Science.gov

Sample records for aided manufacturing cam

  1. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system for construction of spinal orthosis for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for prevention of further curve deterioration. In conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to obtain the patient's body contour and then the plaster cast is rectified manually. With computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of the positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the application of CAD/CAM system to the construction of spinal orthosis for patients with AIS. Based on evidence within the literature, CAD/CAM method can achieve similar clinical outcomes but with higher efficiency than the conventional fabrication method. Therefore, CAD/CAM method should be considered a substitute to the conventional method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.

  2. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  3. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    Contractor's work for Lewis Research Center on "thermal barrier" coatings designed to improve aircraft engine efficiency resulted in two related but separate spinoffs. The Materials and Manufacturing Technology Center of TRW, Inc. invented a robotic system for applying the coating, and in the course of that research found it necessary to develop a new, extremely accurate type of optical gage that offers multiple improvements in controlling the quality of certain manufactured parts.

  4. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  5. Buying CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloy, Jim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer numerical control (CNC) computer applications is described. Tips for helping educate the CAM buyer on what to look for and what to avoid when searching for the most appropriate instructional CAM package are provided. (KR)

  6. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark.

    SciTech Connect

    Domm, T.C.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-10-13

    The Benchmark Project was created from a desire to identify best practices and improve the overall efficiency and performance of the Y-12 Plant's systems and personnel supporting the manufacturing mission. The mission of the benchmark team was to search out industry leaders in manufacturing and evaluate their engineering practices and processes to determine direction and focus for Y-12 modernization efforts. The companies visited included several large established companies and a new, small, high-tech machining firm. As a result of this effort, changes are recommended that will enable Y-12 to become a more modern, responsive, cost-effective manufacturing facility capable of supporting the needs of the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) into the 21st century. The benchmark team identified key areas of interest, both focused and general. The focus areas included Human Resources, Information Management, Manufacturing Software Tools, and Standards/Policies and Practices. Areas of general interest included Infrastructure, Computer Platforms and Networking, and Organizational Structure. The results of this benchmark showed that all companies are moving in the direction of model-based engineering and manufacturing. There was evidence that many companies are trying to grasp how to manage current and legacy data. In terms of engineering design software tools, the companies contacted were somewhere between 3-D solid modeling and surfaced wire-frame models. The manufacturing computer tools were varied, with most companies using more than one software product to generate machining data and none currently performing model-based manufacturing (MBM) from a common model. The majority of companies were closer to identifying or using a single computer-aided design (CAD) system than a single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Internet was a technology that all companies were looking to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for

  7. Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing CAD/CAM Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Domm, T.D.; Underwood, R.S.

    1999-04-26

    single computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system. The Inteznet was a technology that all companies were considering to either transport information more easily throughout the corporation or as a conduit for business, as the small firm was doing Successfully. Because PrdEngineer is the de facto CAD standard fbr the NWC, the Benchmark Team targeted companies using Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) software tools. Most of the companies used Pm'Engineer for design to some degree, but found the PTC CAM product, PdManufacture lacking as compared to alternate CAM solutions. All of the companies visited fOund the data exchange between CAD/CAM systems problematic. It was apparent that these companies were trying to consolidate their software tools to reduce translation but had not been able to do so because no single solution had all the needed capabilities. In regard to organizational slructure and human resoukes, two companies were found to be using product or program teams. These teams consisted of the technical staff capable of completing the entire task and were xmintained throughout the project. This same strategy was evident at another of the companies but with more mobility of members. For all eornpanies visited except the small ~ work structure breakdown and responsibility were essentially the same as Y-12's at this time. The functions of numerical control (NC), desi~ and process planning were separate and distinct. The team made numerous recommendations that are detailed in the report.

  8. Developmental tendency of hearing aid semi-auto-manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarng, Soon Suck; Lee, Yanbo

    2009-12-01

    What's the developmental tendency of the hearing aid manufacturing in the future? The answer is a rapid production or/and CAD/CAM technology. The new technology is quite different from the conventional manufacturing method. This article shows the differences between the 2 types of approach in detail, and analyzes these differences. The authors figure out where and how to cut an ear shell impression that will give help to the hearing aid manufacturing process, and make the CAD/CAM method to fit for the Asians' ears.

  9. CIM's bridge from CADD to CAM: Data management requirements for manufacturing engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Manufacturing engineering represents the crossroads of technical data management in a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environment. Process planning, numerical control programming and tool design are the key functions which translate information from as engineered to as assembled. In order to transition data from engineering to manufacturing, it is necessary to introduce a series of product interpretations which contain an interim introduction of technical parameters. The current automation of the product definition and the production process places manufacturing engineering in the center of CAD/CAM with the responsibility of communicating design data to the factory floor via a manufacturing model of the data. A close look at data management requirements for manufacturing engineering is necessary in order to establish the overall specifications for CADD output, CAM input, and CIM integration. The functions and issues associated with the orderly evolution of computer aided engineering and manufacturing are examined.

  10. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/industry project designated Intergrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies.

  11. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  12. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/Industry project designated Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 repesentatives from aerospace and computer companies. The IPAD accomplishments to date in development of requirements and prototype software for various levels of company-wide CAD/CAM data management are summarized and plans for development of technology for management of distributed CAD/CAM data and information required to control future knowledge-based CAD/CAM systems are discussed.

  13. Manufacturing cost/design system: A CAD/CAM dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshigian, H. H.; Rachowitz, B. I.; Judson, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Manufacturing Cost/Design System (MC/DS) will provide the aerospace design engineer a tool with which to perform heretofore impractical design manufacturing cost tradeoffs. The Air Force Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Office has initiated the development and demonstration of an MC/DS which, when fully implemented, will integrate both design and manufacturing data bases to provide real time visibility into the manufacturing costs associated with various design options. The first release of a computerized system will be made before the end of 1981.

  14. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now.

  15. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  16. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  17. The Cam Shell: An Innovative Design With Materials and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Richard; Larsen, Frank M.; Kornienko, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Most of the personal audio and video recording devices currently sold on the open market all require hands to operate. Little consideration was given to designing a hands-free unit. Such a system once designed and made available to the public could greatly benefit mobile police officers, bicyclists, adventurers, street and dirt motorcyclists, horseback riders and many others. With a few design changes water sports and skiing activities could be another large area of application. The cam shell is an innovative design in which an audio and video recording device (such as palm camcorder) is housed in a body-mounted protection system. This system is based on the concept of viewing and recording at the same time. A view cam is attached to a helmet wired to a recording unit encased in a transparent body-mounted protection system. The helmet can also be controlled by remote. The operator will have full control in recording everything. However, the recording unit will be operated completely hands-free. This project will address the design considerations and their effects on material selection and manufacturing. It will enhance the understanding of the structure of materials, and how the structure affects the behavior of the material, and the role that processing play in linking the relationship between structure and properties. A systematic approach to design feasibility study, cost analysis and problem solving will also be discussed.

  18. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  19. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized.

  20. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  1. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1996-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: First, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  2. World survey of CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatvany, J.; Merchant, M. E.; Rathmill, K.; Yoshikawa, H.

    The worldwide state of the art and development trends in CAM are surveyed, emphasizing flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), robotics, computer-aided process planning, and computer-aided scheduling. The use of FMS, NC machine tools, DNC systems, and unmanned and nearly unmanned factories, are discussed as the state of the art in the USA, Japan, Western Europe and Eastern Europe. For the same areas, trends are projected, including the use of graphics and languages in CAM, and metamorphic machine tools. A Delphi-type forecast and its conclusions are presented. A CAM system for manufacture is projected for 1985, the use of robots equalling humans in assembly capability for 1990, and the fifty percent replacement of direct labor in automobile final assembly by programmable automation by 1995. An attempt is made to outline a methodical approach to forecasting the development of CAM over the next 10-15 years. Key issues in CAM proliferation, including financial and social aspects, are addressed.

  3. Indications for Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing in Congenital Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Medina, Miguel; Bojovic, Branko; Ahn, Edward; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2016-09-01

    The complex three-dimensional relationships in congenital craniofacial reconstruction uniquely lend themselves to the ability to accurately plan and model the result provided by computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The goal of this study was to illustrate indications where CAD/CAM would be helpful in the treatment of congenital craniofacial anomalies reconstruction and to discuss the application of this technology and its outcomes. A retrospective review was performed of all congenital craniofacial cases performed by the senior author between 2010 and 2014. Cases where CAD/CAM was used were identified, and illustrative cases to demonstrate the benefits of CAD/CAM were selected. Preoperative appearance, computerized plan, intraoperative course, and final outcome were analyzed. Preoperative planning enabled efficient execution of the operative plan with predictable results. Risk factors which made these patients good candidates for CAD/CAM were identified and compiled. Several indications, including multisuture and revisional craniosynostosis, facial bipartition, four-wall box osteotomy, reduction cranioplasty, and distraction osteogenesis could benefit most from this technology. We illustrate the use of CAD/CAM for these applications and describe the decision-making process both before and during surgery. We explore why we believe that CAD/CAM is indicated in these scenarios as well as the disadvantages and risks. PMID:27516839

  4. Indications for Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing in Congenital Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Medina, Miguel; Bojovic, Branko; Ahn, Edward; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2016-09-01

    The complex three-dimensional relationships in congenital craniofacial reconstruction uniquely lend themselves to the ability to accurately plan and model the result provided by computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The goal of this study was to illustrate indications where CAD/CAM would be helpful in the treatment of congenital craniofacial anomalies reconstruction and to discuss the application of this technology and its outcomes. A retrospective review was performed of all congenital craniofacial cases performed by the senior author between 2010 and 2014. Cases where CAD/CAM was used were identified, and illustrative cases to demonstrate the benefits of CAD/CAM were selected. Preoperative appearance, computerized plan, intraoperative course, and final outcome were analyzed. Preoperative planning enabled efficient execution of the operative plan with predictable results. Risk factors which made these patients good candidates for CAD/CAM were identified and compiled. Several indications, including multisuture and revisional craniosynostosis, facial bipartition, four-wall box osteotomy, reduction cranioplasty, and distraction osteogenesis could benefit most from this technology. We illustrate the use of CAD/CAM for these applications and describe the decision-making process both before and during surgery. We explore why we believe that CAD/CAM is indicated in these scenarios as well as the disadvantages and risks.

  5. Development of CAD/CAM software used in laser direct manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-shan; Yang, Xi-chen; Wang, Jian-jun; Jin, Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a special CAD/CAM software for rapid manufacturing thin wall metal parts by laser cladding, which is based on the developing of AutoCAD. It mainly consists of solid modeling, layering and section data processing, NC code generation module, processing path simulating and data transferring module.

  6. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  7. Steam turbine generators -from NC manufacturing to CAD/CAM

    SciTech Connect

    Searle, D.R.; King, F.E.; Kiniskern, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    A program has been designed to integrate engineering, manufacturing, and business systems using a common data base. There has been a significant increase in benefits obtained by extending the automation of the design/drafting function to include manufacturing operations. This extension would have been difficult without the existence of highly developed family-of-parts NC programs. The integration concept has also been applied to turbine buckets and is being extended to other turning-generator components.

  8. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H. Cervantes

    2013-01-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner. PMID:24966718

  9. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  10. FastCam optomechanical system design and manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murga, Gaizka; Sanquirce, Rubén; Campo, Ramón; Oscoz, Alex; López, Roberto; Rebolo, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    FastCam is an instrument jointly developed by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (UPCT), designed to obtain high spatial resolution images in the optical wavelength range from ground-based telescopes (http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam and http://www.iac.es/telescopes/Manuales/manualfastcam.pdf). The instrument is equipped with a very low noise and very fast readout speed EMCCD camera which provides short exposure images to an FPGA-based processor which performs the selection, recenterg and combination of images in real-time (applying Lucky Imaging techniques) to provide diffraction limited resolution images in 1-4 m class telescopes from 500 to 1100 nm. IDOM has contributed to this new state-of-the-art instrument with the design of an optomechanical system conceived to maximize the image scale stability of the system for astrometry. The combination of aluminum plates, carbon fiber (CFRP) rods and stainless steel mounts in the optical bench defines an athermalized and stiff design to meet the requirements of thermal and mechanical stability. This work has been done with the support of the Aerospace Subprogramme of the Spanish Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI) and the INTEK programme of the Basque Development Agency (SPRI).

  11. Career Focus: CAD/CAM. A New Dimension in Design and Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Many a great idea has first taken shape as a simple drawing sketched by hand on a piece of paper, but in an increasingly high-tech world, such drawings are more often being created--or at the very least perfected--with the aid of a computer. And in today's highly automated workplace, manufacturing a finished product from that great idea will…

  12. Microcomputed tomography marginal fit evaluation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing crowns with different methods of virtual model acquisition.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flavio Domingues; do Prado, Celio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Carneiro, Thiago Almeida Prado Naves; Zancope, Karla; Davi, Leticia Resende; Mendonca, Gustavo; Cooper, Lyndon; Soares, Carlos Jose

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study used microcomputed tomography to evaluate the marginal fit of crowns fabricated using a chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system with different methods of virtual model acquisition. Crowns were fabricated to fit in a cast containing a single human premolar. Four methods of virtual model acquisition were used: Group 1 (control), digital impressioning of a typodont; Group 2, digital impressioning of a powdered typodont; Group 3, digital impressioning of a regular impression; and Group 4, digital impressioning of a master cast. Statistically significant differences were found between the marginal gap of Group 2 and the other groups (P < 0.05); no differences were found among Groups 1, 3, and 4. The results showed that crowns fabricated using the chairside CAD/CAM system exhibited significantly smaller vertical misfit when a thin layer of powder was applied over the typodont before digital impressioning.

  13. Effects of Computer-Aided Manufacturing Technology on Precision of Clinical Metal-Free Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ki-Hong; Yeo, In-Sung; Wu, Benjamin M.; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kwon, Taek-Ka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the marginal fit of metal-free crowns made by three different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems. Materials and Methods. The maxillary left first premolar of a dentiform was prepared for all-ceramic crown restoration. Thirty all-ceramic premolar crowns were made, ten each manufactured by the Lava system, Cercon, and Cerec. Ten metal ceramic gold (MCG) crowns served as control. The marginal gap of each sample was measured under a stereoscopic microscope at 75x magnification after cementation. One-way ANOVA and the Duncan's post hoc test were used for data analysis at the significance level of 0.05. Results. The mean (standard deviation) marginal gaps were 70.5 (34.4) μm for the MCG crowns, 87.2 (22.8) μm for Lava, 58.5 (17.6) μm for Cercon, and 72.3 (30.8) μm for Cerec. There were no significant differences in the marginal fit among the groups except that the Cercon crowns had significantly smaller marginal gaps than the Lava crowns (P < 0.001).  Conclusions. Within the limitation of this study, all the metal-free restorations made by the digital CAD/CAM systems had clinically acceptable marginal accuracy. PMID:26557681

  14. Shape Optimization for Additive Manufacturing of Removable Partial Dentures--A New Paradigm for Prosthetic CAD/CAM.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Suenaga, Hanako; Li, Wei; Sasaki, Keiichi; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With ever-growing aging population and demand for denture treatments, pressure-induced mucosa lesion and residual ridge resorption remain main sources of clinical complications. Conventional denture design and fabrication are challenged for its labor and experience intensity, urgently necessitating an automatic procedure. This study aims to develop a fully automatic procedure enabling shape optimization and additive manufacturing of removable partial dentures (RPD), to maximize the uniformity of contact pressure distribution on the mucosa, thereby reducing associated clinical complications. A 3D heterogeneous finite element (FE) model was constructed from CT scan, and the critical tissue of mucosa was modeled as a hyperelastic material from in vivo clinical data. A contact shape optimization algorithm was developed based on the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) technique. Both initial and optimized dentures were prototyped by 3D printing technology and evaluated with in vitro tests. Through the optimization, the peak contact pressure was reduced by 70%, and the uniformity was improved by 63%. In vitro tests verified the effectiveness of this procedure, and the hydrostatic pressure induced in the mucosa is well below clinical pressure-pain thresholds (PPT), potentially lessening risk of residual ridge resorption. This proposed computational optimization and additive fabrication procedure provides a novel method for fast denture design and adjustment at low cost, with quantitative guidelines and computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for a specific patient. The integration of digitalized modeling, computational optimization, and free-form fabrication enables more efficient clinical adaptation. The customized optimal denture design is expected to minimize pain/discomfort and potentially reduce long-term residual ridge resorption.

