/discomfort and potentially reduce long-term residual ridge resorption. PMID:26161878

  18. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; van Noort, Ric; Apresyan, Samvel; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT) images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26064701

  19. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; Zecca, Piero Antonio; van Noort, Ric; Apresyan, Samvel; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo; Mangano, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT) images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26064701

  20. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  1. Some Workplace Effects of CAD and CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Karl-H.; Ulrich, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) on employment, work organization, working conditions, job content, training, and industrial relations in several countries. Finds little evidence of negative employment effects since productivity gains are offset by various compensatory factors. (Author/CH)

  2. Use of the surface-based registration function of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing software in medical simulation software for three-dimensional simulation of orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Moon-Key

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography image models are helpful in reproducing the maxillofacial area; however, they do not necessarily provide an accurate representation of dental occlusion and the state of the teeth. Recent efforts have focused on improvement of dental imaging by replacement of computed tomography with other detailed digital images. Unfortunately, despite the advantages of medical simulation software in dentofacial analysis, diagnosis, and surgical simulation, it lacks adequate registration tools. Following up on our previous report on orthognathic simulation surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software, we recently used the registration functions of a CAD/CAM platform in conjunction with surgical simulation software. Therefore, we would like to introduce a new technique, which involves use of the registration functions of CAD/CAM software followed by transfer of the images into medical simulation software. This technique may be applicable when using various registration function tools from different software platforms. PMID:24471043

  3. Use of the surface-based registration function of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing software in medical simulation software for three-dimensional simulation of orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Moon-Key

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography image models are helpful in reproducing the maxillofacial area; however, they do not necessarily provide an accurate representation of dental occlusion and the state of the teeth. Recent efforts have focused on improvement of dental imaging by replacement of computed tomography with other detailed digital images. Unfortunately, despite the advantages of medical simulation software in dentofacial analysis, diagnosis, and surgical simulation, it lacks adequate registration tools. Following up on our previous report on orthognathic simulation surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software, we recently used the registration functions of a CAD/CAM platform in conjunction with surgical simulation software. Therefore, we would like to introduce a new technique, which involves use of the registration functions of CAD/CAM software followed by transfer of the images into medical simulation software. This technique may be applicable when using various registration function tools from different software platforms. PMID:24471043

  4. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  5. National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farzin

    The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

  6. CAD/CAM/CAE reshapes engineering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwinski, Thomas A.

    1993-06-01

    A development history and development trends evaluation is undertaken for computer-aided design/manufacturing/engineering techniques. Attention is drawn to the failure of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification for standardized transfer of CAD/CAM data among different data bases to support information concerning solids; it is anticipated that the ability to transfer data transparently among CAD/CAM systems will result in major savings to all users, but this directly impinges on company relations.

  7. Complete denture fabrication with CAD/CAM record bases.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, J Bryan; Ramos, Van

    2015-10-01

    One of the primary goals of new materials and processes for complete denture fabrication has been to reduce polymerization shrinkage. The introduction of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture fabrication has eliminated polymerization shrinkage in the definitive denture. The use of CAD/CAM record bases for complete denture fabrication can provide a better-fitting denture with fewer postprocessing occlusal errors. PMID:26139040

  8. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  9. The ergonomics of computer aided design within advanced manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    John, P A

    1988-03-01

    Many manufacturing companies have now awakened to the significance of computer aided design (CAD), although the majority of them have only been able to purchase computerised draughting systems of which only a subset produce direct manufacturing data. Such companies are moving steadily towards the concept of computer integrated manufacture (CIM), and this demands CAD to address more than draughting. CAD architects are thus having to rethink the basic specification of such systems, although they typically suffer from an insufficient understanding of the design task and have consequently been working with inadequate specifications. It is at this fundamental level that ergonomics has much to offer, making its contribution by encouraging user-centred design. The discussion considers the relationships between CAD and: the design task; the organisation and people; creativity; and artificial intelligence. It finishes with a summary of the contribution of ergonomics. PMID:15676646

  10. CAD/CAM systems in machine construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig, H.-E.; Paulus, M.

    1985-09-01

    A description is provided of the present status of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology, taking into account applications, and risks related to the introduction and employment of CAD/CAM methods. The employment of CAD/CAM systems in the area of machine construction is discussed, giving attention to the situation in West Germany. With respect to the system component 'hardware', the transition to a new hardware generation is taking place. In addition to computer centers with large-scale computers, minicomputers and superminicomputers, designed especially for technical applications, have become available. However, existing CAD software does not yet permit the full exploitation of the changes in hardware technology. Attention is given to CAD potential and current utilization in various application areas, developments related to graphics and geometry, advantages of a suitable macro language, the current employment of CAD/CAM technology, and cost considerations.

  11. Computer-Assisted Mandibular Reconstruction using a Patient-Specific Reconstruction Plate Fabricated with Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Frank; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Schramm, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the workflow of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction that was performed with a patient-specific mandibular reconstruction plate fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques and a fibula flap. We assessed the feasibility of this technique from virtual planning to the completion of surgery. Computed tomography (CT) scans of a cadaveric skull and fibula were obtained for the virtual simulation of mandibular resection and reconstruction using ProPlan CMF software (Materialise®/DePuy Synthes®). The virtual model of the reconstructed mandible provided the basis for the computer-aided design of a patient-specific reconstruction plate that was milled from titanium using a five-axis milling machine and CAM techniques. CAD/CAM techniques were used for producing resection guides for mandibular resection and cutting guides for harvesting a fibula flap. Mandibular reconstruction was simulated in a cadaveric wet laboratory. No problems were encountered during the procedure. The plate was fixed accurately to the residual bone without difficulty. The fibula segments were attached to the plate rapidly and reliably. The fusion of preoperative and postoperative CT datasets demonstrated high reconstruction precision. Computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction with CAD/CAM-fabricated patient-specific reconstruction plates appears to be a promising approach for mandibular reconstruction. Clinical trials are required to determine whether these promising results can be translated into successful practice and what further developments are needed. PMID:25045420

  12. Computer-Assisted Mandibular Reconstruction using a Patient-Specific Reconstruction Plate Fabricated with Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Frank; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Schramm, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the workflow of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction that was performed with a patient-specific mandibular reconstruction plate fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques and a fibula flap. We assessed the feasibility of this technique from virtual planning to the completion of surgery. Computed tomography (CT) scans of a cadaveric skull and fibula were obtained for the virtual simulation of mandibular resection and reconstruction using ProPlan CMF software (Materialise(®)/DePuy Synthes(®)). The virtual model of the reconstructed mandible provided the basis for the computer-aided design of a patient-specific reconstruction plate that was milled from titanium using a five-axis milling machine and CAM techniques. CAD/CAM techniques were used for producing resection guides for mandibular resection and cutting guides for harvesting a fibula flap. Mandibular reconstruction was simulated in a cadaveric wet laboratory. No problems were encountered during the procedure. The plate was fixed accurately to the residual bone without difficulty. The fibula segments were attached to the plate rapidly and reliably. The fusion of preoperative and postoperative CT datasets demonstrated high reconstruction precision. Computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction with CAD/CAM-fabricated patient-specific reconstruction plates appears to be a promising approach for mandibular reconstruction. Clinical trials are required to determine whether these promising results can be translated into successful practice and what further developments are needed. PMID:25045420

  13. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  14. Fatigue analysis of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing resin-based composite vs. lithium disilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ankyu, Shuhei; Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, Akio; Hong, Guang; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Örtengren, Ulf; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Resin-based composite molar crowns made by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have been proposed as an inexpensive alternative to metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding fatigue resistance. This study aimed to analyze the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin-based composite compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. One-hundred and sixty bar-shaped specimens were fabricated using resin-based composite blocks [Lava Ultimate (LU); 3M/ESPE] and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max press (EMP); Ivoclar/Vivadent]. The specimens were divided into four groups: no treatment (NT); thermal cycling (TC); mechanical cycling (MC); and thermal cycling followed by mechanical cycling (TCMC). Thermal cycling was performed by alternate immersion in water baths of 5°C and 55°C for 5 × 10(4) cycles. Mechanical cycling was performed in a three-point bending test, with a maximum load of 40 N, for 1.2 × 10(6) cycles. In addition, LU and EMP molar crowns were fabricated and subjected to fatigue treatments followed by load-to-failure testing. The flexural strength of LU was not severely reduced by the fatigue treatments. The fatigue treatments did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of LU molar crowns. The results demonstrate the potential of clinical application of CAD/CAM-generated resin-based composite molar crowns in terms of fatigue resistance. PMID:27203408

  15. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  16. Effect of different adhesive strategies on microtensile bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing blocks bonded to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Lang, Lisa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Teich, Sorin; Porto, Thiago Soares

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of ceramic and composite computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks bonded to dentin using different adhesive strategies. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 crowns of sound freshly extracted human molars were sectioned horizontally 3 mm above the cementoenamel junction to produce flat dentin surfaces. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks, size 14, were sectioned into slices of 3 mm thick. Before bonding, CAD/CAM block surfaces were treated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Groups were created based on the adhesive strategy used: Group 1 (GI) - conventional resin cement + total-etch adhesive system, Group 2 (GII) - conventional resin cement + self-etch adhesive system, and Group 3 (GIII) - self-adhesive resin cement with no adhesive. Bonded specimens were stored in 100% humidity for 24h at 37΀C, and then sectioned with a slow-speed diamond saw to obtain 1 mm × 1 mm × 6 mm microsticks. Microtensile testing was then conducted using a microtensile tester. μTBS values were expressed in MPa and analyzed by one-way ANOVA with post hoc (Tukey) test at the 5% significance level. Results: Mean values and standard deviations of μTBS (MPa) were 17.68 (±2.71) for GI/ceramic; 17.62 (±3.99) for GI/composite; 13.61 (±6.92) for GII/composite; 12.22 (±4.24) for GII/ceramic; 7.47 (±2.29) for GIII/composite; and 6.48 (±3.10) for GIII/ceramic; ANOVA indicated significant differences among the adhesive modality and block interaction (P < 0.05), and no significant differences among blocks only, except between GI and GII/ceramic. Bond strength of GIII was consistently lower (P < 0.05) than GI and GII groups, regardless the block used. Conclusion: Cementation of CAD/CAM restorations, either composite or ceramic, can be significantly affected by different adhesive strategies used. PMID:27076825

  17. Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam: An aid for research and teaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wise, S.W.; Olney, M.; Covington, J.M.; Egerton, V.M.; Jiang, S.; Ramdeen, D.K.; Kulhanek S.; Schrader, H.; Sims, P.A.; Wood, A.S.; Davis, A.; Davenport, D.R.; Doepler, N.; Falcon, W.; Lopez, C.; Pressley, T.; Swedberg, O.L.; Harwood, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam© is an interactive, icon-driven digital-image database/software package that displays over 500 illustrated Cenozoic Antarctic diatom taxa along with original descriptions (including over 100 generic and 20 family-group descriptions). This digital catalog is designed primarily for use by micropaleontologists working in the field (at sea or on the Antarctic continent) where hard-copy literature resources are limited. This new package will also be useful for classroom/lab teaching as well as for any paleontologists making or refining taxonomic identifications at the microscope. The database (Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare) is displayed via a custom software program (BugCam) written in Visual Basic for use on PCs running Windows 95 or later operating systems. BugCam is a flexible image display program that utilizes an intuitive thumbnail “tree” structure for navigation through the database. The data are stored on Micrsosoft EXCEL spread sheets, hence no separate relational database program is necessary to run the package

  18. CAD-CAM at Bendix Kansas city: the BICAM system

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Bendix Kansas City Division (BEKC) has been involved in Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology since the late 1950's when the numerical control (N/C) analysts installed computers to aid in N/C tape preparation for numerically controlled machines. Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology was introduced in 1976, when a number of 2D turnkey drafting stations were procured for printed wiring board (PWB) drawing definition and maintenance. In June, 1980, CAD-CAM Operations was formed to incorporate an integrated CAD-CAM capability into Bendix operations. In March 1982, a ninth division was added to the existing eight divisions at Bendix. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is a small organization, reporting directly to the general manager, who has responsibility to coordinate the overall integration of computer aided systems at Bendix. As a long range plan, CIM has adopted a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) architecture titled Factory of the Future. Conceptually, the Bendix CAD-CAM system has a centrally located data base which can be accessed by both CAD and CAM tools, processes, and personnel thus forming an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) System. This is a key requirement of the Bendix CAD-CAM system that will be presented in more detail.

  19. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    PubMed

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. PMID:25344335

  20. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. PMID:25344335

  1. Productivity improvements through the use of CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrman, M. D.

    This paper focuses on Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) productivity improvements that occurred in the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company (BCAC) between 1979 and 1983, with a look at future direction. Since the introduction of numerically controlled machinery in the 1950s, a wide range of engineering and manufacturing applications has evolved. The main portion of this paper includes a summarized and illustrated cross-section of these applications, touching on benefits such as reduced tooling, shortened flow time, increased accuracy, and reduced labor hours. The current CAD/CAM integration activity, directed toward capitalizing on this productivity in the future, is addressed.

  2. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology. PMID:25911827

  3. Influence of different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing resin nanoceramic material to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Pigozzo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin nanoceramic (RNC) material to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 disks were milled from RNC blocks (Lava Ultimate/3M ESPE) with CAD/CAM technology. The disks were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 recently extracted bovine permanent mandibular incisors. The specimens were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, disks were cemented using a total-etch protocol (Scotchbond™ Universal Etchant phosphoric acid + Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 2, disks were cemented using a self-etch protocol (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 3, disks were cemented using a self-adhesive protocol (RelyX™ Unicem 2 Automix self-adhesive resin cement). All cemented specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Instron Universal Testing Machine 3343) and submitted to a shear bond strength test to check the strength of adhesion between the two substrates, dentin, and RNC disks. Specimens were stressed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's test at a level of significance of 0.05. Results: Post-hoc Tukey testing showed that the highest shear strength values (P < 0.001) were reported in Group 2. The lowest data (P < 0.001) were recorded in Group 3. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, conventional resin cements (coupled with etch and rinse or self-etch adhesives) showed better shear strength values compared to self-adhesive resin cements. Furthermore, conventional resin cements used together with a self-etch adhesive reported the highest values of adhesion. PMID:27076822

  4. CAD/CAM improves productivity in nonaerospace job shops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, D. T.

    1982-12-01

    Business cost improvements that can result from Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), when properly applied, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the use of CAD/CAM for machine and process control, design and planning control, and production and measurement control. It is pointed out that the implementation of CAD/CAM should be based on the following priorities: (1) recognize interrelationships between the principal functions of CAD/CAM; (2) establish a Systems Council to determine overall strategy and specify the communications/decision-making system; (3) implement the communications/decision-making system to improve productivity; and (4) implement interactive graphics and other additions to further improve productivity.

  5. An accelerated technique for a ceramic-pressed-to-metal restoration with CAD/CAM technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hyoung

    2014-11-01

    The conventional fabrication of metal ceramic restorations depends on an experienced dental technician and requires a long processing time. However, complete-contour digital waxing and digital cutback with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can overcome these disadvantages and provide a correct metal framework design and space for the ceramic material. PMID:24952883

  6. Challenges facing developers of CAD/CAM models that seek to predict human working postures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiker, Steven F.

    2005-11-01

    This paper outlines the need for development of human posture prediction models for Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) design applications in product, facility and work design. Challenges facing developers of posture prediction algorithms are presented and discussed.

  7. CAD/CAM at a Distance: Assessing the Effectiveness of Web-Based Instruction To Meet Workforce Development Needs. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Joyce A.; Elkins, Susan A.

    This qualitative case study assessed web-based instruction in a computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) course designed for workforce development. The study examined students' and instructors' experience in a CAD/CAM course delivered exclusively on the Internet, evaluating course content and delivery, clarity of…

  8. Complete denture fabrication supported by CAD/CAM.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Timea; Gallus, Korbinian; Eichberger, Marlis; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-05-01

    The inclusion of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture fabrication facilitates the procedures. The presented workflow for complete denture fabrication combines conventional and digitally supported treatment steps for improving dental care. With the presented technique, the registration of the occlusal plane, the determination of the ideal lip support, and the verification of the maxillomandibular relationship record are considered. PMID:26774323

  9. 76 FR 77585 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Lighting and Navigation Aid Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) must meet the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 50101, Buy American Preferences. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is considering issuing waivers to foreign manufacturers of certain airport lighting and navigation aid equipment that is lit with Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting. This notice requests information from manufacturers of......

  10. Computer-aided design and manufacturing and rapid prototyped nanoscale hydroxyapatite/polyamide (n-HA/PA) construction for condylar defect caused by mandibular angle ostectomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihua; Hsu, Yuchun; Luo, En; Khadka, Ashish; Hu, Jing

    2011-08-01

    The fracture or defect of the mandibular condyle is one of the serious complications during angle-reduction ostectomy. Reconstruction of such defects also is a daunting task. The case report describes a method based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and rapid prototyping nanoscale hydroxyapatite/polyamide (n-HA/PA) for individual design, fabrication, and implantation of a mandibular condyle. A 27-year-old woman with a square-shaped face who had previously undergone mandibular angle reduction reported with malocclusion, deviated mouth, collapse of the right side of the face, and masticatory problems. The reason for the problems was the unintended removal of the condyle during the ostectomy procedure. Using computed tomography (CT) data, a biomimetic n-HA/PA scaffold, and CAD/CAM for rapid prototyping by three-dimensional (3D) printing, a perfect-fitting condylar implant was fabricated. A surgical guide system also was developed to reproduce the procedures accurately so a perfect fit could be obtained during surgery. The patient ultimately regained reasonable jaw contour and appearance, as well as appreciable temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function. PMID:20972567

  11. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system. PMID:22038364

  12. CAM microkernels

    2009-02-09

    This is a set of microbernels based on the finite-volume dynamics of the Community Atmosphere Models (CAM) version 3.1.p2. Information on CAM can be found at the website: http://www.ccsm.uca.edu.models/atm-cam. CAM consists of public domain software with certain exceptions as outlind on the above website. The microkernles herein are based solely on the public domain portions of CAM and originat from code specifically in the directory: models/atm/cam/src/fv.

  13. Complete-mouth rehabilitation using a 3D printing technique and the CAD/CAM double scanning method: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Joo, Han-Sung; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2016-07-01

    According to evolving computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, ceramic materials such as zirconia can be used to create fixed dental prostheses for partial removable dental prostheses. Since 3D printing technology was introduced a few years ago, dental applications of this technique have gradually increased. This clinical report presents a complete-mouth rehabilitation using 3D printing and the CAD/CAM double-scanning method. PMID:26946918

  14. Increasing the economy of design and preparation for manufacturing by integrated and graphic data processing: CAD/CAM - Phase III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupe, U.

    1986-04-01

    The development of CAD/CAM techniques and equipment for aircraft production at Dornier and MBB during the period 1983-1986 is reviewed. The topics discussed include geometry processing, structural mechanics, design of fabrication equipment, NC techniques, production planning, and processing of production orders. Consideration is given to the increased use of color graphics, the change from vector to scanning screens, and software-related problems encountered in shifting functions from the mainframe computer to terminals.

  15. Computers in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-02-01

    CAD/CAM advances and applications for enhancing productivity in industry are explored. Wide-spread use of CAD/CAM devices are projected to occur by the time period 1992-1997, resulting in a higher percentage of technicians in the manufacturing process, while the cost of computers and software will continue to fall and become more widely available. Computer aided design is becoming a commercially viable system for design and geometric modeling, engineering analysis, kinematics, and drafting, and efforts to bridge the gap between CAD and CAM are indicated, with particular attention given to layering, wherein individual monitoring of different parts of the manufacturing process can be effected without crossover of unnecessary information. The potentials and barriers to the use of robotics are described, with the added optimism that displaced workers to date have moved up to jobs of higher skill and interest.

  16. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  17. Trends in Computer-Aided Manufacturing in Prosthodontics: A Review of the Available Streams

    PubMed Central

    Bennamoun, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In prosthodontics, conventional methods of fabrication of oral and facial prostheses have been considered the gold standard for many years. The development of computer-aided manufacturing and the medical application of this industrial technology have provided an alternative way of fabricating oral and facial prostheses. This narrative review aims to evaluate the different streams of computer-aided manufacturing in prosthodontics. To date, there are two streams: the subtractive and the additive approaches. The differences reside in the processing protocols, materials used, and their respective accuracy. In general, there is a tendency for the subtractive method to provide more homogeneous objects with acceptable accuracy that may be more suitable for the production of intraoral prostheses where high occlusal forces are anticipated. Additive manufacturing methods have the ability to produce large workpieces with significant surface variation and competitive accuracy. Such advantages make them ideal for the fabrication of facial prostheses. PMID:24817888

  18. Extending Engineering Design Graphics Laboratories to Have a CAD/CAM Component: Implementation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juricic, Davor; Barr, Ronald E.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a project that extended the Engineering Design Graphics curriculum to include instruction and laboratory experience in computer-aided design, analysis, and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Discusses issues in project implementation, including introduction of finite element analysis to lower-division students, feasibility of classroom prototype…

  19. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials. PMID:26110926

  20. Surface Modeling, Solid Modeling and Finite Element Modeling. Analysis Capabilities of Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, John G.; Kare, Audhut P.

    1987-01-01

    Explores several concepts in computer assisted design/computer assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Defines, evaluates, reviews and compares advanced computer-aided geometric modeling and analysis techniques. Presents the results of a survey to establish the capabilities of minicomputer based-systems with the CAD/CAM packages evaluated. (CW)

  1. Integration of computer-aided design and manufacturing through artificial-intelligence-based process planning

    SciTech Connect

    Arunthavanathan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The research effort reported in this thesis is directed towards the integration of design, process planning, and manufacturing. The principal notion used in system integration through information integration. The main outcome of this research effort is an artificial-intelligence-based computer-aided generative process planning system, which would use a feature-based symbolic geometry as its input. The feature-based symbolic data structure is used as the common data between design, process planning, and manufacturing. As the commercial computer-aided design systems would not generate a feature-based data base, special interfaces are designed and used. As part of the solution strategy, a module to analyze the symbolic geometry from a global perspective is developed. This module imitates a human process planner and derives some overall assertions. The enhanced geometry data is then used by a rule-based expert system to develop the process plan.

  2. Manufacturing information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

    1983-12-01

    The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

  3. CAD/CAM Helps Build Better Bots: High-Tech Design and Manufacture Draws Engineering-Oriented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Name, Barry

    2012-01-01

    There is a battlefield where no quarter is given, no mercy shown, but not a single drop of blood is spilled. It is an arena that witnesses the bringing together of high-tech design and manufacture with the outpouring of brute force, under the remotely accessed command of some of today's brightest students. This is the world of battling robots, or…

  4. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Melchels, Ferry; Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Warne, David; Barry, Mark; Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten

    2011-09-01

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate. PMID:21900731

  5. Implant-supported overdenture manufactured using CAD/CAM techniques to achieve horizontal path insertion between the primary and secondary structure: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gomar-Vercher, Sonia; Ferreiroa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the case of an edentulous patient with an atrophic maxilla and severe class III malocclusion. Prosthetic rehabilitation was performed using CAD/CAM techniques for manufacturing an implant-supported overdenture with horizontal insertion. A vestibulo-lingual insertion overdenture is a precision prosthesis with a fixation system affording a good fit between the primary and secondary structure. Both structures exhibit passive horizontal adjustment. This treatment option requires the same number of implants as implant-supported fixed dentures. The horizontal assembly system prevents the prosthesis from loosening or moving in response to axial and non-axial forces. The technique was used to rehabilitate a patient presenting an atrophic upper maxilla, with the insertion of 8 implants. No complications were reported at follow-up 3, 6 and 12 months after fitting of the prosthesis. This system offers solutions to the clinical and laboratory complications associated with hybrid prostheses, concealing emergence of the chimneys and improving implant-prosthesis hygiene. PMID:26140179

  6. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  7. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy. PMID:26734668

  8. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication. PMID:23690778

  9. Prosthetic rehabilitation with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing dental technology for a patient with a mandibulectomy: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of dental prostheses with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing shows acceptable marginal fits and favorable treatment outcomes. This clinical report describes the management of a patient who had undergone a mandibulectomy and received an implant-supported fixed prosthesis by using additive manufacturing for the framework and subtractive manufacturing for the monolithic zirconia restorations. PMID:26518985

  10. Reconstruction of a maxillary defect with a fibula graft and titanium mesh using CAD/CAM techniques.

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of maxillary and orbital floor reconstruction with a microvascular fibula graft and an individualized titanium mesh. Both were planned virtually; templates were made by rapid prototyping. The postoperative computertomography scans showed that the planned positions were achieved correctly. This case report illustrates maxillary reconstruction performed with a special template technique and demonstrates the possibilities of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) applications in reconstructive surgery. PMID:20642821

  11. Development of personalized annuloplasty rings: combination of CT images and CAD-CAM tools.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Valle-Fernández, Raquel Del; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Muñoz-García, Julio; Muñoz Sanz, José Luis; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan Manuel; Otero, Javier Echávarri

    2010-02-01

    Although the use of personalized annuloplasty rings manufactured for each patient according to the size and morphology of their valve complex could be beneficial for the treatment of mitral insufficiency, this possibility has been limited for reasons of time-lines and costs as well as for design and manufacturing difficulties, as has been the case with other personalized implant and prosthetic developments. However, the present quality of medical image capture equipment together with the benefits to be had from computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) and the capabilities furnished by rapid prototyping technologies, present new opportunities for a personalized response to the development of implants and prostheses, the social impact of which could turn out to be highly positive. This paper sets out a personalized development of an annuloplasty ring based on the combined use of information from medical imaging, from CAD-CAM design programs and prototype manufacture using rapid prototyping technologies. PMID:19826955

  12. Computer aided design and manufacturing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.; Downey, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the propulsion concepts being investigated for future cruise missiles is advanced unducted propfans. To support the evaluation of this technology applied to the cruise missile, a joint DOD and NASA test project was conducted to design and then test the characteristics of the propfans on a 0.55-scale, cruise missile model in a NASA wind tunnel. The configuration selected for study is a counterrotating rearward swept propfan. The forward blade row, having six blades, rotates in a counterclockwise direction, and the aft blade row, having six blades, rotates in a clockwise direction, as viewed from aft of the test model. Figures show the overall cruise missile and propfan blade configurations. The objective of this test was to evaluate propfan performance and suitability as a viable propulsion option for next generation of cruise missiles. This paper details the concurrent computer aided design, engineering, and manufacturing of the carbon fiber/epoxy propfan blades as the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  13. Facility management of computer-aided design, drafting/manufacturing systems (CADD/M)

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing systems have been installed in thousands of companies, applying CADD/M capabilities to many applications. This has been done with varying degrees of success even among companies with identical applications. Investigation of individual companies reveals a gap between the capabilities of CADD/M systems and the actual usage by industry of those capabilities. This company usage often determines the degree of success or failure of an interactive graphics facility and is largely controlled by management. The responsibilities of the interactive graphics facility managemant team are explained in detail. Proper management of a CADD/M facility is more critical to the success or failure of the facility than any other factor.

  14. Cost justification for an interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Many factors influence the capital investment decision. System costs and benefits are weighed by methods of financial analysis to determine the advisability of an investment. Capital, expense, and benefits as related to Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) Systems are discussed and model calculations are included. An example is treated by the simple payback method and the more sophisticated methods of Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The NPV and IRR approaches include in the calculation the time value of money and provide a sounder foundation on which to base the purchase decision. It is hoped that an understanding of these techniques by technical personnel will make an optimum system purchase more likely.

  15. Computer-Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/M) for high-speed interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoski, N. F.

    1981-10-01

    The objective of the Computer-Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/M) for High-Speed Interconnect Program study was to assess techniques for design, analysis and fabrication of interconnect structures between high-speed logic ICs that are clocked in the 200 MHz to 5 GHz range. Interconnect structure models were investigated and integrated with existing device models. Design rules for interconnects were developed in terms of parameters that can be installed in software that is used for the design, analysis and fabrication of circuits. To implement these design rules in future software development, algorithms and software development techniques were defined. Major emphasis was on Printed Wiring Board and hybrid level circuits as opposed to monolithic chips. Various packaging schemes were considered, including controlled impedance lines in the 50 to 200 ohms range where needed. The design rules developed are generic in nature, in that various architecture classes and device technologies were considered.

  16. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance. PMID:27516841

  17. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  18. Education and Training Packages for CAD/CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, I. C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses educational efforts in the fields of Computer Assisted Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Describes two educational training initiatives underway in the United Kingdom, one of which is a resource materials package for teachers of CAD/CAM at the undergraduate level, and the other a training course for managers of CAD/CAM systems. (TW)

  19. Computer-aided design drafting/manufacturing (CADD/M) facility preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Computer-Aided Design, Drafting and Manufacturing (CADD/M) equipment requires careful facilities preparation before installation takes place. This paper presents what a company should consider to ensure a proper installation. This includes consideration of working conditions. To get the most out of the system, the operators must be provided with a relaxed, comfortable environment, free from noise and other distractions. Such things as temperature requirements, lighting, power, security and fire protection are discussed. Also, future expansion needs are considered so that major construction will not be required for future years. Advanced planning in these areas is needed to ensure successful implementation of a CADD/M system. This will lead to considerable cost savings, and in the long run, improve the scheduling for an entire project, from initial design to final production. This careful preparation will minimize unplanned events and problem areas. These are ambitious goals but easily realized if a logical and rational plan is adopted in the same manner as that used in a typical development program.

  20. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  1. Web-based CAD and CAM for optomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Min; Zhou, Hai-Guang

    2001-10-01

    CAD & CAM technologies are being used in design and manufacturing process, and are receiving increasing attention from industries and education. We have been researching to develop a new kind of software that is for web-course CAD & CAM. It can be used either in industries or in training, it is supported by IE. Firstly, we aim at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. That is a new kind of software in China. Secondly, we have developed a kind of software for web-course CAD & CAM, we introduce the basis of CAD, the commands of CAD, the programming, CAD/CAM for optomechatronics, the joint application of CAD & CAM. We introduce the functions of MasterCAM, show the whole processes of CAD/CAM/CNC by examples. Following the steps showed on the web, the trainer can not miss. CAD & CAM are widely used in many areas, development of web-course CAD & CAM is necessary for long- distance education and public education. In 1992, China raised: CAD technique, as an important part of electronic technology, is a new key technique to improve the national economic and the modernization of national defence. As so for, the education. Of CAD & CAM is mainly involved in manufacturing industry in China. But with the rapidly development of new technology, especially the development of optics and electronics, CAD & CAM will receive more attention from those areas.

  2. Development of intelligent CAD/CAM systems for progressive dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyin; Xiao, Xia; Li, Jianjun

    1995-08-01

    This paper focuses on the fundamental issues related to the development of intelligent CAD/CAM systems for progressive dies which are used for manufacturing sheet metal parts in mass production. The CAD/CAM functions for sheet metal product design and those for design and manufacture of progressive dies are defined by studying the sheet-metal-product life cycle. The procedures of industrial design and manufacture of progressive dies are reviewed, and the need for intelligent CAD/CAM systems identified. The platforms, environment, and key technologies for the systems design and implementation are discussed. Finally, a prototype CAD/CAM system for progressive dies is introduced.

  3. CAD/CAM complete dentures: a review of two commercial fabrication systems.

    PubMed

    Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Goodacre, Charles J; Baba, Nadim Z

    2013-06-01

    The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has become available for complete dentures through the AvaDent and Dentca systems. AvaDent uses laser scanning and computer technology. Teeth are arranged and bases formed using proprietary software.The bases are milled from prepolymerized pucks of resin. Dentca uses computer software to produce virtual maxillary and mandibular edentulous ridges, arrange the teeth and form bases. The dentures are fabricated using a conventional processing technique. PMID:23875432

  4. Selecting and implementing an interactive Computer Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Success with Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) depends upon management, users, and the system itself. If you are in a design and drafting environment, the thought of acquiring a CADD/M system will probably occur to you sometime in the very near future - if it hasn't already. Convincing yourself and your management of the benefits of such systems is but the first step. Evaluating and selecting one particular type of CADD/M system can turn out to be a complicated undertaking - not to mention somewhat frustrating. Procedures for selecting and successfully implementing a CADD/M system are outlined. INITIAL PREPARATION examines the techniques used to evaluate CADD/M systems including formation of an evaluation team, and application analysis. GRAPHICS EVALUATION describes the methods that can be used to test a CADD/M system, including benchmark drawings and specifications, human engineering considerations, and other evaluation criteria and general system configurations are also discussed. COMPUTER SYSTEM EVALUATION examines other factors in systems selection: programming, communications, documentation, and service. SYSTEM STARTUP addresses site preparation, people preparation, system acceptance, and operator, designer/drafter selection. Finally, operator, designer/drafter TRAINING and SYSTEM MANAGEMENT are discussed. This systematic approach wil help those contemplating the acquisition of CADD/M systems for their activities and will help minimize unplanned events and problem areas.Advanced planning in these areas is needed to ensure successful implementation of a CADD/M system. This in turn will lead to considerable cost savings and schedule improvements for an entire project, from initial design to final production. These are ambitious goals but easily realized if a logical and rational plan is adopted in the same manner as that used in a typical development program.