  15. Shape Optimization for Additive Manufacturing of Removable Partial Dentures - A New Paradigm for Prosthetic CAD/CAM

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    With ever-growing aging population and demand for denture treatments, pressure-induced mucosa lesion and residual ridge resorption remain main sources of clinical complications. Conventional denture design and fabrication are challenged for its labor and experience intensity, urgently necessitating an automatic procedure. This study aims to develop a fully automatic procedure enabling shape optimization and additive manufacturing of removable partial dentures (RPD), to maximize the uniformity of contact pressure distribution on the mucosa, thereby reducing associated clinical complications. A 3D heterogeneous finite element (FE) model was constructed from CT scan, and the critical tissue of mucosa was modeled as a hyperelastic material from in vivo clinical data. A contact shape optimization algorithm was developed based on the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) technique. Both initial and optimized dentures were prototyped by 3D printing technology and evaluated with in vitro tests. Through the optimization, the peak contact pressure was reduced by 70%, and the uniformity was improved by 63%. In vitro tests verified the effectiveness of this procedure, and the hydrostatic pressure induced in the mucosa is well below clinical pressure-pain thresholds (PPT), potentially lessening risk of residual ridge resorption. This proposed computational optimization and additive fabrication procedure provides a novel method for fast denture design and adjustment at low cost, with quantitative guidelines and computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for a specific patient. The integration of digitalized modeling, computational optimization, and free-form fabrication enables more efficient clinical adaptation. The customized optimal denture design is expected to minimize pain/discomfort and potentially reduce long-term residual ridge resorption. PMID:26161878

  16. Custom-Made Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing Biphasic Calcium-Phosphate Scaffold for Augmentation of an Atrophic Mandibular Anterior Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco Guido; van Noort, Ric; Apresyan, Samvel; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcome of a custom-made computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) scaffold used for the alveolar ridge augmentation of a severely atrophic anterior mandible. Computed tomographic (CT) images of an atrophic anterior mandible were acquired and modified into a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model; this was transferred to a CAD program, where a custom-made scaffold was designed. CAM software generated a set of tool-paths for the manufacture of the scaffold on a computer-numerical-control milling machine into the exact shape of the 3D design. A custom-made scaffold was milled from a synthetic micromacroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block. The scaffold closely matched the shape of the defect: this helped to reduce the time for the surgery and contributed to good healing. One year later, newly formed and well-integrated bone was clinically available, and two implants (AnyRidge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) were placed. The histologic samples retrieved from the implant sites revealed compact mature bone undergoing remodelling, marrow spaces, and newly formed trabecular bone surrounded by residual BCP particles. This study demonstrates that custom-made scaffolds can be fabricated by combining CT scans and CAD/CAM techniques. Further studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26064701

  17. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  18. Some Workplace Effects of CAD and CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Karl-H.; Ulrich, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) on employment, work organization, working conditions, job content, training, and industrial relations in several countries. Finds little evidence of negative employment effects since productivity gains are offset by various compensatory factors. (Author/CH)

  19. Marginal accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses fabricated using different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing systems.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Brinkmann, Henrike; Li, Jiang; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2009-06-01

    Besides load-bearing capacity, marginal accuracy is a further crucial factor influencing the clinical long-term reliability of fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal fit of four-unit zirconia bridge frameworks fabricated using four different computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems. Ten frameworks were manufactured using each fabricating system. Three systems (inLab, Everest, Cercon) processed white-stage zirconia blanks, which had to be sintered to final density after milling, while with one system (Digident) restorations were directly milled from a fully sintered material. After manufacturing, horizontal and vertical marginal discrepancies, as well as the absolute marginal discrepancy, were determined by means of a replica technique. The absolute marginal discrepancy, which is considered to be the most suitable parameter reflecting restorations' misfit in the marginal area, had a mean value of 58 mum for the Digident system. By contrast, mean absolute marginal discrepancies for the three other systems, processing presintered blanks, differed significantly and ranged between 183 and 206 mum. Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the marginal fit of zirconia FDPs is significantly dependent on the CAD/CAM system used, with restorations processed of fully sintered zirconia showing better fitting accuracy. PMID:19583762

  20. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  1. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  2. Assessment technique for computer-aided manufactured sockets.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; Severance, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an assessment technique for testing the quality of prosthetic socket fabrication processes at computer-aided manufacturing facilities. The assessment technique is potentially useful to both facilities making sockets and companies marketing manufacturing equipment seeking to assess and improve product quality. To execute the assessment technique, an evaluator fabricates a collection of test models and sockets using the manufacturing suite under evaluation, then measures their shapes using scanning equipment. Overall socket quality is assessed by comparing socket shapes with electronic file (e-file) shapes. To characterize carving performance, model shapes are compared with e-file shapes. To characterize forming performance, socket shapes are compared with model shapes. The mean radial error (MRE), which is the average difference in radii between the two compared shapes, provides insight into sizing quality. Interquartile range (IQR), the range of radial error for the best-matched half of the points on the compared socket surfaces, provides insight into regional shape quality. The source(s) of socket shape error may be pinpointed by separately determining MRE and IQR for carving and forming. The developed assessment technique may provide a useful tool to the prosthetics community and industry to help identify problems and limitations in computer-aided manufacturing and give insight into appropriate modifications to overcome them. PMID:21938663

  3. Assessment technique for computer-aided manufactured sockets.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; Severance, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an assessment technique for testing the quality of prosthetic socket fabrication processes at computer-aided manufacturing facilities. The assessment technique is potentially useful to both facilities making sockets and companies marketing manufacturing equipment seeking to assess and improve product quality. To execute the assessment technique, an evaluator fabricates a collection of test models and sockets using the manufacturing suite under evaluation, then measures their shapes using scanning equipment. Overall socket quality is assessed by comparing socket shapes with electronic file (e-file) shapes. To characterize carving performance, model shapes are compared with e-file shapes. To characterize forming performance, socket shapes are compared with model shapes. The mean radial error (MRE), which is the average difference in radii between the two compared shapes, provides insight into sizing quality. Interquartile range (IQR), the range of radial error for the best-matched half of the points on the compared socket surfaces, provides insight into regional shape quality. The source(s) of socket shape error may be pinpointed by separately determining MRE and IQR for carving and forming. The developed assessment technique may provide a useful tool to the prosthetics community and industry to help identify problems and limitations in computer-aided manufacturing and give insight into appropriate modifications to overcome them.

  4. The ergonomics of computer aided design within advanced manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    John, P A

    1988-03-01

    Many manufacturing companies have now awakened to the significance of computer aided design (CAD), although the majority of them have only been able to purchase computerised draughting systems of which only a subset produce direct manufacturing data. Such companies are moving steadily towards the concept of computer integrated manufacture (CIM), and this demands CAD to address more than draughting. CAD architects are thus having to rethink the basic specification of such systems, although they typically suffer from an insufficient understanding of the design task and have consequently been working with inadequate specifications. It is at this fundamental level that ergonomics has much to offer, making its contribution by encouraging user-centred design. The discussion considers the relationships between CAD and: the design task; the organisation and people; creativity; and artificial intelligence. It finishes with a summary of the contribution of ergonomics.

  5. Computer-Assisted Mandibular Reconstruction using a Patient-Specific Reconstruction Plate Fabricated with Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Frank; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Schramm, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the workflow of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction that was performed with a patient-specific mandibular reconstruction plate fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques and a fibula flap. We assessed the feasibility of this technique from virtual planning to the completion of surgery. Computed tomography (CT) scans of a cadaveric skull and fibula were obtained for the virtual simulation of mandibular resection and reconstruction using ProPlan CMF software (Materialise®/DePuy Synthes®). The virtual model of the reconstructed mandible provided the basis for the computer-aided design of a patient-specific reconstruction plate that was milled from titanium using a five-axis milling machine and CAM techniques. CAD/CAM techniques were used for producing resection guides for mandibular resection and cutting guides for harvesting a fibula flap. Mandibular reconstruction was simulated in a cadaveric wet laboratory. No problems were encountered during the procedure. The plate was fixed accurately to the residual bone without difficulty. The fibula segments were attached to the plate rapidly and reliably. The fusion of preoperative and postoperative CT datasets demonstrated high reconstruction precision. Computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction with CAD/CAM-fabricated patient-specific reconstruction plates appears to be a promising approach for mandibular reconstruction. Clinical trials are required to determine whether these promising results can be translated into successful practice and what further developments are needed. PMID:25045420

  6. CAD/CAM systems, materials, and clinical guidelines for all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Terry, Douglas A

    2002-07-01

    Advances in dental ceramic materials and the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and milling technology have facilitated the development and application of superior dental ceramics. CAD/CAM allows the use of materials that cannot be used with conventional dental processing techniques. This article reviews the main techniques and new materials used in dentistry for CAD/CAM-generated crowns and fixed partial dentures. Also covered are the clinical guidelines for using these systems.

  7. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  8. Fatigue analysis of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing resin-based composite vs. lithium disilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ankyu, Shuhei; Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, Akio; Hong, Guang; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Örtengren, Ulf; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Resin-based composite molar crowns made by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have been proposed as an inexpensive alternative to metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding fatigue resistance. This study aimed to analyze the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin-based composite compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. One-hundred and sixty bar-shaped specimens were fabricated using resin-based composite blocks [Lava Ultimate (LU); 3M/ESPE] and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max press (EMP); Ivoclar/Vivadent]. The specimens were divided into four groups: no treatment (NT); thermal cycling (TC); mechanical cycling (MC); and thermal cycling followed by mechanical cycling (TCMC). Thermal cycling was performed by alternate immersion in water baths of 5°C and 55°C for 5 × 10(4) cycles. Mechanical cycling was performed in a three-point bending test, with a maximum load of 40 N, for 1.2 × 10(6) cycles. In addition, LU and EMP molar crowns were fabricated and subjected to fatigue treatments followed by load-to-failure testing. The flexural strength of LU was not severely reduced by the fatigue treatments. The fatigue treatments did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of LU molar crowns. The results demonstrate the potential of clinical application of CAD/CAM-generated resin-based composite molar crowns in terms of fatigue resistance. PMID:27203408

  9. Fatigue analysis of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing resin-based composite vs. lithium disilicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ankyu, Shuhei; Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, Akio; Hong, Guang; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Örtengren, Ulf; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Resin-based composite molar crowns made by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have been proposed as an inexpensive alternative to metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns. However, there is a lack of scientific information regarding fatigue resistance. This study aimed to analyze the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin-based composite compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. One-hundred and sixty bar-shaped specimens were fabricated using resin-based composite blocks [Lava Ultimate (LU); 3M/ESPE] and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max press (EMP); Ivoclar/Vivadent]. The specimens were divided into four groups: no treatment (NT); thermal cycling (TC); mechanical cycling (MC); and thermal cycling followed by mechanical cycling (TCMC). Thermal cycling was performed by alternate immersion in water baths of 5°C and 55°C for 5 × 10(4) cycles. Mechanical cycling was performed in a three-point bending test, with a maximum load of 40 N, for 1.2 × 10(6) cycles. In addition, LU and EMP molar crowns were fabricated and subjected to fatigue treatments followed by load-to-failure testing. The flexural strength of LU was not severely reduced by the fatigue treatments. The fatigue treatments did not significantly affect the fracture resistance of LU molar crowns. The results demonstrate the potential of clinical application of CAD/CAM-generated resin-based composite molar crowns in terms of fatigue resistance.

  10. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  11. Effect of different adhesive strategies on microtensile bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing blocks bonded to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Lang, Lisa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Teich, Sorin; Porto, Thiago Soares

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of ceramic and composite computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks bonded to dentin using different adhesive strategies. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 crowns of sound freshly extracted human molars were sectioned horizontally 3 mm above the cementoenamel junction to produce flat dentin surfaces. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks, size 14, were sectioned into slices of 3 mm thick. Before bonding, CAD/CAM block surfaces were treated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Groups were created based on the adhesive strategy used: Group 1 (GI) - conventional resin cement + total-etch adhesive system, Group 2 (GII) - conventional resin cement + self-etch adhesive system, and Group 3 (GIII) - self-adhesive resin cement with no adhesive. Bonded specimens were stored in 100% humidity for 24h at 37΀C, and then sectioned with a slow-speed diamond saw to obtain 1 mm × 1 mm × 6 mm microsticks. Microtensile testing was then conducted using a microtensile tester. μTBS values were expressed in MPa and analyzed by one-way ANOVA with post hoc (Tukey) test at the 5% significance level. Results: Mean values and standard deviations of μTBS (MPa) were 17.68 (±2.71) for GI/ceramic; 17.62 (±3.99) for GI/composite; 13.61 (±6.92) for GII/composite; 12.22 (±4.24) for GII/ceramic; 7.47 (±2.29) for GIII/composite; and 6.48 (±3.10) for GIII/ceramic; ANOVA indicated significant differences among the adhesive modality and block interaction (P < 0.05), and no significant differences among blocks only, except between GI and GII/ceramic. Bond strength of GIII was consistently lower (P < 0.05) than GI and GII groups, regardless the block used. Conclusion: Cementation of CAD/CAM restorations, either composite or ceramic, can be significantly affected by different adhesive strategies used. PMID:27076825

  12. Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam: An aid for research and teaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wise, S.W.; Olney, M.; Covington, J.M.; Egerton, V.M.; Jiang, S.; Ramdeen, D.K.; ,; Schrader, H.; Sims, P.A.; Wood, A.S.; Davis, A.; Davenport, D.R.; Doepler, N.; Falcon, W.; Lopez, C.; Pressley, T.; Swedberg, O.L.; Harwood, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam© is an interactive, icon-driven digital-image database/software package that displays over 500 illustrated Cenozoic Antarctic diatom taxa along with original descriptions (including over 100 generic and 20 family-group descriptions). This digital catalog is designed primarily for use by micropaleontologists working in the field (at sea or on the Antarctic continent) where hard-copy literature resources are limited. This new package will also be useful for classroom/lab teaching as well as for any paleontologists making or refining taxonomic identifications at the microscope. The database (Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare) is displayed via a custom software program (BugCam) written in Visual Basic for use on PCs running Windows 95 or later operating systems. BugCam is a flexible image display program that utilizes an intuitive thumbnail “tree” structure for navigation through the database. The data are stored on Micrsosoft EXCEL spread sheets, hence no separate relational database program is necessary to run the package

  13. CAD-CAM at Bendix Kansas city: the BICAM system

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Bendix Kansas City Division (BEKC) has been involved in Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology since the late 1950's when the numerical control (N/C) analysts installed computers to aid in N/C tape preparation for numerically controlled machines. Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology was introduced in 1976, when a number of 2D turnkey drafting stations were procured for printed wiring board (PWB) drawing definition and maintenance. In June, 1980, CAD-CAM Operations was formed to incorporate an integrated CAD-CAM capability into Bendix operations. In March 1982, a ninth division was added to the existing eight divisions at Bendix. Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is a small organization, reporting directly to the general manager, who has responsibility to coordinate the overall integration of computer aided systems at Bendix. As a long range plan, CIM has adopted a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) architecture titled Factory of the Future. Conceptually, the Bendix CAD-CAM system has a centrally located data base which can be accessed by both CAD and CAM tools, processes, and personnel thus forming an integrated Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) System. This is a key requirement of the Bendix CAD-CAM system that will be presented in more detail.

  14. Resin-composite Blocks for Dental CAD/CAM Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, N.D.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. PMID:25344335

  15. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    PubMed

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials.

  16. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology.

  17. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology. PMID:25911827

  18. Evaluation of three-dimensional position change of the condylar head after orthognathic surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-made condyle positioning jig.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Mo; Baek, Seung-Hak; Kim, Tae-Yun; Choi, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM/CAD)-made condyle positioning jig in orthognathic surgery. The sample consisted of 40 mandibular condyles of 20 patients with class III malocclusion who underwent bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with semirigid fixation (6 men and 14 women; mean age, 25 y; mean amount of mandibular setback, 5.8 mm). Exclusion criteria were patients who needed surgical correction of the frontal ramal inclination and had signs and symptoms of the temporomandibular disorder before surgery. Three-dimensional computed tomograms were taken 1 month before the surgery (T1) and 1 day after the surgery (T2). The condylar position was evaluated at the T1 and T2 stages on the axial, frontal, and sagittal aspects in the three-dimensional coordinates. The linear change of the posterior border of the proximal segment of the ramus between T1 and T2 was also evaluated in 30 condyles (15 patients), with the exception of 10 condyles of 5 patients who received mandibular angle reduction surgery. There was no significant difference in the condylar position in the frontal and sagittal aspects (P > 0.05). Although there was a significant difference in the condylar position in the axial aspect (P < 0.01), the amount of difference was less than 1 mm and 1 degree; it can be considered clinically nonsignificant. In the linear change of the posterior border of the proximal segment of the ramus, the mean change was 1.4 mm and 60% of the samples showed a minimal change of less than 1 mm. The results of this study suggest that CAD/CAM-made condyle positioning jig is easy to install and reliable to use in orthognathic surgery.

  19. Influence of different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing resin nanoceramic material to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Pigozzo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Scribante, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different luting protocols on shear bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin nanoceramic (RNC) material to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 disks were milled from RNC blocks (Lava Ultimate/3M ESPE) with CAD/CAM technology. The disks were subsequently cemented to the exposed dentin of 30 recently extracted bovine permanent mandibular incisors. The specimens were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, disks were cemented using a total-etch protocol (Scotchbond™ Universal Etchant phosphoric acid + Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 2, disks were cemented using a self-etch protocol (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive + RelyX™ Ultimate conventional resin cement); in Group 3, disks were cemented using a self-adhesive protocol (RelyX™ Unicem 2 Automix self-adhesive resin cement). All cemented specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Instron Universal Testing Machine 3343) and submitted to a shear bond strength test to check the strength of adhesion between the two substrates, dentin, and RNC disks. Specimens were stressed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's test at a level of significance of 0.05. Results: Post-hoc Tukey testing showed that the highest shear strength values (P < 0.001) were reported in Group 2. The lowest data (P < 0.001) were recorded in Group 3. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, conventional resin cements (coupled with etch and rinse or self-etch adhesives) showed better shear strength values compared to self-adhesive resin cements. Furthermore, conventional resin cements used together with a self-etch adhesive reported the highest values of adhesion. PMID:27076822

  20. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, all restorations showed a clinically acceptable marginal accuracy; however, the results suggest that the CAD/CAM systems are more precise than the CAM-only system for the manufacture of four-unit FDPs. PMID:20495937

  1. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, all restorations showed a clinically acceptable marginal accuracy; however, the results suggest that the CAD/CAM systems are more precise than the CAM-only system for the manufacture of four-unit FDPs.

  2. The management of endodontically treated teeth using a Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Assisted Manufacturing/Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    Foerster, J G; von Gonten, A S; Robert, G H

    1999-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach for restoring endodontically treated posterior teeth. Significantly reduced natural tooth structure often remains not only because of previous restorative measures but also because of endodontic procedures. Cast restorations for these teeth are almost universally recommended. The exception to this is the rare instance in which only conservative endodontic access openings exist in teeth presenting with no former existing restorations. Typically, multiple clinical appointments are required to complete the final cast restoration. This article presents Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Assisted Manufacturing/Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing applications for restorative dentistry that provide the necessary care in an expeditious manner.

  3. CAD/CAM at a Distance: Assessing the Effectiveness of Web-Based Instruction To Meet Workforce Development Needs. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Joyce A.; Elkins, Susan A.

    This qualitative case study assessed web-based instruction in a computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) course designed for workforce development. The study examined students' and instructors' experience in a CAD/CAM course delivered exclusively on the Internet, evaluating course content and delivery, clarity of…

  4. 76 FR 77585 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Lighting and Navigation Aid Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) must meet the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 50101, Buy American Preferences. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is considering issuing waivers to foreign manufacturers of certain airport lighting and navigation aid equipment that is lit with Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting. This notice requests information from manufacturers of......

  5. Computer Aided Prosthetic Implant Manufacturing Using CT Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Michael L.; Glenn, William V.; Quinn, John F.; Rothman, Stephen L. G...; Pratt, Clyde; Brewster, Robert B.

    1982-11-01

    A system is described that delivers three-dimensional shape to plan corrective surgery and directly manufacture prosthetic implants. Geometry of implants are manufactured to precise dimensions using CT image data and an algorithm to generate instructions for numerically controlled milling machines. This work extends previous work in CT image segmentation algorithms to wed structure contour data to machinery used for making special implants. The types of implants currently available come in only a few sizes. A combination of changes to both the standard implant and, unfortunately to the femur itself are required to have a firm, stable reconstruction. The system out-lined here minimizes the removal of patient skeletal mass by manufacturing implants customized for each patient. The system is interconnected via digital transmission lines and will become entirely automated. Example implants are shown and new application areas are presented.

  6. Computer-aided design and manufacturing and rapid prototyped nanoscale hydroxyapatite/polyamide (n-HA/PA) construction for condylar defect caused by mandibular angle ostectomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihua; Hsu, Yuchun; Luo, En; Khadka, Ashish; Hu, Jing

    2011-08-01

    The fracture or defect of the mandibular condyle is one of the serious complications during angle-reduction ostectomy. Reconstruction of such defects also is a daunting task. The case report describes a method based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and rapid prototyping nanoscale hydroxyapatite/polyamide (n-HA/PA) for individual design, fabrication, and implantation of a mandibular condyle. A 27-year-old woman with a square-shaped face who had previously undergone mandibular angle reduction reported with malocclusion, deviated mouth, collapse of the right side of the face, and masticatory problems. The reason for the problems was the unintended removal of the condyle during the ostectomy procedure. Using computed tomography (CT) data, a biomimetic n-HA/PA scaffold, and CAD/CAM for rapid prototyping by three-dimensional (3D) printing, a perfect-fitting condylar implant was fabricated. A surgical guide system also was developed to reproduce the procedures accurately so a perfect fit could be obtained during surgery. The patient ultimately regained reasonable jaw contour and appearance, as well as appreciable temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function.