  5. Reliability of CAD CAM technology in assessing crown preparations in a preclinical dental school environment.

    PubMed

    Callan, Richard S; Blalock, John S; Cooper, Jeril R; Coleman, John F; Looney, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    In order to use CAD CAM (Computer Aided Design, Computer Aided Manufacturing) technology as an assessment tool when evaluating the preclinical performance of dental students, it is imperative that one has confidence in the reliability of the process. In this study, a variety of alignment methods were compared to determine both the consistency and accuracy of each method. Although the "Tooth Dots Diagonal" method exhibited the best precision (coefficient of variation=5.4 percent), it also represented the least accurate method when compared to the other methods tested. Using "Small Dots Diagonal" on the gingiva appears to be the best option, exhibiting an acceptable coefficient of variation (17.6 percent) and a high degree of accuracy in terms of tolerance (mean ± standard deviation=0.163 ± 0.029). Based on the results of this study, further investigation of CAD CAM technology for the purpose of assessment and education of dental students is recommended. PMID:24385523

  6. CAD/CAM fabricated single-unit all-ceramic post–core–crown restoration

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Thilla Sekar; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Chanana, Pallavi

    2011-01-01

    This case report explains about an innovative treatment strategy for the management of damaged anterior teeth with reduced incisal clearance by means of a single-unit all-ceramic post–core–crown zirconia ceramic restoration fabricated by Computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The reinforced zirconia ceramics allow fabrication of durable esthetic restorations in cases with high functional loading and the unification of the post, core, and crown in a single unit decreases the frequency of failure by creating a monobloc effect. In addition, the use of CAD/CAM technology for designing and fabricating ceramic restorations offers the option of expeditiously preparing these high-strength all-ceramic restorations. PMID:21691515

  7. Toward fast color-shaded images of CAD/CAM geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, P.; Wozny, M. J.

    1983-11-01

    It is pointed out that the growing demand for advanced three-dimensional (3-D) geometric modeling capabilities in mechanical CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing) systems is related to the need to attack complex design problems more directly and automatically. The advantages are being recognized of having an effective human-computer interface for handling complex 3-D geometry with a color-shaded image capability, in addition to a highly interactive line-drawing capability. A description is given of a software processor for rendering high-quality, color-shaded 'snapshots' directly and rapidly from commercial 3-D CAD/CAM systems. Attention is given to the importance of color-shaded images, the software processor architecture, color and illumination attributes, geometry-defining data, display type associativities, viw definition, polygonal approximation, scan conversion, and the Raster 4K rendering algorithm, and Raster4K performance.

  8. CAM Coordinator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodel, Lee J.

    The technical implementation and operation of the Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM) system are discussed in this manual. It is written as a guide for those responsible for implementing CAM and for processing CAM-related work requests. Subjects covered include: CAM system operation summary: objectives and test items; conferencing with the…

  9. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  10. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  11. Integrating conventional and CAD/CAM digital techniques for establishing canine protected articulation: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    El Kerdani, Tarek; Nimmo, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Canine protected articulation is widely accepted for patients requiring extensive oral rehabilitation. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations have been primarily designed in occlusion at the maximum intercuspal position. Designing a virtual articulator that is capable of accepting excursive occlusal records and duplicating the mandibular movements is a challenge for CAD/CAM technology. Modifying tooth shape using composite resin trial restorations to produce esthetic results and later scanning the modified teeth to create milled crowns is becoming a popular use of the CAD/CAM technology. This report describes a technique that combines conventional and CAD/CAM prosthodontic techniques for milling crowns for canine teeth that are designed to establish or improve canine protected articulation. This technique involves designing and fabricating interim restorations based on diagnostic waxing, scanning the designs intraorally, and storing them in software as pretreatment digital records. The scanned designs are then applied to the digital representation of the prepared teeth to fabricate the definitive restorations. PMID:26774319

  12. New layer-based imaging and rapid prototyping techniques for computer-aided design and manufacture of custom dental restoration.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-Y; Chang, C-C; Ku, Y C

    2008-01-01

    Fixed dental restoration by conventional methods greatly relies on the skill and experience of the dental technician. The quality and accuracy of the final product depends mostly on the technician's subjective judgment. In addition, the traditional manual operation involves many complex procedures, and is a time-consuming and labour-intensive job. Most importantly, no quantitative design and manufacturing information is preserved for future retrieval. In this paper, a new device for scanning the dental profile and reconstructing 3D digital information of a dental model based on a layer-based imaging technique, called abrasive computer tomography (ACT) was designed in-house and proposed for the design of custom dental restoration. The fixed partial dental restoration was then produced by rapid prototyping (RP) and computer numerical control (CNC) machining methods based on the ACT scanned digital information. A force feedback sculptor (FreeForm system, Sensible Technologies, Inc., Cambridge MA, USA), which comprises 3D Touch technology, was applied to modify the morphology and design of the fixed dental restoration. In addition, a comparison of conventional manual operation and digital manufacture using both RP and CNC machining technologies for fixed dental restoration production is presented. Finally, a digital custom fixed restoration manufacturing protocol integrating proposed layer-based dental profile scanning, computer-aided design, 3D force feedback feature modification and advanced fixed restoration manufacturing techniques is illustrated. The proposed method provides solid evidence that computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies may become a new avenue for custom-made fixed restoration design, analysis, and production in the 21st century. PMID:18183523

  13. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  14. Bendix CAD-CAM site plan

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.

    1982-12-01

    The Bendix Site Plan for CAD-CAM encompasses the development and integration of interactive graphics systems, factory data management systems, robotics, direct numerical control, automated inspection, factory automation, and shared data bases to achieve significant plant-wide gains in productivity. This plan does not address all current or planned computerization projects within our facility. A summary of planning proposals and rationale is presented in the following paragraphs. Interactive Graphics System (IGS) capability presently consists of two Applicon CAD systems and the CD-2000 software program processing on a time-shared CYBER 174 computer and a dedicated CYBER 173. Proposed plans include phased procurment through FY85 of additional computers and sufficient graphics terminals to support projected needs in drafting, tool/gage design, N/C programming, and process engineering. Planned procurement of additional computer equipment in FY86 and FY87 will provide the capacity necessary for a comprehensive graphics data base management system, computer-aided process planning graphics, and special graphics requirements in facilities and test equipment design. The overall IGS plan, designated BICAM (Bendix Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing), will provide the capability and capacity to integrate manufacturing activities through a shared product data base and standardized data exchange format. Planned efforts in robotics will result in productive applications of low to medium technology robots beginning in FY82, and extending by FY85 to work cell capabilities utilizing higher technology robots with sensors such as vision and instrumented remote compliance devices. A number of robots are projected to be in service by 1990.

  15. Jernberg Industries, Inc: Forging Facility Uses Plant-Wide Assessment to Aid Conversion to Lean Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    Jernberg Industries conducted a plant-wide assessment while converting to lean manufacturing at a forging plant. Seven projects were identified that could yield annual savings of $791,000, 64,000 MMBtu in fuel and 6 million kWh.

  16. Forced orthodontic extrusion and use of CAD/CAM for reconstruction of grossly destructed crown: A multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Patil, Suvarna

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present a report of a case where forced orthodontic extrusion and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique was used for reconstruction of right maxillary central incisor with grossly destructed crown. Aesthetic rehabilitation of a fractured maxillary right central incisor was performed employing a multidisciplinary approach i.e. conventional endodontic treatment followed by orthodontic extrusion and final restoration using CAD-CAM and one piece milled zirconia post and core with full coverage zirconia crown. After the procedure being completed, periapical radiographs taken at 3 month follow up period demonstrated that the post and core remained well adapted to post space and there was a complete healing of periapical lesion. This technique can provide a complete aesthetic rehabilitation of a grossly destructed tooth without hampering the biological width and thus has a better prognosis. PMID:22557823

  17. Forced orthodontic extrusion and use of CAD/CAM for reconstruction of grossly destructed crown: A multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rahul; Patil, Suvarna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a report of a case where forced orthodontic extrusion and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique was used for reconstruction of right maxillary central incisor with grossly destructed crown. Aesthetic rehabilitation of a fractured maxillary right central incisor was performed employing a multidisciplinary approach i.e. conventional endodontic treatment followed by orthodontic extrusion and final restoration using CAD-CAM and one piece milled zirconia post and core with full coverage zirconia crown. After the procedure being completed, periapical radiographs taken at 3 month follow up period demonstrated that the post and core remained well adapted to post space and there was a complete healing of periapical lesion. This technique can provide a complete aesthetic rehabilitation of a grossly destructed tooth without hampering the biological width and thus has a better prognosis. PMID:22557823

  18. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  19. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  20. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  1. Clinical and Laboratory Steps for Fabricating a Complete-Arch Fixed Prosthesis Using CAD/CAM.

    PubMed

    Keerthi, Senthil; Proussaefs, Periklis; Lozada, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of a full-arch maxillary prosthesis has been associated with several prosthetic complications and difficulties. Even though it has been reported that phonetics, esthetics, and proper lip support are difficult to achieve, there is a scarcity in the literature regarding the clinical and laboratory procedures necessary to minimize these complications. This article provides clinical and laboratory steps that may enable the clinician to achieve more predictable restorative results when using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) to fabricate a full-arch maxillary implant-supported prosthesis. The technique presented here describes the use of an implant-retained diagnostic wax-up that is subsequently duplicated to an interim polymethylmethacrylate prosthesis using CAD/CAM before fabricating the definitive restoration. PMID:26133136

  2. IPAD 2: Advances in Distributed Data Base Management for CAD/CAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostic, S. W. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) Project objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The focus is on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information. The objectives of this conference are as follows: to provide a greater awareness of the critical need by U.S. industry for advancements in distributed CAD/CAM data management capability; to present industry experiences and current and planned research in distributed data base management; and to summarize IPAD data management contributions and their impact on U.S. industry and computer hardware and software vendors.

  3. A Pilot Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Curriculum that Promotes Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) is located in a community that is mostly rural in nature. The area is economically deprived when compared to the rest of the state. Many businesses lack the computerized equipment and skills needed to propel upward in today's technologically advanced society. This project will close the ever-widening gap between advantaged and disadvantaged workers as well as increase their participation with industry, NASA and/or other governmental agencies. Everyone recognizes computer technology as the catalyst for advances in design, prototyping, and manufacturing or the art of machining. Unprecedented quality control and cost-efficiency improvements are recognized through the use of computer technology. This technology has changed the manufacturing industry with advanced high-tech capabilities needed by NASA. With the ever-widening digital divide, we must continue to provide computer technology to those who are socio-economically disadvantaged.

  4. CAD/CAM integration - The imperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The assimilation of CAD/CAM capabilities into the organizational/production aspects of a manufacturing company are discussed. One company has begun the process by automating the engineering department, with all final design products subject to one vice-president's approval before being sent to the production line, which will eventually become an integrated part of the automated process. Another firm has established a CAE team within the engineering department to refine preliminary work and recommendations from other sources and fit them into manufacturing specifications. It is recommended that all managers and users be familiarized with CAD/CAM systems and that all defect-tendencies induced into people working under production pressure be anticipated and eliminated. It is emphasized that incorporating CAD/CAM into a company is as much a matter of the people involved as the technical considerations.

  5. CAD/CAM of braided preforms for advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gui; Pastore, Christopher; Tsai, Yung Jia; Soebroto, Heru; Ko, Frank

    A CAD/CAM system for braiding to produce preforms for advanced textile structural composites is presented in this paper. The CAD and CAM systems are illustrated in detail. The CAD system identifies the fiber placement and orientation needed to fabricate a braided structure over a mandrel, for subsequent composite formation. The CAM system uses the design parameters generated by the CAD system to control the braiding machine. Experimental evidence demonstrating the success of combining these two technologies to form a unified CAD/CAM system for the manufacture of braided fabric preforms with complex structural shapes is presented.

  6. Shear bond strength of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with three different generations of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Ab-Ghani, Zuryati; Jaafar, Wahyuni; Foo, Siew Fon; Ariffin, Zaihan; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the shear bond strength between the dentin substrate and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with resin cement. Materials and Methods: Sixty cuboidal blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm) were fabricated in equal numbers from feldspathic ceramic CEREC® Blocs PC and nano resin ceramic Lava™ Ultimate, and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). Each block was cemented to the dentin of 60 extracted human premolar using Variolink® II/Syntac Classic (multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding), NX3 Nexus® (two-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding) and RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive cement. All specimens were thermocycled, and shear bond strength testing was done using the universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Combination of CEREC® Blocs PC and Variolink® II showed the highest mean shear bond strength (8.71 Mpa), while the lowest of 2.06 Mpa were observed in Lava™ Ultimate and RelyX™ U200. There was no significant difference in the mean shear bond strength between different blocks. Conclusion: Variolink® II cement using multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding provided a higher shear bond strength than the self-adhesive cement RelyX U200. The shear bond strength was not affected by the type of blocks used. PMID:26430296

  7. Full-mouth rehabilitation with monolithic CAD/CAM-fabricated hybrid and all-ceramic materials: A case report and 3-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Selz, Christian F; Vuck, Alexander; Guess, Petra C

    2016-02-01

    Esthetic full-mouth rehabilitation represents a great challenge for clinicians and dental technicians. Computer-aided design/ computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology and novel ceramic materials in combination with adhesive cementation provide a reliable, predictable, and economic workflow. Polychromatic feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramics that are specifically designed for anterior indications result in superior esthetics, whereas novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramics provide sufficient fracture resistance and adsorption of the occlusal load in posterior areas. Screw-retained monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns (ie, hybrid abutment crowns) represent a reliable and time- and cost-efficient prosthetic implant solution. This case report details a CAD/CAM approach to the full-arch rehabilitation of a 65-year-old patient with toothand implant-supported restorations and provides an overview of the applied CAD/CAM materials and the utilized chairside intraoral scanner. The esthetics, functional occlusion, and gingival and peri-implant tissues remained stable over a follow-up period of 3 years. No signs of fractures within the restorations were observed. PMID:26417616

  8. Comparison of the marginal fit of different coping materials and designs produced by computer aided manufacturing systems.

    PubMed

    Karataşli, Ozge; Kursoğlu, Pinar; Capa, Nuray; Kazazoğlu, Ender

    2011-01-01

    In this study, marginal adaptations of different copings fabricated with CAD/CAM or MAD/CAM were analysed. Celay and Zirkonzahn groups were fabricated by MAD/CAM, LAVA and DC-Zircon groups were fabricated by CAD/CAM. Casting metal copings were used as the control group. An implant abutment that was embedded in octagonal acrylic block was used to prepare the copings. Sixteen previously established points were marked and the measurements were performed with the stereomicroscope (at × 150). The marginal fit of the samples were evaluated by calculating the mean measurements of each 16 points. The statistical analysis was performed by Tukey multiple comparisons test at 95% confidence interval. The groups can be summarized as follows in terms of marginal gap, from the lowest to highest: LAVA (24.6 ± 14.0 µm)CAM or MAD/CAM systems may not be the most important factor for marginal adaptation. PMID:21282881

  9. The need for artificial intelligence as an aid in controlling a manufacturing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyand, J.

    AI applications to industrial production and planning are discussed and illustrated with diagrams and drawings. Applications examined include flexible automation of manufacturing processes (robots with open manual control, robots programmable to meet product specifications, self-regulated robots, and robots capable of learning), flexible fault detection and diagnostics, production control, and overall planning and management (product strategies, marketing, determination of development capacity, site selection, project organization, and technology investment strategies). For the case of robots, problems in the design and operation of a state-of-the-art machine-tool cell (for hole boring, milling, and joining) are analyzed in detail.

  10. Today's CAD/CAM: flexible digital technologies expanding workflow options.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Jonathan L

    2015-03-01

    CAD/CAM and digital scanning technologies have become essential components of dentistry. Digital impression scanning, restoration design, and manufacturing techniques yield greater treatment predictability, high-level esthetics, and functional accuracy using a variety of materials. PMID:25822749

  11. Cost reduction advantages of CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, G. T.

    1983-05-01

    Features of the CAD/CAM system implemented at the General Dynamics Convair division are summarized. CAD/CAM was initiated in 1976 to enhance engineering, manufacturing and quality assurance and thereby the company's competitive bidding position. Numerical models are substituted for hardware models wherever possible and numerical criteria are defined in design for guiding computer-controlled parts manufacturing machines. The system comprises multiple terminals, a data base, digitizer, printers, disk and tape drives, and graphics displays. The applications include the design and manufacture of parts and components for avionics, structures, scientific investigations, and aircraft structural components. Interfaces with other computers allow structural analyses by finite element codes. Although time savings have not been gained compared to manual drafting, components of greater complexity than could have been designed by hand have been designed and manufactured.

  12. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    DOEpatents

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  13. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  14. Manufacturing mistrust: issues in the controversy regarding foster children in the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Jacquelyn

    2009-12-01

    The use of foster children as subjects in the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials has been the subject of media controversy, raising a range of ethical and social dimensions. Several unsettled issues and debates in research ethics underlie the controversy and the lack of consensus among professional researchers on these issues was neither adequately appreciated nor presented in media reports. These issues include (1) the tension between protecting subjects from research risk while allowing them access to the possible benefits of research; (2) the blurring of the potentially conflicting roles of investigator and physician and the boundaries between research and therapy; (3) the adequacy of Institutional Review Board oversight; and (4) trust and the relationships among physicians, investigators and industry. The media controversy about the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials can be seen as a means of "manufacturing mistrust" in health care, research and social services that have not always met the needs and expectations of the public. In an era of emerging infections, it is critical to the public's health that people understand the role of rigorous and ethical research in the development of safe and effective care. Investigators, journalists and the public need to become knowledgeable about major ethical issues in the conduct of research in order to engage in dialogue about balancing research risks and benefits and to be able to distinguish fact from distortion in an era of multiple and rapid transmission of information. PMID:19859829

  15. Interactive computer aided technology, evolution in the design/manufacturing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    A powerful computer-operated three dimensional graphic system and associated auxiliary computer equipment used in advanced design, production design, and manufacturing was described. This system has made these activities more productive than when using older and more conventional methods to design and build aerospace vehicles. With the use of this graphic system, designers are now able to define parts using a wide variety of geometric entities, define parts as fully surface 3-dimensional models as well as "wire-frame" models. Once geometrically defined, the designer is able to take section cuts of the surfaced model and automatically determine all of the section properties of the planar cut, lightpen detect all of the surface patches and automatically determine the volume and weight of the part. Further, his designs are defined mathematically at a degree of accuracy never before achievable.

  16. Turnkey CAD/CAM systems' integration with IPAD systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blauth, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Today's commercially available turnkey CAD/CAM systems provide a highly interactive environment, and support many specialized application functions for the design/drafting/manufacturing process. This paper presents an overview of several aerospace companies which have successfully integrated turnkey CAD/CAM systems with their own company wide engineering and manufacturing systems. It also includes a vendor's view of the benefits as well as the disadvantages of such integration efforts. Specific emphasis is placed upon the selection of standards for representing geometric engineering data and for communicating such information between different CAD/CAM systems.

  17. Computer Aided Drafting and Design, Industrial Manufacturing Technician, and Mechanical Engineering Technician and Machine Tool, Die and Moldmaking Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-East Ohio Tech Prep Consortium, Zanesville.

    This document contains competency profiles in four areas: computer-aided drafting and design; industrial manufacturing technician; mechanical engineering technician; and machine tool, die, and moldmaking technology occupations. The profiles are intended for use in articulating tech prep programs from high school through associate degrees in Ohio.…

  18. A common geometric data-base approach for computer-aided manufacturing of wind-tunnel models and theoretical aerodynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, M. J.; Cozzolongo, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    A more automated process to produce wind tunnel models using existing facilities is discussed. A process was sought to more rapidly determine the aerodynamic characteristics of advanced aircraft configurations. Such aerodynamic characteristics are determined from theoretical analyses and wind tunnel tests of the configurations. Computers are used to perform the theoretical analyses, and a computer aided manufacturing system is used to fabricate the wind tunnel models. In the past a separate set of input data describing the aircraft geometry had to be generated for each process. This process establishes a common data base by enabling the computer aided manufacturing system to use, via a software interface, the geometric input data generated for the theoretical analysis. Thus, only one set of geometric data needs to be generated. Tests reveal that the process can reduce by several weeks the time needed to produce a wind tunnel model component. In addition, this process increases the similarity of the wind tunnel model to the mathematical model used by the theoretical aerodynamic analysis programs. Specifically, the wind tunnel model can be machined to within 0.008 in. of the original mathematical model. However, the software interface is highly complex and cumbersome to operate, making it unsuitable for routine use. The procurement of an independent computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing system with the capability to support both the theoretical analysis and the manufacturing tasks was recommended.

  19. Nerve guides manufactured from photocurable polymers to aid peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Pateman, Christopher J; Harding, Adam J; Glen, Adam; Taylor, Caroline S; Christmas, Claire R; Robinson, Peter P; Rimmer, Steve; Boissonade, Fiona M; Claeyssens, Frederik; Haycock, John W

    2015-05-01

    The peripheral nervous system has a limited innate capacity for self-repair following injury, and surgical intervention is often required. For injuries greater than a few millimeters autografting is standard practice although it is associated with donor site morbidity and is limited in its availability. Because of this, nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) can be viewed as an advantageous alternative, but currently have limited efficacy for short and large injury gaps in comparison to autograft. Current commercially available NGC designs rely on existing regulatory approved materials and traditional production methods, limiting improvement of their design. The aim of this study was to establish a novel method for NGC manufacture using a custom built laser-based microstereolithography (μSL) setup that incorporated a 405 nm laser source to produce 3D constructs with ∼ 50 μm resolution from a photocurable poly(ethylene glycol) resin. These were evaluated by SEM, in vitro neuronal, Schwann and dorsal root ganglion culture and in vivo using a thy-1-YFP-H mouse common fibular nerve injury model. NGCs with dimensions of 1 mm internal diameter × 5 mm length with a wall thickness of 250 μm were fabricated and capable of supporting re-innervation across a 3 mm injury gap after 21 days, with results close to that of an autograft control. The study provides a technology platform for the rapid microfabrication of biocompatible materials, a novel method for in vivo evaluation, and a benchmark for future development in more advanced NGC designs, biodegradable and larger device sizes, and longer-term implantation studies. PMID:25725557

  20. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  1. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  2. Maxillary implant-supported bar overdenture and mandibular implant-retained fixed denture using CAD/CAM technology and 3-D design software: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulou, Panagiota-Eirini; Razzoog, Michael E; Duff, Renée E; Chronaios, Dimitrios; Saglik, Berna; Tarrazzi, Daler E

    2011-06-01

    The implant-supported bar overdenture and the implant-retained fixed complete denture are appropriate treatment choices for patients with inadequate bone volume in the posterior maxilla and mandible, respectively. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has broadened the scope and application of those treatment options, allowing for prosthodontically-driven implant placement and ideal substructure design for optimal esthetics and biomechanics. This report describes the fabrication of a maxillary implant-supported milled titanium bar with attachments and an overdenture, and a mandibular implant-retained fixed complete denture with milled titanium substructure. PMID:21640235

  3. Fabrication of a CAD/CAM monolithic zirconia crown to fit an existing partial removable dental prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Paek, Janghyun; Noh, Kwantae; Pae, Ahran; Lee, Hyeonjong; Kim, Hyeong-Seob

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating a surveyed prosthesis beneath an existing partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) is a challenging and time-consuming procedure. The computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology was applied to fabricate a retrofitted, surveyed zirconia prosthesis to an existing PRDP. CAD/CAM technology enabled precise and easy replication of the contour of the planned surveyed crown on the existing abutment tooth. This technology ensured excellent adaptation and fit of newly fabricated crown to the existing PRDP with minimal adjustments. In this case report, a seventy-year-old male patient presented with fractured existing surveyed crown. Because the existing PRDP was serviceable, new crown was fabricated to the existing PRDP. PMID:27555903

  4. Fabrication of a CAD/CAM monolithic zirconia crown to fit an existing partial removable dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fabricating a surveyed prosthesis beneath an existing partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) is a challenging and time-consuming procedure. The computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology was applied to fabricate a retrofitted, surveyed zirconia prosthesis to an existing PRDP. CAD/CAM technology enabled precise and easy replication of the contour of the planned surveyed crown on the existing abutment tooth. This technology ensured excellent adaptation and fit of newly fabricated crown to the existing PRDP with minimal adjustments. In this case report, a seventy-year-old male patient presented with fractured existing surveyed crown. Because the existing PRDP was serviceable, new crown was fabricated to the existing PRDP. PMID:27555903

  5. CAM and NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK) cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms. PMID:15257322

  6. Fracture Rates and Lifetime Estimations of CAD/CAM All-ceramic Restorations.

    PubMed

    Belli, R; Petschelt, A; Hofner, B; Hajtó, J; Scherrer, S S; Lohbauer, U

    2016-01-01

    The gathering of clinical data on fractures of dental restorations through prospective clinical trials is a labor- and time-consuming enterprise. Here, we propose an unconventional approach for collecting large datasets, from which clinical information on indirect restorations can be retrospectively analyzed. The authors accessed the database of an industry-scale machining center in Germany and obtained information on 34,911 computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) all-ceramic posterior restorations. The fractures of bridges, crowns, onlays, and inlays fabricated from different all-ceramic systems over a period of 3.5 y were reported by dentists and entered in the database. Survival analyses and estimations of future life revealed differences in performance among ZrO2-based restorations and lithium disilicate and leucite-reinforced glass-ceramics. PMID:26428908

  7. CAD/CAM and analysis - A production tool for spacecraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsten, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated Computer-Aided Design, Manufacturing, Assemby and Test System to achieve increased productivity and quality. The term CADMAT has been used to emphasize the importance of integrating the familiar CAD, CAM and CAT functions. The CADMAT methodology encompasses all automated and computer augmented processes throughout the product and business organizations. In Electronics, Design Simulation and Verification, Interactive Graphics (IAG), Automated Board Layout, and Automatic Test Vector Generation are discussed. In the mechanical area, the use of 2D and 3D graphics techniques, computerized finite element modeling, and structural analysis programs are described. The use of the design database in N/C manufacturing, automated inspection and testing is also examined.

  8. CAD/CAM designer - Jack of all trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, C. F.; Gallo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Aerospace design engineers are increasingly required to have more extensive knowledge of CAD/CAM tooling and manufacturing methods, in order to ensure that datasets can yield error-free components and assemblies. For structural concept design, engineers will work at the same CAD/CAM workstation on which the final component will be defined, controlling methods that yield the optimum solution for each member of a structural system from the viewpoints of both weight (for given strength) and producibility.

  9. CAD/CAM-coupled image processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Rolf-Juergen; Rauh, W.

    1990-08-01

    Image processing systems have found wide application in industry. For most computer integrated manufacturing faci- lities it is necessary to adapt these systems thus that they can automate the interaction with and the integration of CAD and CAM Systems. In this paper new approaches will be described that make use of the coupling of CAD and image processing as well as the automatic generation of programmes for the machining of products.

  10. Effect of the Crystallization Process on the Marginal and Internal Gaps of Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Oh, Seunghan; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of the crystallization process on lithium disilicate ceramic crowns fabricated using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and to determine whether the effect of crystallization is clinically acceptable by comparing values of fit before and after the crystallization process. The mandibular right first molar was selected as the abutment for the experiments. Fifteen working models were prepared. Lithium disilicate crowns appropriate for each abutment were prepared using a commercial CAD/CAM system. Gaps in the marginal area and 4 internal areas of each crown were measured twice—before and after crystallization—using the silicone replica technique. The mean values of fit before and after crystallization were analyzed using a paired t-test to examine whether the conversion that occurred during crystallization affected marginal and internal gaps (α = 0.05). Gaps increased in the marginal area and decreased in the internal areas after crystallization. There were statistically significant differences in all of the investigated areas (P < 0.05). None of the values for marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns after crystallization exceeded 120 μm, which is the clinically acceptable threshold. PMID:27123453

  11. Effect of the Crystallization Process on the Marginal and Internal Gaps of Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM Crowns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Oh, Seunghan; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of the crystallization process on lithium disilicate ceramic crowns fabricated using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and to determine whether the effect of crystallization is clinically acceptable by comparing values of fit before and after the crystallization process. The mandibular right first molar was selected as the abutment for the experiments. Fifteen working models were prepared. Lithium disilicate crowns appropriate for each abutment were prepared using a commercial CAD/CAM system. Gaps in the marginal area and 4 internal areas of each crown were measured twice-before and after crystallization-using the silicone replica technique. The mean values of fit before and after crystallization were analyzed using a paired t-test to examine whether the conversion that occurred during crystallization affected marginal and internal gaps (α = 0.05). Gaps increased in the marginal area and decreased in the internal areas after crystallization. There were statistically significant differences in all of the investigated areas (P < 0.05). None of the values for marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns after crystallization exceeded 120 μm, which is the clinically acceptable threshold. PMID:27123453

  12. PreCam

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  13. Rutger's CAM2000 chip architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald E.; Hall, J. Storrs; Miyake, Keith

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the architecture and instruction set of the Rutgers CAM2000 memory chip. The CAM2000 combines features of Associative Processing (AP), Content Addressable Memory (CAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in a single chip package that is not only DRAM compatible but capable of applying simple massively parallel operations to memory. This document reflects the current status of the CAM2000 architecture and is continually updated to reflect the current state of the architecture and instruction set.

  14. An approach to biomimetics: the natural CAD/CAM restoration: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Luís Henrique; Schlichting, Kathryn Klemz; Stanley, Kyle; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    Those in the dental field have always pursued the perfect dental material for the treatment of compromised teeth. Gold, amalgam, composite resin, glass ionomer, and porcelain have been used. Tooth-like restorative materials (composite resin and porcelain) combined with an effective hard tissue bond have met the growing demand for esthetic or metal-free restorations in the past 15 to 20 years. However, none of those materials can fully mimic the unique properties of dentin (compliance and crack-stopping behavior) and enamel (wear resistance, function). The aim of this article is to report the restoration of an extensively damaged tooth with a natural restoration obtained by milling an extracted third molar tooth with a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The main benefit of this novel technique is the replacement of lost tissues by actual enamel and dentin, with the potential to recover mechanical, esthetic, and biologic properties. The indication for extracting third molars and premolars because of impaction or for orthodontic reasons makes these posterior teeth readily available. The innovation of the method presented here is the optimal use of the extracted tooth substrate thanks to its positioning technique in the CAD/CAM milling chamber. PMID:24355511

  15. Luting of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: direct composite versus dual-cure luting cement.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Bonroy, Kim; Elsen, Caroline; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Suyama, Yuji; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bonding effectiveness in direct restorations. A two-step self-etch adhesive and a light-cure resin composite was compared with luting with a conventional dual-cure resin cement and a two-step etch and rinse adhesive. Class-I box-type cavities were prepared. Identical ceramic inlays were designed and fabricated with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. The inlays were seated with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical) or ExciTE F DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), each by two operators (five teeth per group). The inlays were stored in water for one week at 37°C, whereafter micro-tensile bond strength testing was conducted. The micro-tensile bond strength of the direct composite was significantly higher than that from conventional luting, and was independent of the operator (P<0.0001). Pre-testing failures were only observed with the conventional method. High-power light-curing of a direct composite may be a viable alternative to luting lithium disilicate glass-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations. PMID:26407114

  16. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen’s size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics. PMID:26816646

  17. Leadless chip carrier packaging and CAD/CAM-supported wire wrap interconnect technology for subnanosecond ECL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, B. K.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes the results of work conducted to develop rapid methods for designing and prototyping high-speed digital processor systems using subnanosecond emitter coupled logic (ECL). In Task I, we have begun a conversion of the design rules, interconnection protocols, special components, and standard logic panels developed during the first year for high-speed ECL-based digital processors from a technology based upon dual-in-line packages (DIP) to a technology based upon specially designed leadless ceramic chip carriers. This conversion was undertaken since it was learned during the first year that the DIP packages themselves are compromising the maximum performance levels of which the ECL dice are capable. We have also undertaken an extensive investigation of several possible approaches to increasing these operational maxima to an even greater extent than with our present design for new Leadless Ceramic Chip Carriers. Task 2 was to continue development of a comprehensive computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software package which would be specifically tailored to support the peculiar design requirements of processors operating in a high clock rate, transmission line environment. The CAD/CAM software package has been structured to be sufficiently flexible to assimilate advances in device and component technology, and to accept new sets of design rules resulting from advances in engineering design practice.

  18. Apex radicis dentis excision operation guided by template made by CAD/CAM

    PubMed Central

    He, Zong-Lai; Cai, Su-Qing; Jin, Guang-Sheng; Liu, Yun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to explore the clinical efficacy of apex radicis dentis excision guided by a template made by Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture (CAD/CAM). Methods: Base on the CBCT image of oral cavity, a three-dimensional model of patient’s oral cavity was built. Then the access way and excisional area were defined based on the model. Finally, the operative guide template was designed and made to help define the direction, depth, and area of the surgery. Results: One year after the operation with guide template, the two cases of apex radicis dentis with difficulty in cure were proven to have normal masticatory function and their pathological changes of apex radicis dentis disappeared as well. Conclusion: Utilization of CAD/CAM technology could well design the operative guide template for the resection of apex radicis dentis. Usingthis guide template could make the excision of apex radicis dentis more quickly and safer. PMID:26131072

  19. Crassulacean acid metabolism and fitness under water deficit stress: if not for carbon gain, what is facultative CAM good for?

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Background In obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), up to 99 % of CO2 assimilation occurs during the night, therefore supporting the hypothesis that CAM is adaptive because it allows CO2 fixation during the part of the day with lower evaporative demand, making life in water-limited environments possible. By comparison, in facultative CAM (inducible CAM, C3-CAM) and CAM-cycling plants drought-induced dark CO2 fixation may only be, with few exceptions, a small proportion of C3 CO2 assimilation in watered plants and occur during a few days. From the viewpoint of survival the adaptive advantages, i.e. increased fitness, of facultative CAM and CAM-cycling are not obvious. Therefore, it is hypothesized that, if it is to increase fitness, CAM must aid in reproduction. Scope An examination of published reports of 23 facultative CAM and CAM-cycling species finds that, in 19 species, drought-induced dark CO2 fixation represents on average 11 % of C3 CO2 assimilation of watered plants. Evidence is discussed on the impact of the operation of CAM in facultative and CAM-cycling plants on their survival – carbon balance, water conservation, water absorption, photo-protection of the photosynthetic apparatus – and reproductive effort. It is concluded that in some species, but not all, facultative and cycling CAM contribute, rather than to increase carbon balance, to increase water-use efficiency, water absorption, prevention of photoinhibition and reproductive output. PMID:18708641

  20. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    PubMed Central

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Resin cements with corresponding primer and bonding systems were used to lute the FPDs: Compolute/EBS multi (3M Espe, Germany), Panavia F/ED (Kuraray, Japan), Variolink 2/Syntac classic (Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) and RelyX Unicem/without treatment (3M Espe, Germany). Aualloy FPDs (BioPontostar, Bego, Germany) were cemented with RelyX Unicem and Harvard (Harvard, Germany) as the control. Marginal adaptation was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy using replica specimen before and after artificial aging. After aging, microleakage tests were performed with fuchsine solution. The interfaces between cement-tooth and cement-FPD were examined. Results At the interfaces (cement-tooth and cement-FPD), the systems showed a 95% or higher perfect margin before and after aging. Only Variolink2/Syntac had a marginal adaptation, lower than a 70% perfect margin. Generally, the fuchsine penetration was below 20%, only BioPontstar/Harvard andLava/Variolink2 showed penetration results between 80% and 100%. Conclusion The success of the adhesive cementation of zirconia FPDs depends on the cement system. Under the conditions of this study, zirconia FPDs showed good to sufficient marginal integrity in combination with Panavia/ED, Compolute/EBS and RelyX Unicem. PMID:19212494

  1. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  2. Maxillary ridge augmentation with custom-made CAD/CAM scaffolds. A 1-year prospective study on 10 patients.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Francesco; Macchi, Aldo; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Luongo, Giuseppe; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Caprioglio, Alberto; Mangano, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Several procedures have been proposed to achieve maxillary ridge augmentation. These require bone replacement materials to be manually cut, shaped, and formed at the time of implantation, resulting in an expensive and time-consuming process. In the present study, we describe a technique for the design and fabrication of custom-made scaffolds for maxillary ridge augmentation, using three-dimensional computerized tomography (3D CT) and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). CT images of the atrophic maxillary ridge of 10 patients were acquired and modified into 3D reconstruction models. These models were transferred as stereolithographic files to a CAD program, where a virtual 3D reconstruction of the alveolar ridge was generated, producing anatomically shaped, custom-made scaffolds. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for manufacture by a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the reconstruction, starting from porous hydroxyapatite blocks. The custom-made scaffolds were of satisfactory size, shape, and appearance; they matched the defect area, suited the surgeon's requirements, and were easily implanted during surgery. This helped reduce the time for surgery and contributed to the good healing of the defects. PMID:23343341

  3. Marginal fit of anterior 3-unit fixed partial zirconia restorations using different CAD/CAM systems

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Few studies have investigated the marginal accuracy of 3-unit zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of zirconia FPDs made using two CAD/CAM systems with that of metal-ceramic FPDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Artificial resin maxillary central and lateral incisors were prepared for 3-unit FPDs and fixed in yellow stone. This model was duplicated to epoxy resin die. On the resin die, 15 three-unit FPDs were fabricated per group (45 in total): Group A, zirconia 3-unit FPDs made with the Everest system; Group B, zirconia 3-unit FPDs made with the Lava system; and Group C, metal-ceramic 3-unit FPDs. They were cemented to resin dies with resin cement. After removal of pontic, each retainer was separated and observed under a microscope (Presize 440C). Marginal gaps of experimental groups were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test. RESULTS Mean marginal gaps of 3-unit FPDs were 60.46 µm for the Everest group, 78.71 µm for the Lava group, and 81.32 µm for the metal-ceramic group. The Everest group demonstrated significantly smaller marginal gap than the Lava and the metal-ceramic groups (P<.05). The marginal gap did not significantly differ between the Lava and the metal-ceramic groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION The marginal gaps of anterior 3-unit zirconia FPD differed according to CAD/CAM systems, but still fell within clinically acceptable ranges compared with conventional metal-ceramic restoration. PMID:24049561

  4. CAD/CAM technologies in the surgical and prosthetic treatment of the edentulous patient with biomymetic individualized approach

    PubMed Central

    POZZI, A.; GARGARI, M.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: The advent of modern endosseous implant design and improved surface technology has allowed the development of new restorative techniques that decrease patient’s total treatment time. Utilizing the latest scanning, CAD/CAM and manufacturing technolgies we are able to manufacture individualized dental restoration with high accuracy and a perfect precision of fit. Materials and methods: This report describes the rehabilitation of a completely edentulous patient utilizing a CT-based implant planning with computer-assisted surgical design, simultaneous CAD/CAM fabrication of a surgical template, a flapless surgical placement of the implants, and a prefabricated fixed complete denture for an immediately loaded restoration according to Nobel Biocare’s Teeth-in-an-Hour™ (Nobel Biocare Goteborg, Sweden) protocol. This systematic approach to full mouth rehabilitation reduces the time necessary for an edentulous patient to go from severely atrophic alveolar support to implant retained prosthetic restoration. These aspects of minimally invasive and simplified surgery, along with reducing the treatment time and postsurgical discomfort, are beneficial to the patient, and allowing for rehabilitation with the same level of success as in flap surgery. Conclusion: The Teeth-in-an-Hour protocol is a unique solution made possible by the Procera System. With the aid of the CT scans and a virtual planning software, a custom fabricated precision drill guide and a pre-manufactured prosthesis can be made before surgery. The execution of implant placement is performed with a flapless procedure that results in minimal surgical intervention. This results in a short and non-traumatic surgery with a minimum of postoperative complications, allowing the patient to leave the chair with a fixed prosthesis. Utilizing the latest scanning, CAD/CAM and manufacturing technologies the dental team is able to develop individualized zirconia full arch framework with high accuracy

  5. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM. 872.3661 Section 872.3661 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of Dental Restorations; Guidance for Industry and FDA.” For...

  6. Roller Cam Positioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon B.

    2010-12-07

    Roller Cam Positioners could support the LCLS undulator sections allowing micron sized alignment adjustment of each undulator in 5 degrees of freedom. The supports are kinematic with the number of degrees of freedom matched to the number of constraints. Ton loads are supported on simple ball bearings. Motion is intrinsically bounded. Positioning mechanisms are based on pure rolling motion with sub-micron hysteresis and micron resolution. This note describes a general purpose positioning mechanism suitable for undulator support.

  7. The use of CAD/CAM technology to fabricate a custom ceramic implant abutment: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Martinna de Mendonça e; Kempen, Juan; Lourenço, Eduardo José Veras; Telles, Daniel de Moraes

    2014-05-01

    Well-placed dental implants are a prerequisite of functional and esthetically successful dental implant-supported crowns. The presence of soft tissue is essential for excellent esthetics because the dental implant or titanium abutment may become visible if the soft-tissue contour is not acceptable. This clinical report describes the use of a custom ceramic implant abutment designed with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology by milling a zirconia framework that was cemented extraorally to a prefabricated titanium abutment with a reduced diameter. This ceramic abutment has the strength and precise fit of a titanium interface and also the esthetic advantages of shaded custom-milled zirconia, with no visible metal. PMID:24433839

  8. Differences in rust in hearing aid batteries across four manufacturers, four battery sizes, and five durations of exposure.

    PubMed

    Valente, Michael; Cadieux, Jamie H; Flowers, Laura; Newman, John G; Scherer, Juergen; Gephart, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Three hundred twenty zinc-air batteries representing four manufacturers (Energizer, Power One, Duracell, and Ray-O-Vac) and four cell sizes (10, 312, 13, and 675) were exposed in a salt spray fog apparatus for 2.5, 5.5, 24, 48, and 72 hours. At the conclusion of each exposure, the batteries were rated blindly for the presence of rust by four experienced audiologists using a four point rating scale. Results revealed significant differences in the rating of rust across the four manufacturers and duration of exposure. No statistically significant difference was found across cell size. Also, the correlation between raters was exceptionally high indicating that each audiologist rated the presence of rust for each battery in a very similar manner. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) techniques were applied and provided answers for the observed differences in rust between the four manufacturers. PMID:18496994

  9. Is a computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing method for mandibular reconstruction economically viable?

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Battaglia, Salvatore; Crimi, Salvatore; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    The design and manufacture of patient-specific mandibular reconstruction plates, particularly in combination with cutting guides, has created many new opportunities for the planning and implementation of mandibular reconstruction. Although this surgical method is being used more widely and the outcomes appear to be improved, the question of the additional cost has to be discussed. To evaluate the cost generated by the management of this technology, we studied a cohort of patients treated for mandibular neoplasms. The population was divided into two groups of 20 patients each who were undergoing a 'traditional' freehand mandibular reconstruction or a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) mandibular reconstruction. Data concerning operation time, complications, and days of hospitalisation were used to evaluate costs related to the management of these patients. The mean operating time for the CAD-CAM group was 435 min, whereas that for the freehand group was 550.5 min. The total difference in terms of average time gain was 115.5 min. No microvascular complication occurred in the CAD-CAM group; two complications (10%) were observed in patients undergoing freehand reconstructions. The mean overall lengths of hospital stay were 13.8 days for the CAD-CAM group and 17 days for the freehand group. Finally, considering that the institutional cost per minute of theatre time is €30, the money saved as a result of the time gained was €3,450. This cost corresponds approximately to the total price of the CAD-CAM surgery. In conclusion, we believe that CAD-CAM technology for mandibular reconstruction will become a widely used reconstructive method and that its cost will be covered by gains in terms of surgical time, quality of reconstruction, and reduced complications. PMID:27193477

  10. CAD-CAM database management at Bendix Kansas City

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    The Bendix Kansas City Division of Allied Corporation began integrating mechanical CAD-CAM capabilities into its operations in June 1980. The primary capabilities include a wireframe modeling application, a solid modeling application, and the Bendix Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (BICAM) System application, a set of software programs and procedures which provides user-friendly access to graphic applications and data, and user-friendly sharing of data between applications and users. BICAM also provides for enforcement of corporate/enterprise policies. Three access categories, private, local, and global, are realized through the implementation of data-management metaphors: the desk, reading rack, file cabinet, and library are for the storage, retrieval, and sharing of drawings and models. Access is provided through menu selections; searching for designs is done by a paging method or a search-by-attribute-value method. The sharing of designs between all users of Part Data is key. The BICAM System supports 375 unique users per quarter and manages over 7500 drawings and models. The BICAM System demonstrates the need for generalized models, a high-level system framework, prototyping, information-modeling methods, and an understanding of the entire enterprise. Future BICAM System implementations are planned to take advantage of this knowledge.

  11. Jernberg Industries, Inc.: Forging Facility Uses Plant-Wide Energy Assessment to Aid Conversion to Lean Manufacturing (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-10-01

    Jernberg Industries conducted a plant-wide assessment while converting to lean manufacturing at a forging plant. Seven projects were identified that could yield annual savings of $791,000, 64,000 MMBtu in fuel and 6 million kWh

  12. JunoCam: Outreach and Science Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Ingersoll, Andy; Caplinger, Mike; Ravine, Mike; Orton, Glenn

    2014-11-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft en route to Jupiter. Although the primary role of the camera is for outreach, science objectives will be addressed too. JunoCam is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm. Juno’s elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter’s polar regions with a spatial scale of ~50 km/pixel. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color mages of the aurora will be acquired. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloudtop heights. Resolution exceeds that of Cassini about an hour from closest approach and at closest approach images will have a spatial scale of ~3 km/pixel. JunoCam is a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft. The use of time-delayed integration takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to build up signal. JunoCam will acquire limb-to-limb views of Jupiter during a spacecraft rotation, and has the possibility of acquiring images of the rings from in-between Jupiter and the inner edge of the rings. Galilean satellite views will be fairly distant but some images will be acquired. Outer irregular satellites and small ring moons Metis and Adrastea will also be imaged. The theme of our outreach is “science in a fish bowl”, with an invitation to the science community and the public to participate. Amateur astronomers will supply their ground-based images for planning, so that we can predict when prominent atmospheric features will be visible. With the aid of professional astronomers observing at infrared wavelengths, we’ll predict when hot spots will be visible to JunoCam. Amateur image processing enthusiasts are onboard to create image products. Many of the earth flyby image products from Juno’s earth gravity assist were processed by amateurs. Between the planning and products will be the decision-making on what images to take when and why. We

  13. Education & Training for CAD/CAM: Results of a National Probability Survey. Krannert Institute Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majchrzak, Ann

    A study was conducted of the training programs used by plants with Computer Automated Design/Computer Automated Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to help their employees adapt to automated manufacturing. The study sought to determine the relative priorities of manufacturing establishments for training certain workers in certain skills; the status of…

  14. CAM versus nucleoplasty.

    PubMed

    Marín, F Z

    2005-01-01

    In recent years the general trend in spinal surgery has been reduction and minimalization. In general, all these have shown a moderate or good clinical result but they have been associated with serious sequelae. Plasma-mediated electrosurgery, widely used in other medical fields, has demonstrated to be well suited for this new indication. To perform the Nucleoplasty (Coblation) and the CAM (Coblation-Assisted Microdiscectomy) is use the Perc-DLE SpineWand connected to a System 2000 generator (ArthoCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA) was used. The device functions via plasma-mediated electrosurgery (Coblation) and differs from traditional electrosurgery. From a small sample 64 operated patients with contained disc herniation were analysed and classified into those who underwent percutaneous disc decompression (PDD) using coblation technology and patients who underwent CAM. All patients who presented with PDD were considered candidates for open surgery but all of them opted for the new technique. There was no contraindication. They had discogenic low back pain and/or leg pain and the procedure was performed on an outpatient basis. Follow-up data was of 1 to 12 months. Patients' gender distribution for PDD was 65% (41.6) male, 35% (22.4) female with a mean age of 43 years. The average duration of pain before nucleoplasty was of 18 months and none of them had previous lumbar surgery. At 6 to 12 months, 80% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in pain scores (75% very good, 5% good, 15% improved but not good, and 5% no effect). None of the patients was worse. Results indicate that Nucleoplasty may be an efficacious minimally invasive technique for the treatment of symptoms associated with contained herniated disc. However, randomized controlled studies are required to know with more precision the role of this procedure. CAM procedure (13 cases) is an excellent method in cases of root compression that needs liberation or in spine stenosis. PMID:15830980

  15. Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change. PMID:23631645

  16. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    DOEpatents

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  17. Computer automated design and computer automated manufacture.

    PubMed

    Brncick, M

    2000-08-01

    The introduction of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing into the field of prosthetics and orthotics did not arrive without concern. Many prosthetists feared that the computer would provide other allied health practitioners who had little or no experience in prosthetics the ability to fit and manage amputees. Technicians in the field felt their jobs may be jeopardized by automated fabrication techniques. This has not turned out to be the case. Prosthetists who use CAD-CAM techniques are finding they have more time for patient care and clinical assessment. CAD-CAM is another tool for them to provide better care for the patients/clients they serve. One of the factors that deterred the acceptance of CAD-CAM techniques in its early stages was that of cost. It took a significant investment in software and hardware for the prosthetists to begin to use the new systems. This new technique was not reimbursed by insurance coverage. Practitioners did not have enough information about this new technique to make a sound decision on their investment of time and money. Ironically, it is the need to hold health care costs down that may prove to be the catalyst for the increased use of CAD-CAM in the field. Providing orthoses and prostheses to patients who require them is a very labor intensive process. Practitioners are looking for better, faster, and more economical ways in which to provide their services under the pressure of managed care. CAD-CAM may be the answer. The author foresees shape sensing departments in hospitals where patients would be sent to be digitized, similar to someone going for radiograph or ultrasound. Afterwards, an orthosis or prosthesis could be provided from a central fabrication facility at a remote site, most likely on the same day. Not long ago, highly skilled practitioners with extensive technical ability would custom make almost every orthosis. One now practices in an atmosphere where off-the-shelf orthoses are the standard. This

  18. Computers in Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Advances in factory computerization (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) are reviewed, including discussions of robotics, human factors engineering, and the sociological impact of automation. (JN)

  19. CAM operated fuel valve

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S.T.; Katchka, J.R.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes improvement in a fuel control valve construction comprising a housing means having an inlet means adapted to be interconnected to a fuel source and a main outlet means adapted to be interconnected to a main burner means, the housing means having a main valve seat for interconnecting the inlet means with the main outlet means, the housing means having a movable main valve member for opening and closing the main valve seat, the housing means having a movable lever operatively associated with the main valve member and having a manually operable actuator means for controlling the operating positions of the lever, the lever having an intermediate cam follower portion and opposed ends disposed on each side of the cam follower portion with one end of the opposed ends being pivotally mounted to the housing means and with the other end of the opposed ends for operating the main valve member, the housing means having biasing means operatively interconnected to the lever to tend to pivot the lever in one direction that opens the main valve member away from its the main valve seat. The improvement comprises; the housing means has a thermostatically controlled means that is operatively associated with the lever and is adapted to engage and hold the lever in a position wherein the main valve member is in a closed condition against its the main valve seat when the thermostatically controlled means is in one operating condition thereof and the actuator means is in the on condition thereof.

  20. CAD/CAM data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, O. H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of data base management in CAD/CAM, particularly for geometric data is described. First, long term and short term objectives for CAD/CAM data management are identified. Second, the benefits of the data base management approach are explained. Third, some of the additional work needed in the data base area is discussed.

  1. CAD/CAM in the Brazilian aeronautical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampi, L. H.; Embraer, S. A.

    Features, applications and progress in the usage of CAD/CAM since 1980 by an aircraft manufacturer in Brazil are described. The system comprises 34 graphics work stations dedicated to structural design, lofting, electrical cable routing, finite element modeling and quality control. Standardized work methods have been devised to enhance productivity. Programs have been defined for finite element stress analysis and generating wiring diagrams. The computerized design capabilities have increased productivity for hole boring accuracy through work on digitized controllers. Psychological testing has been initiated to identify users who can adapt more easily to CAD/CAM utilization.

  2. Present capabilities and future requirements for computer-aided geometric modeling in the design and manufacture of gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caille, E.; Propen, M.; Hoffman, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gas turbine engine design requires the ability to rapidly develop complex structures which are subject to severe thermal and mechanical operating loads. As in all facets of the aerospace industry, engine designs are constantly driving towards increased performance, higher temperatures, higher speeds, and lower weight. The ability to address such requirements in a relatively short time frame has resulted in a major thrust towards integrated design/analysis/manufacturing systems. These computer driven graphics systems represent a unique challenge, with major payback opportunities if properly conceived, implemented, and applied.

  3. Aesthetic and functionality in fixed prosthodontic: sperimental and clinical analysis of the CAD-CAM systematic 3Shape

    PubMed Central

    DE VICO, G.; OTTRIA, L.; BOLLERO, P.; BONINO, M.; CIALONE, M.; BARLATTANI, A.; GARGARI, M.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In the last 15 years the increasing aesthetic demand, push constantly industry and the clinical to entirely look for new solutions for the realization of all-ceramic crowns, with such characteristics to be used for both anterior and posterior restorations. The most greater contribution, in such sense derives from the finished progress in the computer sector, that have allowed the application of the technologies CAD-CAM, also in dentistry (2–5, 11). These systematics have allowed us to get “automatically” structures for dental prosthesis, starting from the scanning of the die and passing for an intermediary phase of computerized planning (CAD, computer aided design), through numerical control millers (CAM, computer aided manufacturing), enslaved to calculating the electronic that drives the movement of it. The aim of this work is therefore that to analyze and to describe the systematic computerized 3SHAPE verifying the degree of precision, through the analysis of the obtainable marginal closing with the zirconia frameworks. PMID:23285346

  4. Computer-Aided Design of Manufacturing Chain Based on Closed Die Forging for Hardly Deformable Cu-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kuziak, Roman; Pidvysots'kyy, Valeriy; Nowak, Jarosław; Węglarczyk, Stanisław; Drozdowski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Two copper-based alloys were considered, Cu-1 pct Cr and Cu-0.7 pct Cr-1 pct Si-2 pct Ni. The thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of these alloys are given in the paper and compared to pure copper and steel. The role of aging and precipitation kinetics in hardening of the alloys is discussed based upon the developed model. Results of plastometric tests performed at various temperatures and various strain rates are presented. The effect of the initial microstructure on the flow stress was investigated. Rheologic models for the alloys were developed. A finite element (FE) model based on the Norton-Hoff visco-plastic flow rule was applied to the simulation of forging of the alloys. Analysis of the die wear for various processes of hot and cold forging is presented as well. A microstructure evolution model was implemented into the FE code, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of final products were predicted. Various variants of the manufacturing cycles were considered. These include different preheating schedules, hot forging, cold forging, and aging. All variants were simulated using the FE method and loads, die filling, tool wear, and mechanical properties of products were predicted. Three variants giving the best combination of forging parameters were selected and industrial trials were performed. The best manufacturing technology for the copper-based alloys is proposed.

  5. Rad Pole Cam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  6. Precise Measurement for Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A metrology instrument known as PhaseCam supports a wide range of applications, from testing large optics to controlling factory production processes. This dynamic interferometer system enables precise measurement of three-dimensional surfaces in the manufacturing industry, delivering speed and high-resolution accuracy in even the most challenging environments.Compact and reliable, PhaseCam enables users to make interferometric measurements right on the factory floor. The system can be configured for many different applications, including mirror phasing, vacuum/cryogenic testing, motion/modal analysis, and flow visualization.

  7. Passivity of conventional and CAD/CAM fabricated implant frameworks.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Gabriela Monteiro; de França, Danilo Gonzaga Bernardo; Silva Neto, João Paulo; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the passivity by measuring the passive fit and strain development of frameworks screwed on abutments, made by CAD/CAM technology, and to compare these parts with samples manufactured by conventional casting. Using CAD/CAM technology, four samples were made from zirconia (Zircad) and four samples were manufactured from cobalt-chrome (CoCrcad). The control groups were four specimens of cobalt-chrome, made by one-piece casting (CoCrci), with a total of 12 frameworks. To evaluate the passive fit, the vertical misfit at the abutment-framework interface was measured with scanning electron microscopy (250×) when only one screw was tightened. The mean strain in these frameworks was analyzed by photoelasticity test. A significant difference in the passive fit was observed between the control and sample groups. CoCrcad exhibited the best value of passive fit (48.76±13.45 µm) and CoCrci the worst (187.55±103.63 µm); Zircad presented an intermediate value (103.81±43.15 µm). When compared to the other groups, CoCrci showed the highest average stress around the implants (17.19±7.22 kPa). It was concluded that CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks exhibited better passivity compared with conventionally fabricated frameworks. CAD/CAM-fabricated Co-Cr frameworks may exhibit better passive fit compared with CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks. Even so, similar levels of stress were achieved for CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks. PMID:26200153

  8. Fracture resistance and microleakage of endocrowns utilizing three CAD-CAM blocks.

    PubMed

    El-Damanhoury, H M; Haj-Ali, R N; Platt, J A

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed marginal leakage and fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) fabricated ceramic crowns with intracoronal extensions into the pulp chambers of endodontically treated teeth (endocrowns) using either feldspathic porcelain (CEREC Blocks [CB], Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim, Germany), lithium disilicate (e.max [EX], Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), or resin nanoceramic (Lava Ultimate [LU], 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA).). Thirty extracted human permanent maxillary molars were endodontically treated. Standardized preparations were done with 2-mm intracoronal extensions of the endocrowns into the pulp chamber. Teeth were divided into three groups (n=10); each group was restored with standardized CAD/CAM fabricated endocrowns using one of the three tested materials. After cementation with resin cement, specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for one week, subjected to thermocycling, and immersed in a 5% methylene-blue dye solution for 24 hours. A compressive load was applied at 35 degrees to long axis of the teeth using a universal testing machine until failure. Failure load was recorded, and specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope for modes of failure and microleakage. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). LU showed significantly (p<0.05) higher fracture resistance and more favorable fracture mode (ie, fracture of the endocrown without fracture of tooth) as well as higher dye penetration than CB and EX. In conclusion, although using resin nanoceramic blocks for fabrication of endocrowns may result in better fracture resistance and a more favorable fracture mode than other investigated ceramic blocks, more microleakage may be expected with this material. PMID:25268039

  9. Effects of offset values for artificial teeth positions in CAD/CAM complete denture.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinta; Kanazawa, Manabu; Iwaki, Maiko; Jokanovic, Ana; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2014-09-01

    Recently, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has been applied to the field of removable complete denture prosthodontics. We developed a system for fabricating complete dentures applying CAD/CAM technology. In this system, artificial teeth were bonded to the recesses of a milled denture base. However, the offset values needed for the recesses are not known. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of bonded artificial teeth positions in 0.00 (control), 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25mm offset recess groups. Four types of artificial teeth, upper left central incisor (UL1), upper left canine (UL3), upper left first premolar (UL4), and upper left first molar (UL6), were used. Each type of artificial tooth was arranged at regular intervals on the denture base model with the CAD software. These data were defined as the master data. The artificial teeth parts were subtracted from the denture base model by Boolean logic operations in order to make recesses, and the recesses were then offset in five values. Based on these denture base data, prepolymerized resin blocks were milled (n=3). After bonding artificial teeth on the milled denture base model, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan was performed to obtain scanned data. Deviations between the master data and the scanned data were calculated. Based on the results, the optimal offset values were found to be 0.15-0.25mm for UL1, 0.15 and 0.25mm for UL3, 0.25mm for UL4, and 0.10-0.25mm for UL6. PMID:24981734

  10. 5 Axes computer aided laser milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccolini, G.; Orazi, L.; Fortunato, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper a 5 axes CAM procedure for the laser milling of free form surfaces has been developed and experimentally verified. The laser beam is deflected by a galvanometric scanning head and is directly moved on the working surface by the CNC controlled axes of a machine center. The procedure has been implemented in a software called CALM (computer aided laser manufacturing) able to generate the laser paths and the movements of the controlled axes reducing the defects on the workpiece. The approach is based on the sequential overlapping of the scanning passes on the working area. The different working areas in every laser displacement are obtained directly from the triangulation of the whole surface to machine.

  11. ChemCam video footage

    NASA Video Gallery

    ChemCam is a rock-zapping laser instrument that can hit rocks with a laser then observes the flash through a telescope and analyzes the spectrum of light to identify the chemical elements in the ta...

  12. Time to Talk about CAM

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section CAM Time to Talk Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... helps to ensure your coordinated, safe care. NCCAM's Time to Talk program is just right for talking ...

  13. Fabricating a tooth- and implant-supported maxillary obturator for a patient after maxillectomy with computer-guided surgery and CAD/CAM technology: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kwantae; Pae, Ahran; Lee, Jung-Woo; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2016-05-01

    An obturator prosthesis with insufficient retention and support may be improved with implant placement. However, implant surgery in patients after maxillary tumor resection can be complicated because of limited visibility and anatomic complexity. Therefore, computer-guided surgery can be advantageous even for experienced surgeons. In this clinical report, the use of computer-guided surgery is described for implant placement using a bone-supported surgical template for a patient with maxillary defects. The prosthetic procedure was facilitated and simplified by using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology. Oral function and phonetics were restored using a tooth- and implant-supported obturator prosthesis. No clinical symptoms and no radiographic signs of significant bone loss around the implants were found at a 3-year follow-up. The treatment approach presented here can be a viable option for patients with insufficient remaining zygomatic bone after a hemimaxillectomy. PMID:26774316

  14. Cam-controlled boring bar

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  15. 3D virtual planning in orthognathic surgery and CAD/CAM surgical splints generation in one patient with craniofacial microsomia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Francisco; Scherzberg, Jessica; Cavaleiro, João; Sanz, David; Caramelo, Francisco; Maló, Luísa; Marcelino, João Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this case report, the feasibility and precision of tridimensional (3D) virtual planning in one patient with craniofacial microsomia is tested using Nemoceph 3D-OS software (Software Nemotec SL, Madrid, Spain) to predict postoperative outcomes on hard tissue and produce CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) surgical splints. Methods: The clinical protocol consists of 3D data acquisition of the craniofacial complex by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and surface scanning of the plaster dental casts. The ''virtual patient'' created underwent virtual surgery and a simulation of postoperative results on hard tissues. Surgical splints were manufactured using CAD/CAM technology in order to transfer the virtual surgical plan to the operating room. Intraoperatively, both CAD/CAM and conventional surgical splints are comparable. A second set of 3D images was obtained after surgery to acquire linear measurements and compare them with measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results virtually. Results: It was found a high similarity between both types of surgical splints with equal fitting on the dental arches. The linear measurements presented some discrepancies between the actual surgical outcomes and the predicted results from the 3D virtual simulation, but caution must be taken in the analysis of these results due to several variables. Conclusions: The reported case confirms the clinical feasibility of the described computer-assisted orthognathic surgical protocol. Further progress in the development of technologies for 3D image acquisition and improvements on software programs to simulate postoperative changes on soft tissue are required. PMID:27007767

  16. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 872.3661 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../CAM. (a) Identification. An optical impression system for computer assisted design and manufacturing... stone models by analog or digital methods for use in the computer-assisted design and manufacturing...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 872.3661 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../CAM. (a) Identification. An optical impression system for computer assisted design and manufacturing... stone models by analog or digital methods for use in the computer-assisted design and manufacturing...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 872.3661 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.../CAM. (a) Identification. An optical impression system for computer assisted design and manufacturing... stone models by analog or digital methods for use in the computer-assisted design and manufacturing...

  19. CAD/CAM for optomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haiguang; Han, Min

    2003-10-01

    We focus at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. The software can be used for training and education. We introduce mechanical CAD, optical CAD and electrical CAD, we show how to draw a circuit diagram, mechanical diagram and luminous transmission diagram, from 2D drawing to 3D drawing. We introduce how to create 2D and 3D parts for optomechatronics, how to edit tool paths, how to select parameters for process, how to run the post processor, dynamic show the tool path and generate the CNC programming. We introduce the joint application of CAD&CAM. We aim at how to match the requirement of optical, mechanical and electronics.

  20. 3D planning in orthognathic surgery: CAD/CAM surgical splints and prediction of the soft and hard tissues results - our experience in 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Hosn Centenero, Samir; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the advantages of 3D planning in predicting postoperative results and manufacturing surgical splints using CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) technology in orthognathic surgery when the software program Simplant OMS 10.1 (Materialise(®), Leuven, Belgium) was used for the purpose of this study which was carried out on 16 patients. A conventional preoperative treatment plan was devised for each patient following our Centre's standard protocol, and surgical splints were manufactured. These splints were used as study controls. The preoperative treatment plans devised were then transferred to a 3D-virtual environment on a personal computer (PC). Surgery was simulated, the prediction of results on soft and hard tissue produced, and surgical splints manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. In the operating room, both types of surgical splints were compared and the degree of similitude in results obtained in three planes was calculated. The maxillary osteotomy line was taken as the point of reference. The level of concordance was used to compare the surgical splints. Three months after surgery a second set of 3D images were obtained and used to obtain linear and angular measurements on screen. Using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient these postoperative measurements were compared with the measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results. Results showed that a high degree of correlation in 15 of the 16 cases. A high coefficient of correlation was obtained in the majority of predictions of results in hard tissue, although less precise results were obtained in measurements in soft tissue in the labial area. The study shows that the software program used in the study is reliable for 3D planning and for the manufacture of surgical splints using CAD/CAM technology. Nevertheless, further progress in the development of technologies for the acquisition of 3D images, new versions of software programs

  1. Scleroderma, Stress and CAM Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Michael Francis; Brodsky, Marc; Tafur, Joe; Kim Ho, Mai

    2009-01-01

    Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease influenced by interplay among genetic and environmental factors, of which one is stress. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used to treat stress and those diseases in which stress has been implicated. Results are presented from a survey of patients with scleroderma. Respondents were a convenient sample of those attending a national conference in Las Vegas in 2002. Findings implicate stress in the onset, continuation and exacerbation of scleroderma. The implication is that CAM providers may be filling an important patient need in their provision of services that identify and treat stress and its related disorders. PMID:18955259

  2. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  3. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim (Sunny), Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model. PMID:24899895

  4. Finite element analysis to study the effects of using CAD/CAM glass-fiber post system in a severely damaged anterior tooth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aijie; Feng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Ruoyu; Shao, Longquan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stress distribution of a severely damaged maxillary anterior tooth restored with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) glass-fiber post system. Twelve models were fabricated with different alveolar bone levels and cervical dentin wall thicknesses and studied using a two-dimensional finite element method. A force of 100 N was applied to the lingual surface of the crown at 45 degrees, and the maximum von Mises stress was calculated. A higher stress level was observed in the dentin than in the post and crown. With the reduction of dentin thickness, the maximum von Mises stress in the dentin increased slightly to a peak at a thickness of 1.5 mm, followed by a slight decrease at a thickness of 1.0 mm. However, the relative ratio (RR) values did not show a large difference (RR > 80%). Meanwhile, a large difference in RR values was observed with a change in bone level (RR < 80%). When using a CAD/CAM glass-fiber post system, the maximal von Mises stress was significantly affected by the bone level, rather than by the dentin thickness. Moreover, this system may be applied to the treatment of a maxillary anterior tooth with a bone level of only 2/3. PMID:26406043

  5. Dental Wings CAD/CAM system precision: an internal and marginal fit sperimental analisys

    PubMed Central

    SANNINO, G.; GLORIA, F.; SCHIAVETTI, R.; OTTRIA, L.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Statement of problem. The CAD-CAM technology has been developed to design and manufacture prosthetic structures with constant quality characteristics; in fact procedures are codified, manageable and repeatable. Purpose. The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate the internal and marginal gap of zirconia casts made with a new CAD-CAM systematic that use Dental Wings laser scanner and Yenamak milling machine. Material and methods. 6 analogs of solid abutments of Straumann implants were used, fixed in plexiglass bases. The samples were scanned by Dental Wings laser; the file obtained by scanning of each probe was sent to the Yenamak D40 milling machine, then the casts were sintered in Protherm furnace. Then 6 samples were cemented with resin luting agent capsules (Relyx Unicem, 3M ESPE). The samples were incorporated in transparent epoxy resin. After resin hardening, the cylinders obtained were cut with a microtomes. These slices thus obtained were then polished with a Polisher sander with alumina dust decreasing grain. Each section was observed and photographed in reflected light with the aid of an optic microscope type, first at low magnification and then at higher magnification. Results. The overall average fitting of copings on the abutments was 32,87 μ. No differences were found in marginal fit on buccal and lingual sides, it was easily predictable because of the standard form of the used stumps. The recorded values for the marginal fit were lower than those of axial walls. The accuracy of adaptation was always achieved within the limits of clinical acceptability. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the system evaluated represents a valuable alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation techniques. PMID:23285364

  6. Monolithic Lithium Disilicate Full-Contour Crowns Bonded on CAD/CAM Zirconia Complete-Arch Implant Bridges With 3 to 5 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Alessandro; Tallarico, Marco; Barlattani, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried on to assess the clinical performance of a novel restorative concept consisting in single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia complete-arch implant bridges, to overcome the drawbacks related to the chipping of porcelain fused to zirconia restorations. Sixteen patients received 18 implant-supported hybrid screw-cement-retained complete-arch restorations, consisting of single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks. The restorations were supported by 4-8 implants. All patients were followed up for at least 3 years on function (range 36 to 60 months, mean 49.3 months). Clinical controls were scheduled every 4 months. The outcomes were implant and prosthetic survival and success rates, any complications, patient satisfaction, and soft tissue parameters. No dropouts occurred. The overall implant and prosthesis survival rates were 100%. One of 18 restorations (1 of 236 dental units) showed a chip-off fracture of the veneering ceramic that was polished intraorally without any additional treatment, scoring a cumulative prosthetic success rate of 100%, according to the California Dental Association index. All patients were functionally and esthetically highly satisfied with their restorations. Successful soft tissue parameters were found around all implants. Single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns, bonded on CAD/CAM screw-retained complete-arch zirconia frameworks, showed favorable preliminary outcomes with medium-term follow-up. However, randomized controlled studies of this technique are required for further conclusive recommendations. PMID:24188105

  7. Guided implant surgery with placement of a presurgical CAD/CAM patient-specific abutment and provisional in the esthetic zone.