  7. Fabrication of lithium silicate ceramic veneers with a CAD/CAM approach: a clinical report of cleidocranial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Mukai, Eduardo; Hamerschmitt, Raphael Meneghetti; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-05-01

    The fabrication of minimally invasive ceramic veneers remains a challenge for dental restorations involving computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The application of an appropriate CAD/CAM protocol and correlation mode not only simplifies the fabrication of ceramic veneers but also improves the resulting esthetics. Ceramic veneers can restore tooth abnormalities caused by disorders such as cleidocranial dysplasia, enamel hypoplasia, or supernumerary teeth. This report illustrates the fabrication of dental veneers with a new lithium silicate ceramic and the CAD/CAM technique in a patient with cleidocranial dysplasia.

  8. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system. PMID:22038364

  9. CAM microkernels

    2009-02-09

    This is a set of microbernels based on the finite-volume dynamics of the Community Atmosphere Models (CAM) version 3.1.p2. Information on CAM can be found at the website: http://www.ccsm.uca.edu.models/atm-cam. CAM consists of public domain software with certain exceptions as outlind on the above website. The microkernles herein are based solely on the public domain portions of CAM and originat from code specifically in the directory: models/atm/cam/src/fv.

  10. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  11. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Hydroxyapatite/Epoxide Acrylate Maleic Compound Construction for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shen, Shunyao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing hydroxyapatite (HA)/epoxide acrylate maleic (EAM) compound construction artificial implants for craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Computed tomography, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and three-dimensional reconstruction, as well as rapid prototyping were performed in 12 patients between 2008 and 2013. The customized HA/EAM compound artificial implants were manufactured through selective laser sintering using a rapid prototyping machine into the exact geometric shapes of the defect. The HA/EAM compound artificial implants were then implanted during surgical reconstruction. Color-coded superimpositions demonstrated the discrepancy between the virtual plan and achieved results using Geomagic Studio. As a result, the HA/EAM compound artificial bone implants were perfectly matched with the facial areas that needed reconstruction. The postoperative aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory. The color-coded superimpositions demonstrated good consistency between the virtual plan and achieved results. The three-dimensional maximum deviation is 2.12 ± 0.65  mm and the three-dimensional mean deviation is 0.27 ± 0.07  mm. No facial nerve weakness or pain was observed at the follow-up examinations. Only 1 implant had to be removed 2 months after the surgery owing to severe local infection. No other complication was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, computer-aided, individually fabricated HA/EAM compound construction artificial implant was a good craniomaxillofacial surgical technique that yielded improved aesthetic results and functional recovery after reconstruction.

  12. Complete-mouth rehabilitation using a 3D printing technique and the CAD/CAM double scanning method: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Joo, Han-Sung; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2016-07-01

    According to evolving computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, ceramic materials such as zirconia can be used to create fixed dental prostheses for partial removable dental prostheses. Since 3D printing technology was introduced a few years ago, dental applications of this technique have gradually increased. This clinical report presents a complete-mouth rehabilitation using 3D printing and the CAD/CAM double-scanning method.

  13. Complete-mouth rehabilitation using a 3D printing technique and the CAD/CAM double scanning method: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Joo, Han-Sung; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2016-07-01

    According to evolving computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, ceramic materials such as zirconia can be used to create fixed dental prostheses for partial removable dental prostheses. Since 3D printing technology was introduced a few years ago, dental applications of this technique have gradually increased. This clinical report presents a complete-mouth rehabilitation using 3D printing and the CAD/CAM double-scanning method. PMID:26946918

  14. Computers in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-02-01

    CAD/CAM advances and applications for enhancing productivity in industry are explored. Wide-spread use of CAD/CAM devices are projected to occur by the time period 1992-1997, resulting in a higher percentage of technicians in the manufacturing process, while the cost of computers and software will continue to fall and become more widely available. Computer aided design is becoming a commercially viable system for design and geometric modeling, engineering analysis, kinematics, and drafting, and efforts to bridge the gap between CAD and CAM are indicated, with particular attention given to layering, wherein individual monitoring of different parts of the manufacturing process can be effected without crossover of unnecessary information. The potentials and barriers to the use of robotics are described, with the added optimism that displaced workers to date have moved up to jobs of higher skill and interest.

  15. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  16. Trends in Computer-Aided Manufacturing in Prosthodontics: A Review of the Available Streams

    PubMed Central

    Bennamoun, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In prosthodontics, conventional methods of fabrication of oral and facial prostheses have been considered the gold standard for many years. The development of computer-aided manufacturing and the medical application of this industrial technology have provided an alternative way of fabricating oral and facial prostheses. This narrative review aims to evaluate the different streams of computer-aided manufacturing in prosthodontics. To date, there are two streams: the subtractive and the additive approaches. The differences reside in the processing protocols, materials used, and their respective accuracy. In general, there is a tendency for the subtractive method to provide more homogeneous objects with acceptable accuracy that may be more suitable for the production of intraoral prostheses where high occlusal forces are anticipated. Additive manufacturing methods have the ability to produce large workpieces with significant surface variation and competitive accuracy. Such advantages make them ideal for the fabrication of facial prostheses. PMID:24817888

  17. Extending Engineering Design Graphics Laboratories to Have a CAD/CAM Component: Implementation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juricic, Davor; Barr, Ronald E.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a project that extended the Engineering Design Graphics curriculum to include instruction and laboratory experience in computer-aided design, analysis, and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Discusses issues in project implementation, including introduction of finite element analysis to lower-division students, feasibility of classroom prototype…

  18. [Computer aided design and manufacture of the porcelain fused to metal crown].

    PubMed

    Nie, Xin; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Yu, Qing; Hao, Guodong; Sun, Quanping

    2009-04-01

    In order to satisfy the current demand for fast and high-quality prosthodontics, we have carried out a research in the fabrication process of the porcelain fused to metal crown on molar with CAD/CAM technology. Firstly, we get the data of the surface mesh on preparation teeth through a 3D-optical grating measuring system. Then, we reconstruct the 3D-model crown with the computer-aided design software which was developed by ourselves. Finally, with the 3D-model data, we produce a metallic crown on a high-speed CNC carving machine. The result has proved that the metallic crown can match the preparation teeth ideally. The fabrication process is reliable and efficient, and the restoration is precise and steady in quality. PMID:19499776

  19. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials. PMID:26110926

  20. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials.

  1. A technique to improve the esthetic aspects of CAD/CAM composite resin restorations.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Giovanni Tommaso; Bonnafous, François; Rizcalla, Nicolas; Krejci, Ivo

    2010-10-01

    Bonded indirect computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations are increasingly gaining popularity for the restoration of large defects in posterior teeth. In addition to ceramic blocks, composite resin blocks have been developed. Composite resins blocks may have improved mechanical properties, but have poor esthetics. Thus, an esthetic modification of the restoration after machine milling may be necessary. A step-by-step procedure for the external esthetic layering of a composite CAD/CAM restoration is described. This technique can be used to repair or modify any composite resin restoration.

  2. Surface Modeling, Solid Modeling and Finite Element Modeling. Analysis Capabilities of Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, John G.; Kare, Audhut P.

    1987-01-01

    Explores several concepts in computer assisted design/computer assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Defines, evaluates, reviews and compares advanced computer-aided geometric modeling and analysis techniques. Presents the results of a survey to establish the capabilities of minicomputer based-systems with the CAD/CAM packages evaluated. (CW)

  3. IGIS (Interactive Geologic Interpretation System) computer-aided photogeologic mapping with image processing, graphics and CAD/CAM capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McGuffie, B.A.; Johnson, L.F.; Alley, R.E.; Lang, H.R. )

    1989-10-01

    Advances in computer technology are changing the way geologists integrate and use data. Although many geoscience disciplines are absolutely dependent upon computer processing, photogeological and map interpretation computer procedures are just now being developed. Historically, geologists collected data in the field and mapped manually on a topographic map or aerial photographic base. New software called the interactive Geologic Interpretation System (IGIS) is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-funded Multispectral Analysis of Sedimentary Basins Project. To complement conventional geological mapping techniques, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or other digital remote sensing image data and co-registered digital elevation data are combined using computer imaging, graphics, and CAD/CAM techniques to provide tools for photogeologic interpretation, strike/dip determination, cross section construction, stratigraphic section measurement, topographic slope measurement, terrain profile generation, rotatable 3-D block diagram generation, and seismic analysis.

  4. Manufacturing information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

    1983-12-01

    The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

  5. CAD/CAM Helps Build Better Bots: High-Tech Design and Manufacture Draws Engineering-Oriented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Name, Barry

    2012-01-01

    There is a battlefield where no quarter is given, no mercy shown, but not a single drop of blood is spilled. It is an arena that witnesses the bringing together of high-tech design and manufacture with the outpouring of brute force, under the remotely accessed command of some of today's brightest students. This is the world of battling robots, or…

  6. GMP-level adipose stem cells combined with computer-aided manufacturing to reconstruct mandibular ameloblastoma resection defects: Experience with three cases

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jan; Sándor, George K.; Miettinen, Aimo; Tuovinen, Veikko J.; Mannerström, Bettina; Patrikoski, Mimmi; Miettinen, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: The current management of large mandibular resection defects involves harvesting of autogenous bone grafts and repeated bending of generic reconstruction plates. However, the major disadvantage of harvesting large autogenous bone grafts is donor site morbidity and the major drawback of repeated reconstruction plate bending is plate fracture and difficulty in reproducing complex facial contours. The aim of this study was to describe reconstruction of three mandibular ameloblastoma resection defects using tissue engineered constructs of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) level autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) with progressively increasing usage of computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Materials and Methods: Patients’ three-dimensional (3D) images were used in three consecutive patients to plan and reverse-engineer patient-specific saw guides and reconstruction plates using computer-aided additive manufacturing. Adipose tissue was harvested from the anterior abdominal walls of three patients before resection. ASCs were expanded ex vivo over 3 weeks and seeded onto a β-TCP scaffold with rhBMP-2. Constructs were implanted into patient resection defects together with rapid prototyped reconstruction plates. Results: All three cases used one step in situ bone formation without the need for an ectopic bone formation step or vascularized flaps. In two of the three patients, dental implants were placed 10 and 14 months following reconstruction, allowing harvesting of bone cores from the regenerated mandibular defects. Histological examination and in vitro analysis of cell viability and cell surface markers were performed and prosthodontic rehabilitation was completed. Discussion: Constructs with ASCs, β-TCP scaffolds, and rhBMP-2 can be used to reconstruct a variety of large mandibular defects, together with rapid prototyped reconstruction

  7. Implant-supported overdenture manufactured using CAD/CAM techniques to achieve horizontal path insertion between the primary and secondary structure: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gomar-Vercher, Sonia; Ferreiroa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the case of an edentulous patient with an atrophic maxilla and severe class III malocclusion. Prosthetic rehabilitation was performed using CAD/CAM techniques for manufacturing an implant-supported overdenture with horizontal insertion. A vestibulo-lingual insertion overdenture is a precision prosthesis with a fixation system affording a good fit between the primary and secondary structure. Both structures exhibit passive horizontal adjustment. This treatment option requires the same number of implants as implant-supported fixed dentures. The horizontal assembly system prevents the prosthesis from loosening or moving in response to axial and non-axial forces. The technique was used to rehabilitate a patient presenting an atrophic upper maxilla, with the insertion of 8 implants. No complications were reported at follow-up 3, 6 and 12 months after fitting of the prosthesis. This system offers solutions to the clinical and laboratory complications associated with hybrid prostheses, concealing emergence of the chimneys and improving implant-prosthesis hygiene. PMID:26140179

  8. Fabrication of the mandibular implant-supported fixed restoration using CAD/CAM technology: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Reshad, Mamaly; Cascione, Domenico; Aalam, Alexandre Amir

    2009-11-01

    The mandibular implant-supported fixed restoration is an appropriate treatment choice for patients with inadequate bone volume in the posterior mandible. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has broadened the scope and application for this treatment option. A milled titanium bar retaining individual all-ceramic zirconium oxide crowns, with composite resin replicating gingival tissues, is recommended as an acceptable variation for this type of prosthesis. An alternative method for fabricating a mandibular implant-supported fixed restoration using CAD/CAM technology is described.

  9. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  10. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  11. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy. PMID:26734668

  12. Rationale for the Use of CAD/CAM Technology in Implant Prosthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Despite the predictable longevity of implant prosthesis, there is an ongoing interest to continue to improve implant prosthodontic treatment and outcomes. One of the developments is the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce implant abutments and frameworks from metal or ceramic materials. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate the rationale of CAD/CAM utilization for implant prosthodontics. To date, CAD/CAM allows simplified production of precise and durable implant components. The precision of fit has been proven in several laboratory experiments and has been attributed to the design of implants. Milling also facilitates component fabrication from durable and aesthetic materials. With further development, it is expected that the CAD/CAM protocol will be further simplified. Although compelling clinical evidence supporting the superiority of CAD/CAM implant restorations is still lacking, it is envisioned that CAD/CAM may become the main stream for implant component fabrication. PMID:23690778

  13. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy.

  14. Prosthetic rehabilitation with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing dental technology for a patient with a mandibulectomy: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of dental prostheses with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing shows acceptable marginal fits and favorable treatment outcomes. This clinical report describes the management of a patient who had undergone a mandibulectomy and received an implant-supported fixed prosthesis by using additive manufacturing for the framework and subtractive manufacturing for the monolithic zirconia restorations.

  15. Development of personalized annuloplasty rings: combination of CT images and CAD-CAM tools.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Valle-Fernández, Raquel Del; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Muñoz-García, Julio; Muñoz Sanz, José Luis; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan Manuel; Otero, Javier Echávarri

    2010-02-01

    Although the use of personalized annuloplasty rings manufactured for each patient according to the size and morphology of their valve complex could be beneficial for the treatment of mitral insufficiency, this possibility has been limited for reasons of time-lines and costs as well as for design and manufacturing difficulties, as has been the case with other personalized implant and prosthetic developments. However, the present quality of medical image capture equipment together with the benefits to be had from computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) and the capabilities furnished by rapid prototyping technologies, present new opportunities for a personalized response to the development of implants and prostheses, the social impact of which could turn out to be highly positive. This paper sets out a personalized development of an annuloplasty ring based on the combined use of information from medical imaging, from CAD-CAM design programs and prototype manufacture using rapid prototyping technologies.

  16. Development of personalized annuloplasty rings: combination of CT images and CAD-CAM tools.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Valle-Fernández, Raquel Del; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Muñoz-García, Julio; Muñoz Sanz, José Luis; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan Manuel; Otero, Javier Echávarri

    2010-02-01

    Although the use of personalized annuloplasty rings manufactured for each patient according to the size and morphology of their valve complex could be beneficial for the treatment of mitral insufficiency, this possibility has been limited for reasons of time-lines and costs as well as for design and manufacturing difficulties, as has been the case with other personalized implant and prosthetic developments. However, the present quality of medical image capture equipment together with the benefits to be had from computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) and the capabilities furnished by rapid prototyping technologies, present new opportunities for a personalized response to the development of implants and prostheses, the social impact of which could turn out to be highly positive. This paper sets out a personalized development of an annuloplasty ring based on the combined use of information from medical imaging, from CAD-CAM design programs and prototype manufacture using rapid prototyping technologies. PMID:19826955

  17. Facility management of computer-aided design, drafting/manufacturing systems (CADD/M)

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing systems have been installed in thousands of companies, applying CADD/M capabilities to many applications. This has been done with varying degrees of success even among companies with identical applications. Investigation of individual companies reveals a gap between the capabilities of CADD/M systems and the actual usage by industry of those capabilities. This company usage often determines the degree of success or failure of an interactive graphics facility and is largely controlled by management. The responsibilities of the interactive graphics facility managemant team are explained in detail. Proper management of a CADD/M facility is more critical to the success or failure of the facility than any other factor.

  18. Cost justification for an interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Many factors influence the capital investment decision. System costs and benefits are weighed by methods of financial analysis to determine the advisability of an investment. Capital, expense, and benefits as related to Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) Systems are discussed and model calculations are included. An example is treated by the simple payback method and the more sophisticated methods of Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The NPV and IRR approaches include in the calculation the time value of money and provide a sounder foundation on which to base the purchase decision. It is hoped that an understanding of these techniques by technical personnel will make an optimum system purchase more likely.

  19. Computer-Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/M) for high-speed interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoski, N. F.

    1981-10-01

    The objective of the Computer-Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/M) for High-Speed Interconnect Program study was to assess techniques for design, analysis and fabrication of interconnect structures between high-speed logic ICs that are clocked in the 200 MHz to 5 GHz range. Interconnect structure models were investigated and integrated with existing device models. Design rules for interconnects were developed in terms of parameters that can be installed in software that is used for the design, analysis and fabrication of circuits. To implement these design rules in future software development, algorithms and software development techniques were defined. Major emphasis was on Printed Wiring Board and hybrid level circuits as opposed to monolithic chips. Various packaging schemes were considered, including controlled impedance lines in the 50 to 200 ohms range where needed. The design rules developed are generic in nature, in that various architecture classes and device technologies were considered.

  20. Computer aided design and manufacturing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.; Downey, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the propulsion concepts being investigated for future cruise missiles is advanced unducted propfans. To support the evaluation of this technology applied to the cruise missile, a joint DOD and NASA test project was conducted to design and then test the characteristics of the propfans on a 0.55-scale, cruise missile model in a NASA wind tunnel. The configuration selected for study is a counterrotating rearward swept propfan. The forward blade row, having six blades, rotates in a counterclockwise direction, and the aft blade row, having six blades, rotates in a clockwise direction, as viewed from aft of the test model. Figures show the overall cruise missile and propfan blade configurations. The objective of this test was to evaluate propfan performance and suitability as a viable propulsion option for next generation of cruise missiles. This paper details the concurrent computer aided design, engineering, and manufacturing of the carbon fiber/epoxy propfan blades as the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  1. Computer-aided design and manufacture of an above-knee amputee socket.