    PubMed

    Mandelaris, George A; Vlk, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Parallel use of implant treatment planning software and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can, using certain criteria, consolidate steps and streamline tooth replacement strategies. The authors describe such a case in the esthetic zone whereby flapless extraction and immediate implant placement using CT-guided surgery were performed simultaneously, with placement of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) patient-specific abutment and non-occlusal function provisional in a single visit (supporting the "one-abutment, one-time" concept). An over-retained primary cuspid in a periodontally healthy woman with well-controlled type-2 diabetes was replaced with an implant and CAD/CAM patient-specific abutment in the No. 11 position. A necessary implant-axis angle correction was customized using digital information from a CBCT scan and implant treatment planning software, without the need for site development or a conventional impression. This data integration and streamlined workflow enabled fabrication of a CAD/CAM patient-specific abutment before surgical treatment. The abutment remained in place from implant surgery to the prosthetic phase, with minimal soft-tissue changes, enabling preservation of pink esthetics and expediting treatment. The result was a preserved emergence profile in the presence of high esthetic demands. However, due to slight post-extraction soft-tissue changes, digital reformatting of the abutment was required when the final crown was fabricated, thus limiting the disruption of the biologic width to a one-time occurrence. The importance of case selection for this treatment protocol in the esthetic zone cannot be overemphasized. A thick crestal dentoalveolar bone phenotype (> 1 mm, approaching 2 mm in this case), broad zone of attached and keratinized gingiva (3 mm to 4 mm in this case), adequate peri-implant soft-tissue thickness (> 1 mm in this case), and high primary implant stability (ISQ = 80 in this case) were all

  8. FMS: The New Wave of Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are described as a marriage of all of the latest technologies--robotics, numerical control, CAD/CAM (computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing), etc.--into a cost-efficient, optimized production process yielding the greatest flexibility in making various parts. A typical curriculum to teach FMS…

  9. Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants: powerful tools for unravelling the functional elements of CAM photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2014-07-01

    Facultative crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) describes the optional use of CAM photosynthesis, typically under conditions of drought stress, in plants that otherwise employ C3 or C4 photosynthesis. In its cleanest form, the upregulation of CAM is fully reversible upon removal of stress. Reversibility distinguishes facultative CAM from ontogenetically programmed unidirectional C3-to-CAM shifts inherent in constitutive CAM plants. Using mainly measurements of 24h CO2 exchange, defining features of facultative CAM are highlighted in five terrestrial species, Clusia pratensis, Calandrinia polyandra, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Portulaca oleracea and Talinum triangulare. For these, we provide detailed chronologies of the shifts between photosynthetic modes and comment on their usefulness as experimental systems. Photosynthetic flexibility is also reviewed in an aquatic CAM plant, Isoetes howellii. Through comparisons of C3 and CAM states in facultative CAM species, many fundamental biochemical principles of the CAM pathway have been uncovered. Facultative CAM species will be of even greater relevance now that new sequencing technologies facilitate the mapping of genomes and tracking of the expression patterns of multiple genes. These technologies and facultative CAM systems, when joined, are expected to contribute in a major way towards our goal of understanding the essence of CAM. PMID:24642847

  10. Low-cost Design and Manufacturing of Surgical Guides for Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Fibula

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hiroko; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Nishino, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical cutting guides are used in mandibular reconstruction involving osteotomy of the mandible and fibula. Cutting guides produced using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies have been reported recently. These guides aim to increase the benefits to patients by improving the accuracy, shortening the operating time, and correcting occlusion. However, the availability of these advanced technologies is limited in some regions of the world. To test whether we could produce low-cost surgical cutting guides, we made surgical guides and investigated their accuracy. Methods: Using free CAD software, we designed surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual mandibular segmental osteotomies and fibula transplants in 12 model surgeries. The cutting guides were printed on a 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The model surgeries were performed using 3D mandibular models and cutting guides to check their accuracy. Deviations between the virtually simulated plan and the actual model surgery were investigated. Results: CAD and CAM technologies were used to design and 3D print the cutting guides and models. The guided surgeries were performed. The deviations were about 1.3 mm for mandibular osteotomy, less than 1 mm for fibular osteotomy, and within 2.4 mm for reconstructions of the mandible. Conclusions: Without using expensive software or products, we were able to design surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual simulation of mandibular segmental osteotomy and fibular reconstruction. Model surgeries using 3D-printed surgical guides showed that the accuracy of reconstruction was within a 3-mm deviation. In circumstances where commercial CAD/CAM guides are not available, it may be possible to use CAD/CAM surgical guides in the clinic if doctors are willing to volunteer their time for the design and printing. PMID:27536484

  11. Classroom Experiences in an Engineering Design Graphics Course with a CAD/CAM Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald E.; Juricic, Davor

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the development of a new CAD/CAM laboratory experience for an Engineering Design Graphics (EDG) course. The EDG curriculum included freehand sketching, introduction to Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD), and emphasized 3-D solid modeling. Reviews the project and reports on the testing of the new laboratory components which were…

  12. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  13. Experimental Study on Revetec Engine Cam Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohyeldin Gasim, Maisara; Giok Chui, Lee; Anwar, Khirul Azhar bin

    2012-09-01

    In Revetec engine (three-lobed) cam replaces the crankshaft to convert the reciprocating motion of the engine piston, to a rotating motion in the drive line. Since the cam controls the piston movement, the cam profile has a great effect on engine performance. In this paper an experimental study was done to a (three- lobed) cam with Cycloidal motion profile but with different ratios between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower. DEWESoft was used to find the displacement and the vibration of the piston, and compare the actual results from the test with the theoretical results from the cam profile equation. The results showed that there is a periods of miss contact between the follower and the cam when the ratio between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower is less than a certain value, and also increasing of vibration. The suggested ratio between the cam and follower radius is to be more than 2:1.

  14. JunoCam: Science and Outreach Opportunities with Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft en route to Jupiter. Although the primary role of the camera is for outreach, science objectives will be addressed too. JunoCam is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm. Juno's elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with a spatial scale of ~50 km/pixel. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color mages of the aurora will be acquired. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloudtop heights. Resolution exceeds that of Cassini about an hour from closest approach and at closest approach images will have a spatial scale of ~3 km/pixel. JunoCam is a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft. The use of time-delayed integration takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to build up signal. JunoCam will acquire limb-to-limb views of Jupiter during a spacecraft rotation, and has the possibility of acquiring images of the rings from in-between Jupiter and the inner edge of the rings. Galilean satellite views will be fairly distant but some images will be acquired. Small ring moons Metis and Adrastea will also be imaged. The theme of our outreach is "science in a fish bowl", with an invitation to the science community and the public to participate. Amateur astronomers will supply their ground-based images for planning, so that we can predict when prominent atmospheric features will be visible. With the aid of professional astronomers observing at infrared wavelengths, we'll predict when hot spots will be visible to JunoCam. Amateur image processing enthusiasts are prepared to create image products. Between the planning and products will be the decision-making on what images to take when and why. We invite our colleagues to propose science questions for JunoCam to address, and to be part of the participatory process of deciding how to use

  15. Consequences of systematic model drift in DYNAMO MJO hindcasts with SP-CAM and CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Walter M.; Maloney, Eric D.; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2015-09-01

    Hindcast simulations of MJO events during the dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign are conducted with two models, one with conventional parameterization (CAM5) and a comparable model that utilizes superparameterization (SP-CAM). SP-CAM is shown to produce a qualitatively better reproduction of the fluctuations of precipitation and low-level zonal wind associated with the first two DYNAMO MJO events compared to CAM5. Interestingly, skill metrics using the real-time multivariate MJO index (RMM) suggest the opposite conclusion that CAM5 has more skill than SP-CAM. This inconsistency can be explained by a systematic increase of RMM amplitude with lead time, which results from a drift of the large-scale wind field in SP-CAM that projects strongly onto the RMM index. CAM5 hindcasts exhibit a contraction of the moisture distribution, in which extreme wet and dry conditions become less frequent with lead time. SP-CAM hindcasts better reproduce the observed moisture distribution, but also have stronger drift patterns of moisture budget terms, such as an increase in drying by meridional advection in SP-CAM. This advection tendency in SP-CAM appears to be associated with enhanced off-equatorial synoptic eddy activity with lead time. Systematic drift moisture tendencies in SP-CAM are of similar magnitude to intraseasonal moisture tendencies, and therefore are important for understanding MJO prediction skill.

  16. "High-precision, reconstructed 3D model" of skull scanned by conebeam CT: Reproducibility verified using CAD/CAM data.

    PubMed

    Katsumura, Seiko; Sato, Keita; Ikawa, Tomoko; Yamamura, Keiko; Ando, Eriko; Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning has recently been introduced into forensic medicine and dentistry. However, the presence of metal restorations in the dentition can adversely affect the quality of three-dimensional reconstruction from CT scans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of a "high-precision, reconstructed 3D model" obtained from a conebeam CT scan of dentition, a method that might be particularly helpful in forensic medicine. We took conebeam CT and helical CT images of three dry skulls marked with 47 measuring points; reconstructed three-dimensional images; and measured the distances between the points in the 3D images with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) marker. We found that in comparison with the helical CT, conebeam CT is capable of reproducing measurements closer to those obtained from the actual samples. In conclusion, our study indicated that the image-reproduction from a conebeam CT scan was more accurate than that from a helical CT scan. Furthermore, the "high-precision reconstructed 3D model" facilitates reliable visualization of full-sized oral and maxillofacial regions in both helical and conebeam CT scans. PMID:26832374

  17. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  18. Ecophysiology of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    LÜTTGE, ULRICH

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Scope Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) as an ecophysiological modification of photosynthetic carbon acquisition has been reviewed extensively before. Cell biology, enzymology and the flow of carbon along various pathways and through various cellular compartments have been well documented and discussed. The present attempt at reviewing CAM once again tries to use a different approach, considering a wide range of inputs, receivers and outputs. • Input Input is given by a network of environmental parameters. Six major ones, CO2, H2O, light, temperature, nutrients and salinity, are considered in detail, which allows discussion of the effects of these factors, and combinations thereof, at the individual plant level (‘physiological aut‐ecology’). • Receivers Receivers of the environmental cues are the plant types genotypes and phenotypes, the latter including morphotypes and physiotypes. CAM genotypes largely remain ‘black boxes’, and research endeavours of genomics, producing mutants and following molecular phylogeny, are just beginning. There is no special development of CAM morphotypes except for a strong tendency for leaf or stem succulence with large cells with big vacuoles and often, but not always, special water storage tissues. Various CAM physiotypes with differing degrees of CAM expression are well characterized. • Output Output is the shaping of habitats, ecosystems and communities by CAM. A number of systems are briefly surveyed, namely aquatic systems, deserts, salinas, savannas, restingas, various types of forests, inselbergs and paramós. • Conclusions While quantitative census data for CAM diversity and biomass are largely missing, intuition suggests that the larger CAM domains are those systems which are governed by a network of interacting stress factors requiring versatile responses and not systems where a single stress factor strongly prevails. CAM is noted to be a strategy for variable, flexible and plastic

  19. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  20. Low Back Pain and CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section CAM Low Back Pain and CAM Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of ... from CAM treatment for conditions such as low back pain. Photo courtesy of Glenn Scimonelli "Oh, my aching ...

  1. Cam-Operated Pitch-Change Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, P. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A pitch-change apparatus for a ducted thrust fan having a plurality of variable pitch blades employs a camming ring mounted coaxially at the hub at an axially fixed station along the hub axis for rotation about the hub axis both with the blades and relative to the blades. The ring has a generally spherical outer periphery and a plurality of helical camming grooves extending in a generally spherical plane on the periphery. Each of the variable pitch blades is connected to a pitch-change horn having a cam follower mounted on its outer end, and the camming ring and the horns are so arranged about the hub axis that the plurality of followers on the horns engage respectively the plurality of helical camming grooves. Rotary drive means rotates the camming ring relative to the blades to cause blade pitch to be changed through the cooperative operation of the camming grooves on the ring and the cam followers on the pitch-change horns.

  2. Comparisons of Wilson-Fowler and Parametric Cubic Splines with the Curve-Fitting Algorithms of Several Computer-Aided Design Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birchler, W.D.; Schilling, S.A.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that modern computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be used in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) to design new and remodel old products, fabricate old and new parts, and reproduce legacy data within the inspection uncertainty limits. In this study, two two-dimensional splines are compared with several modern CAD curve-fitting modeling algorithms. The first curve-fitting algorithm is called the Wilson-Fowler Spline (WFS), and the second is called a parametric cubic spline (PCS). Modern CAD systems usually utilize either parametric cubic and/or B-splines.

  3. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1997-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface system. The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and/or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  4. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1996-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the Computer Aided Grid Interface system (CAGI). The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and / or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  5. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  6. 4D PhaseCam(Trade Mark) Capabilities: Modal Analysis and Multiple-Wavelength Mirror Phasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millerd, James E.; Hayes, John B.; Schmucker, Mark; Eng, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The PhaseCam is a dynamic phase shifting interferometer system manufactured by 4D Technology Corporation that is capable of very fast data acquisition. This rapid acquisition extends the capability of conventional interferometry to enable measurement in unstable environments, the generation of phase movies of surface shape and to facilitate modal analysis of structures. The PhaseCam hardware and software have been modified for MSFC to include synchronous modal optical measurement and analysis. These modifications will be discussed and data presented. The dynamic range of a phase shifting measurement is limited by local slope and pixel sampling to lambda/4 wave steps. Two-wavelength techniques can increase the effective measurement wavelength from microns to tens of centimeters and permit the phasing of mirror segments. A two wavelength PhaseCam will be discussed and measurement results presented.

  7. Dentistry a la carte: in-office CAD/CAM technology.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Parag R; Geissberger, Marc J

    2010-05-01

    This article examines the differences among four in-office computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing restorative technologies. Two acquisition media systems, 3M ESPE's Lava COS and Cadent's iTero, are compared and contrasted. Additionally, two acquisition and manufacturing media, Sirona's CEREC AC and D4D's E4D, are examined. Image acquisition techniques and cast fabrication methodologies are compared between Lava COS and iTero. In addition, image acquisition, cast fabrication, and restoration fabrication methodologies are discussed as related to CEREC AC and E4D. Strategies for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing incorporation into practice are explored. PMID:20572526

  8. Results from the CAMS video network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.

    2016-01-01

    A status report is given on results from the CAMS meteoroid orbit and meteoroid spectroscopy survey. The survey detected some 230 meteor showers and shower components throughout the year. 70 of these are already in the IAU list of Established Meteor Showers, after 26 were verified by CAMS. An additional 55 previously known showers in need of confirmation were also validated. 19 new shower components were identified that are still in need of validation. 86 new showers were discovered, 54 of which were also found present in the SonotaCo meteoroid orbit database. There are ongoing efforts to expand the CAMS survey to sites spread in latitude and longitude.

  9. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, L. W.; Way, J. D.; Vlasse, M.

    2001-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project will develop, test, and analyze membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The CAM technology will enable passive separation of these gases, allow energy efficient acquisition and purification of these important resources, and lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. The CAM membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP).

  10. [The synergy of radiology and CAD/CAM].

    PubMed

    van der Meer, W J

    2016-04-01

    For treatment planning purposes, data acquired with cone-beam computer tomography and data from other three-dimensional imaging techniques can be combined in a single dataset. With the aid of this combined dataset extensive treatment planning and prosthetic solutions can be realised. The planning and production of the definitive prosthetic solution can then be accomplished using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technologies. These technological developments are expected to play an increasingly significant role for chair-side solutions. PMID:27073810

  11. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  12. Spectroelectrochemistry of cytochrome P450cam.

    PubMed

    Bistolas, Nikitas; Christenson, Andreas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Jung, Christiane; Scheller, Frieder W; Wollenberger, Ulla

    2004-02-13

    The spectroelectrochemistry of camphor-bound cytochrome P450cam (P450cam) using gold electrodes is described. The electrodes were modified with either 4,4(')-dithiodipyridin or sodium dithionite. Electrolysis of P450cam was carried out when the enzyme was in solution, while at the same time UV-visible absorption spectra were recorded. Reversible oxidation and reduction could be observed with both 4,4(')-dithiodipyridin and dithionite modified electrodes. A formal potential (E(0')) of -373mV vs Ag/AgCl 1M KCl was determined. The spectra of P450cam complexed with either carbon monoxide or metyrapone, both being inhibitors of P450 catalysis, clearly indicated that the protein retained its native state in the electrochemical cell during electrolysis. PMID:14741708

  13. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  14. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-05-13

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from `H` and `F` area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system.

  15. Advanced CNC Programming (EZ-CAM). 439-366.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Joe

    This document contains two units for an advanced course in computer numerical control (CNC) for computer-aided manufacturing. It is intended to familiarize students with the principles and techniques necessary to create proper CNC programs using computer software. Each unit consists of an introduction, instructional objectives, learning materials,…

  16. Statistical Shape Modeling of Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Michael D.; Dater, Manasi; Whitaker, Ross; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Peters, Christopher L.; Anderson, Andrew E.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to quantify three-dimensional (3D) variation and morphologic differences between femurs with and without cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D surfaces were generated from CT scans of femurs from 41 controls and 30 cam FAI patients. SSM correspondence particles were optimally positioned on each surface using a gradient descent energy function. Mean shapes for control and patient groups were defined from the resulting particle configurations. Morphological differences between group mean shapes and between the control mean and individual patients were calculated. Principal component analysis was used to describe anatomical variation present in both groups. The first 6 modes (or principal components) captured statistically significant shape variations, which comprised 84% of cumulative variation among the femurs. Shape variation was greatest in femoral offset, greater trochanter height, and the head-neck junction. The mean cam femur shape protruded above the control mean by a maximum of 3.3 mm with sustained protrusions of 2.5-3.0 mm along the anterolateral head-neck junction and distally along the anterior neck, corresponding well with reported cam lesion locations and soft-tissue damage. This study provides initial evidence that SSM can describe variations in femoral morphology in both controls and cam FAI patients and may be useful for developing new measurements of pathological anatomy. SSM may also be applied to characterize cam FAI severity and provide templates to guide patient-specific surgical resection of bone.

  17. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  18. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Dana J; Meeker, William C

    2007-01-01

    Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine. PMID:17241465

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Competencies of Nursing Students and Faculty: Results of Integrating CAM Into the Nursing Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Scott, Craig S.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.; Cornman, B. Jane; Lan, Ming-Chih; Bond, Eleanor F.; Swanson, Kristen M.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) R25 Education Grant Program, a faculty development program for integrating CAM into the nursing curriculum was instituted in 2003-2006. The Integrating CAM program comprised a number of elements; the primary strategy included a series of 4-week didactic and experiential summer CAM “camps,” attended by a total of 27 faculty members. Camps were designed to influence faculty integration of CAM material into course offerings. The Integrating CAM program was evaluated via a series of faculty and student surveys regarding CAM competencies, attitudes, and perceptions. For more than half of the faculty (out of the 43 who responded), the program yielded a moderate-to-strong influence on incorporation of CAM material into course content; and moderate-to-great increases in both enthusiasm for CAM and perceived CAM knowledge gains. Students at all levels (undergraduate, masters, doctoral; n = 184) reported that their courses contained CAM content; for 70% of students, their CAM knowledge increased; for 50% of students, level of CAM interest increased. Self-reported student CAM competencies were significantly greater in 2006-2007 (n = 191) than in 2003-2004 (n = 143). Results support the strategy of broadly infusing the nursing curriculum with CAM content via faculty development. PMID:20869029

  20. Utilizing optical coherence tomography for CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chityala, Ravishankar; Vidal, Carola; Jones, Robert

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has seen broad application in dentistry including early carious lesion detection and imaging defects in resin composite restorations. This study investigates expanding the clinical usefulness by investigating methods to use OCT for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) digital impressions, which can be integrated to CAD/CAM manufacturing of indirect restorations. 3D surface topography `before' and `after' a cavity preparation was acquired by an intraoral cross polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) system with a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) scanning mirror. Image registration and segmentation methods were used to digitally construct a replacement restoration that modeled the original surface morphology of a hydroxyapatite sample. After high resolution additive manufacturing (e.g. polymer 3D printing) of the replacement restoration, micro-CT imaging was performed to examine the marginal adaptation. This study establishes the protocol for further investigation of integrating OCT with CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations.

  1. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  2. Who Uses CAM? A Narrative Review of Demographic Characteristics and Health Factors Associated with CAM Use

    PubMed Central

    Lewith, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are used by an extensive number of patients in the UK and elsewhere. In order to understand this pattern of behavior, it is helpful to examine the characteristics of people who use CAM. This narrative review collates and evaluates the evidence concerning the demographic characteristics and health status factors associated with CAM use in community-based non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search of computerized databases was conducted, and published research papers which present evidence concerning associations between CAM use and demographic and health characteristics are discussed and evaluated. The evidence suggests that people who use CAM tend to be female, of middle age and have more education. In terms of their health, CAM users tend to have more than one medical condition, but might not be more likely than non-users to have specific conditions such as cancer or to rate their own general health as poor. The multivariate studies that have been conducted suggest that both demographic and health characteristics contribute independently to CAM use. In conclusion, demographic characteristics and factors related to an individual's health status are associated with CAM use. Future research is needed to address methodological limitations in existing studies. PMID:18955327

  3. Exploration of use of SenseCam to support autobiographical memory retrieval within a cognitive-behavioural therapeutic intervention following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Brindley, Rob; Bateman, Andrew; Gracey, Fergus

    2011-10-01

    Delivering effective psychotherapy to address the significant emotional consequences of acquired brain injury (ABI) is challenged by the presence of acquired cognitive impairments, especially retrieval of detailed autobiographical memories of emotional trigger events. Initial studies using a wearable camera (SenseCam) suggest long-term improvements in autobiographical retrieval of recorded events. In this study a single-case experimental design was implemented to explore the use of SenseCam as a memory aid for a man with a specific anxiety disorder and memory and executive difficulties following ABI. We predicted that SenseCam supported rehearsal of memories of events that trigger high levels of anxiety would yield improved retrieval of both factual detail and internal state information (thoughts and feelings) compared with a conventional psychotherapy aid (automatic thought record sheets, ATRs) and no strategy. The findings indicated SenseCam supported retrieval of anxiety trigger events was superior to ATRs or no strategy in terms of both detail and internal state information, with 94% of the information being recalled in the SenseCam condition, compared to 39% for the "no strategy" and 22% for the ATR conditions. It is concluded that SenseCam may be of use as a compensatory aid in psychotherapies relying on retrieval of emotionally salient trigger events. PMID:20635299

  4. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  5. Advanced CNC and CAM Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level positions as advanced computer numerical control (CNC) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) technicians.. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM…

  6. Impact of SenseCam on memory, identity and mood in Korsakoff's syndrome: a single case experimental design study.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Jenny; Evans, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of SenseCam, a wearable, automatic camera, on subjective mood and identity in a patient with severe memory impairment due to Korsakoff's syndrome. It was hypothesised that SenseCam would improve Ms A's mood and identity through enhancing recall of autobiographical memories of recent events, therefore supporting a coherent sense of self; the lack of which was contributing to Ms A's mood deterioration. An ABA single case experimental design investigated whether using SenseCam to record regular activities impacted on Ms A's mood and identity. Ms A experienced improved recall for events recorded using SenseCam, and showed improvement on subjective ratings of identity. However, a corresponding improvement in mood was not seen, and the study was ended early at Ms A's request. Qualitative information was gathered to explore Ms A's experience of the study, and investigate psychosocial factors that may have impacted on the use of SenseCam. SenseCam may be of significant use as a compensatory memory aid for people with Korsakoff's syndrome and other types of alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD), but acceptance of memory impairment and consistent support may be among the factors required to support the use of such assistive technologies in a community setting. PMID:24131241

  7. Computer-aided process preparation for printed wiring boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, K. D.

    1981-11-01

    A pilot computer project using CAD-CAM software, and a graphics terminal which intergrates design, process preparation, and manufactures printed wiring boards through automation is described. A CAD-CAM data base was used to compare critical design features to statistical process models to predict yield before production begins. The onscreen display of digital design definitions is shown to contribute to greater, more predictable and reliable yields for complex multilayer and double sided designs. It is indicated that use of computer graphics and CAD-CAM software to fabricate printed wiring boards increases accuracy of yield and reduces engineering time required for manual procedures.

  8. Coated Feedstock for Fabrication of Ceramic Parts by CAM-LEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhien; Suppakarn, N.; Cawley, James D.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In laminated object manufacturing of ceramic components, lamination is one of the most important materials issues. Good lamination ensures monolithic component after firing. Otherwise, lamination defects that inevitably will occur in the parts will affect the properties of ceramic components. Adhesive (both liquid and non-liquid) lamination processes were developed for the cut-then-stack (CAM-LEM) procedure. The non-liquid adhesive lamination is discussed in detail.

  9. Feature representation product model for a progressive die CAD/CAM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaowen; Ying, Daoning; Wang, Erjian

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, a product data model for progressive die CAD/CAM system is introduced. A special form feature representation model is proposed as part of a product data model to improve design representation. The features are defined as a form feature tree associated with various types of technical constraints such as tolerance and relations for supporting the integration of solid modeling and manufacturing applications. Several examples are presented to illustrate the model and its applications.

  10. CAM and cell fate targeting: molecular and energetic insights into cell growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Carlo

    2005-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine is switching from the analysis of single diseases at a time toward an integrated assessment of a diseased person. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers multiple holistic approaches, including osteopathy, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and energy medicine and meditation, all potentially impacting on major human diseases. It is now becoming evident that acupuncture can modify the expression of different endorphin genes and the expression of genes encoding for crucial transcription factors in cellular homeostasis. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields have been found to prime the commitment to a myocardial lineage in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that magnetic energy may direct stem cell differentiation into specific cellular phenotypes without the aid of gene transfer technologies. This finding may pave the way to novel approaches in tissue engineering and regeneration. Different ginseng extracts have been shown to modulate growth and differentiation in pluripotent cells and to exert wound-healing and antitumor effects through opposing activities on the vascular system, prompting the hypothesis that ancient compounds may be the target for new logics in cell therapy. These observations and the subtle entanglement among different CAM systems suggest that CAM modalities may deeply affect both the signaling and transcriptional level of cellular homeostasis. Such a perception holds promises for a new era in CAM, prompting reproducible documentation of biological responses to CAM-related strategies and compounds. To this end, functional genomics and proteomics and the comprehension of the cell signaling networks may substantially contribute to the development of a molecular evidence-based CAM. PMID:16136206

  11. Development of manufacturing technologies for hard optical ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott; Cahill, Mike; Wolfs, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, or PCA can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Premature tool wear or tool loading during the grinding process is a common result of these tough mechanical properties. Another challenge is the requirement to create geometries that conform to the platforms they reside in, but still achieve optical window tolerances for wavefront. These shapes can be complex and require new technologies to control sub aperture finishing techniques in a deterministic fashion. In this paper we will present three technologies developed at OptiPro Systems to address the challenges associated with these materials and complex geometries. The technologies presented will show how Ultrasonic grinding can reduce grinding load by up to 50%, UltraForm Finishing (UFF) and UltraSmooth Finishing (USF) technologies can accurately figure and finish these shapes, and how all of them can be controlled deterministically, with utilizing metrology feedback, by a new Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software package developed by OptiPro called ProSurf.

  12. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

  13. Using CAD/CAM to improve productivity - The IPAD approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in designing and implementing CAD/CAM systems as a result of the NASA Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design is discussed. Essential software packages have been identified as executive, data management, general user, and geometry and graphics software. Data communication, as a means to integrate data over a network of computers of different vendors, provides data management with the capability of meeting design and manufacturing requirements of the vendors. Geometry software is dependent on developmental success with solid geometry software, which is necessary for continual measurements of, for example, a block of metal while it is being machined. Applications in the aerospace industry, such as for design, analysis, tooling, testing, quality control, etc., are outlined.

  14. Using CAD/CAM to improve productivity - The IPAD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1981-11-01

    Progress in designing and implementing CAD/CAM systems as a result of the NASA Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design is discussed. Essential software packages have been identified as executive, data management, general user, and geometry and graphics software. Data communication, as a means to integrate data over a network of computers of different vendors, provides data management with the capability of meeting design and manufacturing requirements of the vendors. Geometry software is dependent on developmental success with solid geometry software, which is necessary for continual measurements of, for example, a block of metal while it is being machined. Applications in the aerospace industry, such as for design, analysis, tooling, testing, quality control, etc., are outlined.

  15. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Breillat, Christelle; Thoumine, Olivier; Choquet, Daniel . E-mail: Daniel.Choquet@pcs.u-bordeaux2.fr

    2007-08-03

    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane.

  16. Profiling 'centres of excellence' in CAM research.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, C

    2002-03-01

    Several 'centres of excellence' of research in complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) have emerged in recent years. This study represents an attempt to profile the most productive of these centres. Medline searches (1995-2001) were performed with a long list of individuals directing CAM research groups as key words. Eight of them (all male) had published in excess of 20 Medline-listed articles between 1995-2001, and this group was evaluated in further detail. Three originated from the US and two from the UK. Collectively this group had published 32 clinical trials, an equal number of surveys and 95 systematic reviews. The range of research subjects for most centres was narrow. It is concluded that several active CAM research centres are well established. Their output is variable and, in most cases, leave room for improvement. Probably because of funding difficulties, clinical trials remain rare. PMID:12442823

  17. Effectiveness of CAM therapy: understanding the evidence.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2011-02-01

    By definition, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) attempts to diagnose and treat illnesses in unconventional ways. CAM has been classified as: (1) alternative medical systems (eg, traditional Chinese medicine [including acupuncture], naturopathic medicine, ayurvedic medicine, and homeopathy); (2) biologic-based therapies (eg, herbal, special dietary, and individual biologic treatments); (3) energy therapies (eg, Reiki, therapeutic touch, magnet therapy, Qi Gong, and intercessory prayer); (4) manipulative and body-based systems (eg, chiropractic, osteopathy, and massage); and (5) mind-body interventions (eg, meditation, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and the relaxation response). This review focuses on how to assess the effectiveness of CAM therapies for chronic musculoskeletal pains, emphasizing the role of specific and nonspecific analgesic mechanisms, including placebo. PMID:21220082

  18. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  19. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  20. Georeferencing CAMS data: Polynomial rectification and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinghe

    The Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS) is a sensor used in the commercial remote sensing program at NASA Stennis Space Center. In geographic applications of the CAMS data, accurate geometric rectification is essential for the analysis of the remotely sensed data and for the integration of the data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The commonly used rectification techniques such as the polynomial transformation and ortho rectification have been very successful in the field of remote sensing and GIS for most remote sensing data such as Landsat imagery, SPOT imagery and aerial photos. However, due to the geometric nature of the airborne line scanner which has high spatial frequency distortions, the polynomial model and the ortho rectification technique in current commercial software packages such as Erdas Imagine are not adequate for obtaining sufficient geometric accuracy. In this research, the geometric nature, especially the major distortions, of the CAMS data has been described. An analytical step-by-step geometric preprocessing has been utilized to deal with the potential high frequency distortions of the CAMS data. A generic sensor-independent photogrammetric model has been developed for the ortho-rectification of the CAMS data. Three generalized kernel classes and directional elliptical basis have been formulated into a rectification model of summation of multisurface functions, which is a significant extension to the traditional radial basis functions. The preprocessing mechanism has been fully incorporated into the polynomial, the triangle-based finite element analysis as well as the summation of multisurface functions. While the multisurface functions and the finite element analysis have the characteristics of localization, piecewise logic has been applied to the polynomial and photogrammetric methods, which can produce significant accuracy improvement over the global approach. A software module has been implemented with full

  1. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  2. 54 Cam - A new variable star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.; Vaucher, C. A.; Eaton, J. A.; Henry, G. W.; Louth, H.; Skillman, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Differential photometry of the RS CVn-type binary 54 Cam is presented, which shows that the light was variable with a period of 10.163 + or - 0.009 d, and with an amplitude increase from 0.03 to 0.06 m between 1979 and 1980. The photometric period of 10.163 d is 9% shorter than the orbital period of 11.0764 d, and is suggested as an explanation for the radio emission from 54 Cam due to a process of connection, disruption, and reconnection of magnetic field lines.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use by Malaysian oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abdul Shatar, Aishah Knight; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Seang, Tan Boon; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam

    2012-05-01

    The current study sought to evaluate Malaysian oncology patients' decision making about the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for the management of their care. Patients were interviewed across three major Malaysian ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese and Indian. Thematic content analysis identified four central themes: Conceptualizing CAM, the decision making process; rationale given for selecting or rejecting CAM and barriers to CAM use. Participants generally used the term 'traditional medicine', referred to locally as 'ubat kampung', meaning medicine derived from 'local traditions'. Mixed reactions were shown concerning the effectiveness of CAM to cure cancer and the slow progression of CAM results and treatment costs were cited as major barriers to CAM use. Concerns regarding safety and efficacy of CAM in ameliorating cancer as well as potential interactions with conventional therapies highlighted the importance of patients' knowledge about cancer treatments. PMID:22500849

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Expanding Horizons of Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section CAM Expanding Horizons of Health Care Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... and why it is important to tell your health care providers about your use of CAM. We hope ...

  5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  6. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  7. Cam pully and cylinder head arrangement for an overhead cam engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, E.B.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes improvement in an air-cooled internal combustion engine. It includes a crankcase, a crankshaft disposed within the crankcase and extending externally of the crankcase, a cylinder extending from the crankcase and having a piston mounted for reciprocation therein and connected to the crankshaft, a cylinder head connected to the cylinder and including an overhead camshaft disposed therein, the camshaft extending externally of the cylinder head, a drive pulley mounted to the crankshaft externally of the crankcases, a cam pulley mounted to the camshaft externally of the cylinder head, drive means positively engaging the drive pulley and the cam pulley for transmitting rotary motion therebetween, and blower means driven by the crankshaft for drawing air in and blowing the air over the cylinder head. The improvement comprises: the cam pulley including means for directing air axially toward the cylinder head upon rotation of the cam pulley.

  8. CAMS: OLAPing Multidimensional Data Streams Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzocrea, Alfredo

    In the context of data stream research, taming the multidimensionality of real-life data streams in order to efficiently support OLAP analysis/mining tasks is a critical challenge. Inspired by this fundamental motivation, in this paper we introduce CAMS (C ube-based A cquisition model for M ultidimensional S treams), a model for efficiently OLAPing multidimensional data streams. CAMS combines a set of data stream processing methodologies, namely (i) the OLAP dimension flattening process, which allows us to obtain dimensionality reduction of multidimensional data streams, and (ii) the OLAP stream aggregation scheme, which aggregates data stream readings according to an OLAP-hierarchy-based membership approach. We complete our analytical contribution by means of experimental assessment and analysis of both the efficiency and the scalability of OLAPing capabilities of CAMS on synthetic multidimensional data streams. Both analytical and experimental results clearly connote CAMS as an enabling component for next-generation Data Stream Management Systems.

  9. External combustion engine having an asymmetrical CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1994-11-01

    An external combustion engine having an asymmetrical cam is the focus of this patent. The engine includes a combustion chamber for generating a high-pressure, energized gas from a monopropellant fuel and an even number of cylinders for receiving sequentially the energized gas through the rotary valve, the gas performing work on a piston disposed within each cylinder. The pistons transfer energy to a drive shaft through a connection to the asymmetrically shaped cam. The cam is shaped having two identical halves, each half having a power and an exhaust stroke. The identical halves provide that opposing cylinders are in thermodynamic balance, thus reducing rocking vibrations and torque pulsations. Having opposing pistons within the same thermodynamic cycle allows piston stroke to be reduced while maintaining displacement comparable to an engine having individual cycle positions. The reduced stroke diminishes gas flow velocity thus reducing flow induced noise. The power and exhaust strokes within each identical half of the cam are asymmetrical in that the power stroke is of greater duration than the exhaust stroke. The shape and length of the power stroke is optimized for increased efficiency.

  10. A Prototype of CAD/CAM Education in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmey, James R.

    Drawing upon Elgin Community College's (ECC's) 7-year history of program development and operation, this paper demonstrates how ECC, in cooperation with Northern Illinois Industries, Computervision Corporation, Mazak Corporation, and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, established a Computer-Aided Design and Drafting/Computer-Aided Machining…

  11. Usefulness of CAD/CAM techniques in the design and realization of the means of production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizot, S.

    1982-06-01

    Applications of CAD/CAM techniques as a tool to improve the efficiency and speed of industrial production are discussed. Prior to production, a machine-tooled part requires orientation guidelines, blow-ups of specific area's details, and tolerances. Consideration is also given to the position of the part in the ensemble and to the machining order. The choice of grid points for numerical modeling and the subsequent two- and three-dimensional displays of the part are outlined, with later data retrieval possible from a remotely accessed data bank. Examples are provided, using CAD/CAM, for the design and subsequent manufacture by progressive cuts of a piece contoured out of sheet metal. The automatic casting of lifters and the stamping of a balanced piece are also described.

  12. First long term in vivo study on subdurally implanted micro-ECoG electrodes, manufactured with a novel laser technology.

    PubMed

    Henle, C; Raab, M; Cordeiro, J G; Doostkam, S; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Stieglitz, T; Rickert, J

    2011-02-01

    A novel computer aided manufacturing (CAM) method for electrocorticography (ECoG) microelectrodes was developed to be able to manufacture small, high density microelectrode arrays based on laser-structuring medical grade silicone rubber and high purity platinum. With this manufacturing process, we plan to target clinical applications, such as presurgical epilepsy monitoring, functional imaging during cerebral tumor resections and brain-computer interface control in paralysed patients, in the near future. This paper describes the manufacturing, implantation and long-term behaviour of such an electrode array. In detail, we implanted 8-channel electrode arrays subdurally over rat cerebral cortex over a period of up to 25 weeks. Our primary objective was to ascertain the electrode's stability over time, and to analyse the host response in vivo. For this purpose, impedance measurements were carried out at regular intervals over the first 18 weeks of the implantation period. The impedances changed between day 4 and day 7 after implantation, and then remained stable until the end of the implantation period, in accordance with typical behaviour of chronically implanted microelectrodes. A post-mortem histological examination was made to assess the tissue reaction due to the implantation. A mild, chronically granulated inflammation was found in the area of the implant, which was essentially restricted to the leptomeninges. Overall, these findings suggest that the concept of the presented ECoG-electrodes is promising for use in long-term implantations. PMID:20838900

  13. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbey, D.J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  14. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  15. Quality of Life in CAM and Non-CAM Users among Breast Cancer Patients during Chemotherapy in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Ping Lei; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Wong, Li Ping; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2015-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use has become increasingly popular among patients with cancer. The purposes of this study were to compare the QOL in CAM users and non-CAM users and to determine whether CAM use influences QOL among breast cancer patients during chemotherapy. Methodology A cross-sectional survey was conducted at two outpatient chemotherapy centers. A total of 546 patients completed the questionnaires on CAM use. QOL was evaluated based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core quality of life (QLQ-C30) and breast cancer-specific quality of life (QLQ-BR23) questionnaires. Results A total of 70.7% of patients were identified as CAM users. There was no significant difference in global health status scores and in all five subscales of the QLQ C30 functional scales between CAM users and non-CAM users. On the QLQ-C30 symptom scales, CAM users (44.96±3.89) had significantly (p = 0.01) higher mean scores for financial difficulties than non-CAM users (36.29±4.81). On the QLQ-BR23 functional scales, CAM users reported significantly higher mean scores for sexual enjoyment (6.01±12.84 vs. 4.64±12.76, p = 0.04) than non-CAM users. On the QLQ-BR23 symptom scales, CAM users reported higher systemic therapy side effects (41.34±2.01 vs. 37.22±2.48, p = 0.04) and breast symptoms (15.76±2.13 vs. 11.08±2.62, p = 0.02) than non-CAM users. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the use of CAM modality was not significantly associated with higher global health status scores (p = 0.71). Conclusion While the findings indicated that there was no significant difference between users and non-users of CAM in terms of QOL, CAM may be used by health professionals as a surrogate to monitor patients with higher systemic therapy side effects and breast symptoms. Furthermore, given that CAM users reported higher financial burdens (which may have contributed to increased distress), patients should

  16. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    PubMed

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration). PMID:26712135

  17. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    2003-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project was performed to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes developed in this project are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP). These membrane materials may be used in a variety of ISRU systems, for example as the atmospheric inlet filter for an ISPP process to enhance the concentration of CO2 for use as a reactant gas, to passively separate argon and nitrogen trace gases from CO2 for habitat pressurization, to provide a system for removal of CO2 from breathing gases in a closed environment, or within a process stream to selectively separate CO2 from other gaseous components. The membranes identified and developed for CAM were evaluated for use in candidate ISRU processes and other gas separation applications, and will help to lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. CAM is a cooperative project split among three institutions: Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  19. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  20. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  1. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  2. The future of integrated CAD/CAM systems - The Boeing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeby, W.

    1982-01-01

    The operations and upgrading of the interactive CAD/CAM system at Boeing for the design and manufacture of aircraft are discussed. The introduction of the system allowed engineering drawings to be used by manufacturing personnel without necessitating face-to-face contact, and the inclusion of lofting diagrams permitted the designers and builders to talk through the system to define changes. An upgrading to three-dimensional representation to enhance the engineering and manufacturing sections of the system is outlined, with stress upon the use of a shared data base. Critical areas of the system are listed as data management, which delineates the product definition data and planning and control data; a geometry engine for manipulating and evaluating the image data; and the communications processing network, which facilitates the rapid transfer of data between any discipline in the plant.

  3. Camões e a cosmogonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os Lusíadas, escrito por Luis de Camões em 1572, é um poema épico renascentista e a visão Cosmogônica do autor é apresentada, principalmente, no último canto do poema, quando Tétis mostra ao Gama a Máquina do Mundo. A Cosmogonia de Camões neste poema reflete uma visão de uma época de transição, que ainda não incorporou os elementos da revolução Copernicana. É uma visão Grego- Ptolomaica e também medieval. O poeta guia-se pela tradução e notas feita por Pedro Nunes, inventor do Nonio, do Tratado da Esfera "De Sphaera" do Astrônomo Inglês John Holywood, mais conhecido pelo nome latinizado de Johannes Sacrobosco. Outra provável fonte de Camões, de acordo com Luciano Antonio Pereira da Silva em Astronomia de os Lusíadas, é o "Theoricae novae Planetarum" (1460) do astrólogo Alemão Jorge Purbáquio (1423 - 1461). A Astronomia de Os Lusíadas representa a ciência do tempo de Camões. Camões nunca emprega a palavra constelação e seu catálogo é bastante completo. A Máquina do Mundo tem a Terra no centro. Em redor, em círculos concêntricos, a lua (Diana), Mercúrio, Vênus, o Sol (Febo), Marte, Júpiter e Saturno. Envolvendo estes astros tem o firmamento seguido pelo "Céu Áqueo" ou cristalino, depois o 1o Móbil, esfera que arrasta todas as outras consigo. Este trabalho, multidisciplinar, serve tanto para ensinar aos alunos da Física como das Ciências Humanas, a concepção de mundo do renascimento de uma forma belamente poética em versos decassílabos Este trabalho também ajuda na apreciação do maior clássico da língua portuguesa e mostra como as Ciências e as artes, em geral, estão correlacionadas e refletem a visão de mundo da época em que foi produzida.

  4. Tube-welder aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Simple tools assist in setting up and welding tubes. Welder aids can be easily made to fit given tube diameter. Finished set can be used repeatedly to fix electrode-to-weld gap and mark sleeve and joint positions. Tools are readily made in tube-manufacturing plants and pay for themselves in short time in reduced labor costs and quality control: Conventional measurements are too slow for mass production and are prone to errors.

  5. Star Formation in Camelopardalis: Cam OB1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyder, David Anthony

    Star formation in the Cam OB1 region is investigated. Star formation, in general, is considered in terms of three elements: (a) the structural relationship between the parent molecular clouds and newly formed stars, (b) the temporal evolution of the parent molecular clouds, and (c) the probability of the occurrence of star formation. Star formation in Cam OB1, over the range in l and b considered in this work, is concentrated in the vicinity of Cam R1 and appears to have led to the formation of three distinct stellar groups: (a) Group I, formed ~1 - 50 × 10 6 yr ago, and located spatially and kinematically between two CO complexes, (b) Group II, formed ~1 - 3 × 106 yr ago, and coincident with one of the previously mentioned complexes, and (c) Group III, the youngest group, formed ~1 - 20 × 104 yr ago, and located at the current point of intersection between the two complexes in (a). The mass function (MF) for Groups I and II is similar to the cloud mass function of the parent molecular clouds, i.e., a power-law with exponent α ~ 2. A similar analysis for the Group III stars and associated molecular clouds cannot be performed due to the relatively small numbers in both samples. The star forming efficiency (SFE) in all cases is ~1%. It is proposed that cloud-cloud collisions between the CO complexes in the region triggered the formation of Groups I and III, while Group II was produced by a shock induced by the radiation pressure and stellar winds from the stars in Group I. An analysis of the molecular cloud structure in Cam OB1 and the background Perseus arm also shows that the clouds in both regions are turbulent, and typical of clouds seen elsewhere in the Galaxy. However, the clouds in Cam OB1 show a large dispersion in the degree with which they are self-gravitating, with the larger, warmer clouds being gravitationally bound. The principal data set for this work comprises fully sampled 12CO (J=1-0) observations of the western half of Cam OB1, which were

  6. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    SciTech Connect

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-01-05

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability. Further, requiring an alarm to actuate upon CAM failure is not necessary to maintain the availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability. However, if CAM failures were only detected by the 92-day functional tests required in the Authorization Basis (AB), CAM availability would be much less than that credited in the safety analysis. Therefore it is recommended that the current surveillance practice of daily simple system checks, 30-day source checks and 92-day functional tests be continued in order to maintain CAM availability.

  7. New Conception of Waving Machine CamEl Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílkovský, A.; Marek, O.; Jirásko, P.; Volanský, Z.

    New mechatronic conception of waving machine CamEl drive is realized by two electronic cams Yaskawa and planetary gears. The first servo motor is used to slay and shedding motion in position mode and the second servo motor is used in automatic weaving mode. Moment of inertia of kinematic chain was reduced that it was possible used a smaller servo motor of electronic cam Yaskawa.

  8. Some Comments on the Eclipsing Binary System Y Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossakovskaya, L. V.; Ketsaris, N. A.; Kuznetsov, M. V.

    2011-05-01

    The (O-C) graph for the system Y~Cam suggests that a massive third body is present in this system. It is shown that Y~Cam is an at least triple classical hierarchical system; thus, it should be stable. According to numerical characteristics of the stability criteria of Harrington (1975, 1977) and Roy (1979), the stability of the triple system Y~Cam is very high.

  9. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  10. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  11. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2014-08-12

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  12. CAM research in Britain: the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Schmidt, K; Wider, B

    2005-02-01

    Research into complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is not as new as it might appear from a U.K. perspective. Most continental European countries have a long tradition in CAM research. Many studies of homoeopathy, for instance, were published decades ago in languages other than English [The trials of homeopathy. Origins, structure and development. Stiftung: Essen, Karl und Veronica Carstens, 2004]. However, it is probably true to say that, in the English speaking world and particularly in the U.K., CAM has become a respectable area of scientific investigation only during the last decade. In this article, we review the 10 years of CAM research in Britain. PMID:15984219

  13. An overview of CAM: components and clinical uses.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, David; Pitluk, Jessica; Klunk, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), more recently known as integrative health or integrative medicine, is a diverse field comprising numerous treatments and practitioners of various levels of training. This review defines several of the main CAM modalities and reviews some of the research relevant to their clinical application. The goal is to provide healthcare providers with a basic understanding of CAM to start the incorporation of proven treatments into their clinical practice as well as guide them to working with CAM providers; ultimately, such knowledge is a fundamental part of a collaborative approach to optimal patient health and wellness. PMID:19841244

  14. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2012-02-15

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  15. New nano-sized Al2O3-BN coating 3Y-TZP ceramic composites for CAD/CAM-produced all-ceramic dental restorations. Part I. Fabrication of powders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Se Fei; Yang, Li Qiang; Jin, Zhi Hao; Guo, Tian Wen; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hong Chen

    2009-06-01

    Partially sintered 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2), zirconia) polycrystal (3Y-TZP) ceramics are used in dental posterior restorations with computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. High strength is acquired after sintering, but shape distortion of preshaped compacts during their sintering is inevitable. The aim of this study is to fabricate new machinable ceramic composites with strong mechanical properties that are fit for all-ceramic dental restorations. Aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3))-coated 3Y-TZP powders were first prepared by the heterogeneous precipitation method starting with 3Y-TZP, Al(NO(3))(3) . 9H(2)O, and ammonia, then amorphous boron nitride (BN) was produced and the as-received composite powders were coated via in situ reaction with boric acid and urea. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the status of Al(2)O(3)-BN on the surface of the 3Y-TZP particles. TEM micrographs show an abundance of Al(2)O(3) particles and amorphous BN appearing uniformly on the surface of the 3Y-TZP particles after the coating process. The size of the Al(2)O(3) particles is about 20 nm. The XRD pattern shows clearly the peak of amorphous BN among the peaks of ZrO(2). PMID:19223246

  16. Optical impression systems for CAD-CAM restorations.

    PubMed

    Galhano, Graziela Ávila Prado; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Mazaro, José Vitor Quinelli

    2012-11-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing images can be taken through either direct or indirect imaging. For the indirect systems, the digitalization is obtained from the impression material or cast, and for the direct ones the image is taken directly from the mouth using intraoral scanners.The direct acquisition systems have been constantly improved because these are less invasive, quicker, and more precise than the conventional method. Besides, the digital images can be easily stored for a long time. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to describe and discuss based on the literature the main direct image acquisition systems available on the market: CEREC Bluecam (Sirona), Lava C.O.S. System (3M ESPE), iTero System (Cadent/Straumann), and E4D System (D4D Technologies). PMID:23172483

  17. Expression, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450cam operon repressor CamR

    SciTech Connect

    Maenaka, Katsumi; Fukushi, Kouji; Aramaki, Hironori; Shirakihara, Yasuo

    2005-08-01

    The P. putida cytochrome P450cam operon repressor CamR has been expressed in E. coli and crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2. The Pseudomonas putida cam repressor (CamR) is a homodimeric protein that binds to the camO DNA operator to inhibit the transcription of the cytochrome P450cam operon camDCAB. CamR has two functional domains: a regulatory domain and a DNA-binding domain. The binding of the inducer d-camphor to the regulatory domain renders the DNA-binding domain unable to bind camO. Native CamR and its selenomethionyl derivative have been overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. Native CamR was crystallized under the following conditions: (i) 12–14% PEG 4000, 50 mM Na PIPES, 0.1 M KCl, 1% glycerol pH 7.3 at 288 K with and without camphor and (ii) 1.6 M P{sub i}, 50 mM Na PIPES, 2 mM camphor pH 6.7 at 278 K. The selenomethionyl derivative CamR did not crystallize under either of these conditions, but did crystallize using 12.5% PEG MME 550, 25 mM Na PIPES, 2.5 mM MgCl{sub 2} pH 7.3 at 298 K. Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies revealed the space group to be orthorhombic (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2), with unit-cell parameters a = 48.0, b = 73.3, c = 105.7 Å. Native and selenomethionyl derivative data sets were collected to 3 Å resolution at SPring-8 and the Photon Factory.

  18. Treatment of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement

    PubMed Central

    FIORENTINO, GENNARO; FONTANAROSA, ALBERTO; CEPPARULO, RICCARDO; GUARDOLI, ALBERTO; BERNI, LUCA; COVIELLO, GIANLUCA; GUARDOLI, ALDO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to evaluate preliminary clinical and radiographic results of arthroscopic treatment of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Methods thirty-eight patients underwent hip arthroscopy for cam-type FAI between 2009 and 2012. Preoperative assessment was based on clinical examination, modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and radiographic examination with anteroposterior pelvis, frog-leg and Lequesne views. The patients’ clinical conditions at follow-up were assessed using the mHHS administered as a telephone survey. Radiographic outcome measurements evaluated pre and postoperatively were the alpha angle and femoral head-neck offset. Results the patients were clinically evaluated at a mean follow-up of 36 months. Radiographic follow-up was performed at an average of 12.7 months. Thirty of the 38 patients (79%) were satisfied with the results of the arthroscopic procedure. A total of nine patients subsequently underwent a total hip replacement. All 30 patients who declared themselves satisfied recorded an mHHS increase; in particular, the mHHS increased from a mean of 52.9 preoperatively (range: 27.5–82.5) to a mean of 85.6 postoperatively (range: 45.1–100.1). Three significant differences between the two groups of patients (satisfied and not satisfied) were recorded: mean age, alpha angle and BMI were all significantly greater in the patients who were not satisfied with the treatment. Conclusions a crucial aspect in order to obtain good clinical outcomes of arthroscopic treatment of cam-type impingement is correct selection of patients who are likely to benefit from this kind of surgery. Hip arthroscopy should be avoided in patients aged over 50 years with risk factors for early osteoarthritis (high BMI and a significantly increased alpha angle). Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:26605253

  19. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Low Back Pain and CAM

    MedlinePlus

    ... back, he has used conventional and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches, including regular visits to the chiropractor and massage therapist to address his pain. "I'm looking for something so that I don't ... with other alternative and traditional therapies to help them resume normal ...

  20. CAD/CAM in packaging aerospace electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargione, F.

    1980-04-01

    It is noted that hard-wired, welded circuits hold an important place in aerospace systems because they allow short production runs to be prepared quickly. However, the electronic system designs are very complicated and demanding to work on manually. The article describes a design process which saves time and effort without reducing the designer's freedom. It is shown that the CAD/CAM equipment produces all the drawings and extracts from the data needed to generate NC tapes for drilling and welding boards. In addition, it produces the artwork for etching the boards. Discussion covers the advance the system represents in cost effectiveness, versatility, and reliability.

  1. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.; Meyer, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing applications team (MATeam) in effecting widespread transfer of NASA technology to aid in the solution of manufacturing problems in the industrial sector are described. During the program's first year of operation, 450 companies, industry associations, and government agencies were contacted, 150 manufacturing problems were documented, and 20 potential technology transfers were identified. Although none of the technology transfers has been commercialized and put in use, several are in the applications engineering phase, and others are in the early stages of implementation. The technology transfer process is described and guidelines used for the preparation of problems statements are included.

  2. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  3. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  4. Readout Electronics for Hyper Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa

    Hyper Suprime-Cam(HSC)isa1GigapixelCCD camerafora wide-fieldgalaxy surveyatthe Subaru8-mTelescope. It will be mounted on the prime focus of the SubaruTelescope and is scheduled to receive its first light in 2012. The primary science is to conduct a weak lensing survey over ∼ 2,000 square degrees. The HSC has a 1.5-degree-diameter fieldofview, 7timeslarger than thatofits predecessor Suprime-Cam.It consistsofalarge corrector lens systemand afocalplane equippedwith116piecesof2kx4kfully depletedCCDs. Combinedwiththesuperbimagequalityand large aperture of the Subaru telescope, the surveyusing HSC can cover a cosmological volume and reach the limiting magnitude of at least one magnitudefainter than the other surveys conducted using 4-m class telescopes. The readout electronics of the HSC consist of two parts: one is the analog front-end electronics (FEE) and the other is the digital back-end electronics (BEE). The FEE is placed in a vacuum dewar together with the CCDs, and processes the analog CCD signal into 16-bit digital data. The BEE is small and light enough to be integrated into the camera unit, and employs three linksofGigabit Ethernetto readouta 2.3-GByte singleexposure within10 secondsatfast readout operation. The readout noise from the electronics is smaller than that from CCDs.

  5. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  6. Molecular dynamics of the P450cam-Pdx complex reveals complex stability and novel interface contacts.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Scott A; Poulos, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450cam catalyzes the stereo and regiospecific hydroxylation of camphor to 5-exo-hydroxylcamphor. The two electrons for the oxidation of camphor are provided by putidaredoxin (Pdx), a Fe2 S2 containing protein. Two recent crystal structures of the P450cam-Pdx complex, one solved with the aid of covalent cross-linking and one without, have provided a structural picture of the redox partner interaction. To study the stability of the complex structure and the minor differences between the recent crystal structures, a 100 nanosecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the cross-linked structure, mutated in silico to wild type and the linker molecule removed, was performed. The complex was stable over the course of the simulation though conformational changes including the movement of the C helix of P450cam further toward Pdx allowed for the formation of a number of new contacts at the complex interface that remained stable throughout the simulation. While several minor crystal contacts were lost in the simulation, all major contacts that had been experimentally studied previously were maintained. The equilibrated MD structure contained a mixture of contacts resembling both the cross-linked and noncovalent structures and the newly identified interactions. Finally, the reformation of the P450cam Asp251-Arg186 ion pair in the MD simulation mirrors the ion pair observed in the more promiscuous CYP101D1 and suggests that the Asp251-Arg186 ion pair may be important. PMID:25307478

  7. Neurogranin regulates CaM dynamics at dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Amber; Gerges, Nashaat Z.

    2015-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) plays a key role in synaptic function and plasticity due to its ability to mediate Ca2+ signaling. Therefore, it is essential to understand the dynamics of CaM at dendritic spines. In this study we have explored CaM dynamics using live-cell confocal microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to study CaM diffusion. We find that only a small fraction of CaM in dendritic spines is immobile. Furthermore, the diffusion rate of CaM was regulated by neurogranin (Ng), a CaM-binding protein enriched at dendritic spines. Interestingly, Ng did not influence the immobile fraction of CaM at recovery plateau. We have previously shown that Ng enhances synaptic strength in a CaM-dependent manner. Taken together, these data indicate that Ng-mediated enhancement of synaptic strength is due to its ability to target, rather than sequester, CaM within dendritic spines. PMID:26084473

  8. Cam McRobbie: A Man for All Occasions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregory P.; Skamp, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of Campbell John McRobbie, Cam, to science education scholarship and research within the Australasian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) and within the broader science education community. Cam provided strong leadership and vision across many spheres of science education and leaves a legacy to the…

  9. ALTERNATE ENZYMES FOR USE IN CHOLINESTERASE ANTAGONIST MONITORS, (CAM'S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cholinesterase Antagonist Monitors ('CAM's') normally use cholinesterase as the sensor in the detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. The present investigation has been concerned with a search for alternate enzymes that could be used in the CAM system and that ...

  10. The unstoppable progress of CAD/CAM - Results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, H.

    1982-08-01

    The state of CAD/CAM technology in the construction and machinery industries is clarified by means of a few examples using PROREN software. The use of CAD in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional design is discussed, and CAD/CAM's potential for determining control information for numerically controlled milling is assessed. The design of parts by CAD is pictorially shown.

  11. Practical CAD/CAM aspects of CNC prepreg cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of CAD/CAM in cutting large quantities of complex shapes out of prepregs is addressed. The advantages of CAD/CAM includes reduction of prototype cycles from weeks to days, improved part quality resulting from accurately cut plies, safer and more efficient cutting operations, and lower direct labor costs.

  12. NARSTO EPA SS HOUSTON TEXAQS2000 CAMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS HOUSTON TEXAQS2000 CAMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... TEOM Fluorescence Spectroscopy Location:  Houston, Texas Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ...   Order Data Guide Documents:  Houston TexAQS2000 CAMS Guide Houston Project Plan  (PDF) ...

  13. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  14. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  15. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  16. Microscopical and chemical surface characterization of CAD/CAM zircona abutments after different cleaning procedures. A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe and characterize the surface topography and cleanliness of CAD/CAM manufactured zirconia abutments after steaming and ultrasonic cleaning. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 12 ceramic CAD/CAM implant abutments of various manufacturers were produced and randomly divided into two groups of six samples each (control and test group). Four two-piece hybrid abutments and two one-piece abutments made of zirconium-dioxide were assessed per each group. In the control group, cleaning by steam was performed. The test group underwent an ultrasonic cleaning procedure with acetone, ethyl alcohol and antibacterial solution. Groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify and characterize contaminant chemical characterization non-quantitatively. RESULTS All zirconia CAD/CAM abutments in the present study displayed production-induced wear particles, debris as well as organic and inorganic contaminants. The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure. However, an absolute removal of pollutants could not be achieved. CONCLUSION The presence of debris on the transmucosal surface of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments of various manufacturers was confirmed. Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing. Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented. PMID:25932314

  17. The use of a low cost 3D scanning and printing tool in the manufacture of custom-made foot orthoses: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Custom foot orthoses are currently recognized as the gold standard for treatment of foot and lower limb pathology. While foam and plaster casting methods are most widely used in clinical practice, technology has emerged, permitting the use of 3D scanning, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) for fabrication of foot molds and custom foot orthotic components. Adoption of 3D printing, as a form of CAM, requires further investigation for use as a clinical tool. This study provides a preliminary description of a new method to manufacture foot orthoses using a novel 3D scanner and printer and compare gait kinematic outputs from shod and traditional plaster casted orthotics. Findings One participant (male, 25 years) was included with no lower extremity injuries. Foot molds were created from both plaster casting and 3D scanning/printing methods. Custom foot orthoses were then fabricated from each mold. Lower body plug-in-gait with the Oxford Foot Model on the right foot was collected for both orthotic and control (shod) conditions. The medial longitudinal arch was measured using arch height index (AHI) where a decrease in AHI represented a drop in arch height. The lowest AHI was 21.2 mm in the running shoes, followed by 21.4 mm wearing the orthoses made using 3D scanning and printing, with the highest AHI of 22.0 mm while the participant wore the plaster casted orthoses. Conclusion This preliminary study demonstrated a small increase in AHI with the 3D printing orthotic compared to the shod condition. A larger sample size may demonstrate significant patterns for the tested conditions. PMID:25015013

  18. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C.; Jacob, Margaret C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2007-01-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities. PMID:17965769

  19. Treatment Preferences for CAM in children with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C; Jacob, Margaret C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2007-09-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years +/- 2.4; range = 8-18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities. PMID:17965769

  20. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  1. Generation of geometric representations of 3D objects in CAD/CAM by digital photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rongxing

    This paper presents a method for the generation of geometric representations of 3D objects by digital photogrammetry. In CAD/CAM systems geometric modelers are usually used to create three-dimensional (3D) geometric representations for design and manufacturing purposes. However, in cases where geometric information such as dimensions and shapes of objects are not available, measurements of physically existing objects become necessary. In this paper, geometric parameters of primitives of 3D geometric representations such as Boundary Representation (B-rep), Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG), and digital surface models are determined by digital image matching techniques. An algorithm for reconstruction of surfaces with discontinuities is developed. Interfaces between digital photogrammetric data and these geometric representations are realized. This method can be applied to design and manufacturing in mechanical engineering, automobile industry, robot technology, spatial information systems and others.

  2. The structural analysis of adhesions mediated by Ep-CAM.

    PubMed

    Balzar, M; Prins, F A; Bakker, H A; Fleuren, G J; Warnaar, S O; Litvinov, S V

    1999-01-10

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule Ep-CAM is capable of mediating Ca2+-independent homotypic cell-cell adhesion when introduced into cells lacking their own means of cell-cell interactions. We used (confocal) immunofluorescent and (immuno-) electron microscopy to investigate the structural organization of Ep-CAM-mediated adhesions and their relation to other types of intercellular adhesions. Ep-CAM-transfected cell lines, cells of epithelial origin, and epithelial tissues were analyzed. In transfected L cells Ep-CAM brings the opposing intercellular membranes into a close proximity (approximately 10-14 nm) at sporadic contacts; however, no structures resembling junctional complexes were observed. In L cells cotransfected with Ep-CAM and E-cadherin, both molecules localize at the sites of cell-cell contact, forming independent adhesion sites with no Ep-CAM detectable within the structurally distinguishable cadherin-mediated adherens junctions. In well-differentiated carcinoma cell lines Ep-CAM colocalized with E-cadherin practically along the whole lateral domain; however, no colocalization was observed between Ep-CAM and the components of the tight junction complex (occludin and ZO-1), desmosomes (desmoplakins I/II), or cell-substrate adhesions (beta1 integrins). This was confirmed by analysis of polarized epithelium of normal colon where Ep-CAM was present at the lateral membrane including the adherens junction areas, but was fully excluded from the apical cell membrane (microvilli), tight junctions, and desmosomes. We conclude that (1) Ep-CAM does not form junctional complexes in L cells, (2) in epithelial cells, cell surface Ep-CAM is present at the lateral cell membrane, but is excluded from tight junctions and desmosomes, and (3) in epithelial cells, Ep-CAM is present within adhesions mediated by the classic cadherins (especially E-cadherin) with both types of molecules remaining as independent clusters. The colocalization with cadherins might be important

  3. 2-Cam LWIR imaging Stokes polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Pezzaniti, Larry; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2008-04-01

    A 2-Cam micro-bolometer imaging polarimeter operating in the LWIR is presented. The system is capable of snapshot imaging Stokes polarimetry in any one channel (S I, S II, or S 3) by taking two simultaneous measurements of a scene. For measurements of S I or S II, the instrument relies on a specially optimized wire-grid beam-splitter. For measurements of S 3, a form birefringent quarter-wave retarder is inserted into the optical path. Specifics associated with the design of the wire-grid beam-splitter and the form birefringent quarter-wave retarder will be overviewed, with inclusion of RCWA simulations. Calibration and simulation procedures, as well as calibration targets, will be highlighted, and initial data from the instrument are presented.

  4. Hyper Suprime-Cam: CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kamata, Yukiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam is planned to employ about 120 2k×4k fully-depleted CCDs with 4 signal outputs for each. The data size of an image becomes larger than 2Gbytes. All of the CCDs are designed to be readout parallel within 20 seconds, and the readout noise is expected to be 5e. The frontend electronics will be mounted in a vacuumed cryostat, and connected to the backend electronics mounted on the outside of the cryostat. The frontend electronics includes entire analog circuits for CCD including CCD drivers, preamplifiers and ADC. The backend electronics consists of newly developed gigabit Ethernet modules combined with 2Gbytes memory modules, and several supporting boards. We will present the current status of the CCD readout electronics developments for HSC.