    PubMed

    Torres-Moreno, R; Saunders, C G; Foort, J; Morrison, J B

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the initial test results obtained from a newly developed computer-aided socket design (CASD) and manufacturing (CASM) process for above-knee amputees. Anthropometric measures taken from an amputee provided input information to a CASD system. Using these measurements, data from a reference shape library stored in the computer were selected and modified to create a unique socket shape reflecting the particular characteristics of the amputation stump. The resultant shape was produced as a 'primitive' test socket by a CASM process. Numerical shape data were then transferred to a CNC milling machine to construct a negative cast, from which the primitive socket was produced by a vacuum-forming procedure. The resultant primitive socket shape was fitted and the amputee was able to load the socket without discomfort. Some shape discrepancies were identified and the shape data were modified interactively by the CASD system to create a final socket shape. The final socket shape was manufactured and worn by the amputee during a 35 min walking trial. Subjective evaluation was that the socket provided comfort and control comparable with that of the conventional socket, and proved to be acceptable to the amputee. This was followed by a 2-month home trial which was also successful. The CASD socket shapes were compared numerically in area, shape and volume with data taken from the original socket worn by the amputee, a new socket made by conventional methods and a topographic model of the amputation stump. The final CASD socket shape compared favourably with that of a socket manufactured by conventional methods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2002669

  2. Generation Of Manufacturing Routing And Operations Using Structured Knowledge As Basis To Application Of Computer Aided In Process Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswaldo, Luiz Agostinho

    2011-01-01

    The development of computer aided resources in automation of generation of manufacturing routings and operations is being mainly accomplished through the search of similarities between existent ones, resulting standard process routings that are grouped by analysis of similarities between parts or routings. This article proposes the development of manufacturing routings and operations detailment using a methodology which steps will define the initial, intermediate and final operations, starting from the rough piece and going up to the final specifications, that must have binunivocal relationship with the part design specifications. Each step will use the so called rules of precedence to link and chain the routing operations. The rules of precedence order and prioritize the knowledge of various manufacturing processes, taking in account the theories of machining, forging, assembly, and heat treatments; also, utilizes the theories of accumulation of tolerances and process capabilities, between others. It is also reinforced the availability of manufacturing databases related to process tolerances, deviations of machine tool- cutting tool- fixturing devices—workpiece, and process capabilities. The statement and application of rules of precedence, linking and joining manufacturing concepts in a logical and structured way, and their application in the methodology steps will make viable the utilization of structured knowledge instead of tacit one currently available in the manufacturing engineering departments, in the generation of manufacturing routing and operations. Consequently, the development of Computer Aided in Process Planning will be facilitated, due to the structured knowledge applied with this methodology.

  3. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance. PMID:27516841

  4. Predictable Restorative Work Flow for Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture-Fabricated Ceramic Veneers Utilizing a Virtual Smile Design Principle.

    PubMed

    Lin, W S; Zandinejad, A; Metz, M J; Harris, B T; Morton, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to present the use of a contemporary digital photograph-assisted virtual smile design principle, an intraoral digital impression, and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture-fabricated lithium disilicate ceramic veneers to treat a patient with esthetic needs in the maxillary anterior region. By using the proposed digital restorative work flow, this case report demonstrated an effective communication pathway between the patient, clinician, and dental laboratory technician. Effective communication can help to achieve a more predictable and satisfactory esthetic outcome.

  5. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance.

  6. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  7. Education and Training Packages for CAD/CAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, I. C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses educational efforts in the fields of Computer Assisted Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Describes two educational training initiatives underway in the United Kingdom, one of which is a resource materials package for teachers of CAD/CAM at the undergraduate level, and the other a training course for managers of CAD/CAM systems. (TW)

  8. Comparison of CAD-CAM and hand made sockets for PTB prostheses.

    PubMed

    Köhler, P; Lindh, L; Netz, P

    1989-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare sockets for below-knee (BK) prostheses made by Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacture (CAD-CAM) to those made by hand. The patients in the study were provided with two prostheses each, which apart from the sockets, were identical. One socket was made by the CAD-CAM technique developed at the Bioengineering Centre, Roehampton, University College London and one was made by hand at the OT-Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. The results were based on investigation of eight unilateral below-knee amputees evaluating their own sockets by Visual Analogous Scale with respect to comfort, pressure, and pain. The sockets were evaluated on seven occasions, at two tests, on delivery, after use every second day for six days and every second week for two weeks. All CAD-CAM sockets except one had to be changed once as compared to the hand made of which only two had to be changed. As to comfort it could not be demonstrated that there was any significant difference between the two types of sockets and both types were well accepted by all patients. Differences in pressure and pain were rarely reported. There were obvious differences between the two types of socket with respect to height, width, and inner surface configuration. The authors feel that CAD-CAM will in the near future be an excellent tool for design and manufacture of prosthetic sockets.

  9. Computer-aided design drafting/manufacturing (CADD/M) facility preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Computer-Aided Design, Drafting and Manufacturing (CADD/M) equipment requires careful facilities preparation before installation takes place. This paper presents what a company should consider to ensure a proper installation. This includes consideration of working conditions. To get the most out of the system, the operators must be provided with a relaxed, comfortable environment, free from noise and other distractions. Such things as temperature requirements, lighting, power, security and fire protection are discussed. Also, future expansion needs are considered so that major construction will not be required for future years. Advanced planning in these areas is needed to ensure successful implementation of a CADD/M system. This will lead to considerable cost savings, and in the long run, improve the scheduling for an entire project, from initial design to final production. This careful preparation will minimize unplanned events and problem areas. These are ambitious goals but easily realized if a logical and rational plan is adopted in the same manner as that used in a typical development program.

  10. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  11. Selecting and implementing an interactive Computer Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Success with Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) depends upon management, users, and the system itself. If you are in a design and drafting environment, the thought of acquiring a CADD/M system will probably occur to you sometime in the very near future - if it hasn't already. Convincing yourself and your management of the benefits of such systems is but the first step. Evaluating and selecting one particular type of CADD/M system can turn out to be a complicated undertaking - not to mention somewhat frustrating. Procedures for selecting and successfully implementing a CADD/M system are outlined. INITIAL PREPARATION examines the techniques used to evaluate CADD/M systems including formation of an evaluation team, and application analysis. GRAPHICS EVALUATION describes the methods that can be used to test a CADD/M system, including benchmark drawings and specifications, human engineering considerations, and other evaluation criteria and general system configurations are also discussed. COMPUTER SYSTEM EVALUATION examines other factors in systems selection: programming, communications, documentation, and service. SYSTEM STARTUP addresses site preparation, people preparation, system acceptance, and operator, designer/drafter selection. Finally, operator, designer/drafter TRAINING and SYSTEM MANAGEMENT are discussed. This systematic approach wil help those contemplating the acquisition of CADD/M systems for their activities and will help minimize unplanned events and problem areas.Advanced planning in these areas is needed to ensure successful implementation of a CADD/M system. This in turn will lead to considerable cost savings and schedule improvements for an entire project, from initial design to final production. These are ambitious goals but easily realized if a logical and rational plan is adopted in the same manner as that used in a typical development program.

  12. CAM Coordinator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodel, Lee J.

    The technical implementation and operation of the Comprehensive Achievement Monitoring (CAM) system are discussed in this manual. It is written as a guide for those responsible for implementing CAM and for processing CAM-related work requests. Subjects covered include: CAM system operation summary: objectives and test items; conferencing with the…

  13. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  14. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  15. New layer-based imaging and rapid prototyping techniques for computer-aided design and manufacture of custom dental restoration.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-Y; Chang, C-C; Ku, Y C

    2008-01-01

    Fixed dental restoration by conventional methods greatly relies on the skill and experience of the dental technician. The quality and accuracy of the final product depends mostly on the technician's subjective judgment. In addition, the traditional manual operation involves many complex procedures, and is a time-consuming and labour-intensive job. Most importantly, no quantitative design and manufacturing information is preserved for future retrieval. In this paper, a new device for scanning the dental profile and reconstructing 3D digital information of a dental model based on a layer-based imaging technique, called abrasive computer tomography (ACT) was designed in-house and proposed for the design of custom dental restoration. The fixed partial dental restoration was then produced by rapid prototyping (RP) and computer numerical control (CNC) machining methods based on the ACT scanned digital information. A force feedback sculptor (FreeForm system, Sensible Technologies, Inc., Cambridge MA, USA), which comprises 3D Touch technology, was applied to modify the morphology and design of the fixed dental restoration. In addition, a comparison of conventional manual operation and digital manufacture using both RP and CNC machining technologies for fixed dental restoration production is presented. Finally, a digital custom fixed restoration manufacturing protocol integrating proposed layer-based dental profile scanning, computer-aided design, 3D force feedback feature modification and advanced fixed restoration manufacturing techniques is illustrated. The proposed method provides solid evidence that computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies may become a new avenue for custom-made fixed restoration design, analysis, and production in the 21st century.

  16. New layer-based imaging and rapid prototyping techniques for computer-aided design and manufacture of custom dental restoration.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-Y; Chang, C-C; Ku, Y C

    2008-01-01

    Fixed dental restoration by conventional methods greatly relies on the skill and experience of the dental technician. The quality and accuracy of the final product depends mostly on the technician's subjective judgment. In addition, the traditional manual operation involves many complex procedures, and is a time-consuming and labour-intensive job. Most importantly, no quantitative design and manufacturing information is preserved for future retrieval. In this paper, a new device for scanning the dental profile and reconstructing 3D digital information of a dental model based on a layer-based imaging technique, called abrasive computer tomography (ACT) was designed in-house and proposed for the design of custom dental restoration. The fixed partial dental restoration was then produced by rapid prototyping (RP) and computer numerical control (CNC) machining methods based on the ACT scanned digital information. A force feedback sculptor (FreeForm system, Sensible Technologies, Inc., Cambridge MA, USA), which comprises 3D Touch technology, was applied to modify the morphology and design of the fixed dental restoration. In addition, a comparison of conventional manual operation and digital manufacture using both RP and CNC machining technologies for fixed dental restoration production is presented. Finally, a digital custom fixed restoration manufacturing protocol integrating proposed layer-based dental profile scanning, computer-aided design, 3D force feedback feature modification and advanced fixed restoration manufacturing techniques is illustrated. The proposed method provides solid evidence that computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies may become a new avenue for custom-made fixed restoration design, analysis, and production in the 21st century. PMID:18183523

  17. Application of an Aided System to Multi-Step Deep Drawing Process in the Brass Pieces Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier Ramírez, Francisco; Domingo, Rosario

    2009-11-01

    In general, pieces manufacturing procedure, through deep drawing, requires operations that must be carried out in several phases that extend the time and the cost of the process. Material determination, by considering shape, dimensions, mechanical characteristics, etc., can provoke an overdose at estimating proportions with the consequent increase of the manufacturing costs. Furthermore, the processes improvement with its simultaneous reduction of costs, provides to a company a higher profit in competitive markets. Thus, this paper introduces an aided system that allows the technological design of multi-step deep drawing processes, by the optimization of both initial material and process associated costs, and moreover, their application to brass pieces, in particular in CuZn30 alloy (UNS C26000). The aided system considers process technological constraints and pursues a reduction of manufacturing times, by means of the optimization process and fitting. The results show that this system provides, in each stage of the process, a homogenous distribution of the drawing coefficient, thickness reduction, required force and height of the piece, as well as a saving in times.

  18. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  19. Direct composite resin layering techniques for creating lifelike CAD/CAM-fabricated composite resin veneers and crowns.

    PubMed

    LeSage, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Direct composite resin layering techniques preserve sound tooth structure and improve function and esthetics. However, intraoral placement techniques present challenges involving isolation, contamination, individual patient characteristics, and the predictability of restorative outcomes. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations enable dentists to better handle these variables and provide durable restorations in an efficient and timely manner; however, milled restorations may appear monochromatic and lack proper esthetic characteristics. For these reasons, an uncomplicated composite resin layering restoration technique can be used to combine the benefits of minimally invasive direct restorations and the ease and precision of indirect CAD/CAM restorations. Because most dentists are familiar with and skilled at composite resin layering, the use of such a technique can provide predictable and highly esthetic results. This article describes the layered composite resin restoration technique.

  20. Direct composite resin layering techniques for creating lifelike CAD/CAM-fabricated composite resin veneers and crowns.

    PubMed

    LeSage, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Direct composite resin layering techniques preserve sound tooth structure and improve function and esthetics. However, intraoral placement techniques present challenges involving isolation, contamination, individual patient characteristics, and the predictability of restorative outcomes. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations enable dentists to better handle these variables and provide durable restorations in an efficient and timely manner; however, milled restorations may appear monochromatic and lack proper esthetic characteristics. For these reasons, an uncomplicated composite resin layering restoration technique can be used to combine the benefits of minimally invasive direct restorations and the ease and precision of indirect CAD/CAM restorations. Because most dentists are familiar with and skilled at composite resin layering, the use of such a technique can provide predictable and highly esthetic results. This article describes the layered composite resin restoration technique. PMID:24680167

  1. Jernberg Industries, Inc: Forging Facility Uses Plant-Wide Assessment to Aid Conversion to Lean Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    Jernberg Industries conducted a plant-wide assessment while converting to lean manufacturing at a forging plant. Seven projects were identified that could yield annual savings of $791,000, 64,000 MMBtu in fuel and 6 million kWh.

  2. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  3. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  4. IPAD 2: Advances in Distributed Data Base Management for CAD/CAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostic, S. W. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) Project objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The focus is on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information. The objectives of this conference are as follows: to provide a greater awareness of the critical need by U.S. industry for advancements in distributed CAD/CAM data management capability; to present industry experiences and current and planned research in distributed data base management; and to summarize IPAD data management contributions and their impact on U.S. industry and computer hardware and software vendors.

  5. Clinical and Laboratory Steps for Fabricating a Complete-Arch Fixed Prosthesis Using CAD/CAM.

    PubMed

    Keerthi, Senthil; Proussaefs, Periklis; Lozada, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of a full-arch maxillary prosthesis has been associated with several prosthetic complications and difficulties. Even though it has been reported that phonetics, esthetics, and proper lip support are difficult to achieve, there is a scarcity in the literature regarding the clinical and laboratory procedures necessary to minimize these complications. This article provides clinical and laboratory steps that may enable the clinician to achieve more predictable restorative results when using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) to fabricate a full-arch maxillary implant-supported prosthesis. The technique presented here describes the use of an implant-retained diagnostic wax-up that is subsequently duplicated to an interim polymethylmethacrylate prosthesis using CAD/CAM before fabricating the definitive restoration.

  6. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  7. A Pilot Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Curriculum that Promotes Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) is located in a community that is mostly rural in nature. The area is economically deprived when compared to the rest of the state. Many businesses lack the computerized equipment and skills needed to propel upward in today's technologically advanced society. This project will close the ever-widening gap between advantaged and disadvantaged workers as well as increase their participation with industry, NASA and/or other governmental agencies. Everyone recognizes computer technology as the catalyst for advances in design, prototyping, and manufacturing or the art of machining. Unprecedented quality control and cost-efficiency improvements are recognized through the use of computer technology. This technology has changed the manufacturing industry with advanced high-tech capabilities needed by NASA. With the ever-widening digital divide, we must continue to provide computer technology to those who are socio-economically disadvantaged.

  8. Full-mouth rehabilitation with monolithic CAD/CAM-fabricated hybrid and all-ceramic materials: A case report and 3-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Selz, Christian F; Vuck, Alexander; Guess, Petra C

    2016-02-01

    Esthetic full-mouth rehabilitation represents a great challenge for clinicians and dental technicians. Computer-aided design/ computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology and novel ceramic materials in combination with adhesive cementation provide a reliable, predictable, and economic workflow. Polychromatic feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramics that are specifically designed for anterior indications result in superior esthetics, whereas novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramics provide sufficient fracture resistance and adsorption of the occlusal load in posterior areas. Screw-retained monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns (ie, hybrid abutment crowns) represent a reliable and time- and cost-efficient prosthetic implant solution. This case report details a CAD/CAM approach to the full-arch rehabilitation of a 65-year-old patient with toothand implant-supported restorations and provides an overview of the applied CAD/CAM materials and the utilized chairside intraoral scanner. The esthetics, functional occlusion, and gingival and peri-implant tissues remained stable over a follow-up period of 3 years. No signs of fractures within the restorations were observed.

  9. Cost reduction advantages of CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, G. T.

    1983-05-01

    Features of the CAD/CAM system implemented at the General Dynamics Convair division are summarized. CAD/CAM was initiated in 1976 to enhance engineering, manufacturing and quality assurance and thereby the company's competitive bidding position. Numerical models are substituted for hardware models wherever possible and numerical criteria are defined in design for guiding computer-controlled parts manufacturing machines. The system comprises multiple terminals, a data base, digitizer, printers, disk and tape drives, and graphics displays. The applications include the design and manufacture of parts and components for avionics, structures, scientific investigations, and aircraft structural components. Interfaces with other computers allow structural analyses by finite element codes. Although time savings have not been gained compared to manual drafting, components of greater complexity than could have been designed by hand have been designed and manufactured.

  10. Shear bond strength of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with three different generations of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Ab-Ghani, Zuryati; Jaafar, Wahyuni; Foo, Siew Fon; Ariffin, Zaihan; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the shear bond strength between the dentin substrate and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with resin cement. Materials and Methods: Sixty cuboidal blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm) were fabricated in equal numbers from feldspathic ceramic CEREC® Blocs PC and nano resin ceramic Lava™ Ultimate, and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). Each block was cemented to the dentin of 60 extracted human premolar using Variolink® II/Syntac Classic (multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding), NX3 Nexus® (two-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding) and RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive cement. All specimens were thermocycled, and shear bond strength testing was done using the universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Combination of CEREC® Blocs PC and Variolink® II showed the highest mean shear bond strength (8.71 Mpa), while the lowest of 2.06 Mpa were observed in Lava™ Ultimate and RelyX™ U200. There was no significant difference in the mean shear bond strength between different blocks. Conclusion: Variolink® II cement using multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding provided a higher shear bond strength than the self-adhesive cement RelyX U200. The shear bond strength was not affected by the type of blocks used. PMID:26430296

  11. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    DOEpatents

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  12. The need for artificial intelligence as an aid in controlling a manufacturing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyand, J.

    AI applications to industrial production and planning are discussed and illustrated with diagrams and drawings. Applications examined include flexible automation of manufacturing processes (robots with open manual control, robots programmable to meet product specifications, self-regulated robots, and robots capable of learning), flexible fault detection and diagnostics, production control, and overall planning and management (product strategies, marketing, determination of development capacity, site selection, project organization, and technology investment strategies). For the case of robots, problems in the design and operation of a state-of-the-art machine-tool cell (for hole boring, milling, and joining) are analyzed in detail.

  13. Comparison of the marginal fit of different coping materials and designs produced by computer aided manufacturing systems.

    PubMed

    Karataşli, Ozge; Kursoğlu, Pinar; Capa, Nuray; Kazazoğlu, Ender

    2011-01-01

    In this study, marginal adaptations of different copings fabricated with CAD/CAM or MAD/CAM were analysed. Celay and Zirkonzahn groups were fabricated by MAD/CAM, LAVA and DC-Zircon groups were fabricated by CAD/CAM. Casting metal copings were used as the control group. An implant abutment that was embedded in octagonal acrylic block was used to prepare the copings. Sixteen previously established points were marked and the measurements were performed with the stereomicroscope (at × 150). The marginal fit of the samples were evaluated by calculating the mean measurements of each 16 points. The statistical analysis was performed by Tukey multiple comparisons test at 95% confidence interval. The groups can be summarized as follows in terms of marginal gap, from the lowest to highest: LAVA (24.6 ± 14.0 µm)CAM or MAD/CAM systems may not be the most important factor for marginal adaptation.