  5. Technical report: precisely fitting bars on implants in five steps-a CAD/CAM concept for the edentulous mandible.

    PubMed

    Beuer, Florian; Schweiger, Josef; Huber, Martin; Engels, Jörg; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Various treatment concepts have been presented for the edentulous mandible. Manufacturing tension-free and precisely fitting bars on dental implants was previously a great challenge in prosthetic dentistry and required great effort. Modern computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing technology in combination with some clinical modifications of the established workflow enables the clinician to achieve precise results in a very efficient way. The innovative five-step concept is presented in a clinical case. PMID:24417790

  6. Expression of EpCAM in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Odashiro, Danilo N; Odashiro, Alexandre N; Pereira, Patrícia R; Godeiro, Katyanne; Antecka, Emilia; Di Cesare, Sebastian; Burnier, Miguel N

    2006-01-01

    Background Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in adults, and nearly 40% of UM will develop metastasis that will ultimately lead to death. The Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by carcinomas of head and neck, ovary, colon, breast, kidney and lung. Recently, antibodies against EpCAM such as Edrecolomab and Catumaxomab were developed, and clinical trials with these antibodies have been used in several types of neoplasia. We studied the expression of EpCAM in UM. Methods 25 enucleated formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded UM specimens were immunostained for EpCAM. Histopathological analysis of the specimens with regards to prognostic factors such as cell type, largest (linear) tumor dimension, number of mitotic figures, scleral invasion and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were done. Results None of them was positive for this EpCAM. Conclusion In our report, UM did not express EpCAM. Therefore, it is not a helpful immunohistochemical marker to predict the behavior of UM. Further studies are needed to verify if EpCAM could also be related with prognosis and treatment of UM. PMID:17125516

  7. Developmental Control of CAM in Peperomia scandens1

    PubMed Central

    Holthe, Peter A.; Sternberg, Leonel Da S. L.; Ting, Irwin P.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the development of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in Peperomia scandens, a tropical epiphyte. Leaves were sampled during a 10-day period when they were between 30 to 165 days old. P. scandens exhibits a C3 to CAM-cycling to CAM shift during maturation with the magnitude of CAM increasing with age. Initially, during both day and night, no significant CO2 uptake or diurnal acid flux was evident. C3 gas exchange was detected at 41 days of age with a gradual shift towards CAM gas exchange maximized thereafter. An acidity flux of 130 to 150 microequivalents per gram fresh weight was evident by 41 days. Between 40 and 90 days, the leaves shifted their CO2 uptake pattern from a daytime to a nighttime peak. After 90 days, the leaves remained in CAM. The δ13C values became progressively less negative as the leaves matured. In the 30-day-old leaves, the δ13C value was −21.1% while in the 165-day-old leaves the δ13C value was −18.3%. The time-dependent shift from C3 to CAM-cycling to CAM in P. scandens does not appear to result from changes in water, light, or temperature regimes since these variables were constant for all leaves sampled. PMID:16665514

  8. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  9. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  10. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  11. IgCAMs redundantly control axon navigation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Valentin; Pan, Jie; Voltmer-Irsch, Susanne; Hutter, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Background Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgCAMs) form one of the largest and most diverse families of adhesion molecules and receptors in the nervous system. Many members of this family mediate contact and communication among neurons during development. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome contains a comparatively small number of IgCAMs, most of which are evolutionarily conserved and found across all animal phyla. Only some of these have been functionally characterized so far. Results We systematically analyzed previously uncharacterized IgCAMs in C. elegans. Green fluorescent protein reporter constructs of 12 IgCAMs revealed that expression generally is not confined to a single tissue and that all tissues express at least one of the IgCAMs. Most IgCAMs were expressed in neurons. Within the nervous system significant overlap in expression was found in central components of the motor circuit, in particular the command interneurons, ventral cord motoneurons as well as motoneurons innervating head muscles. Sensory neurons are underrepresented among the cells expressing these IgCAMs. We isolated mutations for eight of the genes showing neuronal expression. Phenotypic analysis of single mutants revealed limited neuronal defects, in particular axon navigation defects in some of the mutants. Systematic genetic interaction studies uncovered two cases of functional overlap among three and four genes, respectively. A strain combining mutations in all eight genes is viable and shows no additional defects in the neurons that were analyzed, suggesting that genetic interactions among those genes are limited. Conclusion Genetic interactions involving multiple IgCAMs affecting axon outgrowth demonstrate functional overlap among IgCAMs during nervous system development. PMID:19341471

  12. Turnkey CAD/CAM selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, T.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology to be followed in evaluating and selecting a computer system for manufacturing applications is discussed. Main frames and minicomputers are considered. Benchmark evaluations, demonstrations, and contract negotiations are discussed.

  13. Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam Survey of the Andromeda Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Tanaka, Mikito; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    We present a progress report on our deep and wide-field imaging survey of the Andromeda halo with Hyper Suprime Cam (HSC) mounted on Subaru. HSC is the upgraded prime focus camera after Suprime-Cam, having a field of view of 1.77 square degree (1.5 degree in diameter), namely about 10 times larger than that of Suprime-Cam. This camera will thus offer us great opportunities to explore unique and legacy surveys for the Andromeda halo, as well as for other Galactic Archaeology science cases.

  14. CAD/CAM ceramic restorations in the operatory and laboratory.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2003-08-01

    Computer assisted design/computer assisted machining (CAD/CAM) technology has received considerable clinical and research interest from modern dental practices as a means of delivering all-ceramic restorations. The CEREC, System offers CAD/CAM dental technology designed for clinical use by dentists, as well as a separate system designed for dental laboratory technicians. The CEREC 3 system is indicated for dental operatory applications, and the CEREC inLab, system is indicated for dental laboratory applications. Although both systems rely on similar CAD/CAM technology, several significant differences exist in the processing techniques involved, restorative materials used, and types of restoration provided. PMID:14692164

  15. The first light curve analysis of eclipsing binary NR Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli, F.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Poro, A.

    2015-05-01

    New observations of the eclipsing binary system NR Cam were carried out using a CCD in B, V, and R filters and new times of light minimum and new ephemeris were obtained. The B, V, and R light curves were analyzed using both the Binary Maker 3.0 and PHOEBE 0.31 programs to determine some geometrical and physical parameters of the system. These results show that NR Cam is an overcontact binary and that both components are Main Sequence stars. The O'Connell effect on NR Cam was studied and some variations in spot parameters were obtained over the different years.

  16. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  17. Ceramic dentures manufactured with ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werelius, Kristian; Weigl, Paul

    2004-06-01

    Conventional manufacturing of individual ceramic dental prosthesis implies a handmade metallic framework, which is then veneered with ceramic layers. In order to manufacture all-ceramic dental prosthesis a CAD/CAM system is necessary due to the three dimensional shaping of high strength ceramics. Most CAD/CAM systems presently grind blocks of ceramic after the construction process in order to create the prosthesis. Using high-strength ceramics, such as Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP)-zirconia, this is limited to copings. Anatomically shaped fixed dentures have a sculptured surface with small details, which can't be created by existing grinding tools. This procedure is also time consuming and subject to significant loss in mechanical strength and thus reduced survival rate once inserted. Ultra-short laser pulses offer a possibility in machining highly complex sculptured surfaces out of high-strength ceramic with negligible damage to the surface and bulk of the ceramic. In order to determine efficiency, quality and damage, several laser ablation parameters such as pulse duration, pulse energy and ablation strategies were studied. The maximum ablation rate was found using 400 fs at high pulse energies. High pulse energies such as 200μJ were used with low damage in mechanical strength compared to grinding. Due to the limitation of available laser systems in pulse repetition rates and power, the use of special ablation strategies provide a possibility to manufacture fully ceramic dental prosthesis efficiently.

  18. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  19. 3D-CAM: Derivation and Validation of a 3-Minute Diagnostic Interview for CAM-defined Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.; O’Connor, Margaret; Jones, Richard N.; Crane, Paul K.; Metzger, Eran D.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delirium is common, morbid, and costly, yet remains often unrecognized in most clinical settings. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is the most widely used diagnostic algorithm, and operationalizing its features would represent a substantial advance for clinical care. Objective To derive the 3D-CAM, a new 3-minute diagnostic assessment for CAM-defined delirium, and to validate it against a clinical reference standard. Design Diagnostic test study Setting 4 general medicine units in an academic medical center Participants 201 inpatients aged ≥ 75 years old Measurements We identified 20 items that best operationalized the 4 CAM diagnostic features to create the 3D-CAM. For prospective validation, 3D-CAM assessments were administered by trained research assistants. Independently, clinicians performed an extensive assessment that included patient interviews, family interviews, and review of the medical record. These data were considered by an expert panel to determine the presence or absence of delirium and dementia (reference standard). We compared the 3D-CAM delirium determination to the reference standard in all patients and in subgroups with and without dementia. Results The 201 participants in the prospective validation study had mean age (SD) of 84 (5.5) years, and 27% had dementia. The expert panel identified delirium in 21%. Median administration time for 3D-CAM was 3 minutes (inter-quartile range: 2–5 minutes). The sensitivity [95% CI] of 3D-CAM was 95% [84%, 99%] and the specificity was 94% [90%, 97%]. The 3D-CAM performed well in patients both with dementia (sensitivity=96% [82%, 100%], specificity=86% [67%, 96%]) and without dementia (sensitivity=93% [66%, 100%], specificity=96% [91%,99%]). Limitations Limited to single center, cross-sectional, and medicine patients only Conclusion The 3D-CAM operationalizes the CAM algorithm using a 3-minute structured assessment with high sensitivity and specificity relative to a reference standard and

  20. Cam-type deformities: Concepts, criteria, and multidetector CT features.

    PubMed

    Mellado, J M; Radi, N

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting imaging studies of a painful hip requires detailed knowledge of the regional anatomy. Some variants of the proximal femur, such as cam-type deformities, can course asymptomatically or cause femoroacetabular impingement. The principal numerical criterion for defining cam-type deformities, the alpha angle, has some limitations. In this article, we review the anatomic variants of the anterior aspect of the proximal femur, focusing on cam-type deformities. Using diagrams and multidetector CT images, we describe the parameters that are useful for characterizing these deformities in different imaging techniques. We also discuss the potential correspondence of imaging findings of cam-type deformities with the terms coined by anatomists and anthropologists to describe these phenomena. PMID:25660594

  1. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, Y.

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  2. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, Y. )

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  3. The Etiology and Arthroscopic Surgical Management of Cam Lesions.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Gaudiani, Michael A; Ranawat, Anil S

    2016-07-01

    Cam-type deformity of the proximal femur is a relative increase in the discrepancy of the femoral head-neck offset. The etiology is unknown; several conditions have been implicated in the development of abnormal proximal femoral anatomy. Recent evidence suggests that high-impact sports place stress on the immature physis during growth and may play an important role. Imaging is essential in the initial diagnostic workup, characterization of pathology, preoperative planning, and intraoperative decision making. Short-term and mid-term outcomes for arthroscopic osteoplasty of cam lesions for both isolated cam-type deformity and mixed cam-pincer femoroacetabular impingement have been well-described and are favorable. PMID:27343392

  4. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  5. Complementary and alternative (CAM) dietary therapies for cancer.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Sheila

    2008-02-01

    Complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies include a wide spectrum of dietary practices, some of which are claimed to cure cancer. Observational studies have shown consistently that predominantly plant-based diets reduce the risk for some adult type cancers such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. These studies form the basis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) nutritional guidelines. Many CAM diets prescribe a similar low fat, high fiber, high fruit and vegetable type diet, but also add detoxification and many different supplements to the basic diet which is then claimed to cure cancer. The potential advantages and disadvantages of CAM diets are discussed. Many aspects can be potentially harmful, particularly to the child with cancer. Advantages include involvement of the child and family in decision-making and care. There is no evidence to support the claims that CAM dietary therapies cure cancer. PMID:18064662

  6. 48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-24 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. 24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. 47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. 22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-47 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  11. 18. VIEW NORTHEAST, SHAFT, CAM, AND OPERATING ARM FOR NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW NORTHEAST, SHAFT, CAM, AND OPERATING ARM FOR NORTH END LOCK, INBOARD SIDE OF WEST BASCULE GIRDER - Grand Street Bridge, Spanning Pequonnock River at Grand Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  12. CAD/CAM-Interface For Optical Systems And Optical Drawings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, Eckart

    1989-04-01

    It is explained why a general interface for optical data between CAD/CAM-Systems is necessary. The requirements for the interface are discussed. The philosophy of a solution is demonstrated and it is shown how to proceed.

  13. Computerized Manufacturing Automation. Employment, Education, and the Workplace. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The application of programmable automation (PA) offers new opportunities to enhance and streamline manufacturing processes. Five PA technologies are examined in this report: computer-aided design, robots, numerically controlled machine tools, flexible manufacturing systems, and computer-integrated manufacturing. Each technology is in a relatively…

  14. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit after banana in terms of international trade. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties ‘F153’ and ‘MD2’, and a wild pineapple relative A. bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole genome duplications than sequenced grass genomes and, therefore, provides an important reference for elucidating gene content and structure in the last common ancestor of extant members of the grass family (Poaceae). Pineapple has a conserved karyotype with seven pre rho duplication chromosomes that are ancestral to extant grass karyotypes. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues using beta-carbonic anhydrase (βCA) for initial capture of CO2. Promoter regions of all three βCA genes contain a CCA1 binding site that can bind circadian core oscillators. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements including the morning (CCACAC) and evening (AAAATATC) elements associated with regulation of circadian-clock genes, providing the first link between CAM and the circadian clock regulation. Gene-interaction network analysis revealed both activation and repression of regulatory elements that control key enzymes in CAM photosynthesis, indicating that CAM evolved by reconfiguration of pathways preexisting in C3 plants. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis is the result of regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting gene copies and not acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole genome or tandem gene duplication. PMID:26523774

  15. A systematic review of CAD/CAM fit restoration evaluations.

    PubMed

    Boitelle, P; Mawussi, B; Tapie, L; Fromentin, O

    2014-11-01

    The evolution and development of CAD/CAM systems have led to the production of prosthetic reconstructions by going beyond the use of traditional techniques. Precision adjustment of prosthetic elements is considered essential to ensure sustainable restoration and dental preparation. The purpose of this article was to summarise the current literature on the fitting quality of fixed prostheses obtained by CAD/CAM technology. PMID:24952991

  16. CAM Provider Use and Expenditures by Cancer Treatment Phase

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, William E.; Tyree, Patrick T.; Devlin, Sean M.; Andersen, M. Robyn; Diehr, Paula K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess cancer patients’ utilization of complementary and alternative medical providers and the associated expenditures by specific treatment phases. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of medical services utilization and expenditures during three therapeutic intervals: an initial treatment phase, continuing care, and end-of-life. Methods Analysis of an insurance claims database that had been matched to the Washington State SEER cancer registry. Results Of 2,900 registry-matched cancer patients 63.2% were female, the median age was 54 years, and 92.7% were white. Breast cancer was the most frequent diagnosis (52.7%), followed by prostate cancer (24.7%), lung cancer (10.1%), colon cancer (7.0%), and hematologic malignancies (5.6%). CAM provider using patients were 26.5% of the overall cohort (18.5% used chiropractors, 7.7% naturopathic physicians, 5.3% massage therapists, and 4.2% saw acupuncturists). The proportion of CAM using patients was similar during each treatment phase. All patients used some conventional care. Female gender, a breast cancer diagnosis, age, and white race were significant predictors of CAM use. Diagnosis of a musculoskeletal problem occurred at sometime during the study for 72.1% of cancer patients. CAM provider visits were 7.2% of total outpatient medical visits and 85.1% of CAM visits resulted in a musculoskeletal diagnosis. Expenditures for CAM providers were 0.3%, 1.0%, and 0.1% of all expenditures during the initial, continuing, and end-of-life phases respectively. Conclusion For cancer patients, musculoskeletal issues were the most commonly listed diagnosis made by a CAM provider. Although expenditures associated with CAM are a small proportion of the total, additional studies are necessary to determine the importance patients place on access to these services. PMID:18471036

  17. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    SciTech Connect

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-08-09

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  18. Keeping ahead of the CAD/CAM curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daues, Jim; Meeker, Jay L.

    1993-06-01

    CAD/CAM tools can not only perform such major functions as analysis during the developmental phase of aerospace components; they also allow the design data to be passed directly to the user for access to numerically controlled (NC) programming, thereby shortening the product-delivery cycle. State-of-the-art commercial CAD/CAM systems support such advanced applications as solid modeling, feature-based design, and automation of key parts of the NC programming process.

  19. Selected Applications of Virtual Reality in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak-Marcincin, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become an important and useful tool in science and engineering. VR applications cover a wide range of industrial areas from product design to analysis, from product prototyping to manufacturing. The design and manufacturing of a product can be viewed, evaluated and improved in a virtual environment before its prototype is made, which is an enormous cost saving. Virtual Manufacturing (VM) is the use of computer models and simulations of manufacturing processes to aid in the design and production of manufactured products. VM is the use of manufacturing-based simulations to optimize the design of product and processes for a specific manufacturing goal such as: design for assembly; quality; lean operations; and/or flexibility.

  20. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-11-02

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Lastly, we found pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  1. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  2. Student nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward CAM therapies.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, Mary; MacDonald, Julie; McCready, Tracey; Stimpson, Ann

    Hessig et al (2004) highlight that nurses value complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) but lack the knowledge regarding their application. They suggest that education can affect knowledge and application of CAM in nursing practice. Complementary and alternative therapy input into the pre-registration nursing curriculum is sporadic and higher education institutions need to incorporate CAM therapies more fully into professional education (Department of Health, 2003). This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes student nurses have to CAM therapies and their use in cancer and palliative care. Ethical approval was sought from the ethics committee at the University of Hull. A quantitative evaluative study using a convenience sample of student nurses in their final semester of pre-registration nurse education was used. Data were collected via a questionnaire; the findings demonstrate the respondents' acknowledgement of their limited knowledge of CAM therapies and the study has highlighted the need to continue working towards integrated CAM education into the pre-registration nursing curriculum. PMID:16835530

  3. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C; Bowers, John E; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Paull, Robert E; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication. PMID:26523774

  4. CAMS 2009 PC Co-chairs' Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, Annika; Buchanan, George

    In the four years since the first CAMS workshop, context awareness has become an increasingly commonplace tool for mobile developers. The limited screen displays of many mobile devices mean that content must be carefully selected to match the user's needs and expectations, and context provides one powerful means of performing such tailoring. Furthermore, increasing availability of additional hardware sensors has bolstered the use of context. GPS, Near-Field Communication, Bluetooth and WiFi have all been used to sense the general environment and to determine the devices' location. Light and tilt sensors have also been used to tune simple features such as the strength of the display lighting, through to complex uses in game control. Context-aware mobile systems are becoming ubiquitous. With this hardware comes the opportunity for "on-board" applications to use location data to provide new services - until recently such systems could only be created with complex and expensive components. Furthermore, the current "mode" of the phone (e.g., silent, meeting, outdoors), contents of the built-in calendar, etc., can all used to provide a rich context for the user's immediate environment.

  5. Establishing CAD/CAM in Preclinical Dental Education: Evaluation of a Hands-On Module.

    PubMed

    Schwindling, Franz Sebastian; Deisenhofer, Ulrich Karl; Porsche, Monika; Rammelsberg, Peter; Kappel, Stefanie; Stober, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a hands-on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) module in a preclinical dental course in restorative dentistry. A controlled trial was conducted by dividing a class of 56 third-year dental students in Germany into study and control groups; allocation to the two groups depended on student schedules. Prior information about CAD/CAM-based restorations was provided for all students by means of lectures, preparation exercises, and production of gypsum casts of prepared resin teeth. The study group (32 students) then participated in a hands-on CAD/CAM module in small groups, digitizing their casts and designing zirconia frameworks for single crowns. The digitization process was introduced to the control group (24 students) solely by means of a video-supported lecture. To assess the knowledge gained, a 20-question written examination was administered; 48 students took the exam. The results were analyzed with Student's t-tests at a significance level of 0.05. The results on the examination showed a significant difference between the two groups: the mean scores were 16.8 (SD 1.7, range 13-19) for the study group and 12.5 (SD 3, range 4-18) for the control group. After the control group had also experienced the hands-on module, a total of 48 students from both groups completed a questionnaire with 13 rating-scale and three open-ended questions evaluating the module. Those results showed that the module was highly regarded by the students. This study supports the idea that small-group hands-on courses are helpful for instruction in digital restoration design. These students' knowledge gained and satisfaction seemed to justify the time, effort, and equipment needed. PMID:26427781

  6. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  7. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  8. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  9. CamMedNP: Building the Cameroonian 3D structural natural products database for virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-aided drug design (CADD) often involves virtual screening (VS) of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We present CamMedNP - a new database beginning with more than 2,500 compounds of natural origin, along with some of their derivatives which were obtained through hemisynthesis. These are pure compounds which have been previously isolated and characterized using modern spectroscopic methods and published by several research teams spread across Cameroon. Description In the present study, 224 distinct medicinal plant species belonging to 55 plant families from the Cameroonian flora have been considered. About 80 % of these have been previously published and/or referenced in internationally recognized journals. For each compound, the optimized 3D structure, drug-like properties, plant source, collection site and currently known biological activities are given, as well as literature references. We have evaluated the “drug-likeness” of this database using Lipinski’s “Rule of Five”. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. Conclusion CamMedNP could be highly useful for database screening and natural product lead generation programs. PMID:23590173

  10. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  11. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  12. EpCAM expression in breast cancer cells is associated with enhanced bone metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Toru; Ito, Susumu; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been implicated in multiple cellular functions including cell adhesion. EpCAM has also recently been identified as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we examined the roles of EpCAM in the development of bone metastasis of breast cancer by using well-characterized animal models. Morphological and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction data showed that the EpCAM-negative and -positive (EpCAM(neg) and EpCAM(pos) ) cell populations isolated from breast cancer cell lines exhibited mesenchymal and epithelial phenotypes, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that EpCAM(pos) , but not EpCAM(neg) , cells possessed self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Tumorsphere formation in suspension cultures and tumorigenicity in the orthotopic mammary fat pad of mice were significantly greater in EpCAM(pos) cells than in EpCAM(neg) cells. The development of bone metastases induced by an intracardiac injection was markedly increased in mice inoculated with EpCAM(pos) cells. Furthermore, intracardiac inoculations of parental cells demonstrated that the EpCAM(pos) population in cancer cells that colonized in bone was significantly higher than that in parental cells. However, stable transduction of EpCAM into EpCAM(neg) cells failed to reproduce the phenotypes of EpCAM(pos) cells. These results suggest that the expression of EpCAM in breast cancer cells is associated with CSC-like phenotypes, which contribute to the promotion of bone metastases by enhancing tumorigenicity. Our results also support the possibility that the epithelial phenotypes of EpCAM-expressing cells confer advantageous properties for the development of bone metastases, at least after entering the circulation, while EpCAM is likely not solely responsible for the phenotypes of EpCAM(pos) cells. PMID:26576938

  13. AEGIS Automated Targeting for the MSL ChemCam Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estlin, T.; Anderson, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Bornstein, B.; Burl, M. C.; Castano, R.; Gaines, D.; Judd, M.; Thompson, D. R.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system enables automated science data collection by a planetary rover. AEGIS has been in use on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission Opportunity rover since 2010 to provide onboard targeting of the MER Panoramic Camera based on scientist-specified objectives. AEGIS is now being applied for use with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission ChemCam spectrometer. ChemCam uses a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to analyze the elemental composition of rocks and soil from up to seven meters away. ChemCam's tightly-focused laser beam (350-550 um) enables targeting of very fine-scale terrain features. AEGIS is being applied in two ways to help ChemCam collect valuable science data. The first application is to enable automated targeting of ChemCam during or after or in the middle of long drives. The majority of ChemCam measurements are collected by allowing the science team to select specific targets in rover images. However this requires the rover to stay in the same area while images are downlinked, analyzed for targets, and new commands uplinked. The only data that can be acquired without this communication cycle is via blind targeting, where measurements are often of soil patches vs. instead of more valuable targets such as rocks with specific properties. AEGIS is being applied to automatically analyze images onboard and select targets for ChemCam analysis. This approach allows the rover to autonomously select and sequence targeted measurements in an opportunistic fashion at different points along the rover's drive path. Rock targets can be prioritized for measurement based on various geologically relevant features, including size, shape and albedo. A second application is to enable intelligent pointing refinement of ChemCam when acquiring data of small targets, such as veins or concretions that are only a few millimeters wide. Due to backlash and other pointing challenges, it can often

  14. Compound I reactivity defines alkene oxidation selectivity in cytochrome P450cam.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Richard; Harvey, Jeremy N; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2010-01-21

    Prediction of the chemoselectivity of drug oxidation by the human cytochrome P450 enzymes will aid in the avoidance of adverse drug reactions. The chemoselectivity of alkene oxidation is an important problem to address, as it can result in the formation of epoxides, which can have toxic effects. In this paper the epoxidation and hydroxylation of cyclohexene and propene by the bacterial P450(cam) isoform are modeled with hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods. Snapshots for QM/MM modeling are chosen from molecular dynamics trajectories, to sample the different conformations of the enzyme-substrate complex. The energy barriers obtained for these processes are in qualitative agreement with experimental work, supporting the use of QM/MM methods in the study of selectivity for this class of enzyme. This work highlights the complexity involved in modeling these systems with QM/MM and the importance in the selection of starting geometries. PMID:20014756

  15. The Starspots Activity of SV Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuravsevic, G.

    The paper is devoted to the problem of the orbital and physical parameters estimation of the active eclipsing binary SV Cam based on the interpretation of photometric observations made by {pa} during the period 1973-1981. The problem is solved in two stages: by obtaining a synthetic light curve in the case when the parameters of the corresponding Roche model {dja} are given a priori (direct problem), and by determining the parameters of the model for which the best fit between the synthetic light curve and the observations is achieved (inverse problem) {djb}. A total of 18 light curves are analysed in the framework of the Roche model, involving one and two spotted regions on the primary component of the system (Sp G3 V), for the temperature contrast between the spotted area and the surrounding photosphere A_s = T_s / T_1 = 0.65. The basic parameters of the system and of the spotted areas are estimated. According to the obtained results the spotted areas are formed at high latitudes and cover a significant part of the stellar surface. No clear cyclicity of the system's activity is noted from the analysed observations. There are some indications that spotted area at high latitudes (above 70circ) correspond to an enhanced activity. Since the system's period is short (P = 0^d.59), the presence of spotted regions at high latitudes can be explained by the dynamo mechanism for rapid rotators {sch}. During the analysed period the spotted areas tend to fall into a specially active longitude sectors, on high latitude, near stellar polar regions. Due to a selection effect it is possible that a more extensive observational material would correct this result to some extent. The light curve analysis allowed an estimation of the system parameters and of the active spotted regions.

  16. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  17. Design and development of a quad copter (UMAASK) using CAD/CAM/CAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manarvi, Irfan Anjum; Aqib, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Khurshid, Saqib; Sikandar, Usman

    Micro flying vehicles1 (MFV) have become a popular area of research due to economy of production, flexibility of launch and variety of applications. A large number of techniques from pencil sketching to computer based software are being used for designing specific geometries and selection of materials to arrive at novel designs for specific requirements. Present research was focused on development of suitable design configuration using CAD/CAM/CAE tools and techniques. A number of designs were reviewed for this purpose. Finally, rotary wing Quadcopter flying vehicle design was considered appropriate for this research. Performance requirements were planned as approximately 10 meters ceiling, weight less than 500grams and ability to take videos and pictures. Parts were designed using Finite Element Analysis, manufactured using CNC machines and assembled to arrive at final design named as UMAASK. Flight tests were carried out which confirmed the design requirements.

  18. CAD/CAM for development and fabrication of cosecant reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, U.

    The application of CAD/CAM techniques to lower the cost of redesigning and manufacturing specialized cosecant reflector antennas for use in the mm-wave range is described and demonstrated. Consideration is given to the theoretical computation of reflector surfaces; the representation of a reflector surface in a CAD system; the numerically controlled milling of an Al, wood, or plastic model antenna; and the construction of the antenna (by spraying the 300-micron Sn-alloy conducting layer onto the coated model surface and then applying a 1-mm-thick epoxy-matrix GFRP layer, a 20-30-mm layer of flexible polyurethane foam, and a final GFRP layer). Diagrams and photographs are provided.

  19. The inducible CAM plants in putative lunar lander experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, Olexii; Zaetz, Iryna; Soldatkin, Olexii; Rogutskyy, Ivan; Danilchenko, Boris; Mikheev, Olexander; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Vidmachenko, Anatolii; Foing, Bernard H.; Kozyrovska, Natalia

    Precursory lunar lander experiments on growing plants in locker-based chambers will increase our understanding of effect of lunar conditions on plant physiology. The inducible CAM (Cras-sulacean Acid Metabolism)-plants are reasonable model for a study of relationships between environmental challenges and changes in plant/bacteria gene expression. In inducible CAM-plants the enzymatic machinery for the environmentally activated CAM switches on from a C3-to a full-CAM mode of photosynthesis in response to any stresses (Winter et al., 2008). In our study, Kalanchoe spp. are shown to be promising candidates for putative lunar experiments as resistant to irradiation and desiccation, especially after inoculation with a bacterial consortium (Boorlak et al., 2010). Within frames of the experiment we expect to get information about the functional activity of CAM-plants, in particular, its organogenesis, photosystem, the circadian regulation of plant metabolism on the base of data gaining with instrumental indications from expression of the reporter genes fused to any genes involved in vital functions of the plant (Kozyrovska et al., 2009). References 1. Winter K., Garcia M., Holtum J. (2008) J. Exp. Bot. 59(7):1829-1840 2. Bourlak O., Lar O., Rogutskyy I., Mikheev A., Zaets I., Chervatyuk N., de Vera J.-P., Danilchenko A.B. Foing B.H., zyrovska N. (2010) Space Sci. Technol. 3. Kozyrovska N.O., Vidmachenko A.P., Foing B.H. et al. Exploration/call/estec/ESA. 2009.

  20. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; et al

    2015-11-02

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAMmore » pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Lastly, we found pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.« less

  1. Exploring adolescent complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use in Canada.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Chris; Arthur, Heather; Noesgaard, Charlotte; Caldwell, Patricia; Vohra, Julie; Francoeur, Chera; Swinton, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach investigated adolescents' perceptions about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) use. Adolescents, attending a clinic at the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, were interviewed after receiving ethics approval. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The decision of adolescents to use CAM was based within the context of their world and how it shaped influencing factors. Factors that influenced adolescents' decision to use CAM were identified as certain personality traits, culture, media, social contacts and the ability of CAM providers to develop therapeutic relationships. The barriers and benefits of CAM use influenced evaluation of choices. The importance of barriers in limiting freedom of choice in health care decisions should be investigated by practitioners as they provide care to adolescents. Health care planning for integrative models of care requires determining the "right" blend of expertise by knowing interprofessional boundaries, determining mixed skill sets to provide the essential services and ensuring appropriate regulation that allows practitioners to use their full scope of practice. PMID:18202985

  2. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  3. Detection of Zn with ChemCam on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, J.; Clegg, S. M.; Forni, O.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Berger, J.; Blaney, D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Johnson, J.; LeDeit, L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maurice, S.; M. S. L. Science Team

    2015-10-01

    C h e m C a m i s a L a s e r- I n d u c e d B r e a k d o w n Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument on-board the NASA Curiosity rover currently exploring Mars. ChemCam can analyze the chemical composition of geological samples without preparation and at a distance by detecting the laser induced atomic emission lines from elements present [1, 2]. ChemCam is sensitive to most chemical elements. In addition to the major elements, ChemCam can be used to detect and quantify a set of minor and trace elements such as Li, Sr, Ba, and Rb using univariate and multivariate regression techniques [3]. Mn has also been detected and quantified with ChemCam at high concentrations indicating that highly oxidizing conditions must have occurred on the surface of Mars [4]. We report here the detection of high Zn content targets with ChemCam at the Kimberley location at Gale Crater that are linked to high-Mn concentrations.

  4. On the nature of facultative and constitutive CAM: environmental and developmental control of CAM expression during early growth of Clusia, Kalanchöe, and Opuntia.

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2008-01-01

    The capacity to induce crassulacean acid metabolism developmentally (constitutive CAM) and to up-regulate CAM expression in response to drought stress (facultative CAM) was studied in whole shoots of seven species by measuring net CO(2) gas exchange for up to 120 day-night cycles during early growth. In Clusia rosea, CAM was largely induced developmentally. Well-watered seedlings began their life cycle as C(3) plants and developed net dark CO(2) fixation indicative of CAM after the initiation of the fourth leaf pair following the cotyledons. Thereafter, CAM activity increased progressively and drought stress led to only small additional, reversible increases in dark CO(2) fixation. In contrast, CAM expression was overwhelmingly under environmental control in seedlings and mature plants of Clusia pratensis. C(3)-type CO(2) exchange was maintained under well-watered conditions, but upon drought stress, CO(2) exchange shifted, in a fully reversible manner, to a CAM-type pattern. Clusia minor showed CO(2) exchange reponses intermediate to those of C. rosea and C. pratensis. Clusia cretosa operated in the C(3) mode at all times. Notably, reversible stress-induced increases of dark CO(2) fixation were also observed during the developmental progression to pronounced CAM in young Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Kalanchoë pinnata, two species considered constitutive CAM species. Drought-induced up-regulation of CAM was even detected in young cladodes of a cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica, an archetypal constitutive CAM species. Evidently, the defining characteristics of constitutive and facultative CAM are shared, to variable degrees, by all CAM species. PMID:18440928

  5. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  6. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). A multifaceted experimental model.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, wound healing, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Moreover, being naturally immunodeficient, the chick embryo may receive transplantations from different tissues and species, without immune responses. PMID:27178379

  7. Prevalence of Cam Morphology in Females with Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Hellman, Michael D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Haughom, Bryan; Frank, Rachel M.; Nho, Shane J.

    2015-01-01

    Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. Cam morphology is commonly assessed with the alpha angle, measured on radiographs. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of cam morphology utilizing the alpha angle in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Alpha (α) angles were measured on anteroposterior and lateral (Dunn 90°, cross-table lateral, and/or frog-leg lateral) plain radiographs by two blinded physicians, and the largest measured angle was used. Using Gosvig et al.’s classification, alpha angle was characterized as (pathologic > 57°), borderline (51–56°), subtle (46–50°), very subtle (43–45°), or normal (≤42°). Three hundred and ninety-one patients (438 hips) were analyzed (age 36.2 ± 12.3 years). Among the hips included, 35.6% were normal, 14.6% pathologic, 15.1% borderline, 14.6% subtle, and 20.1% very subtle. There was no correlation between alpha angle and patient age (R = 0.17) or body mass index (R = 0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient for α-angle measurements was 0.84. Sixty-four percent of females in this cohort had an alpha angle >42°. Subtle cam deformity plays a significant role in the pathoanatomy of female patients with symptomatic FAI. As the majority of revision hip arthroscopies are performed due to incomplete cam correction, hip arthroscopists need to be cognizant of and potentially surgically address these subtle lesions. PMID:26649291

  8. Accuracy of fibular sectioning and insertion into a rapid-prototyped bone plate, for mandibular reconstruction using CAD-CAM technology.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Marchetti, Claudio; Mazzoni, Simona; Baldissara, Paolo; Gatto, Maria Rosaria Antonella; Cipriani, Riccardo; Scotti, Roberto; Tarsitano, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Modern techniques of mandibular reconstruction, such as CAD-CAM technology and rapid prototyping, offer new means by which reconstructive surgery can be planned to optimise aesthetic outcomes and prosthetic rehabilitation. The high degree of accuracy afforded by these approaches is principally attributable to high-precision fibular sectioning and insertion of the bone into a customised bone plate. CAD-CAM mandibular reconstruction procedures using vascularised bone free-flap transfers were performed on 10 patients with benign or malignant neoplasms. Five were not treated with the aid of CAD-CAM technology, and served as the control group. Five were scheduled for maxillofacial surgery using surgical cutting guides and customised bone plates. A generalised linear model for linear measures was used to compare the accuracy of reconstruction between the two groups. A difference, even though not significant, in the lateral shift of the mesial and distal positions of the fibular units was evident between groups. CAD-CAM-generated fibular surgical guides afford improved accuracy when used to restore native anatomy, especially in the context of mandibular arch restoration, and both operating room time and related costs are reduced during fibular sectioning. PMID:25434288

  9. Cam McRobbie: A man for all occasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gregory P.; Skamp, Keith

    2009-06-01

    This article reviews the contributions of Campbell John McRobbie, Cam, to science education scholarship and research within the Australasian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) and within the broader science education community. Cam provided strong leadership and vision across many spheres of science education and leaves a legacy to the field that includes, (a) long term administrative and academic support of ASERA as an organization and for its incorporation, (b) firm establishment of RISE as an international journal of high quality, and (c) strong collegial approach to supporting the research of his colleagues including early career researchers and research degree candidates.