  14. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  15. Manufacturing mistrust: issues in the controversy regarding foster children in the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Jacquelyn

    2009-12-01

    The use of foster children as subjects in the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials has been the subject of media controversy, raising a range of ethical and social dimensions. Several unsettled issues and debates in research ethics underlie the controversy and the lack of consensus among professional researchers on these issues was neither adequately appreciated nor presented in media reports. These issues include (1) the tension between protecting subjects from research risk while allowing them access to the possible benefits of research; (2) the blurring of the potentially conflicting roles of investigator and physician and the boundaries between research and therapy; (3) the adequacy of Institutional Review Board oversight; and (4) trust and the relationships among physicians, investigators and industry. The media controversy about the pediatric HIV/AIDS clinical trials can be seen as a means of "manufacturing mistrust" in health care, research and social services that have not always met the needs and expectations of the public. In an era of emerging infections, it is critical to the public's health that people understand the role of rigorous and ethical research in the development of safe and effective care. Investigators, journalists and the public need to become knowledgeable about major ethical issues in the conduct of research in order to engage in dialogue about balancing research risks and benefits and to be able to distinguish fact from distortion in an era of multiple and rapid transmission of information.

  16. Interactive computer aided technology, evolution in the design/manufacturing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    A powerful computer-operated three dimensional graphic system and associated auxiliary computer equipment used in advanced design, production design, and manufacturing was described. This system has made these activities more productive than when using older and more conventional methods to design and build aerospace vehicles. With the use of this graphic system, designers are now able to define parts using a wide variety of geometric entities, define parts as fully surface 3-dimensional models as well as "wire-frame" models. Once geometrically defined, the designer is able to take section cuts of the surfaced model and automatically determine all of the section properties of the planar cut, lightpen detect all of the surface patches and automatically determine the volume and weight of the part. Further, his designs are defined mathematically at a degree of accuracy never before achievable.

  17. Turnkey CAD/CAM systems' integration with IPAD systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blauth, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Today's commercially available turnkey CAD/CAM systems provide a highly interactive environment, and support many specialized application functions for the design/drafting/manufacturing process. This paper presents an overview of several aerospace companies which have successfully integrated turnkey CAD/CAM systems with their own company wide engineering and manufacturing systems. It also includes a vendor's view of the benefits as well as the disadvantages of such integration efforts. Specific emphasis is placed upon the selection of standards for representing geometric engineering data and for communicating such information between different CAD/CAM systems.

  18. Computer Aided Drafting and Design, Industrial Manufacturing Technician, and Mechanical Engineering Technician and Machine Tool, Die and Moldmaking Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-East Ohio Tech Prep Consortium, Zanesville.

    This document contains competency profiles in four areas: computer-aided drafting and design; industrial manufacturing technician; mechanical engineering technician; and machine tool, die, and moldmaking technology occupations. The profiles are intended for use in articulating tech prep programs from high school through associate degrees in Ohio.…

  19. A common geometric data-base approach for computer-aided manufacturing of wind-tunnel models and theoretical aerodynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, M. J.; Cozzolongo, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    A more automated process to produce wind tunnel models using existing facilities is discussed. A process was sought to more rapidly determine the aerodynamic characteristics of advanced aircraft configurations. Such aerodynamic characteristics are determined from theoretical analyses and wind tunnel tests of the configurations. Computers are used to perform the theoretical analyses, and a computer aided manufacturing system is used to fabricate the wind tunnel models. In the past a separate set of input data describing the aircraft geometry had to be generated for each process. This process establishes a common data base by enabling the computer aided manufacturing system to use, via a software interface, the geometric input data generated for the theoretical analysis. Thus, only one set of geometric data needs to be generated. Tests reveal that the process can reduce by several weeks the time needed to produce a wind tunnel model component. In addition, this process increases the similarity of the wind tunnel model to the mathematical model used by the theoretical aerodynamic analysis programs. Specifically, the wind tunnel model can be machined to within 0.008 in. of the original mathematical model. However, the software interface is highly complex and cumbersome to operate, making it unsuitable for routine use. The procurement of an independent computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing system with the capability to support both the theoretical analysis and the manufacturing tasks was recommended.

  20. Nerve guides manufactured from photocurable polymers to aid peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Pateman, Christopher J; Harding, Adam J; Glen, Adam; Taylor, Caroline S; Christmas, Claire R; Robinson, Peter P; Rimmer, Steve; Boissonade, Fiona M; Claeyssens, Frederik; Haycock, John W

    2015-05-01

    The peripheral nervous system has a limited innate capacity for self-repair following injury, and surgical intervention is often required. For injuries greater than a few millimeters autografting is standard practice although it is associated with donor site morbidity and is limited in its availability. Because of this, nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) can be viewed as an advantageous alternative, but currently have limited efficacy for short and large injury gaps in comparison to autograft. Current commercially available NGC designs rely on existing regulatory approved materials and traditional production methods, limiting improvement of their design. The aim of this study was to establish a novel method for NGC manufacture using a custom built laser-based microstereolithography (μSL) setup that incorporated a 405 nm laser source to produce 3D constructs with ∼ 50 μm resolution from a photocurable poly(ethylene glycol) resin. These were evaluated by SEM, in vitro neuronal, Schwann and dorsal root ganglion culture and in vivo using a thy-1-YFP-H mouse common fibular nerve injury model. NGCs with dimensions of 1 mm internal diameter × 5 mm length with a wall thickness of 250 μm were fabricated and capable of supporting re-innervation across a 3 mm injury gap after 21 days, with results close to that of an autograft control. The study provides a technology platform for the rapid microfabrication of biocompatible materials, a novel method for in vivo evaluation, and a benchmark for future development in more advanced NGC designs, biodegradable and larger device sizes, and longer-term implantation studies. PMID:25725557

  1. Nerve guides manufactured from photocurable polymers to aid peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Pateman, Christopher J; Harding, Adam J; Glen, Adam; Taylor, Caroline S; Christmas, Claire R; Robinson, Peter P; Rimmer, Steve; Boissonade, Fiona M; Claeyssens, Frederik; Haycock, John W

    2015-05-01

    The peripheral nervous system has a limited innate capacity for self-repair following injury, and surgical intervention is often required. For injuries greater than a few millimeters autografting is standard practice although it is associated with donor site morbidity and is limited in its availability. Because of this, nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) can be viewed as an advantageous alternative, but currently have limited efficacy for short and large injury gaps in comparison to autograft. Current commercially available NGC designs rely on existing regulatory approved materials and traditional production methods, limiting improvement of their design. The aim of this study was to establish a novel method for NGC manufacture using a custom built laser-based microstereolithography (μSL) setup that incorporated a 405 nm laser source to produce 3D constructs with ∼ 50 μm resolution from a photocurable poly(ethylene glycol) resin. These were evaluated by SEM, in vitro neuronal, Schwann and dorsal root ganglion culture and in vivo using a thy-1-YFP-H mouse common fibular nerve injury model. NGCs with dimensions of 1 mm internal diameter × 5 mm length with a wall thickness of 250 μm were fabricated and capable of supporting re-innervation across a 3 mm injury gap after 21 days, with results close to that of an autograft control. The study provides a technology platform for the rapid microfabrication of biocompatible materials, a novel method for in vivo evaluation, and a benchmark for future development in more advanced NGC designs, biodegradable and larger device sizes, and longer-term implantation studies.

  2. Challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Part II. Feedback and occlusion effect reduction strategies, laser shell manufacturing processes, and other signal processing technologies.

    PubMed

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  3. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  4. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  5. CAM and NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK) cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms. PMID:15257322

  6. Fabrication of a CAD/CAM monolithic zirconia crown to fit an existing partial removable dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fabricating a surveyed prosthesis beneath an existing partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) is a challenging and time-consuming procedure. The computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology was applied to fabricate a retrofitted, surveyed zirconia prosthesis to an existing PRDP. CAD/CAM technology enabled precise and easy replication of the contour of the planned surveyed crown on the existing abutment tooth. This technology ensured excellent adaptation and fit of newly fabricated crown to the existing PRDP with minimal adjustments. In this case report, a seventy-year-old male patient presented with fractured existing surveyed crown. Because the existing PRDP was serviceable, new crown was fabricated to the existing PRDP. PMID:27555903

  7. Fabrication of a CAD/CAM monolithic zirconia crown to fit an existing partial removable dental prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Paek, Janghyun; Noh, Kwantae; Pae, Ahran; Lee, Hyeonjong; Kim, Hyeong-Seob

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating a surveyed prosthesis beneath an existing partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) is a challenging and time-consuming procedure. The computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology was applied to fabricate a retrofitted, surveyed zirconia prosthesis to an existing PRDP. CAD/CAM technology enabled precise and easy replication of the contour of the planned surveyed crown on the existing abutment tooth. This technology ensured excellent adaptation and fit of newly fabricated crown to the existing PRDP with minimal adjustments. In this case report, a seventy-year-old male patient presented with fractured existing surveyed crown. Because the existing PRDP was serviceable, new crown was fabricated to the existing PRDP. PMID:27555903

  8. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  9. Fracture Rates and Lifetime Estimations of CAD/CAM All-ceramic Restorations.

    PubMed

    Belli, R; Petschelt, A; Hofner, B; Hajtó, J; Scherrer, S S; Lohbauer, U

    2016-01-01

    The gathering of clinical data on fractures of dental restorations through prospective clinical trials is a labor- and time-consuming enterprise. Here, we propose an unconventional approach for collecting large datasets, from which clinical information on indirect restorations can be retrospectively analyzed. The authors accessed the database of an industry-scale machining center in Germany and obtained information on 34,911 computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) all-ceramic posterior restorations. The fractures of bridges, crowns, onlays, and inlays fabricated from different all-ceramic systems over a period of 3.5 y were reported by dentists and entered in the database. Survival analyses and estimations of future life revealed differences in performance among ZrO2-based restorations and lithium disilicate and leucite-reinforced glass-ceramics.

  10. Fracture Rates and Lifetime Estimations of CAD/CAM All-ceramic Restorations.

    PubMed

    Belli, R; Petschelt, A; Hofner, B; Hajtó, J; Scherrer, S S; Lohbauer, U

    2016-01-01

    The gathering of clinical data on fractures of dental restorations through prospective clinical trials is a labor- and time-consuming enterprise. Here, we propose an unconventional approach for collecting large datasets, from which clinical information on indirect restorations can be retrospectively analyzed. The authors accessed the database of an industry-scale machining center in Germany and obtained information on 34,911 computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) all-ceramic posterior restorations. The fractures of bridges, crowns, onlays, and inlays fabricated from different all-ceramic systems over a period of 3.5 y were reported by dentists and entered in the database. Survival analyses and estimations of future life revealed differences in performance among ZrO2-based restorations and lithium disilicate and leucite-reinforced glass-ceramics. PMID:26428908

  11. Effect of the Crystallization Process on the Marginal and Internal Gaps of Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Oh, Seunghan; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of the crystallization process on lithium disilicate ceramic crowns fabricated using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and to determine whether the effect of crystallization is clinically acceptable by comparing values of fit before and after the crystallization process. The mandibular right first molar was selected as the abutment for the experiments. Fifteen working models were prepared. Lithium disilicate crowns appropriate for each abutment were prepared using a commercial CAD/CAM system. Gaps in the marginal area and 4 internal areas of each crown were measured twice—before and after crystallization—using the silicone replica technique. The mean values of fit before and after crystallization were analyzed using a paired t-test to examine whether the conversion that occurred during crystallization affected marginal and internal gaps (α = 0.05). Gaps increased in the marginal area and decreased in the internal areas after crystallization. There were statistically significant differences in all of the investigated areas (P < 0.05). None of the values for marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns after crystallization exceeded 120 μm, which is the clinically acceptable threshold. PMID:27123453

  12. The effect of CO2 and Nd:YAP lasers on CAD/CAM Ceramics: SEM, EDS and thermal studies

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean Paul; Muhammad, Omid H; Medioni, Etienne; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Brulat-Bouchard, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of infrared laser light on Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramic surfaces. Material and Methods: Sixty CAD/CAM ceramic discs were prepared and divided into two different groups: lithiumdisilicate ceramic (IPSe.maxCADs) and Zirconia ceramic (IPSe.maxZirCADs). The laser irradiation was performed on graphite and non-graphite surfaces with a Carbon Dioxide laser at 5W and 10W power in continuous mode (CW mode) and with Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite (Nd:YAP) laser at 10W. Surface textures and compositions were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Thermal elevation was measured by thermocouple during laser irradiation. Results: The SEM observation showed a rough surface plus cracks and fissures on CO2 10W samples and melting areas in Nd:YAP samples; moreover, with CO2 5W smooth and shallow surfaces were observed. EDS analysis revealed that laser irradiation does not result in modifications of the chemical composition even if minor changes in the atomic mass percentage of the components were registered. Thermocouple showed several thermal changes during laser irradiation. Conclusion: CO2 and Nd:YAP lasers modify CAD/CAM ceramic surface without chemical composition modifications. PMID:27141152

  13. Effect of the Crystallization Process on the Marginal and Internal Gaps of Lithium Disilicate CAD/CAM Crowns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Oh, Seunghan; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of the crystallization process on lithium disilicate ceramic crowns fabricated using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and to determine whether the effect of crystallization is clinically acceptable by comparing values of fit before and after the crystallization process. The mandibular right first molar was selected as the abutment for the experiments. Fifteen working models were prepared. Lithium disilicate crowns appropriate for each abutment were prepared using a commercial CAD/CAM system. Gaps in the marginal area and 4 internal areas of each crown were measured twice-before and after crystallization-using the silicone replica technique. The mean values of fit before and after crystallization were analyzed using a paired t-test to examine whether the conversion that occurred during crystallization affected marginal and internal gaps (α = 0.05). Gaps increased in the marginal area and decreased in the internal areas after crystallization. There were statistically significant differences in all of the investigated areas (P < 0.05). None of the values for marginal and internal fit of lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns after crystallization exceeded 120 μm, which is the clinically acceptable threshold. PMID:27123453

  14. PreCam

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  15. Rutger's CAM2000 chip architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald E.; Hall, J. Storrs; Miyake, Keith

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the architecture and instruction set of the Rutgers CAM2000 memory chip. The CAM2000 combines features of Associative Processing (AP), Content Addressable Memory (CAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in a single chip package that is not only DRAM compatible but capable of applying simple massively parallel operations to memory. This document reflects the current status of the CAM2000 architecture and is continually updated to reflect the current state of the architecture and instruction set.

  16. Apex radicis dentis excision operation guided by template made by CAD/CAM

    PubMed Central

    He, Zong-Lai; Cai, Su-Qing; Jin, Guang-Sheng; Liu, Yun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to explore the clinical efficacy of apex radicis dentis excision guided by a template made by Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture (CAD/CAM). Methods: Base on the CBCT image of oral cavity, a three-dimensional model of patient’s oral cavity was built. Then the access way and excisional area were defined based on the model. Finally, the operative guide template was designed and made to help define the direction, depth, and area of the surgery. Results: One year after the operation with guide template, the two cases of apex radicis dentis with difficulty in cure were proven to have normal masticatory function and their pathological changes of apex radicis dentis disappeared as well. Conclusion: Utilization of CAD/CAM technology could well design the operative guide template for the resection of apex radicis dentis. Usingthis guide template could make the excision of apex radicis dentis more quickly and safer. PMID:26131072

  17. Luting of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: direct composite versus dual-cure luting cement.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Bonroy, Kim; Elsen, Caroline; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Suyama, Yuji; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bonding effectiveness in direct restorations. A two-step self-etch adhesive and a light-cure resin composite was compared with luting with a conventional dual-cure resin cement and a two-step etch and rinse adhesive. Class-I box-type cavities were prepared. Identical ceramic inlays were designed and fabricated with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. The inlays were seated with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical) or ExciTE F DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), each by two operators (five teeth per group). The inlays were stored in water for one week at 37°C, whereafter micro-tensile bond strength testing was conducted. The micro-tensile bond strength of the direct composite was significantly higher than that from conventional luting, and was independent of the operator (P<0.0001). Pre-testing failures were only observed with the conventional method. High-power light-curing of a direct composite may be a viable alternative to luting lithium disilicate glass-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations. PMID:26407114

  18. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-12-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen's size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics.

  19. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen’s size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics. PMID:26816646

  20. An approach to biomimetics: the natural CAD/CAM restoration: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Luís Henrique; Schlichting, Kathryn Klemz; Stanley, Kyle; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    Those in the dental field have always pursued the perfect dental material for the treatment of compromised teeth. Gold, amalgam, composite resin, glass ionomer, and porcelain have been used. Tooth-like restorative materials (composite resin and porcelain) combined with an effective hard tissue bond have met the growing demand for esthetic or metal-free restorations in the past 15 to 20 years. However, none of those materials can fully mimic the unique properties of dentin (compliance and crack-stopping behavior) and enamel (wear resistance, function). The aim of this article is to report the restoration of an extensively damaged tooth with a natural restoration obtained by milling an extracted third molar tooth with a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The main benefit of this novel technique is the replacement of lost tissues by actual enamel and dentin, with the potential to recover mechanical, esthetic, and biologic properties. The indication for extracting third molars and premolars because of impaction or for orthodontic reasons makes these posterior teeth readily available. The innovation of the method presented here is the optimal use of the extracted tooth substrate thanks to its positioning technique in the CAD/CAM milling chamber.

  1. Luting of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: direct composite versus dual-cure luting cement.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Bonroy, Kim; Elsen, Caroline; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Suyama, Yuji; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bonding effectiveness in direct restorations. A two-step self-etch adhesive and a light-cure resin composite was compared with luting with a conventional dual-cure resin cement and a two-step etch and rinse adhesive. Class-I box-type cavities were prepared. Identical ceramic inlays were designed and fabricated with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. The inlays were seated with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical) or ExciTE F DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), each by two operators (five teeth per group). The inlays were stored in water for one week at 37°C, whereafter micro-tensile bond strength testing was conducted. The micro-tensile bond strength of the direct composite was significantly higher than that from conventional luting, and was independent of the operator (P<0.0001). Pre-testing failures were only observed with the conventional method. High-power light-curing of a direct composite may be a viable alternative to luting lithium disilicate glass-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations.