  10. Aerosol specification in single-column CAM5

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P.

    2014-11-17

    The ability to run a global climate model in single-column mode is very useful for testing model improvements because single-column models (SCMs) are inexpensive to run and easy to interpret. A major breakthrough in Version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is the inclusion of prognostic aerosol. Unfortunately, this improvement was not coordinated with the SCM version of CAM5 and as a result CAM5-SCM initializes aerosols to zero. In this study we explore the impact of running CAM5-SCM with aerosol initialized to zero (hereafter named Default) and test three potential fixes. The first fix is to use CAM5's prescribedmore » aerosol capability, which specifies aerosols at monthly climatological values. The second method is to prescribe aerosols at observed values. The third approach is to fix droplet and ice crystal numbers at prescribed values. We test our fixes in four different cloud regimes to ensure representativeness: subtropical drizzling stratocumulus (based on the DYCOMS RF02 case study), mixed-phase Arctic stratocumulus (using the MPACE-B case study), tropical shallow convection (using the RICO case study), and summertime mid-latitude continental convection (using the ARM95 case study). Stratiform cloud cases (DYCOMS RF02 and MPACE-B) were found to have a strong dependence on aerosol concentration, while convective cases (RICO and ARM95) were relatively insensitive to aerosol specification. This is perhaps expected because convective schemes in CAM5 do not currently use aerosol information. Adequate liquid water content in the MPACE-B case was only maintained when ice crystal number concentration was specified because the Meyers et al. (1992) deposition/condensation ice nucleation scheme used by CAM5 greatly overpredicts ice nucleation rates, causing clouds to rapidly glaciate. Surprisingly, predicted droplet concentrations for the ARM95 region in both SCM and global runs were around 25 cm−3, which is much lower than observed. This finding

  11. Aerosol specification in single-column CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to run a global climate model in single-column mode is very useful for testing model improvements because single-column models (SCMs) are inexpensive to run and easy to interpret. A major breakthrough in Version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is the inclusion of prognostic aerosol. Unfortunately, this improvement was not coordinated with the SCM version of CAM5 and as a result CAM5-SCM initializes aerosols to zero. In this study we explore the impact of running CAM5-SCM with aerosol initialized to zero (hereafter named Default) and test three potential fixes. The first fix is to use CAM5's prescribed aerosol capability, which specifies aerosols at monthly climatological values. The second method is to prescribe aerosols at observed values. The third approach is to fix droplet and ice crystal numbers at prescribed values. We test our fixes in four different cloud regimes to ensure representativeness: subtropical drizzling stratocumulus (based on the DYCOMS RF02 case study), mixed-phase Arctic stratocumulus (using the MPACE-B case study), tropical shallow convection (using the RICO case study), and summertime mid-latitude continental convection (using the ARM95 case study). Stratiform cloud cases (DYCOMS RF02 and MPACE-B) were found to have a strong dependence on aerosol concentration, while convective cases (RICO and ARM95) were relatively insensitive to aerosol specification. This is perhaps expected because convective schemes in CAM5 do not currently use aerosol information. Adequate liquid water content in the MPACE-B case was only maintained when ice crystal number concentration was specified because the Meyers et al. (1992) deposition/condensation ice nucleation scheme used by CAM5 greatly overpredicts ice nucleation rates, causing clouds to rapidly glaciate. Surprisingly, predicted droplet concentrations for the ARM95 region in both SCM and global runs were around 25 cm-3, which is much lower than observed. This finding suggests that

  12. Impact of IPAD on CAD/CAM database university research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, L. M.; Wozny, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    IPAD program has provided direction, focus and software products which impacted on CAD/CAM data base research and follow-on research. The relationship of IPAD to the research projects which involve the storage of geometric data in common data ase facilities such as data base machines, the exchange of data between heterogeneous data bases, the development of IGES processors, the migration of lrge CAD/CAM data base management systems to noncompatible hosts, and the value of RIM as a research tool is described.

  13. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  14. Sedona Red Rock Cam footage of fireball on June 2, 2016

    NASA Video Gallery

    This footage from the Sedona Red Rock Cam (part of the EarthCam network) shows how brightly the ground was illuminated during the fireball, which entered the atmosphere over Arizona shortly before ...

  15. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... for low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  16. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): NCCAM Timeline—A Decade of Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section CAM NCCAM Timeline—A Decade of Progress Past Issues / ... 2008 - NCCAM releases new statistics on use of CAM among American adults and children from CDC's 2007 ...

  17. Single Roller-to-Cam Indexing Mechanisms Providing Two Maximized Dwells: Determination of Cam Pitch Profile for Optimal Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, K. S.

    2015-04-01

    The view point of present research paper is concentrated on a part of a systematic scientific investigation of the mechanical possibilities of generating non-uniform full-rotational output motion with intermittent motion as the most important special case. The paper develops a geometrical construction of the cam pitch profile for optimal designs for single roller-to-cam indexing mechanism providing either two unequal maximum extent dwells with equal indexing angles (and unequal indexing periods) or two equal maximized dwells with unequal indexing angles (and equal indexing periods). Placement of the two dwells in the same half of the motion cycle gives very small periods; very high accelerations; and poor radius of curvature in the transition portion. Hence this paper considers optimal motion diagrams for the case of two dwells placed in different halves of the motion cycle and using the principle of kinematic inversion with intuitive conviction very tactically determines the cam pitch profile.

  18. Mitochondrial respiration in ME-CAM, PEPCK-CAM, and C₃ succulents: comparative operation of the cytochrome, alternative, and rotenone-resistant pathways.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, Klaus; von Willert, Dieter J; Martin, Craig E; Herppich, Werner B

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondria are important in the function and control of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) during organic acid accumulation at night and acid decarboxylation in the day. In plants of the malic enzyme-(ME) type and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase- (PEPCK) type, mitochondria may exert their role in the control of the diurnal rhythm of malic and citric acids to a differential degree. In plants of both CAM types, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria, as well as the activity of CAM-linked mitochondrial enzymes, and of the alternative and the rotenone-resistant pathways of substrate oxidation were compared. Furthermore, a C₃ succulent was included, as well as both C₃ and CAM forms of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum during a salt-induced C₃-to-CAM shift. Mitochondria of PEPCK-type CAM plants exhibited a lower activity of malate oxidation, ratio of malate to succinate oxidation, and activity of mitochondrial NAD-ME. With the exception of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, leaf mitochondria of all other CAM species were highly sensitive to cyanide (80-100%), irrespective of the oxidant used. This indicates that the alternative oxidase is not of general importance in CAM. By contrast, rotenone-insensitive substrate oxidation was very high (50-90%) in all CAM species. This is the first comparison of the rotenone-insensitive pathway of respiration in plants with different CAM-types. The results of this study confirm that mitochondria are involved in the control of CAM to different degrees in the two CAM types, and they highlight the multiple roles of mitochondria in CAM. PMID:22330897

  19. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

  20. Classification of CAM Use and its Correlates in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Juliann; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Saquib, Nazmus; Natarajan, Loki; Newman, Vicky A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Pierce, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis Self-reported use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been shown to increase following a cancer diagnosis, and breast cancer survivors are the heaviest users among cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence estimate of CAM use varied according to classification of CAM. We used a comprehensive system to classify CAM users and test differences in demographic, lifestyle, quality of life, and cancer characteristics among them. Study Design and Methods Participants were 2562 breast cancer survivors participating in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study, aged 28-74 years. A structured telephone interview assessed CAM use, questioning about specific CAM practices, and whether use was related to cancer. We examined CAM use in relation to demographics, health behaviors, and quality of life. Results Approximately 80% of the women used CAM for general purposes but only 50% reported CAM use for cancer purposes. Visual imagery, spiritual healing, and meditation were the most frequently used practices for cancer purposes. CAM use, defined as consulting a CAM practitioner and regular use, was significantly related to younger age, higher education, increased fruit & vegetable intake, and lower body mass index (p < .05). CAM users who had seen a practitioner were also more likely to report poor physical and mental health than non-CAM users (p < .05). CAM use was not associated with changes in physical and mental health between study baseline and 1-year follow-up. Conclusion This study addressed important differences in the classification of CAM use among breast cancer survivors. Future studies need to further test the potential benefits and risks associated with CAM use. PMID:21382963

  1. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  2. CAM-4, A PORTABLE WARNING DEVICE FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CAM-4 is a completely portable, battery-operated, field version of the earlier cholinesterase antagonist monitor, CAM-1, which senses organophosphates and carbamates in water supplies. The present report describes the design, fabrication, and evaluation of the CAM-4 device. Like ...

  3. Engineering specification and system design for CAD/CAM of custom shoes: UMC project effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project is to supplement the footwear design system of North Carolina State University (NCSU) with a software module to design and manufacture a combination sole. The four areas of concentration were: customization of NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design) to the footwear project; use of CENCIT data; computer aided manufacturing activities; and beginning work for the bottom elements of shoes. The task of generating a software module for producing a sole was completed with a demonstrated product realization. The software written in C was delivered to NCSU for inclusion in their design system for custom footwear known as LASTMOD. The machining process of the shoe last was improved using a spiral tool path approach.

  4. Energy considerations in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Williamson, David L.; Olson, Jerry G.; Hannay, Cécile; Toniazzo, Thomas; Yudin, Valery; Taylor, Mark

    2015-06-30

    An error in the energy formulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is identified and corrected. Ten year AMIP simulations are compared using the correct and incorrect energy formulations. Statistics of selected primary variables all indicate physically insignificant differences between the simulations, comparable to differences with simulations initialized with rounding sized perturbations. The two simulations are so similar mainly because of an inconsistency in the application of the incorrect energy formulation in the original CAM. CAM used the erroneous energy form to determine the states passed between the parameterizations, but used a form related to the correct formulation for themore » state passed from the parameterizations to the dynamical core. If the incorrect form is also used to determine the state passed to the dynamical core the simulations are significantly different. In addition, CAM uses the incorrect form for the global energy fixer, but that seems to be less important. The difference of the magnitude of the fixers using the correct and incorrect energy definitions is very small.« less

  5. Energy considerations in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, David L.; Olson, Jerry G.; Hannay, Cécile; Toniazzo, Thomas; Yudin, Valery; Taylor, Mark

    2015-06-30

    An error in the energy formulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is identified and corrected. Ten year AMIP simulations are compared using the correct and incorrect energy formulations. Statistics of selected primary variables all indicate physically insignificant differences between the simulations, comparable to differences with simulations initialized with rounding sized perturbations. The two simulations are so similar mainly because of an inconsistency in the application of the incorrect energy formulation in the original CAM. CAM used the erroneous energy form to determine the states passed between the parameterizations, but used a form related to the correct formulation for the state passed from the parameterizations to the dynamical core. If the incorrect form is also used to determine the state passed to the dynamical core the simulations are significantly different. In addition, CAM uses the incorrect form for the global energy fixer, but that seems to be less important. The difference of the magnitude of the fixers using the correct and incorrect energy definitions is very small.

  6. Supernova candidates discovered with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yasuda, Naoki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Morii, Mikio; Ikeda, Shiro; Ueda, Naonori; Yamato, Junji; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yoshida, Naoki; Suzuki, Nao; Jiang, Ji-an; Kato, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Moriya, Takashi J.; Noumaru, Junichi; Schubert, Kiaina; Takata, Tadafumi

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of 10 supernova candidates from a transient survey with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC). Our Subaru/HSC open-use observations were performed on 19 Aug 2015 UT, under poor weather condition with 1.1-1.5 arcsec seeing.

  7. GOOSE CAM: The Development of a Practical Underwater Exploration Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Mitchell, Colleen; Miller, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    We challenged an Aquatic Biology class to find a way to access, observe, and record aquatic habitats and organisms without causing disruption. Using off the shelf components the class was guided in the design and assembly of a remote controlled, video broadcasting, data collecting, floating vehicle based on a molded goose decoy. GOOSE-CAM or…

  8. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  9. Energy considerations in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, David L.; Olson, Jerry G.; Hannay, Cécile; Toniazzo, Thomas; Taylor, Mark; Yudin, Valery

    2015-09-01

    An error in the energy formulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is identified and corrected. Ten year AMIP simulations are compared using the correct and incorrect energy formulations. Statistics of selected primary variables all indicate physically insignificant differences between the simulations, comparable to differences with simulations initialized with rounding sized perturbations. The two simulations are so similar mainly because of an inconsistency in the application of the incorrect energy formulation in the original CAM. CAM used the erroneous energy form to determine the states passed between the parameterizations, but used a form related to the correct formulation for the state passed from the parameterizations to the dynamical core. If the incorrect form is also used to determine the state passed to the dynamical core the simulations are significantly different. In addition, CAM uses the incorrect form for the global energy fixer, but that seems to be less important. The difference of the magnitude of the fixers using the correct and incorrect energy definitions is very small.

  10. 46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND RELATIONSHIP OF BULL WHEEL (LOWER RIGHT) LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR A SIMILAR B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. CAMS--A Think Tank for Global Ocean Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaharl, Victoria A.

    1985-01-01

    The Center for the Analysis of Marine Systems (CAMS) was created as an interdisciplinary "think tank" to meet needs of modern oceanography. The international research center's focus and success rests on theory, observation, and computer modeling. Projects involving lava flow and year-to-year variations in abundance of fish are described. (DH)

  12. Safety Modification of Cam-and-Groove Hose Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwindt, Paul; Littlefield, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A modification has been made in the mating halves of a cam-and-groove hose coupling to prevent rapid separation of the halves in the event that the cam levers are released while the fluid in the hose is pressurized. The need for this modification arises because commercial off-the-shelf cam-and-groove hose-coupling halves do not incorporate safety features to prevent separation in the pressurized state. Especially when the pressurized fluid is compressible (e.g., steam or compressed air), the separated halves can be propelled with considerable energy, causing personal injury and/or property damage. Therefore, one purpose served by the modification is to provide for venting to release compressive energy in a contained and safe manner while preventing personal injury and/or property damage. Another purpose served by the modification, during the process of connecting the coupling halves, is to ensure that the coupling halves are properly aligned before the cam levers can be locked into position.

  13. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  14. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time. PMID:27004181

  15. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS.

    PubMed

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time. PMID:27004181

  16. Internal combustion engine and cam drive mechanism therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.T.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a cam mechanism for driving the camshaft of a four-stroke internal combustion engine having one or more sets of n number of cylinders where n is a positive integer, a piston connected to a crankshaft and reciprocable in each cylinder and is either in phase or out of phase with any other piston in the set to which it belongs by a phase angle A/sup 0/, or an integral multiple thereof. A camshaft carries rotatable cams for actuating inlet and/or exhaust valves for each cylinder in the set. Characterized in the cam drive mechanism consist of means for rotating the camshaft with a rotational movement which is a combination of a circular motion about its axis of rotation which has a predetermined phase relationship with the circular movement of the crankshaft and an oscillatory motion about its axis of rotation to advance and retard the angular position of the cams relative to the valves with which they are associated. The oscillatory motion has a predetermined phase relationship with the crankshaft, and means for varying the amplitude of the oscillatory motion whereby the timing of the opening and closing of the valves may be varied, characterized in that the speed of the circular movement of the camshaft is half the speed of the crankshaft. The frequency of oscillations of the camshaft is f times the frequency of rotation of the crankshaft. The cam drive mechanism consists of a rotatable drive member drivable by the crankshaft. A connection is between the drive member and camshaft for transmitting the rotary motion of the drive member thereto. The connection including a sleeve element rotatable by the drive element and axially slidable relative thereto and having a helically splined connection with the camshaft whereby axial movement of the sleeve element effects a rotation of the camshaft relative to the drive member.

  17. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve. The meteors assigned to the various showers are identified in the CAMS Meteoroid Orbit Database 2.0 submitted to the IAU Meteor Data Center, and can be accessed also at cams.seti.org" xlink:type="simple"

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  19. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  20. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  1. Family Medicine Residency Program Directors Attitudes and Knowledge of Family Medicine CAM Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Lebensohn, Patricia; Bonakdar, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Context Little is known about the incorporation of integrative medicine (IM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into family medicine residency programs. Objective The Society for Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) approved a set of CAM/IM competencies for family medicine residencies. We hope to evaluate with an online survey tool, whether residency programs are implementing such competencies into their curriculum. We also hope to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Residency Directors (RDs) on the CAM/IM competencies. Design A survey was distributed by the CAFM (Council of Academic Family Medicine) Educational Research Alliance to RDs via email. The survey was distributed to 431 RDs. Of those who received it, 212 responded for a response rate of 49.1%. Questions assessed the knowledge and attitudes of CAM/IM competencies and incorporation of CAM/IM into residency curriculum. Results Forty-five percent of RDs were aware of the competencies. In term of RD attitudes, 58% reported that CAM/IM is an important component of residents' curriculum yet, 60% report not having specific learning objectives for CAM/IM in their residency curriculum. Among all programs, barriers to CAM/IM implementation included: time in residents' schedules (77%); faculty training (75%); access to CAM experts (43%); lack of reimbursement (43%), and financial resources (29%). Conclusions While many RDs are aware of the STFM CAM/IM competencies and acknowledge their role in residence education, there are many barriers preventing residencies to implementing the STFM CAM/IM competencies. PMID:24021471

  2. How parents choose to use CAM: a systematic review of theoretical models

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Ava; Ilan-Clarke, Yael; Robinson, Nicola; Blair, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used throughout the UK and the Western world. CAM is commonly used for children and the decision-making process to use CAM is affected by numerous factors. Most research on CAM use lacks a theoretical framework and is largely based on bivariate statistics. The aim of this review was to identify a conceptual model which could be used to explain the decision-making process in parental choice of CAM. Methods A systematic search of the literature was carried out. A two-stage selection process with predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria identified studies using a theoretical framework depicting the interaction of psychological factors involved in the CAM decision process. Papers were critically appraised and findings summarised. Results Twenty two studies using a theoretical model to predict CAM use were included in the final review; only one examined child use. Seven different models were identified. The most commonly used and successful model was Andersen's Sociobehavioural Model (SBM). Two papers proposed modifications to the SBM for CAM use. Six qualitative studies developed their own model. Conclusion The SBM modified for CAM use, which incorporates both psychological and pragmatic determinants, was identified as the best conceptual model of CAM use. This model provides a valuable framework for future research, and could be used to explain child CAM use. An understanding of the decision making process is crucial in promoting shared decision making between healthcare practitioners and parents and could inform service delivery, guidance and policy. PMID:19386106

  3. Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F.; Hibberd, Julian M.; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J.

    2014-01-01

    CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes. PMID:24638902

  4. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOEpatents

    Sisk, F.J.

    1985-01-22

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270[degree] around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions. 7 figs.

  5. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOEpatents

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1985-01-01

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270.degree. around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass 74 of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions.

  6. A comparative study of gold UCLA-type and CAD/CAM titanium implant abutments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Man; Lee, Jai-Bong; Heo, Seong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the interface accuracy of computer-assisted designed and manufactured (CAD/CAM) titanium abutments and implant fixture compared to gold-cast UCLA abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS An external connection implant system (Mark III, n=10) and an internal connection implant system (Replace Select, n=10) were used, 5 of each group were connected to milled titanium abutment and the rest were connected to the gold-cast UCLA abutments. The implant fixture and abutment were tightened to torque of 35 Ncm using a digital torque gauge, and initial detorque values were measured 10 minutes after tightening. To mimic the mastication, a cyclic loading was applied at 14 Hz for one million cycles, with the stress amplitude range being within 0 N to 100 N. After the cyclic loading, detorque values were measured again. The fixture-abutment gaps were measured under a microscope and recorded with an accuracy of ±0.1 µm at 50 points. RESULTS Initial detorque values of milled abutment were significantly higher than those of cast abutment (P<.05). Detorque values after one million dynamic cyclic loadings were not significantly different (P>.05). After cyclic loading, detorque values of cast abutment increased, but those of milled abutment decreased (P<.05). There was no significant difference of gap dimension between the milled abutment group and the cast abutment group after cyclic loading. CONCLUSION In conclusion, CAD/CAM milled titanium abutment can be fabricated with sufficient accuracy to permit screw joint stability between abutment and fixture comparable to that of the traditional gold cast UCLA abutment. PMID:24605206

  7. The rehabilitation of an edentulous mandible with a CAD/CAM zirconia framework and heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic crowns: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngwook; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2014-06-01

    This clinical report describes a complete arch, implant-supported prosthesis with a zirconia framework and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns. The design of the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing zirconia framework with cemented crowns with screw access is useful in facilitating retrievability and adequate fit, and may reduce the likelihood of porcelain chipping. PMID:24602417

  8. Acylinder and freeform optical manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank; DeFisher, Scott; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Aspheric cylinders have the ability to improve optical performance over standard cylindrical surfaces. Over the last several years there has also been development into the application and functionality of utilizing freeform surfaces to improve optical performance. Freeforms have the ability to not only improve image quality over a greater field of view, but can open up the design space of an optical system making it more compact. Freeform geometries, much like aspheric cylinders, may not have an axis of rotation to spin the optic about during manufacturing. This leads to costly fabrication processes and custom metrology set ups, which may inhibit their use. Over the last several years, OptiPro Systems has developed and optimized our eSX grinding, UFF and USF polishing, UltraSurf metrology, and ProSurf software programming technologies to make the processing of these complex geometries much easier and deterministic. In this paper we will discuss the challenges associated with manufacturing complex shapes like aspheric cylinders as well as freeform geometries, and how several technologies working together can overcome them. The technologies focus on metrology feedback to a grinding and polishing machine that is controlled through an iterative computer aided manufacturing software system. We will also present examples of these hard to manufacture shapes with results.

  9. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  10. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  11. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  12. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  13. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  14. Marginal and internal fit of heat pressed versus CAD/CAM fabricated all-ceramic onlays after exposure to thermo-mechanical fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Petra C.; Vagopoulou, Thaleia; Zhang, Yu; Wolkewitz, Martin; Strub, Joerg R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of heat-pressed and CAD/CAM fabricated all-ceramic onlays before and after luting as well as after thermo-mechanical fatigue. Materials and Methods Seventy-two caries-free, extracted human mandibular molars were randomly divided into three groups (n=24/group). All teeth received an onlay preparation with a mesio-occlusal-distal inlay cavity and an occlusal reduction of all cusps. Teeth were restored with heat-pressed IPS-e.max-Press* (IP, *Ivoclar-Vivadent) and Vita-PM9 (VP, Vita-Zahnfabrik) as well as CAD/CAM fabricated IPS-e.max-CAD* (IC, Cerec 3D/InLab/Sirona) all-ceramic materials. After cementation with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (VariolinkII*), all restorations were subjected to mouth-motion fatigue (98N, 1.2 million cycles; 5°C/55°C). Marginal fit discrepancies were examined on epoxy replicas before and after luting as well as after fatigue at 200x magnification. Internal fit was evaluated by multiple sectioning technique. For the statistical analysis, a linear model was fitted with accounting for repeated measurements. Results Adhesive cementation of onlays resulted in significantly increased marginal gap values in all groups, whereas thermo-mechanical fatigue had no effect. Marginal gap values of all test groups were equal after fatigue exposure. Internal discrepancies of CAD/CAM fabricated restorations were significantly higher than both press manufactured onlays. Conclusions Mean marginal gap values of the investigated onlays before and after luting as well as after fatigue were within the clinically acceptable range. Marginal fit was not affected by the investigated heat-press versus CAD/CAM fabrication technique. Press fabrication resulted in a superior internal fit of onlays as compared to the CAD/CAM technique. Clinical Relevance Clinical requirements of 100 μm for marginal fit were fulfilled by the heat-press as well as by the CAD/CAM fabricated all-ceramic onlays

  15. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) disclosure to the health care providers: a qualitative insight from Malaysian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abdul Shatar, Aishah Knight; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam; Saleem, Fahad; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate Malaysian oncology patients CAM disclosure to the health care providers. Patients were interviewed across three major Malaysian ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese and Indian. Thematic content analysis identified three themes: reasons of CAM disclosure, reasons of CAM non-disclosure and preference of CAM discussion to health care providers. Patients agreed that CAM disclosure is important to avoid any interaction with the conventional medicines. Perceived lack of physicians' knowledge & interest in CAM, fear of termination of therapy by the physicians upon CAM disclosure, and perceived simplicity of some of the CAM therapies were among the reasons of non-disclosure. Given the option of oncologists, pharmacists or nurses, patients described oncologists as the most suitable person to discuss or disclose CAM use due to confidence in their clinical skills. Understanding the underlying beliefs of patients' reluctance to disclose CAM to health care providers is important especially when they are on an ongoing treatment for cancer. PMID:23059441

  16. CAM Curriculum Activities to Enhance Professionalism Training in Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Elder, W. G.; Hustedde, Carol; Rakel, Dave; Joyce, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the professionalism of graduates is a major objective of most health care education institutions today. Educating conventional health care providers about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) may directly and indirectly improve trainee professionalism by expanding trainees’ knowledge and appreciation of diverse health care beliefs and practices, improving physician-patient communication, enhancing self-care, and increasing sense of competence and job satisfaction. A survey based on professional competencies proposed by the Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine was administered to the grantees of the National Institutes of Health, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine R-25 CAM education project initiative. The survey’s aim was to identify project activities that taught professionalism skills. All projects reported curricular features that enhanced trainee professionalism, with substantial percentages of project effort directed toward professionalism-related activities. PMID:19412352

  17. GlastCam: A Telemetry-Driven Spacecraft Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric T.; Tsai, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Developed for the GLAST project, which is now the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, GlastCam software ingests telemetry from the Integrated Test and Operations System (ITOS) and generates four graphical displays of geometric properties in real time, allowing visual assessment of the attitude, configuration, position, and various cross-checks. Four windows are displayed: a "cam" window shows a 3D view of the satellite; a second window shows the standard position plot of the satellite on a Mercator map of the Earth; a third window displays star tracker fields of view, showing which stars are visible from the spacecraft in order to verify star tracking; and the fourth window depicts

  18. ChemCam Passive Reflectance Spectroscopy at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gasnault, O.; Kinch, K. M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rice, M. S.; Wiens, R. C.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover uses 3 dispersive spectrometers to cover the ultraviolet (240-342 nm), visible (382-469 nm) and visible/near-infrared (474-906 nm) spectral regions at high spectral (<0.5nm) and spatial (0.65mrad) resolution. In active LIBS mode, light emitted from a laser-generated plasma is dispersed onto these spectrometers and used to detect elemental emission lines. Typical observations include 3 msec-exposure 'dark' spectra (acquired with the LIBS laser off) used to remove the background signal from the LIBS measurement. Similar 'passive' observations of the ChemCam calibration target holder can be made at similar times of day and at identical exposure times (to minimize variations from dark current). Because this target exhibits ~95% flat reflectance in the ~400-900 nm region, radiance spectra ratios (surface/calibration target) can be normalized to known calibration target lab spectra to produce relative reflectance spectra (400-900 nm) with an estimated accuracy of 10-20%. Initial results replicated the known spectral shape and overall reflectance values of the ChemCam calibration targets and green color chip on the Mastcam calibration target. Dust contamination was evident, although dust on the ChemCam calibration targets is minimized by their tilted placement on the rover deck. All ChemCam targets that were sunlit during LIBS acquisition (~80% of all measurements) provide 'dark' spectra for which relative reflectance spectra can be obtained. Owing to the dusty nature of the Gale landing sites, passive spectra observed to date exhibit spectral shapes indicative of ferric phases, similar to spectra of palagonitic soils. Most spectra are bracketed in reflectance by typical 'bright' and 'dark' spectra from the OMEGA and CRISM orbital spectrometers. Preliminary Mastcam reflectance spectra are similar, providing additional confidence regarding the

  19. FAST-RESPONSE ISOTOPIC ALPHA CONTINUOUS AIR MONITOR (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Keith D. Patch

    2000-04-28

    The objective of this effort is to develop and test a novel Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) instrument for monitoring alpha-emitting radionuclides, using a technology that can be applied to Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM) of thermal treatment system off gas streams. The CAM instrument will have very high alpha spectral resolution and provide real-time, on-line monitoring suitable for alerting workers of high concentrations of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the ambient air and for improved control of decontamination, dismantlement, and air emission control equipment. Base Phase I involves the design, development, and preliminary testing of a laboratory-scale instrument. Testing will initially be conducted using naturally-occurring radon progeny in ambient air. In the Optional Phase II, the Base Phase I instrument will be critically evaluated at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) with characterized plutonium aerosols; then an improved instrument will be built and field-tested at a suitable DOE site.

  20. Cost-effective gel documentation using a web-cam.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, T; Zyzik, A; Loeschke, S; Lindsay, W; Vollmer, E

    2001-12-01

    In search for a cost effective gel documentation system applicable for different fields of molecular biology, we analyzed the capabilities of a cheap CCD-camera originally designed to capture images for transmission through the internet (web-cam) with regard to gel documentation. The camera was connected to a personal computer by universal serial bus (USB) and used for the documentation of DNA separated on agarose gels and stained by ethidium-bromide using the software provided with the camera. The web-cam provided digital images of sufficient quality for routine documentation and combined the low set-up costs of a Polaroid system with the low running costs of video capture systems, hence is ideal as a start-up system and as augmentation to existing equipment. PMID:11714515

  1. Compact Atomic Magnetometer for Global Navigation (NAV-CAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Northrop Grumman Navigation Systems Division is developing an atom-based magnetometer technology that has the potential for providing a global position reference independent of GPS. The NAV-CAM sensor is a direct outgrowth of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyro under development by the same technical team. It will be the only known magnetic field sensor capable of providing all 3 axes of magnetic vector direction and magnitude simultaneously with a whole-field scalar measurement, all within a single multi-axis sensing element measuring 4mm cube or smaller, essentially eliminating many of the problems encountered when using physically separate sensors or sensing elements. According to information presented by Ariyur et al. at the 2010 American Control Conference [1], the anticipated accuracy of 10 pico-Tesla (pT) and precision of <0.5 pT of the NAV-CAM sensor will enable magnetic determination of position with 20 meter accuracy and 1 meter resolution.

  2. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘physics of physick’. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties—consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments. PMID:15841271

  3. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  4. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  5. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  6. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  7. Computer-aided lens assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, Richard; Alcock, Rob; Petzing, Jon; Coupland, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    We propose a computer-aided method of lens manufacture that allows assembly, adjustment, and test phases to be run concurrently until an acceptable level of optical performance is reached. Misalignment of elements within a compound lens is determined by a comparison of the results of physical ray tracing by use of an array of Gaussian laser beams with numerically obtained geometric ray traces. An estimate of misalignment errors is made, and individual elements are adjusted in an iterative manner until performance criteria are achieved. The method is illustrated for the alignment of an air-spaced doublet.

  8. Computer aided coordinate measuring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastri, J. W.

    Sikorsky's computer-aided inspection system and equipment utilized to assure that manufactured parts meet drawing tolerance specifications are discussed. An overview of the system is given, and the software is described, including the monitor console routine and commands and the language commands. The system's three coordinate measuring machines are discussed, and the part inspection methods are described in stepwise fashion. System benefits and time savings items are detailed, including quick and accurate measurement of parts difficult to inspect by conventional methods, significant reduction in inspection time, a consistent baseline that highlights variances, and the use of personnel with lower skill levels to effectively inspect critical parts.

  9. Group technology methods for integrated CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propen, M.; Jacko, J.

    1984-10-01

    The use of a single product definition and comprehensive database are key factors in integrating CAD and CAM. This paper describes one approach for investigating the scope of developing a full scale Group Technology (GT) system. The prototype GT system discussed required the integration of a decision logic processor, relational database, and design/drafting system, and demonstrated a generative process planning system for a family of gas turbine engine components.