  2. 3D planning in orthognathic surgery: CAD/CAM surgical splints and prediction of the soft and hard tissues results - our experience in 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Hosn Centenero, Samir; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the advantages of 3D planning in predicting postoperative results and manufacturing surgical splints using CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) technology in orthognathic surgery when the software program Simplant OMS 10.1 (Materialise(®), Leuven, Belgium) was used for the purpose of this study which was carried out on 16 patients. A conventional preoperative treatment plan was devised for each patient following our Centre's standard protocol, and surgical splints were manufactured. These splints were used as study controls. The preoperative treatment plans devised were then transferred to a 3D-virtual environment on a personal computer (PC). Surgery was simulated, the prediction of results on soft and hard tissue produced, and surgical splints manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. In the operating room, both types of surgical splints were compared and the degree of similitude in results obtained in three planes was calculated. The maxillary osteotomy line was taken as the point of reference. The level of concordance was used to compare the surgical splints. Three months after surgery a second set of 3D images were obtained and used to obtain linear and angular measurements on screen. Using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient these postoperative measurements were compared with the measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results. Results showed that a high degree of correlation in 15 of the 16 cases. A high coefficient of correlation was obtained in the majority of predictions of results in hard tissue, although less precise results were obtained in measurements in soft tissue in the labial area. The study shows that the software program used in the study is reliable for 3D planning and for the manufacture of surgical splints using CAD/CAM technology. Nevertheless, further progress in the development of technologies for the acquisition of 3D images, new versions of software programs

  3. Chaotic Convection in CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, D. A.; Branson, M.; Dutta, R.; Jones, T.

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that stochastic fluctuations of convective activity can lead to systematic changes in large-scale weather and climate. We present results of recent ensemble-prediction experiments with the super-parameterized version of CAM that provide a new way to explore such effects, without the need for adhoc assumptions about the nature of the stochastic effects.

  4. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  5. Crassulacean acid metabolism and fitness under water deficit stress: if not for carbon gain, what is facultative CAM good for?

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Background In obligate Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), up to 99 % of CO2 assimilation occurs during the night, therefore supporting the hypothesis that CAM is adaptive because it allows CO2 fixation during the part of the day with lower evaporative demand, making life in water-limited environments possible. By comparison, in facultative CAM (inducible CAM, C3-CAM) and CAM-cycling plants drought-induced dark CO2 fixation may only be, with few exceptions, a small proportion of C3 CO2 assimilation in watered plants and occur during a few days. From the viewpoint of survival the adaptive advantages, i.e. increased fitness, of facultative CAM and CAM-cycling are not obvious. Therefore, it is hypothesized that, if it is to increase fitness, CAM must aid in reproduction. Scope An examination of published reports of 23 facultative CAM and CAM-cycling species finds that, in 19 species, drought-induced dark CO2 fixation represents on average 11 % of C3 CO2 assimilation of watered plants. Evidence is discussed on the impact of the operation of CAM in facultative and CAM-cycling plants on their survival – carbon balance, water conservation, water absorption, photo-protection of the photosynthetic apparatus – and reproductive effort. It is concluded that in some species, but not all, facultative and cycling CAM contribute, rather than to increase carbon balance, to increase water-use efficiency, water absorption, prevention of photoinhibition and reproductive output. PMID:18708641

  6. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  7. Marginal fit of anterior 3-unit fixed partial zirconia restorations using different CAD/CAM systems

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Taek-Ka; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Few studies have investigated the marginal accuracy of 3-unit zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of zirconia FPDs made using two CAD/CAM systems with that of metal-ceramic FPDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Artificial resin maxillary central and lateral incisors were prepared for 3-unit FPDs and fixed in yellow stone. This model was duplicated to epoxy resin die. On the resin die, 15 three-unit FPDs were fabricated per group (45 in total): Group A, zirconia 3-unit FPDs made with the Everest system; Group B, zirconia 3-unit FPDs made with the Lava system; and Group C, metal-ceramic 3-unit FPDs. They were cemented to resin dies with resin cement. After removal of pontic, each retainer was separated and observed under a microscope (Presize 440C). Marginal gaps of experimental groups were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test. RESULTS Mean marginal gaps of 3-unit FPDs were 60.46 µm for the Everest group, 78.71 µm for the Lava group, and 81.32 µm for the metal-ceramic group. The Everest group demonstrated significantly smaller marginal gap than the Lava and the metal-ceramic groups (P<.05). The marginal gap did not significantly differ between the Lava and the metal-ceramic groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION The marginal gaps of anterior 3-unit zirconia FPD differed according to CAD/CAM systems, but still fell within clinically acceptable ranges compared with conventional metal-ceramic restoration. PMID:24049561

  8. CAD/CAM technologies in the surgical and prosthetic treatment of the edentulous patient with biomymetic individualized approach

    PubMed Central

    POZZI, A.; GARGARI, M.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: The advent of modern endosseous implant design and improved surface technology has allowed the development of new restorative techniques that decrease patient’s total treatment time. Utilizing the latest scanning, CAD/CAM and manufacturing technolgies we are able to manufacture individualized dental restoration with high accuracy and a perfect precision of fit. Materials and methods: This report describes the rehabilitation of a completely edentulous patient utilizing a CT-based implant planning with computer-assisted surgical design, simultaneous CAD/CAM fabrication of a surgical template, a flapless surgical placement of the implants, and a prefabricated fixed complete denture for an immediately loaded restoration according to Nobel Biocare’s Teeth-in-an-Hour™ (Nobel Biocare Goteborg, Sweden) protocol. This systematic approach to full mouth rehabilitation reduces the time necessary for an edentulous patient to go from severely atrophic alveolar support to implant retained prosthetic restoration. These aspects of minimally invasive and simplified surgery, along with reducing the treatment time and postsurgical discomfort, are beneficial to the patient, and allowing for rehabilitation with the same level of success as in flap surgery. Conclusion: The Teeth-in-an-Hour protocol is a unique solution made possible by the Procera System. With the aid of the CT scans and a virtual planning software, a custom fabricated precision drill guide and a pre-manufactured prosthesis can be made before surgery. The execution of implant placement is performed with a flapless procedure that results in minimal surgical intervention. This results in a short and non-traumatic surgery with a minimum of postoperative complications, allowing the patient to leave the chair with a fixed prosthesis. Utilizing the latest scanning, CAD/CAM and manufacturing technologies the dental team is able to develop individualized zirconia full arch framework with high accuracy

  9. Roller Cam Positioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon B.

    2010-12-07

    Roller Cam Positioners could support the LCLS undulator sections allowing micron sized alignment adjustment of each undulator in 5 degrees of freedom. The supports are kinematic with the number of degrees of freedom matched to the number of constraints. Ton loads are supported on simple ball bearings. Motion is intrinsically bounded. Positioning mechanisms are based on pure rolling motion with sub-micron hysteresis and micron resolution. This note describes a general purpose positioning mechanism suitable for undulator support.

  10. The use of CAD/CAM technology to fabricate a custom ceramic implant abutment: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Martinna de Mendonça e; Kempen, Juan; Lourenço, Eduardo José Veras; Telles, Daniel de Moraes

    2014-05-01

    Well-placed dental implants are a prerequisite of functional and esthetically successful dental implant-supported crowns. The presence of soft tissue is essential for excellent esthetics because the dental implant or titanium abutment may become visible if the soft-tissue contour is not acceptable. This clinical report describes the use of a custom ceramic implant abutment designed with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology by milling a zirconia framework that was cemented extraorally to a prefabricated titanium abutment with a reduced diameter. This ceramic abutment has the strength and precise fit of a titanium interface and also the esthetic advantages of shaded custom-milled zirconia, with no visible metal. PMID:24433839

  11. The use of CAD/CAM technology to fabricate a custom ceramic implant abutment: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Martinna de Mendonça e; Kempen, Juan; Lourenço, Eduardo José Veras; Telles, Daniel de Moraes

    2014-05-01

    Well-placed dental implants are a prerequisite of functional and esthetically successful dental implant-supported crowns. The presence of soft tissue is essential for excellent esthetics because the dental implant or titanium abutment may become visible if the soft-tissue contour is not acceptable. This clinical report describes the use of a custom ceramic implant abutment designed with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology by milling a zirconia framework that was cemented extraorally to a prefabricated titanium abutment with a reduced diameter. This ceramic abutment has the strength and precise fit of a titanium interface and also the esthetic advantages of shaded custom-milled zirconia, with no visible metal.

  12. Differences in rust in hearing aid batteries across four manufacturers, four battery sizes, and five durations of exposure.

    PubMed

    Valente, Michael; Cadieux, Jamie H; Flowers, Laura; Newman, John G; Scherer, Juergen; Gephart, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Three hundred twenty zinc-air batteries representing four manufacturers (Energizer, Power One, Duracell, and Ray-O-Vac) and four cell sizes (10, 312, 13, and 675) were exposed in a salt spray fog apparatus for 2.5, 5.5, 24, 48, and 72 hours. At the conclusion of each exposure, the batteries were rated blindly for the presence of rust by four experienced audiologists using a four point rating scale. Results revealed significant differences in the rating of rust across the four manufacturers and duration of exposure. No statistically significant difference was found across cell size. Also, the correlation between raters was exceptionally high indicating that each audiologist rated the presence of rust for each battery in a very similar manner. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) techniques were applied and provided answers for the observed differences in rust between the four manufacturers. PMID:18496994

  13. Is a computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing method for mandibular reconstruction economically viable?

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Battaglia, Salvatore; Crimi, Salvatore; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Marchetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    The design and manufacture of patient-specific mandibular reconstruction plates, particularly in combination with cutting guides, has created many new opportunities for the planning and implementation of mandibular reconstruction. Although this surgical method is being used more widely and the outcomes appear to be improved, the question of the additional cost has to be discussed. To evaluate the cost generated by the management of this technology, we studied a cohort of patients treated for mandibular neoplasms. The population was divided into two groups of 20 patients each who were undergoing a 'traditional' freehand mandibular reconstruction or a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) mandibular reconstruction. Data concerning operation time, complications, and days of hospitalisation were used to evaluate costs related to the management of these patients. The mean operating time for the CAD-CAM group was 435 min, whereas that for the freehand group was 550.5 min. The total difference in terms of average time gain was 115.5 min. No microvascular complication occurred in the CAD-CAM group; two complications (10%) were observed in patients undergoing freehand reconstructions. The mean overall lengths of hospital stay were 13.8 days for the CAD-CAM group and 17 days for the freehand group. Finally, considering that the institutional cost per minute of theatre time is €30, the money saved as a result of the time gained was €3,450. This cost corresponds approximately to the total price of the CAD-CAM surgery. In conclusion, we believe that CAD-CAM technology for mandibular reconstruction will become a widely used reconstructive method and that its cost will be covered by gains in terms of surgical time, quality of reconstruction, and reduced complications.

  14. Cam drive internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vadnjal, I.

    1993-06-01

    A cam drive internal combustion engine is described, comprising, a cylindrical crank case housing, and an axle co-axially directed through the crank case housing, and a cam ring fixedly mounted to the axle medially of the axle in an orthogonal relationship relative thereto, and a predetermined number of first cylinder bores positioned in an equally spaced annular array on a first side of the cam ring, and second cylinder bores positioned on a second side of the cam ring within the crank case housing, with said second cylinder bores defining a number equal to the predetermined number, wherein each cylinder bore of said first set of cylinders bores is co axially aligned with one of said cylinder bores of said second set of cylinder bores, and the first set of cylinder bores each include a first piston reciprocatably mounted there within, and the second set of cylinder bores include a second piston reciprocatably mounted there within, and the first set of pistons each include a first piston rod, and the second set of pistons each include a second piston rod, wherein the first piston rods and second piston rod are arranged parallel relative to the axle, and the first piston rods include rollers mounted thereon, and the second piston rods include second rollers mounted thereon, the cam ring including a first cam surface rotatably mounting the first rollers, and the cam ring further including a second cam surface mounting the second cam rollers rotatably thereon.

  15. Education & Training for CAD/CAM: Results of a National Probability Survey. Krannert Institute Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majchrzak, Ann

    A study was conducted of the training programs used by plants with Computer Automated Design/Computer Automated Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to help their employees adapt to automated manufacturing. The study sought to determine the relative priorities of manufacturing establishments for training certain workers in certain skills; the status of…

  16. JunoCam: Outreach and Science Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Ingersoll, Andy; Caplinger, Mike; Ravine, Mike; Orton, Glenn

    2014-11-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft en route to Jupiter. Although the primary role of the camera is for outreach, science objectives will be addressed too. JunoCam is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm. Juno’s elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter’s polar regions with a spatial scale of ~50 km/pixel. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color mages of the aurora will be acquired. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloudtop heights. Resolution exceeds that of Cassini about an hour from closest approach and at closest approach images will have a spatial scale of ~3 km/pixel. JunoCam is a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft. The use of time-delayed integration takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to build up signal. JunoCam will acquire limb-to-limb views of Jupiter during a spacecraft rotation, and has the possibility of acquiring images of the rings from in-between Jupiter and the inner edge of the rings. Galilean satellite views will be fairly distant but some images will be acquired. Outer irregular satellites and small ring moons Metis and Adrastea will also be imaged. The theme of our outreach is “science in a fish bowl”, with an invitation to the science community and the public to participate. Amateur astronomers will supply their ground-based images for planning, so that we can predict when prominent atmospheric features will be visible. With the aid of professional astronomers observing at infrared wavelengths, we’ll predict when hot spots will be visible to JunoCam. Amateur image processing enthusiasts are onboard to create image products. Many of the earth flyby image products from Juno’s earth gravity assist were processed by amateurs. Between the planning and products will be the decision-making on what images to take when and why. We

  17. Jernberg Industries, Inc.: Forging Facility Uses Plant-Wide Energy Assessment to Aid Conversion to Lean Manufacturing (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-10-01

    Jernberg Industries conducted a plant-wide assessment while converting to lean manufacturing at a forging plant. Seven projects were identified that could yield annual savings of $791,000, 64,000 MMBtu in fuel and 6 million kWh

  18. CAM versus nucleoplasty.

    PubMed

    Marín, F Z

    2005-01-01

    In recent years the general trend in spinal surgery has been reduction and minimalization. In general, all these have shown a moderate or good clinical result but they have been associated with serious sequelae. Plasma-mediated electrosurgery, widely used in other medical fields, has demonstrated to be well suited for this new indication. To perform the Nucleoplasty (Coblation) and the CAM (Coblation-Assisted Microdiscectomy) is use the Perc-DLE SpineWand connected to a System 2000 generator (ArthoCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA) was used. The device functions via plasma-mediated electrosurgery (Coblation) and differs from traditional electrosurgery. From a small sample 64 operated patients with contained disc herniation were analysed and classified into those who underwent percutaneous disc decompression (PDD) using coblation technology and patients who underwent CAM. All patients who presented with PDD were considered candidates for open surgery but all of them opted for the new technique. There was no contraindication. They had discogenic low back pain and/or leg pain and the procedure was performed on an outpatient basis. Follow-up data was of 1 to 12 months. Patients' gender distribution for PDD was 65% (41.6) male, 35% (22.4) female with a mean age of 43 years. The average duration of pain before nucleoplasty was of 18 months and none of them had previous lumbar surgery. At 6 to 12 months, 80% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in pain scores (75% very good, 5% good, 15% improved but not good, and 5% no effect). None of the patients was worse. Results indicate that Nucleoplasty may be an efficacious minimally invasive technique for the treatment of symptoms associated with contained herniated disc. However, randomized controlled studies are required to know with more precision the role of this procedure. CAM procedure (13 cases) is an excellent method in cases of root compression that needs liberation or in spine stenosis. PMID:15830980

  19. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    DOEpatents

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  20. Computer automated design and computer automated manufacture.

    PubMed

    Brncick, M

    2000-08-01

    The introduction of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing into the field of prosthetics and orthotics did not arrive without concern. Many prosthetists feared that the computer would provide other allied health practitioners who had little or no experience in prosthetics the ability to fit and manage amputees. Technicians in the field felt their jobs may be jeopardized by automated fabrication techniques. This has not turned out to be the case. Prosthetists who use CAD-CAM techniques are finding they have more time for patient care and clinical assessment. CAD-CAM is another tool for them to provide better care for the patients/clients they serve. One of the factors that deterred the acceptance of CAD-CAM techniques in its early stages was that of cost. It took a significant investment in software and hardware for the prosthetists to begin to use the new systems. This new technique was not reimbursed by insurance coverage. Practitioners did not have enough information about this new technique to make a sound decision on their investment of time and money. Ironically, it is the need to hold health care costs down that may prove to be the catalyst for the increased use of CAD-CAM in the field. Providing orthoses and prostheses to patients who require them is a very labor intensive process. Practitioners are looking for better, faster, and more economical ways in which to provide their services under the pressure of managed care. CAD-CAM may be the answer. The author foresees shape sensing departments in hospitals where patients would be sent to be digitized, similar to someone going for radiograph or ultrasound. Afterwards, an orthosis or prosthesis could be provided from a central fabrication facility at a remote site, most likely on the same day. Not long ago, highly skilled practitioners with extensive technical ability would custom make almost every orthosis. One now practices in an atmosphere where off-the-shelf orthoses are the standard. This

  1. Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change. PMID:23631645

  2. Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change.

  3. Computers in Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Advances in factory computerization (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) are reviewed, including discussions of robotics, human factors engineering, and the sociological impact of automation. (JN)

  4. Additive CAD/CAM process for dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nelson R F A; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Smay, Jim

    2011-02-01

    This article describes the evolution of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process where ceramic paste is deposited in a layer-by-layer sequence using a computer numerical control machine to build up core and fixed partial denture (FPD) structures (robocasting). Al(2)O(3) (alumina) or ZrO(2) (Y-TZP) are blended into a 0.8% aqueous solution of ammonium polyacrylate in a ratio of approximately 1:1 solid:liquid. A viscosifying agent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, is added to a concentration of 1% in the liquid phase, and then a counter polyelectrolyte is added to gel the slurry. There are two methods for robocasting crown structures (cores or FPD framework). One is for the core to be printed using zirconia ink without support materials, in which the stereolithography (STL) file is inverted (occlusal surface resting on a flat substrate) and built. The second method uses a fugitive material composed of carbon black codeposited with the ceramic material. During the sintering process, the carbon black is removed. There are two key challenges to successful printing of ceramic crowns by the robocasting technique. First is the development of suitable materials for printing, and second is the design of printing patterns for assembly of the complex geometry required for a dental restoration. Robocasting has room for improvement. Current development involves enhancing the automation of nozzle alignment for accurate support material deposition and better fidelity of the occlusal surface. An accompanying effort involves calculation of optimal support structures to yield the best geometric results and minimal material usage.

  5. CAM operated fuel valve

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S.T.; Katchka, J.R.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes improvement in a fuel control valve construction comprising a housing means having an inlet means adapted to be interconnected to a fuel source and a main outlet means adapted to be interconnected to a main burner means, the housing means having a main valve seat for interconnecting the inlet means with the main outlet means, the housing means having a movable main valve member for opening and closing the main valve seat, the housing means having a movable lever operatively associated with the main valve member and having a manually operable actuator means for controlling the operating positions of the lever, the lever having an intermediate cam follower portion and opposed ends disposed on each side of the cam follower portion with one end of the opposed ends being pivotally mounted to the housing means and with the other end of the opposed ends for operating the main valve member, the housing means having biasing means operatively interconnected to the lever to tend to pivot the lever in one direction that opens the main valve member away from its the main valve seat. The improvement comprises; the housing means has a thermostatically controlled means that is operatively associated with the lever and is adapted to engage and hold the lever in a position wherein the main valve member is in a closed condition against its the main valve seat when the thermostatically controlled means is in one operating condition thereof and the actuator means is in the on condition thereof.