  10. Malate transport and vacuolar ion channels in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Cheffings, C M; Pantoja, O; Ashcroft, F M; Smith, J A

    1997-03-01

    Malate is a ubiquitous vacuolar anion in terrestrial plants that plays an important role in carbon metabolism and ionic homeostasis. In plants showing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), malate is accumulated as a central intermediary in the process of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, and it is also one of the major charge-balancing anions present in the vacuole. During the CAM cycle, malic acid produced as a result of dark CO(2) fixation accumulates in the vacuole at night (2 H(+) per malate), and is remobilized from the vacuole in the following light period. CAM plants thus provide a good model for studying both the mechanism and control of malate transport across the tonoplast. Thermodynamic considerations suggest that malate(2-) (the anionic species transported out of the cytosol) is passively distributed across the tonoplast. Malic acid accumulation could thus be explained by malate(2-) transport into the vacuole occurring electrophoretically in response to the transmembrane electrical potential difference established by the tonoplast H(+)-ATPase and/or H(+)-PPase. Recent studies using the patch-clamp technique have provided evidence for the existence of a vacuolar malate-selective anion channel (VMAL) in both CAM species and C(3) species. The VMAL current has a number of distinctive properties that include strong rectification (opening only at cytosolicside negative membrane potentials that would favour malate uptake into the vacuole), lack of Ca(2+) dependence, and slow activation kinetics. The kinetics of VMAL activation can be resolved into three components, consisting of an instantaneous current and two slower components with voltage-independent time constants of 0.76 s and 5.3 s in Kalanchoë daigremontiana. These characteristics suggest that the VMAL channel represents the major pathway for malate transport into the vacuole, although the strong rectification of the channel means there may be a separate, still-to-be-identified, transport mechanism for

  11. Surgical hip dislocation for treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Milind M; Chaudhary, Ishani M; Vikas, KN; KoKo, Aung; Zaw, Than; Siddhartha, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cam femoroacetabular impingement is caused by a misshapen femoral head with a reduced head neck offset, commonly in the anterolateral quadrant. Friction in flexion, adduction and internal rotation causes limitation of the hip movements and pain progressively leading to labral and chondral damage and osteoarthritis. Surgical hip dislocation described by Ganz permits full exposure of the hip without damaging its blood supply. An osteochondroplasty removes the bump at the femoral head neck junction to recreate the offset for impingement free movement. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients underwent surgery with surgical hip dislocation for the treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement by open osteochondroplasty over last 6 years. Eight patients suffered from sequelae of avascular necrosis (AVN). Three had a painful dysplastic hip. Two had sequelae of Perthes disease. Three had combined cam and pincer impingement caused by retroversion of acetabulum. All patients were operated by the trochanteric flip osteotomy with attachments of gluteus medius and vastus lateralis, dissection was between the piriformis and gluteus minimus preserving the external rotators. Z-shaped capsular incision and dislocation of the hip was done in external rotation. Three cases also had subtrochanteric osteotomy. Two cases of AVN also had an intraarticular femoral head reshaping osteotomy. Results: Goals of treatment were achieved in all patients. No AVN was detected after a 6 month followup. There were no trochanteric nonunions. Hip range of motion improved in all and Harris hip score improved significantly in 15 of 16 cases. Mean alpha angle reduced from 86.13° (range 66°–108°) to 46.35° (range 39°–58°). Conclusion: Cam femoroacetabular Impingement causing pain and limitation of hip movements was treated by open osteochondroplasty after surgical hip dislocation. This reduced pain, improved hip motion and gave good to excellent results in the short term. PMID

  12. Web-based Hyper Suprime-Cam Data Providing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, M.; Furusawa, H.; Takata, T.; Price, P.; Okura, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yamanoi, H.; Yasuda, N.; Bickerton, S.; Katayama, N.; Mineo, S.; Lupton, R.; Bosch, J.; Loomis, C.

    2014-05-01

    We describe a web-based user interface to retrieve Hyper Suprime-Cam data products, including images and. Users can access data directly from a graphical user interface or by writing a database SQL query. The system provides raw images, reduced images and stacked images (from multiple individual exposures), with previews available. Catalog queries can be executed in preview or queue mode, allowing for both exploratory and comprehensive investigations.

  13. Integrated CAD/CAM: Problems, prognosis, and role of IPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilson, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Major technology problems impede the development and evolution of totally integrated interactive CAD/CAM systems. IPAD is playing an important role in the identification of these problems and is contributing significantly to their solution. It is the purpose of this presentation to examine some of these issues, look at the prognosis of obtaining effective solutions, and point up some of the past and expected contributions of IPAD to this technology.

  14. An analysis of parameterization interactions and sensitivity of single-column model simulations to convection schemes in CAM4 and CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaocong; Zhang, Minghua

    2013-08-01

    This paper uses different deep convection triggering functions and closure assumptions in two versions of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM4 and CAM5) to investigate the interactions of parameterization components and the sensitivity of single-column model simulations of tropical convection. The schemes include those used in the standard CAM4 and CAM5 as well as two variants used in other global models. Large-scale forcing and verification data are from the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment and Kwajalein Experiment field campaigns during which many deep and shallow convective events were observed. Results show that in both CAM4 and CAM5, when the intensity of deep convection decreases as a result of parameterization change, the intensity of shallow convection increases, leading to little change in the total simulated precipitation but very different changes in precipitation types. The different precipitation types manifest themselves in other measures of model performances including temperature and humidity. The standard CAM4 and CAM5 both simulated warm bias in the middle troposphere and dry bias in the lower troposphere. In experiments where deep convection is reduced, these biases are also reduced, but the associated changes in shallow convection create new patterns of model biases. Results imply the need to use multiple independent observations simultaneously to constrain models so that the degrees of model freedom are reduced and to treat model physical parameterizations as an integrated system rather than individual components.

  15. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2014-08-12

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  16. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2009-09-01

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  17. Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam Survey of the Andromeda Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Tanaka, Mikito; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2015-08-01

    We present a progress report on our deep and wide-field imaging survey of the Andromeda halo with Hyper Suprime Cam (HSC) mounted on Subaru. HSC is the upgraded prime focus camera after Suprime-Cam, having a field of view of 1.77 square degree (1.5 degree in diameter), namely about 10 times larger than that of Suprime-Cam. This camera will thus offer us great opportunities to explore unique and legacy surveys for the Andromeda halo, as well as for other Galactic Archaeology science cases. We are now carrying out an intensive survey program of the Andromeda halo reaching a depth of 27.4 and 26.4 mag in g and i bands, respectively, which allows us to map out numerous horizontal branch (HB) stars in large halo areas: a wealth of new, faint halo features as expected from LCDM models can be identified through these HB stars. whereas these were not detected by previous surveys based on the analysis of RGB stars. This HSC survey will also provide lower luminosity dwarf satellites and globular clusters through identification of member HBs than hitherto possible, thereby providing important insight into the true luminosity and spatial distributions of these objects. We will report on the progress we have made so far and show our further survey plan.

  18. Comparison between GAMIL, and CAM2 on interannual variability simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junli; Wang, Bin; Guo, Yufu; Wan, Hui; Ji, Zhongzhen

    2007-02-01

    Recently, a new atmospheric general circulation model (GAMIL: Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG) has been developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), which is based on the Community Atmospheric Model Version 2 (CAM2) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Since the two models have the same physical processes but different dynamical cores, the interannual variability simulation performances of the two models are compared. The ensemble approach is used to reduce model internal variability. In general, the simulation performances of the two models are similar. Both models have good performance in simulating total space-time variability and the Southern Oscillation Index. GAMIL performs better in the Eastern Asian winter circulation simulation than CAM2, and the model internal variability of GAMIL has a better response to external forcing than that of CAM2. These indicate that the improvement of the dynamic core is very important. It is also verified that there is less predictability in the middle and high latitudes than in the low latitudes.

  19. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-03-24

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  20. CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

  1. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2010-09-03

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  2. Widespread Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Osian, S. Rausch; Leal, A.D.; Allmer, C.; Maurer, M.J.; Nowakowski, G.; Inwards, D.J.; Macon, W.R.; Ehlers, S.L.; Weiner, G.J.; Habermann, T.M.; Cerhan, J.R.; Thompson, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies examining complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and beliefs among non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) survivors. 719 NHL patients from the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Molecular Epidemiology Resource who completed the 3-year post-diagnosis questionnaire were included in this study. 636 (89%) reported ever using CAM, with 78% utilizing vitamins, 54% alternative therapies and 45% herbals. Female gender was associated with increased overall CAM use (P<.0001) as well as use of vitamins (P<.0001), herbals (P=.006) and alternative therapy (P=.0002) for cancer. Older age (>60) was associated with increased vitamin use (P=.005) and decreased herbal use (P=.008). Among users, 143 (20%) believe CAM assists healing, 123 (17%) believe CAM relieves symptoms, 122 (17%) believe CAM gives a feeling of control, 110 (15%) believe CAM assists other treatments, 108 (15%) believe CAM boosts immunity, 26 (4%) believe CAM cures cancer, and 36 (5%) believe CAM prevents the spread of cancer. PMID:24745936

  3. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae).

    PubMed

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-03-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3-CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  4. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3–CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3–CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  5. Magnetic tweezers-based force clamp reveals mechanically distinct apCAM domain interactions.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Devrim; Blasiak, Agata; O'Mahony, James J; Suter, Daniel M; Lee, Gil U

    2012-09-19

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgCAMs) play a crucial role in cell-cell interactions during nervous system development and function. The Aplysia CAM (apCAM), an invertebrate IgCAM, shares structural and functional similarities with vertebrate NCAM and therefore has been considered as the Aplysia homolog of NCAM. Despite these similarities, the binding properties of apCAM have not been investigated thus far. Using magnetic tweezers, we applied physiologically relevant, constant forces to apCAM-coated magnetic particles interacting with apCAM-coated model surfaces and characterized the kinetics of bond rupture. The average bond lifetime decreased with increasing external force, as predicted by theoretical considerations. Mathematical simulations suggest that the apCAM homophilic interaction is mediated by two distinct bonds, one involving all five immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains in an antiparallel alignment and the other involving only two Ig domains. In summary, this study provides biophysical evidence that apCAM undergoes homophilic interactions, and that magnetic tweezers-based, force-clamp measurements provide a rapid and reliable method for characterizing relatively weak CAM interactions. PMID:22995484

  6. Exploring Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John; And Others

    These teacher's materials for an eight-unit course were developed to help students develop technological literacy, career exploration, and problem-solving skills relative to the manufacturing industries. The eight units include an overview of manufacturing, manufacturing enterprises and systems, manufacturing materials and selection, manufacturing…

  7. Evaluating Rare Amino Acid Substitutions (RGC_CAMs) in a Yeast Model Clade

    PubMed Central

    Polzin, Kenneth; Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions) requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution). We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity. PMID:24637883

  8. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  9. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  10. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  11. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  12. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  13. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  14. Computer-Aided Quantification of Interstitial Lung Disease from High Resolution Computed Tomography Images in Systemic Sclerosis: Correlation with Visual Reader-Based Score and Physiologic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Bosello, Silvia; Bichisecchi, Elisabetta; Giuseppetti, Gianmarco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of a computerized-aided method (CaM) for quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis and to determine its correlation with the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. All patients underwent chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scored by two radiologists adopting the CoVR. All HRCT images were then analysed by a CaM using a DICOM software. The relationships among the lung segmentation analysis, the readers, and the PFTs results were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed for determination of CaM extent threshold. Results. A strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (P < 0.0001). The CaM showed a significant negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC) (P < 0.0001) and the single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLco) (P < 0.0001). A CaM optimal extent threshold of 20% represented the best compromise between sensitivity (75.6%) and specificity (97.4%). Conclusions. CaM quantification of SSc-ILD can be useful in the assessment of extent of lung disease and may provide reliable tool in daily clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:25629053

  15. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  16. Overexpression of EpCAM in uterine serous papillary carcinoma: implications for EpCAM-specific immunotherapy with human monoclonal antibody adecatumumab (MT201).

    PubMed

    El-Sahwi, Karim; Bellone, Stefania; Cocco, Emiliano; Casagrande, Francesca; Bellone, Marta; Abu-Khalaf, Maysa; Buza, Natalia; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A; Hui, Pei; Rüttinger, Dominik; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Rutherford, Thomas J; Pecorelli, Sergio; Santin, Alessandro D

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and the potential of MT201 (adecatumumab), a human monoclonal antibody against EpCAM, in uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC). EpCAM expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in a total of 56 USPC fresh-frozen biopsies and paraffin-embedded tissues. EpCAM surface expression was also evaluated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry in six USPC cell lines. Sensitivity to MT201 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity was tested against a panel of primary USPC cell lines expressing different levels of EpCAM in standard 5-h (51)Cr release assays. EpCAM transcript was significantly overexpressed in fresh-frozen USPC when compared with normal endometrial cells (NEC). Median (minimum-maximum) copy number was 943.8 (31.5-1568.3) in tumor samples versus 12.9 (1.0-37.0) in NEC (P < 0.001). By immunohistochemistry, EpCAM expression was found in 96% (26 out of 27) of USPC samples with significantly higher expression compared with NECs (P < 0.001). High surface expression of EpCAM was found in 83% (five out of six) of the USPC cell lines tested by flow cytometry. EpCAM-positive cell lines were found highly sensitive to MT201-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas primary USPC cell lines were resistant to natural killer cell-dependent cytotoxicity. Human plasma IgG did not significantly inhibit MT201-mediated cytotoxicity against USPC. EpCAM is highly expressed in uterine serous carcinoma at mRNA and protein levels, and primary USPC are highly sensitivity to MT201-mediated cytotoxicity. MT201 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy in patients harboring advanced/recurrent or metastatic USPC refractory to standard treatment modalities. PMID:20053761

  17. Overexpression of EpCAM in Uterine Serous Papillary Carcinoma: Implications for EpCAM-specific Immunotherapy with Human Monoclonal Antibody Adecatumumab (MT201)

    PubMed Central

    El-Sahwi, Karim; Bellone, Stefania; Cocco, Emiliano; Casagrande, Francesca; Bellone, Marta; Abu-Khalaf, Maysa; Buza, Natalia; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A.; Hui, Pei; Rüttinger, Dominik; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Pecorelli, Sergio; Santin, Alessandro D.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the expression of epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule (EpCAM) and the potential of MT201 (adecatumumab), a human monoclonal antibody against EpCAM, in uterine serous papillary carcinoma (USPC). EpCAM expression was evaluated by real-time-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a total of 56 USPC fresh-frozen biopsies and paraffin-embedded-tissues. EpCAM surface expression was also evaluated by flow cytometry and IHC in 6 USPC cell lines. Sensitivity to MT201 antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent-cytotoxicity (CDC) was tested against a panel of primary USPC cell lines expressing different levels of EpCAM in standard 5-h 51Cr release-assays. EpCAM transcript was significantly overexpressed in fresh-frozen USPC when compared to normal-endometrial-cells (NEC). Median (minimum–maximum) copy number was 943.8 (31.5–1568.3) in tumor samples versus 12.9 (1.0–37.0) in NEC (P < 0.001). By immunohistochemistry, EpCAM expression was found in 96% (26 out of 27) of USPC samples with significantly higher expression compared to normal endometrial cells (P < 0.001). High surface expression of EpCAM was found in 83% (5 out of 6) of the USPC cell lines tested by flow cytometry. EpCAM-positive cell lines were found highly sensitive to MT201-mediated ADCC in vitro, while primary USPC cell lines were resistant to natural killer (NK) cell-dependent cytotoxicity. Human plasma IgG did not significantly inhibit MT201-mediated-cytotoxicity against USPC. EpCAM is highly expressed in uterine serous carcinoma at mRNA and protein levels and primary USPC are highly sensitivity to MT201-mediated cytotoxicity. MT201 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy in patients harboring advanced/recurrent or metastatic USPC refractory to standard treatment modalities. PMID:20053761

  18. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    conditions were successfully treated with antibiotics, and only 1% to 2% required surgical revision. Less than 1% required removal of the fixture. Other complications included failure to osseointegrate and loss of fixture and/or abutment due to trauma or infection. Effectiveness Studies showed that BAHAs were implanted in people who have conduction or mixed hearing loss, congenital atresia or suppurative otitis media who were not candidates for surgical repair, and who cannot use conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The need for BAHA is not age- related. Objective audiometric measures and subjective patient satisfaction surveys showed that BAHA significantly improved the unaided and aided free field and sound field thresholds as well as speech discrimination in quiet and in noise for former users of conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The outcomes were ambiguous for former users of air conduction hearing aids. BAHA has been shown to reduce the frequency of ear infection and reduce the discharge particularly among patients with suppurative otitis media. Patients have reported that BAHA improved their quality of life. Reported benefits were improved speech intelligibility, better sound comfort, less pressure on the head, less skin irritation, greater cosmetic acceptance and increase in confidence. Main reported shortcomings were wind noise, feedback and difficulty in using the telephone. Experts and the BAHA manufacturer recommended that recipients of a BAHA implant be at least 5 years old. Challenges associated with the implantation of BAHA in pediatric patients include thin bone, soft bone, higher rates of fixture loss due to trauma, psychological problems, and higher revision rates due to rapid bone growth. The overall outcomes are comparable to adult BAHA. The benefits of pediatric BAHA (e.g. on speech development) appear to outweigh the disadvantages. Screening according to strict eligibility criteria, preoperative counselling, close monitoring by a physician

  19. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  20. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  1. ChemCam Targeted Science at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Clark, B. C.; Bridges, N. T.; Clegg, S. M.; Maurice, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Vaniman, D. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ollila, A. M.; Gasnault, O.; Pinet, P. C.; Dromart, G.; Barraclough, B. L.; Lasue, J.

    2011-12-01

    The MSL rover, Curiosity, uses a novel remote-sensing instrument, ChemCam, which combines laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with a high resolution remote micro-imager (RMI). ChemCam uses a focused, pulsed laser beam at targets up to 7 m away to excite a light-emitting plasma. Spectral analysis identifies elements present and provides rapid semi-quantitative analyses. Repeated laser pulses remove dust and weathering coatings from rock samples to depths >0.5 mm and ~0.4 mm in diameter. The RMI, with ~20x20 mrad field of view, provides a broad-band image with 100 μm resolution. LIBS yields abundances of H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zr, Rb, Sr, As, Ba, and Pb. Interference from atmospheric constituents raises the detection limits of C, N, and O (e.g., >2% wt for C). LIBS is very sensitive to alkali and alkali earth elements, with some detection limits to ~1 ppm at close range. Conversely, LIBS is insensitive to F, Cl, S, P, and N, with detection limits of several wt. %. Pointing accuracy is ~3 mrad, however relative pointing accuracy is better, so line scans and rasters will enable analyses of targeted features to ~1 mm. At Gale Crater, determination of elements not previously analyzed in-situ, i.e., H, Li, Rb, Sr, and Ba, along with other elements will constrain aqueous, hydrothermal and vapor geochemical transport processes. Initial analyses after landing will characterize air fall dust and weathering coatings on local rocks, and profile the soil and surfacial materials including bedforms to investigate compositional differences in near-surface layers. Targets within the landing ellipse include fan and inverted channel deposits derived from the crater rim, which may contain alteration minerals produced by impact hydrothermal processes. Enigmatic deposits with bright fracture fill could represent lake sediments modified by injection of deposits from groundwater. During the drive to the Gale mound, ChemCam will

  2. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  3. Blade Manufacturing Improvement: Remote Blade Manufacturing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate manufacturing improvements for wind turbine blades. The program included a series of test activities to evaluate the strength, deflection, performance, and loading characteristics of the prototype blades. The original contract was extended in order to continue development of several key blade technologies identified in the project. The objective of the remote build task was to demonstrate the concept of manufacturing wind turbine blades at a temporary manufacturing facility in a rural environment. TPI Composites successfully completed a remote manufacturing demonstration in which four blades were fabricated. The remote demonstration used a manufacturing approach which relied upon material ''kits'' that were organized in the factory and shipped to the site. Manufacturing blades at the wind plant site presents serious logistics difficulties and does not appear to be the best approach. A better method appears to be regional manufacturing facilities, which will eliminate most of the transportation cost, without incurring the logistical problems associated with fabrication directly onsite. With this approach the remote facilities would use commonly available industrial infrastructure such as enclosed workbays, overhead cranes, and paved staging areas. Additional fatigue testing of the M20 root stud design was completed with good results. This design provides adhesive bond strength under fatigue loading that exceeds that of the fastener. A new thru-stud bonding concept was developed for the M30 stud design. This approach offers several manufacturing advantages; however, the test results were inconclusive.

  4. Hot-spot residues in the cytochrome P450cam-putidaredoxin binding interface.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Yoshitaka; Gupta, Ankur; Kloosterman, Alexander; Olijve, Caroline; Olmez, Betül; Hass, Mathias A S; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450cam (P450cam) is a heme-containing monooxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of D-camphor to produce 5-exo-hydroxycamphor. The catalytic cycle of P450cam requires two electrons, both of which are donated by putidaredoxin (Pdx), a ferredoxin containing a [2 Fe-2 S] cluster. Atomic-resolution structures of the Pdx-P450cam complex have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography and paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy. The binding interface showed the potential electron transfer pathways and interactions between Pdx Asp38 and P450cam Arg112, as well as hydrophobic contacts between the Pdx Trp106 and P450cam residues. Several polar residues not previously recognized as relevant for binding were found in the interface. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic measurements, and NMR studies were employed to probe the energetic importance and role of the polar residues in the Pdx-P450cam interaction. A double mutant cycle (DMC) analysis of kinetic data shows that favorable interactions exist between Pdx Tyr33 and P450cam Asp125, as well as between Pdx Ser42 and P450cam His352. The results show that alanine substitutions of these residues and several others do not influence the rates of electron transfer. It is concluded that these polar interactions contribute to partner recognition rather than to electronic coupling of the redox centers. PMID:24302683

  5. An artificial electron donor supported catalytic cycle of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450{sub cam}

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Swati . E-mail: swati@scripps.edu; Murugan, Rajamanickam; Mitra, Samaresh

    2005-09-23

    Putidaredoxin (PdX), the physiological effector of cytochrome P450{sub cam} (P450{sub cam}), serves to gate electron transfer into oxy-P450{sub cam} during the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. Redox-linked structural changes in PdX are necessary for the effective P450{sub cam} turnover reaction. PdX is believed to be difficult to be replaced by an artificial electron donor in the reaction pathway of P450{sub cam}. We demonstrate that the catalytic cycle of wild-type P450{sub cam} can be supported in the presence of an artificial reductant, potassium ferrocyanide. Upon rapid mixing of ferrocyanide ion with P450{sub cam}, we observed an intermediate with spectral features characteristic of compound I. The rate constant for the formation of compound I in the presence of ferrocyanide supported reaction cycle was found to be comparable to the ones observed for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} supported compound I formation in wild-type P450{sub cam}, but was much lower than those observed for classical peroxidases. The results presented in this paper form the first kinetic analysis of this intermediate for an artificial electron-driven P450{sub cam} catalytic pathway in solution.

  6. Nucleic acid encoding DS-CAM proteins and products related thereto

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, Julie R.

    2005-11-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there are provided Down Syndrome-Cell Adhesion Molecule (DS-CAM) proteins. Nucleic acid sequences encoding such proteins and assays employing same are also disclosed. The invention DS-CAM proteins can be employed in a variety of ways, for example, for the production of anti-DS-CAM antibodies thereto, in therapeutic compositions and methods employing such proteins and/or antibodies. DS-CAM proteins are also useful in bioassays to identify agonists and antagonists thereto.

  7. In vivo imaging demonstrates dendritic spine stabilization by SynCAM 1

    PubMed Central

    Körber, Nils; Stein, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Formation and stability of synapses are required for proper brain function. While it is well established that synaptic adhesion molecules are important regulators of synapse formation, their specific role during different phases of synapse development remains unclear. To investigate the function of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 in the formation, stability, and maintenance of spines we used 2-photon in vivo imaging to follow individual spines over a long period of time. In SynCAM 1 knockout mice the survival rate of existing spines was reduced and fewer filopodia-like structures were converted into stable spines. SynCAM 1flag overexpression resulted in more stable spines and fewer filopodia-like structures. When SynCAM 1flag overexpression is turned on the spine density rapidly increases within a few days. Interestingly, the spine density stayed at an elevated level when SynCAM 1flag overexpression was turned off. Our data indicate that the SynCAM 1 induced altered spine density is not caused by the formation of newly emerging protrusions, instead SynCAM 1 stabilizes nascent synaptic contacts which promotes their maturation. Concomitant with the synaptic stabilization, SynCAM 1 generally prolongs the lifetime of spines. In summary, we demonstrate that SynCAM 1 is a key regulator of spine stability. PMID:27053173

  8. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program. PMID:25314111

  9. A Sensitivity Study of Radiative Fluxes at the Top of Atmosphere to Cloud-Microphysics and Aerosol Parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; McFarlane, Sally A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Ben; Ma, Po-Lun; Yan, Huiping; Bao, Jie

    2013-11-08

    In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of net radiative fluxes (FNET) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to 16 selected uncertain parameters mainly related to the cloud microphysics and aerosol schemes in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). We adopted a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach to effectively explore the high dimensional parameter space. The output response variables (e.g., FNET) were simulated using CAM5 for each parameter set, and then evaluated using generalized linear model analysis. In response to the perturbations of these 16 parameters, the CAM5-simulated global annual mean FNET ranges from -9.8 to 3.5 W m-2 compared to the CAM5-simulated FNET of 1.9 W m-2 with the default parameter values. Variance-based sensitivity analysis was conducted to show the relative contributions of individual parameter perturbation to the global FNET variance. The results indicate that the changes in the global mean FNET are dominated by those of cloud forcing (CF) within the parameter ranges being investigated. The size threshold parameter related to auto-conversion of cloud ice to snow is confirmed as one of the most influential parameters for FNET in the CAM5 simulation. The strong heterogeneous geographic distribution of FNET variation shows parameters have a clear localized effect over regions where they are acting. However, some parameters also have non-local impacts on FNET variance. Although external factors, such as perturbations of anthropogenic and natural emissions, largely affect FNET variations at the regional scale, their impact is weaker than that of model internal parameters in terms of simulating global mean FNET in this study. The interactions among the 16 selected parameters contribute a relatively small portion of the total FNET variations over most regions of the globe. This study helps us better understand the CAM5 model behavior associated with parameter uncertainties, which will aid the next step of reducing model

  10. EpCAM knockdown alters microRNA expression in retinoblastoma--functional implication of EpCAM regulated miRNA in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Beta, Madhu; Khetan, Vikas; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Suganeswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    The co-ordinated regulation of oncogenes along with miRNAs play crucial role in carcinogenesis. In retinoblastoma (RB), several miRNAs are known to be differentially expressed. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) gene is involved in many epithelial cancers including, retinoblastoma (RB) tumorigenesis. EpCAM silencing effectively reduces the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. In order to investigate whether EpCAM has wider effect as an inducer or silencer of miRNAs, we performed a global microRNA expression profile in EpCAM siRNA knockdown Y79 cells. MicroRNA profiling in EpCAM silenced Y79 cells showed seventy-three significantly up regulated and thirty-six down regulated miRNAs. A subset of these miRNAs was also validated in tumors. Functional studies on Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells transfected with antagomirs against two miRNAs of miR-181c and miR-130b showed striking changes in tumor cell properties in RB cells. Treatment with anti-miR-181c and miR-130b showed significant decrease in cell viability and cell invasion. Increase in caspase-3 level was noticed in antagomir transfected cell lines indicating the induction of apoptosis. Possible genes altered by EpCAM influenced microRNAs were predicted by bioinformatic tools. Many of these belong to pathways implicated in cancer. The study shows significant influence of EpCAM on global microRNA expression. EpCAM regulated miR-181c and miR-130b may play significant roles in RB progression. EpCAM based targeted therapies may reduce carcinogenesis through several miRNAs and target genes. PMID:25502397

  11. EpCAM Knockdown Alters MicroRNA Expression in Retinoblastoma- Functional Implication of EpCAM Regulated MiRNA in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Beta, Madhu; Khetan, Vikas; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Suganeswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    The co-ordinated regulation of oncogenes along with miRNAs play crucial role in carcinogenesis. In retinoblastoma (RB), several miRNAs are known to be differentially expressed. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) gene is involved in many epithelial cancers including, retinoblastoma (RB) tumorigenesis. EpCAM silencing effectively reduces the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. In order to investigate whether EpCAM has wider effect as an inducer or silencer of miRNAs, we performed a global microRNA expression profile in EpCAM siRNA knockdown Y79 cells. MicroRNA profiling in EpCAM silenced Y79 cells showed seventy-three significantly up regulated and thirty-six down regulated miRNAs. A subset of these miRNAs was also validated in tumors. Functional studies on Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells transfected with antagomirs against two miRNAs of miR-181c and miR-130b showed striking changes in tumor cell properties in RB cells. Treatment with anti-miR-181c and miR-130b showed significant decrease in cell viability and cell invasion. Increase in caspase-3 level was noticed in antagomir transfected cell lines indicating the induction of apoptosis. Possible genes altered by EpCAM influenced microRNAs were predicted by bioinformatic tools. Many of these belong to pathways implicated in cancer. The study shows significant influence of EpCAM on global microRNA expression. EpCAM regulated miR-181c and miR-130b may play significant roles in RB progression. EpCAM based targeted therapies may reduce carcinogenesis through several miRNAs and target genes. PMID:25502397

  12. ChemCam Passive Spectroscopy of the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.; Bender, S. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Barraclough, B. L.; Blaney, D. L.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The design priority of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument (Wiens et al. 2012, Space Sci, Rev. 170) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is its active mode, which acquires spectra of a laser induced plasma using three spectrometers. However these same spectrometers have excellent sensitivity to ambient light and so are also used independent of the laser in 'passive' mode to acquire spectra of the Martian surface (Johnson et al., 2013, LPSC #1372) and, as we will describe here, the Martian sky. Using ChemCam passive sky observations, we have successfully measured the column abundance of water vapor, molecular oxygen, and carbon dioxide gas, and with further analysis will likely be able to constrain the column abundance of ozone as well as aerosol and cloud particle properties. Although data analysis is ongoing, we currently estimate a 2 sigma precision of < +/- 1 precipitable microns for water vapor, < +/- 30 ppm for molecular oxygen, and < +/- 4 % for carbon dioxide. The three ChemCam spectrometers span 240-342 nm, 382-469 nm, and 474-906 nm, respectively, with a resolution of 0.6 nm FWHM or better. Passive sky observations were obtained on sols 131, 230, and then at regular ~7 sol intervals starting on sol 278. The observation consists of acquiring spectra of light scattered by the atmosphere at two elevation angles so that the ratio of the two resulting radiance spectra yields (after removing the continuum) an extremely precise absorption spectrum with both the solar spectrum and instrument response uncertainties removed. To yield column abundances, the spectra are modeled with a discrete ordinates multiple scattering radiative transfer code that incorporates gas absorption via the correlated-k method.

  13. Zink rotary kiln seal: Cam followers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1994-12-09

    The CIF will treat hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste in a rotary kiln and secondary combustion chamber. A high efficiency air pollution control system follows the secondary chamber. The rotary kiln is designed with a gas seal at each end of its rotating barrel which provides a barrier between the interior of the kiln and outside air. The internal pressure of the rotary kiln will be maintained below atmospheric pressure, so exterior air passing the seals is forced into the kiln`s interior. Positive pressure may be applied in the seal labyrinth, adding a barrier to flow. Both CIF seals will be covered entirely with exhaust hoods, drawing air over the outside of the seal and into a HEPA filtered exhaust system. Cam follower misalignment on a John Zink rotary kiln seal caused damage to the seal`s rotor. The misalignment was quantified, corrected, and checked to verify straightness. The primary purpose of the correction was to allow seal testing 1 to continue, but the information is applicable to the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) since two large seals of similar design will be installed there. Cam follower straightness was off as much as 3.5{degrees}, causing followers to run untrue on the rotor. High contact forces resulted, removing flakes of metal from the rotor surface. The misalignment caused weight bearing followers on one side of the seal to back out of their threaded mounts. The root cause was poor machining of the follower mounting holes. Correction was accomplished by relieving the holes and installing machined spacers and retaining nuts. Cam followers on the CIF`s Zink seals should be inspected for straightness before the seals are installed.

  14. Using a Web Cam CCD to do V Band Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple, Paul

    2009-05-01

    With the plethora of cheap web cam based CCD cameras in the market today, it seemed expedient to find out if they can be used to do photometry. An experiment was planned to determine if it was possible to do this kind of exacting measurement. Arne Henden (AAVSO) believed it would be possible to do V band photometry to 0.05 mag accuracy with a web cam CCD. Using a 6" refractor, the heart of M42 was repeatedly imaged. Theta 2 and SAO 132322 were the comparison stars and V361 Orion was the target variable. Since the 1/4 HAD CCD chip only allows for a field of 10x7 arc minutes using the 6" refractor, the number targets was limited. The RGB on the chip itself provides the filters needed for photometry. The G band pass on the chip ranges from 425-650 nm with a peak band pass at 540, V band pass is 475-645 with a peak at 525. The results indicate that a web cam CCD can be used for V band photometry. With a 10 second calibrated exposure without the Peltier cooling being engaged, the results for the 2 target stars were ± 0.18 mag. The star Theta 2 was 0.18 brighter in V than the actual measurement from the Tycho catalog. SAO 132322 was -0.012 mag dimmer than the listed Tycho measurement. Then using SAO 132322 and Theta 2 as comparison stars, V361 Orion was estimated at 7.786 magnitudes. This is inline with visual estimates received before and after this date. With more estimates of known magnitude comparison stars, a correction factor should be estimated and applied to the variable work that will make it more accurate. This correction factor should bring it close to Arne Henden's estimate of 0.05 mag accuracy.

  15. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  16. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  17. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  18. Interface Of Optical Design Programs To CAD/CAE/CAM Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Timothy D.

    1988-06-01

    CAD/CAM systems permit the manufacture of real physical parts on a milling, or other shop, machine which has received its instructions from the design system. However, a persistent problem has been the lack of a link between the optical CAD software and the mechanical CAD software. A past paperl described software which bridges this gap by producing an Interactive Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) file from the neutral plot files of the optical model. This IGES file can then be directly read into the mechanical drafting and design programs, ANVIL and GEOMOD. Although the latest enhancements to this older interface will be addressed, the main thrust of the paper is the description of three completely new capabilities: 1) the ability to directly read NASTRAN-generated strain data for optical surfaces into the optical design program CODE-V, 2) the direct passage of a standard lens prescription in CODE-V to the program APART for stray light analysis, and 3) the entry of mechanical drafting data directly into APART via IGES files. This last interface is particularly exciting because it allows, for the first time, completely graphical entry of structural data into an optical analysis program. A description of the typical procedures used to accomplish the transfer of data is provided along with several examples. Plans are presented to use these new software links to achieve paperless manufacture of opto-mechanical systems. Since the current algorithms have been designed with an eye on eventual improvements, an assessment of current limitations and future enhancements is also included.

  19. A basis for solid modeling of gear teeth with application in design and manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios; Oswald, Fred B.; Liu, Yung Sheng

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to modeling gear tooth surfaces is discussed. A computer graphics solid modeling procedure is used to simulate the tooth fabrication process. This procedure is based on the principles of differential geometry that pertain to envelopes of curves and surfaces. The procedure is illustrated with the modeling of spur, helical, bevel, spiral bevel, and hypoid gear teeth. Applications in design and manufacturing are discussed. Extensions to nonstandard tooth forms, to cams, and to rolling element bearings are proposed.

  20. A Basis for Solid Modeling of Gear Teeth with Application in Design and Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios; Oswald, Fred B.; Liu, Yung Sheng

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to modeling gear tooth surfaces. A computer graphics solid modeling procedure is used to simulate the tooth fabrication processes. This procedure is based on the principles of differential geometry that pertain to envelopes of curves and surfaces. The procedure is illustrated with the modeling of spur, helical, bevel, spiral bevel and hypoid gear teeth. Applications in design and manufacturing arc discussed. Extensions to nonstandard tooth forms, to cams, and to rolling element hearings are proposed.