  6. Trial of duplication procedure for complete dentures by CAD/CAM.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, N; Ono, H; Nishi, Y; Hamano, T; Nagaoka, E

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to duplicate the shapes of complete dentures by using a computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system. The shapes of the complete dentures of an edentulous patient were measured using a non-contact type shape measurement system and morphological data at the interval of 0.25 mm were obtained in the X-axis and Y-axis directions. Measurement was performed from the occlusal surface and mucosal surface sides. Based on the three-dimensional morphological data, cutter paths for cutting were generated. For cutting, the three-step method consisting of rough cutting, finish cutting, and partial finish cutting was used and for duplicating the dentures the modelling wax was cut using a computerized numerical control (CNC) processor and ball-end mills with diameters of 6 mm and 1 mm. The method for the controlling of three axes (X, Y, and Z) of CNC machine was used, and cutting was performed only from two directions. Although further improvements are needed in the measurement and cutting in acute slope areas, the duplication of complete dentures appears to be possible using the CAD/CAM system. PMID:9250843

  7. CAD/CAM data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, O. H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of data base management in CAD/CAM, particularly for geometric data is described. First, long term and short term objectives for CAD/CAM data management are identified. Second, the benefits of the data base management approach are explained. Third, some of the additional work needed in the data base area is discussed.

  8. Aesthetic and functionality in fixed prosthodontic: sperimental and clinical analysis of the CAD-CAM systematic 3Shape

    PubMed Central

    DE VICO, G.; OTTRIA, L.; BOLLERO, P.; BONINO, M.; CIALONE, M.; BARLATTANI, A.; GARGARI, M.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY In the last 15 years the increasing aesthetic demand, push constantly industry and the clinical to entirely look for new solutions for the realization of all-ceramic crowns, with such characteristics to be used for both anterior and posterior restorations. The most greater contribution, in such sense derives from the finished progress in the computer sector, that have allowed the application of the technologies CAD-CAM, also in dentistry (2–5, 11). These systematics have allowed us to get “automatically” structures for dental prosthesis, starting from the scanning of the die and passing for an intermediary phase of computerized planning (CAD, computer aided design), through numerical control millers (CAM, computer aided manufacturing), enslaved to calculating the electronic that drives the movement of it. The aim of this work is therefore that to analyze and to describe the systematic computerized 3SHAPE verifying the degree of precision, through the analysis of the obtainable marginal closing with the zirconia frameworks. PMID:23285346

  9. Present capabilities and future requirements for computer-aided geometric modeling in the design and manufacture of gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caille, E.; Propen, M.; Hoffman, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gas turbine engine design requires the ability to rapidly develop complex structures which are subject to severe thermal and mechanical operating loads. As in all facets of the aerospace industry, engine designs are constantly driving towards increased performance, higher temperatures, higher speeds, and lower weight. The ability to address such requirements in a relatively short time frame has resulted in a major thrust towards integrated design/analysis/manufacturing systems. These computer driven graphics systems represent a unique challenge, with major payback opportunities if properly conceived, implemented, and applied.

  10. Rad Pole Cam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  11. Computer-Aided Design of Manufacturing Chain Based on Closed Die Forging for Hardly Deformable Cu-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kuziak, Roman; Pidvysots'kyy, Valeriy; Nowak, Jarosław; Węglarczyk, Stanisław; Drozdowski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Two copper-based alloys were considered, Cu-1 pct Cr and Cu-0.7 pct Cr-1 pct Si-2 pct Ni. The thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of these alloys are given in the paper and compared to pure copper and steel. The role of aging and precipitation kinetics in hardening of the alloys is discussed based upon the developed model. Results of plastometric tests performed at various temperatures and various strain rates are presented. The effect of the initial microstructure on the flow stress was investigated. Rheologic models for the alloys were developed. A finite element (FE) model based on the Norton-Hoff visco-plastic flow rule was applied to the simulation of forging of the alloys. Analysis of the die wear for various processes of hot and cold forging is presented as well. A microstructure evolution model was implemented into the FE code, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of final products were predicted. Various variants of the manufacturing cycles were considered. These include different preheating schedules, hot forging, cold forging, and aging. All variants were simulated using the FE method and loads, die filling, tool wear, and mechanical properties of products were predicted. Three variants giving the best combination of forging parameters were selected and industrial trials were performed. The best manufacturing technology for the copper-based alloys is proposed.

  12. SenseCam reminiscence and action recall in memory-unimpaired people.

    PubMed

    Seamon, John G; Moskowitz, Tacie N; Swan, Ashley E; Zhong, Boyuan; Golembeski, Amy; Liong, Christopher; Narzikul, Alexa C; Sosan, Olumide A

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of memory-impaired individuals consistently show that reminiscing with SenseCam images enhances event recall. This exploratory study examined whether a similar benefit would occur for the consolidation of memories in memory-unimpaired people. We tested delayed recall for atypical actions observed on a lengthy walk. Participants used SenseCam, a diary, or no external memory aid while walking, followed by reminiscence with SenseCam images, diary entries, or no aid, either alone (self-reminiscence) or with the experimenter (social reminiscence). One week later, when tested without SenseCam images or diary entries, prior social reminiscence produced greater recall than self-reminiscence, but there were no differences between memory aid conditions for action free recall or action order recall. When methodological variables were controlled, there was no recall advantage for SenseCam reminiscence with memory-unimpaired participants. The case studies and present study differ in multiple ways, making direct comparisons problematic. SenseCam is a valuable aid to the memory impaired, but its mnemonic value for non-clinical populations remains to be determined.

  13. ChemCam video footage

    NASA Video Gallery

    ChemCam is a rock-zapping laser instrument that can hit rocks with a laser then observes the flash through a telescope and analyzes the spectrum of light to identify the chemical elements in the ta...

  14. Cam-controlled boring bar

    DOEpatents

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  15. Fabricating a tooth- and implant-supported maxillary obturator for a patient after maxillectomy with computer-guided surgery and CAD/CAM technology: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kwantae; Pae, Ahran; Lee, Jung-Woo; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2016-05-01

    An obturator prosthesis with insufficient retention and support may be improved with implant placement. However, implant surgery in patients after maxillary tumor resection can be complicated because of limited visibility and anatomic complexity. Therefore, computer-guided surgery can be advantageous even for experienced surgeons. In this clinical report, the use of computer-guided surgery is described for implant placement using a bone-supported surgical template for a patient with maxillary defects. The prosthetic procedure was facilitated and simplified by using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology. Oral function and phonetics were restored using a tooth- and implant-supported obturator prosthesis. No clinical symptoms and no radiographic signs of significant bone loss around the implants were found at a 3-year follow-up. The treatment approach presented here can be a viable option for patients with insufficient remaining zygomatic bone after a hemimaxillectomy. PMID:26774316

  16. A Virtual Test Approach to Incorporate Materials and Manufacturing Processes to Aid Design choices in High Performance Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Murillo, C.; Price, M.

    2011-05-01

    The increasing use of fibre reinforced composites in structural components in the aerospace industry is providing many challenges to designers in understanding how they can be used more effectively to exploit their advantages. One of the main challenges is the selection of lay-ups for a given application. The difficulty lies in the variability that is achievable with composites. Each new layup or configuration is effectively a new material and requires and extensive test programme to validate the performance, from coupons which give basic material characteristics, up through the test pyramid through to large sub-component which contains basic assemblies. This variety of testing gives confidence in understanding the material behaviour and performance in structural assemblies. On the other hand, the manufacturing process is also important here with different processes sometimes needed for different materials or thicknesses. This is a time consuming and expensive process requiring many thousands of small tests leading up to a few major tests which are complex to set up and carry out. This research is attempting to address this by developing a virtual test system which will sit hand-in-hand with a physical test system. The goal of virtual tests appears reachable using the finite element analysis technique in which many experimental tests can be replaced by high fidelity simulations. The payoff in reduced cycle time and costs for designing and certifying composite structures is very attractive; and the possibility also arises of considering material configurations that are too complex to certify by purely empirical methods. The validated simulations could then be subsequently used for variants or derivatives of composites to inform design choices and establish new validation programmes where appropriate. This paper presents a series of simulations of the critical testing procedures needed to validate high performance composites materials using linear and non

  17. 3D virtual planning in orthognathic surgery and CAD/CAM surgical splints generation in one patient with craniofacial microsomia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Francisco; Scherzberg, Jessica; Cavaleiro, João; Sanz, David; Caramelo, Francisco; Maló, Luísa; Marcelino, João Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this case report, the feasibility and precision of tridimensional (3D) virtual planning in one patient with craniofacial microsomia is tested using Nemoceph 3D-OS software (Software Nemotec SL, Madrid, Spain) to predict postoperative outcomes on hard tissue and produce CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) surgical splints. Methods: The clinical protocol consists of 3D data acquisition of the craniofacial complex by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and surface scanning of the plaster dental casts. The ''virtual patient'' created underwent virtual surgery and a simulation of postoperative results on hard tissues. Surgical splints were manufactured using CAD/CAM technology in order to transfer the virtual surgical plan to the operating room. Intraoperatively, both CAD/CAM and conventional surgical splints are comparable. A second set of 3D images was obtained after surgery to acquire linear measurements and compare them with measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results virtually. Results: It was found a high similarity between both types of surgical splints with equal fitting on the dental arches. The linear measurements presented some discrepancies between the actual surgical outcomes and the predicted results from the 3D virtual simulation, but caution must be taken in the analysis of these results due to several variables. Conclusions: The reported case confirms the clinical feasibility of the described computer-assisted orthognathic surgical protocol. Further progress in the development of technologies for 3D image acquisition and improvements on software programs to simulate postoperative changes on soft tissue are required. PMID:27007767

  18. CAD/CAM for optomechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haiguang; Han, Min

    2003-10-01

    We focus at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. The software can be used for training and education. We introduce mechanical CAD, optical CAD and electrical CAD, we show how to draw a circuit diagram, mechanical diagram and luminous transmission diagram, from 2D drawing to 3D drawing. We introduce how to create 2D and 3D parts for optomechatronics, how to edit tool paths, how to select parameters for process, how to run the post processor, dynamic show the tool path and generate the CNC programming. We introduce the joint application of CAD&CAM. We aim at how to match the requirement of optical, mechanical and electronics.

  19. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  20. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim (Sunny), Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model. PMID:24899895

  1. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim Sunny, Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model.

  2. Dental Wings CAD/CAM system precision: an internal and marginal fit sperimental analisys.

    PubMed

    Sannino, G; Gloria, F; Schiavetti, R; Ottria, L; Barlattani, A

    2009-07-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.: The CAD-CAM technology has been developed to design and manufacture prosthetic structures with constant quality characteristics; in fact procedures are codified, manageable and repeatable. PURPOSE.: The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate the internal and marginal gap of zirconia casts made with a new CAD-CAM systematic that use Dental Wings laser scanner and Yenamak milling machine. MATERIAL AND METHODS.: 6 analogs of solid abutments of Straumann implants were used, fixed in plexiglass bases. The samples were scanned by Dental Wings laser; the file obtained by scanning of each probe was sent to the Yenamak D40 milling machine, then the casts were sintered in Protherm furnace. Then 6 samples were cemented with resin luting agent capsules (Relyx Unicem, 3M ESPE). The samples were incorporated in transparent epoxy resin. After resin hardening, the cylinders obtained were cut with a microtomes. These slices thus obtained were then polished with a Polisher sander with alumina dust decreasing grain. Each section was observed and photographed in reflected light with the aid of an optic microscope type, first at low magnification and then at higher magnification. RESULTS.: The overall average fitting of copings on the abutments was 32,87 μ. No differences were found in marginal fit on buccal and lingual sides, it was easily predictable because of the standard form of the used stumps. The recorded values for the marginal fit were lower than those of axial walls. The accuracy of adaptation was always achieved within the limits of clinical acceptability. CONCLUSIONS.: Within the limitations of this study, the system evaluated represents a valuable alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation techniques.

  3. Monolithic Lithium Disilicate Full-Contour Crowns Bonded on CAD/CAM Zirconia Complete-Arch Implant Bridges With 3 to 5 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Alessandro; Tallarico, Marco; Barlattani, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried on to assess the clinical performance of a novel restorative concept consisting in single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia complete-arch implant bridges, to overcome the drawbacks related to the chipping of porcelain fused to zirconia restorations. Sixteen patients received 18 implant-supported hybrid screw-cement-retained complete-arch restorations, consisting of single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks. The restorations were supported by 4-8 implants. All patients were followed up for at least 3 years on function (range 36 to 60 months, mean 49.3 months). Clinical controls were scheduled every 4 months. The outcomes were implant and prosthetic survival and success rates, any complications, patient satisfaction, and soft tissue parameters. No dropouts occurred. The overall implant and prosthesis survival rates were 100%. One of 18 restorations (1 of 236 dental units) showed a chip-off fracture of the veneering ceramic that was polished intraorally without any additional treatment, scoring a cumulative prosthetic success rate of 100%, according to the California Dental Association index. All patients were functionally and esthetically highly satisfied with their restorations. Successful soft tissue parameters were found around all implants. Single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns, bonded on CAD/CAM screw-retained complete-arch zirconia frameworks, showed favorable preliminary outcomes with medium-term follow-up. However, randomized controlled studies of this technique are required for further conclusive recommendations.

  4. FMS: The New Wave of Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are described as a marriage of all of the latest technologies--robotics, numerical control, CAD/CAM (computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing), etc.--into a cost-efficient, optimized production process yielding the greatest flexibility in making various parts. A typical curriculum to teach FMS…

  5. Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in Computer Aided Setup Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafashi, Sajad; Shakeri, Mohsen; Abedini, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    New researches are trying to integrate computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) environments. The role of process planning is to convert the design specification into manufacturing instructions. Setup planning has a basic role in computer aided process planning (CAPP) and significantly affects the overall cost and quality of machined part. This research focuses on the development for automatic generation of setups and finding the best setup plan in feasible condition. In order to computerize the setup planning process, three major steps are performed in the proposed system: a) Extraction of machining data of the part. b) Analyzing and generation of all possible setups c) Optimization to reach the best setup plan based on cost functions. Considering workshop resources such as machine tool, cutter and fixture, all feasible setups could be generated. Then the problem is adopted with technological constraints such as TAD (tool approach direction), tolerance relationship and feature precedence relationship to have a completely real and practical approach. The optimal setup plan is the result of applying the PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm into the system using cost functions. A real sample part is illustrated to demonstrate the performance and productivity of the system.

  6. Low-cost Design and Manufacturing of Surgical Guides for Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Fibula

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hiroko; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Nishino, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical cutting guides are used in mandibular reconstruction involving osteotomy of the mandible and fibula. Cutting guides produced using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies have been reported recently. These guides aim to increase the benefits to patients by improving the accuracy, shortening the operating time, and correcting occlusion. However, the availability of these advanced technologies is limited in some regions of the world. To test whether we could produce low-cost surgical cutting guides, we made surgical guides and investigated their accuracy. Methods: Using free CAD software, we designed surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual mandibular segmental osteotomies and fibula transplants in 12 model surgeries. The cutting guides were printed on a 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The model surgeries were performed using 3D mandibular models and cutting guides to check their accuracy. Deviations between the virtually simulated plan and the actual model surgery were investigated. Results: CAD and CAM technologies were used to design and 3D print the cutting guides and models. The guided surgeries were performed. The deviations were about 1.3 mm for mandibular osteotomy, less than 1 mm for fibular osteotomy, and within 2.4 mm for reconstructions of the mandible. Conclusions: Without using expensive software or products, we were able to design surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual simulation of mandibular segmental osteotomy and fibular reconstruction. Model surgeries using 3D-printed surgical guides showed that the accuracy of reconstruction was within a 3-mm deviation. In circumstances where commercial CAD/CAM guides are not available, it may be possible to use CAD/CAM surgical guides in the clinic if doctors are willing to volunteer their time for the design and printing. PMID:27536484

  7. Classroom Experiences in an Engineering Design Graphics Course with a CAD/CAM Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald E.; Juricic, Davor

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the development of a new CAD/CAM laboratory experience for an Engineering Design Graphics (EDG) course. The EDG curriculum included freehand sketching, introduction to Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD), and emphasized 3-D solid modeling. Reviews the project and reports on the testing of the new laboratory components which were…

  8. The detection of EpCAM(+) and EpCAM(-) circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; van Dalum, Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T M; Tibbe, Arjan G J; Hiltermann, T Jeroen N; Groen, Harry J M; van Rijn, Cees J M; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2015-07-17

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM(-) CTC discarded by CellSearch, after EpCAM based enrichment. EpCAM(-) CTC were identified by filtration and fluorescent labelling. This approach was validated using different cell lines spiked into blood and evaluated on blood samples of 27 metastatic lung cancer patients. The majority of spiked EpCAM(+) cells could be detected with CellSearch, whereas most spiked cells with EpCAM(low) or EpCAM(-) expression were detected using filtration. Five or more CTC were detected in 15% of the patient samples, this increased to 41% when adding the CTC detected in the discarded blood. The number of patients with CTC and the number of CTC detected were doubled by the presence of EpCAM(-) CTC. In this pilot study, the presence of EpCAM(+) CTC was associated with poor outcome, whereas the EpCAM(-) CTC were not. This observation will need to be confirmed in larger studies and molecular characterization needs to be conducted to elucidate differences between EpCAM(-) and EpCAM(+) CTC.

  9. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. L1CAM in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Altevogt, Peter; Doberstein, Kai; Fogel, Mina

    2016-04-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is one of the first neural adhesion molecules described with important functions in the development of the nervous system. Subsequent work discovered that L1CAM is expressed in many human cancers and is often associated with bad prognosis. This is most likely due to the motility and invasion promoting function of L1CAM. Here, we describe the path L1CAM has taken from a neural adhesion molecule to a recognized tumor antigen. We summarize the literature on L1CAM expression in cancers and pre-cancerous lesions. We focus on the genetic elements required for its re-expression and highlight preclinical studies for targeted therapy. The data suggest that L1CAM is a valuable diagnostic/prognostic marker and an attractive target for the therapy of several human cancers. PMID:26111503

  11. L1CAM: Cell adhesion and more.

    PubMed

    Samatov, Timur R; Wicklein, Daniel; Tonevitsky, Alexander G

    2016-08-01

    L1CAM is a cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily which was originally discovered as a major player in the development of the nervous system. L1CAM was demonstrated to have prognostic value in different cancers and to be a promising target for anti-cancer therapy. Here we overview the present data on L1CAM structure and function, regulation of its expression, role in cancer and therapeutic potential. PMID:27267927

  12. Probing the biophysical interaction between Neocarzinostatin toxin and EpCAM RNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Athyala, Prasanna Kumar; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh; Alameen, Mohamed; Kanwar, Rupinder Kaur; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Watson, Jon; Vetrivel, Umashankar; Narayanan, Janakiraman

    2016-01-01

    Neocarzinostatin (NCS) a potent DNA-damaging, anti-tumor toxin extracted from Streptomyces carzinostaticus that recognizes double-stranded DNA bulge and induces DNA damage. 2 Fluoro (2F) Modified EpCAM RNA aptamer is a 23-mer that targets EpCAM protein, expressed on the surface of epithelial tumor cells. Understanding the interaction between NCS and the ligand is important for carrying out the targeted tumor therapy. In this study, we have investigated the biophysical interactions between NCS and 2-fluro Modified EpCAM RNA aptamer using Circular Dichroism (CD) and Infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy. The aromatic amino acid residues spanning the β sheets of NCS are found to participate in intermolecular interactions with 2 F Modified EpCAM RNA aptamer. In-silico modeling and simulation studies corroborate with CD spectra data. Furthermore, it reinforces the involvement of C and D1 strand of NCS in intermolecular interactions with EpCAM RNA aptamer. This the first report on interactions involved in the stabilization of NCS-EpCAM aptamer complex and will aid in the development of therapeutic modalities towards targeted cancer therapy. PMID:26642954

  13. The Z CamPaign Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Mike

    2011-05-01

    The Z CamPaign is an observing project designed to acquire enough detailed, long-tem data to unambiguously classify dwarf novae as bona fide members of the Z Cam sub-type or not. Because the defining characteristic of all Z Cam dwarf novae are "standstills", a temporary period of relative quiet between maximum and minimum light, we are monitoring these systems for this specific activity. Amateur astronomers are gathering all the data with backyard telescopes as part of an AAVSO Cataclysmic Variable Section observing initiative. We will discuss the organization, science goals, and present early results of the Z CamPaign.

  14. The Z CamPaign Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The Z CamPaign is an observing project designed to acquire enough detailed, long-term data to unambiguously classify dwarf novae as bona fide members of the Z Cam sub-type or not. Because the defining characteristic of all Z Cam dwarf novae are "standstills," a temporary period of relative quiet between maximum and minimum light, we are monitoring these systems for this specific activity. Amateur astronomers are gathering all the data with backyard telescopes as part of an AAVSO Cataclysmic Variable Section observing initiative. We will discuss the organization, science goals, and present early results of the Z CamPaign.

  15. Experimental Study on Revetec Engine Cam Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohyeldin Gasim, Maisara; Giok Chui, Lee; Anwar, Khirul Azhar bin

    2012-09-01

    In Revetec engine (three-lobed) cam replaces the crankshaft to convert the reciprocating motion of the engine piston, to a rotating motion in the drive line. Since the cam controls the piston movement, the cam profile has a great effect on engine performance. In this paper an experimental study was done to a (three- lobed) cam with Cycloidal motion profile but with different ratios between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower. DEWESoft was used to find the displacement and the vibration of the piston, and compare the actual results from the test with the theoretical results from the cam profile equation. The results showed that there is a periods of miss contact between the follower and the cam when the ratio between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower is less than a certain value, and also increasing of vibration. The suggested ratio between the cam and follower radius is to be more than 2:1.

  16. JunoCam: Science and Outreach Opportunities with Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Orton, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    JunoCam is a visible imager on the Juno spacecraft en route to Jupiter. Although the primary role of the camera is for outreach, science objectives will be addressed too. JunoCam is a wide angle camera (58 deg field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm. Juno's elliptical polar orbit will offer unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with a spatial scale of ~50 km/pixel. The polar vortex, polar cloud morphology, and winds will be investigated. RGB color mages of the aurora will be acquired. Stereo images and images taken with the methane filter will allow us to estimate cloudtop heights. Resolution exceeds that of Cassini about an hour from closest approach and at closest approach images will have a spatial scale of ~3 km/pixel. JunoCam is a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft. The use of time-delayed integration takes advantage of the spacecraft spin to build up signal. JunoCam will acquire limb-to-limb views of Jupiter during a spacecraft rotation, and has the possibility of acquiring images of the rings from in-between Jupiter and the inner edge of the rings. Galilean satellite views will be fairly distant but some images will be acquired. Small ring moons Metis and Adrastea will also be imaged. The theme of our outreach is "science in a fish bowl", with an invitation to the science community and the public to participate. Amateur astronomers will supply their ground-based images for planning, so that we can predict when prominent atmospheric features will be visible. With the aid of professional astronomers observing at infrared wavelengths, we'll predict when hot spots will be visible to JunoCam. Amateur image processing enthusiasts are prepared to create image products. Between the planning and products will be the decision-making on what images to take when and why. We invite our colleagues to propose science questions for JunoCam to address, and to be part of the participatory process of deciding how to use

  17. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  18. The reproducibility and accuracy of internal fit of Cerec 3D CAD/CAM all ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Brian L; Omer, Osama E; Byrne, Declan A; Quinn, Frank

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and accuracy of internal fit using Cerec 3D CAD/CAM (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing) all-ceramic crowns and to investigate the proximal contact point areas between the crowns and neighbouring teeth, in terms of location and the presence or absence of contact. A total of 48 crowns were milled and divided into two groups of twenty-four each. One group consisted of testing a Control die and the other group consisted of testing single Replica stone die duplicates of the Control die. The Internal Marginal Gap, Axio-Occlusal Transition Gap and Occlusal Gap were measured on each crown in both groups. No significant differences were identified between the mean thickness of the Marginal Gap, the Axio-Occlusal Transition Gap and the Occlusal Gap of the Control die when compared with the Replica dies indicating uniformity and consistency of the accuracy of fit and therefore die replication.

  19. "High-precision, reconstructed 3D model" of skull scanned by conebeam CT: Reproducibility verified using CAD/CAM data.

    PubMed

    Katsumura, Seiko; Sato, Keita; Ikawa, Tomoko; Yamamura, Keiko; Ando, Eriko; Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning has recently been introduced into forensic medicine and dentistry. However, the presence of metal restorations in the dentition can adversely affect the quality of three-dimensional reconstruction from CT scans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of a "high-precision, reconstructed 3D model" obtained from a conebeam CT scan of dentition, a method that might be particularly helpful in forensic medicine. We took conebeam CT and helical CT images of three dry skulls marked with 47 measuring points; reconstructed three-dimensional images; and measured the distances between the points in the 3D images with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) marker. We found that in comparison with the helical CT, conebeam CT is capable of reproducing measurements closer to those obtained from the actual samples. In conclusion, our study indicated that the image-reproduction from a conebeam CT scan was more accurate than that from a helical CT scan. Furthermore, the "high-precision reconstructed 3D model" facilitates reliable visualization of full-sized oral and maxillofacial regions in both helical and conebeam CT scans. PMID:26832374

  20. Consequences of systematic model drift in DYNAMO MJO hindcasts with SP-CAM and CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Walter M.; Maloney, Eric D.; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2015-09-01

    Hindcast simulations of MJO events during the dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign are conducted with two models, one with conventional parameterization (CAM5) and a comparable model that utilizes superparameterization (SP-CAM). SP-CAM is shown to produce a qualitatively better reproduction of the fluctuations of precipitation and low-level zonal wind associated with the first two DYNAMO MJO events compared to CAM5. Interestingly, skill metrics using the real-time multivariate MJO index (RMM) suggest the opposite conclusion that CAM5 has more skill than SP-CAM. This inconsistency can be explained by a systematic increase of RMM amplitude with lead time, which results from a drift of the large-scale wind field in SP-CAM that projects strongly onto the RMM index. CAM5 hindcasts exhibit a contraction of the moisture distribution, in which extreme wet and dry conditions become less frequent with lead time. SP-CAM hindcasts better reproduce the observed moisture distribution, but also have stronger drift patterns of moisture budget terms, such as an increase in drying by meridional advection in SP-CAM. This advection tendency in SP-CAM appears to be associated with enhanced off-equatorial synoptic eddy activity with lead time. Systematic drift moisture tendencies in SP-CAM are of similar magnitude to intraseasonal moisture tendencies, and therefore are important for understanding MJO prediction skill.

  1. Ecophysiology of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)

    PubMed Central

    LÜTTGE, ULRICH

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Scope Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) as an ecophysiological modification of photosynthetic carbon acquisition has been reviewed extensively before. Cell biology, enzymology and the flow of carbon along various pathways and through various cellular compartments have been well documented and discussed. The present attempt at reviewing CAM once again tries to use a different approach, considering a wide range of inputs, receivers and outputs. • Input Input is given by a network of environmental parameters. Six major ones, CO2, H2O, light, temperature, nutrients and salinity, are considered in detail, which allows discussion of the effects of these factors, and combinations thereof, at the individual plant level (‘physiological aut‐ecology’). • Receivers Receivers of the environmental cues are the plant types genotypes and phenotypes, the latter including morphotypes and physiotypes. CAM genotypes largely remain ‘black boxes’, and research endeavours of genomics, producing mutants and following molecular phylogeny, are just beginning. There is no special development of CAM morphotypes except for a strong tendency for leaf or stem succulence with large cells with big vacuoles and often, but not always, special water storage tissues. Various CAM physiotypes with differing degrees of CAM expression are well characterized. • Output Output is the shaping of habitats, ecosystems and communities by CAM. A number of systems are briefly surveyed, namely aquatic systems, deserts, salinas, savannas, restingas, various types of forests, inselbergs and paramós. • Conclusions While quantitative census data for CAM diversity and biomass are largely missing, intuition suggests that the larger CAM domains are those systems which are governed by a network of interacting stress factors requiring versatile responses and not systems where a single stress factor strongly prevails. CAM is noted to be a strategy for variable, flexible and plastic

  2. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  3. A critically appraised topic review of computer-aided design/computer-aided machining of removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lisa A; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A critically appraised topic (CAT) review is presented about the use of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided machining (CAM) removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks. A systematic search of the literature supporting CAD/CAM RPD systems revealed no randomized clinical trials, hence the CAT review was performed. A PubMed search yielded 9 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Each article was characterized by study design and level of evidence. No clinical outcomes research has been published on the use of CAD/CAM RPDs. Low levels of evidence were found in the available literature. Clinical research studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  4. [An experimental research on the fabrication of the fused porcelain to CAD/CAM molar crown].

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Zhou, Yongyao; Liao, Wenhe; Yu, Qing; An, Tao; Jiao, Yiqun

    2007-02-01

    This paper introduced the fabrication process of the fused porcelain to molar crown with CAD/CAM technology. Firstly, preparation teeth data was retrieved by the 3D-optical measuring system. Then, we have reconstructed the inner surface designed the outer surface shape with the computer aided design software. Finally, the mini high-speed NC milling machine was used to produce the fused porcelain to CAD/CAM molar crown. The result has proved that the fabrication process is reliable and efficient. The dental restoration quality is steady and precise. PMID:17333906

  5. Comparisons of Wilson-Fowler and Parametric Cubic Splines with the Curve-Fitting Algorithms of Several Computer-Aided Design Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birchler, W.D.; Schilling, S.A.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that modern computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be used in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) to design new and remodel old products, fabricate old and new parts, and reproduce legacy data within the inspection uncertainty limits. In this study, two two-dimensional splines are compared with several modern CAD curve-fitting modeling algorithms. The first curve-fitting algorithm is called the Wilson-Fowler Spline (WFS), and the second is called a parametric cubic spline (PCS). Modern CAD systems usually utilize either parametric cubic and/or B-splines.

  6. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1996-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the Computer Aided Grid Interface system (CAGI). The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and / or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  7. Computer Aided Grid Interface: An Interactive CFD Pre-Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.

    1997-01-01

    NASA maintains an applications oriented computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts complementary to and in support of the aerodynamic-propulsion design and test activities. This is especially true at NASA/MSFC where the goal is to advance and optimize present and future liquid-fueled rocket engines. Numerical grid generation plays a significant role in the fluid flow simulations utilizing CFD. An overall goal of the current project was to develop a geometry-grid generation tool that will help engineers, scientists and CFD practitioners to analyze design problems involving complex geometries in a timely fashion. This goal is accomplished by developing the CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface system. The CAGI system is developed by integrating CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) geometric system output and/or Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) files (including all the NASA-IGES entities), geometry manipulations and generations associated with grid constructions, and robust grid generation methodologies. This report describes the development process of the CAGI system.

  8. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  9. Computer Aided Setup Planning Using Tolerance Analysis for Prismatic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahid, Abedini; Mohsen, Shakeri; Sajad, Kafashi

    2011-01-01

    Computer aided process planning (CAPP) is the bridge between CAD and CAM. Setup planning is the major key to transform design concept into manufacturing domain, which is mainly experience based activity in modern manufacturing industry. Setup planning is a complicated non-linear task constrained by many factors such as tool approach direction, geometric feature relationship, fixturing constrain, tolerance requirement and manufacturing practice. The objective of setup planning is to determine the number of setup needed, the orientation of the workpiece and the machining surfaces in each setup. This paper focuses on the development of a formalized procedure for automatic generation of setup plan. Tolerance relations are used as critical constraints for setup planning. The tasks that are performed are: (a) identifying groups of features that can be machined in a single setup, (b) determining a suitable work piece orientation, i.e. the suitable datum planes for each setup, (c) determining all the feasible setup plans to machine the given set of features of prismatic parts, and (d) evaluating the feasible setup plans on the basis of technological conditions. Trial runs with industrial parts indicate that the system is applicable for industrial use.

  10. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, L. W.; Way, J. D.; Vlasse, M.

    2001-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project will develop, test, and analyze membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The CAM technology will enable passive separation of these gases, allow energy efficient acquisition and purification of these important resources, and lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. The CAM membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP).

  11. Results from the CAMS video network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.

    2016-01-01

    A status report is given on results from the CAMS meteoroid orbit and meteoroid spectroscopy survey. The survey detected some 230 meteor showers and shower components throughout the year. 70 of these are already in the IAU list of Established Meteor Showers, after 26 were verified by CAMS. An additional 55 previously known showers in need of confirmation were also validated. 19 new shower components were identified that are still in need of validation. 86 new showers were discovered, 54 of which were also found present in the SonotaCo meteoroid orbit database. There are ongoing efforts to expand the CAMS survey to sites spread in latitude and longitude.

  12. Computer Aided Simulation Machining Programming In 5-Axis Nc Milling Of Impeller Leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huran, Liu

    At present, cad/cam (computer-aided design and manufacture) have fine wider and wider application in mechanical industry. For the complex surfaces, the traditional machine tool can no longer satisfy the requirement of such complex task. Only by the help of cad/cam can fulfill the requirement. The machining of the vane surface of the impeller leaf has been considered as the hardest challenge. Because of their complex shape, the 5-axis cnc machine tool is needed for the machining of such parts. The material is hard to cut, the requirement for the surface finish and clearance is very high, so that the manufacture quality of impeller leaf represent the level of 5-axis machining. This paper opened a new field in machining the complicated surface, based on a relatively more rigid mathematical basis. The theory presented here is relatively more systematical. Since the lack of theoretical guidance, in the former research, people have to try in machining many times. Such case will be changed. The movement of the cutter determined by this method is definite, and the residual is the smallest while the times of travel is the fewest. The criterion is simple and the calculation is easy.

  13. Advanced CNC Programming (EZ-CAM). 439-366.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Joe

    This document contains two units for an advanced course in computer numerical control (CNC) for computer-aided manufacturing. It is intended to familiarize students with the principles and techniques necessary to create proper CNC programs using computer software. Each unit consists of an introduction, instructional objectives, learning materials,…

  14. L1-CAM and N-CAM: From Adhesion Proteins to Pharmacological Targets.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Federico; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2015-11-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), key members of the immunoglobulin-like CAM (Ig-CAM) family, were first recognized to play critical roles in surface interactions of neurons, by binding with each other and with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Subsequently, adhesion was recognized to include signaling due to both activation of β-integrin, with the generation of intracellular cascades, and integration with the surface cytoskeleton. The importance of the two Ig-CAMs was revealed by their activation of the tyrosine kinase receptors of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF). Based on these complex signaling properties, L1-CAM and N-CAM have become of great potential pharmacological interest in neurons and cancers. Treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive deficits of neurons is aimed to increase the cell Ig-CAM tone, possibly provided by synthetic/mimetic peptides. In cancer cells, where Ig-CAMs are often overexpressed, the proteins are employed for prognosis. The approaches to therapy are based on protein downregulation, antibodies, and adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:26478212

  15. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  16. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-05-13

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from `H` and `F` area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system.

  17. Statistical Shape Modeling of Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Michael D.; Dater, Manasi; Whitaker, Ross; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Peters, Christopher L.; Anderson, Andrew E.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to quantify three-dimensional (3D) variation and morphologic differences between femurs with and without cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D surfaces were generated from CT scans of femurs from 41 controls and 30 cam FAI patients. SSM correspondence particles were optimally positioned on each surface using a gradient descent energy function. Mean shapes for control and patient groups were defined from the resulting particle configurations. Morphological differences between group mean shapes and between the control mean and individual patients were calculated. Principal component analysis was used to describe anatomical variation present in both groups. The first 6 modes (or principal components) captured statistically significant shape variations, which comprised 84% of cumulative variation among the femurs. Shape variation was greatest in femoral offset, greater trochanter height, and the head-neck junction. The mean cam femur shape protruded above the control mean by a maximum of 3.3 mm with sustained protrusions of 2.5-3.0 mm along the anterolateral head-neck junction and distally along the anterior neck, corresponding well with reported cam lesion locations and soft-tissue damage. This study provides initial evidence that SSM can describe variations in femoral morphology in both controls and cam FAI patients and may be useful for developing new measurements of pathological anatomy. SSM may also be applied to characterize cam FAI severity and provide templates to guide patient-specific surgical resection of bone.

  18. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Dana J; Meeker, William C

    2007-01-01

    Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine. PMID:17241465

  19. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  20. Genomic analyses of the CAM plant pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jisen; Liu, Juan; Ming, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis in arid and/or low CO2 conditions is a remarkable case of adaptation in flowering plants. As the most important crop that utilizes CAM photosynthesis, the genetic and genomic resources of pineapple have been developed over many years. Genetic diversity studies using various types of DNA markers led to the reclassification of the two genera Ananas and Pseudananas and nine species into one genus Ananas and two species, A. comosus and A. macrodontes with five botanical varieties in A. comosus. Five genetic maps have been constructed using F1 or F2 populations, and high-density genetic maps generated by genotype sequencing are essential resources for sequencing and assembling the pineapple genome and for marker-assisted selection. There are abundant expression sequence tag resources but limited genomic sequences in pineapple. Genes involved in the CAM pathway has been analysed in several CAM plants but only a few of them are from pineapple. A reference genome of pineapple is being generated and will accelerate genetic and genomic research in this major CAM crop. This reference genome of pineapple provides the foundation for studying the origin and regulatory mechanism of CAM photosynthesis, and the opportunity to evaluate the classification of Ananas species and botanical cultivars.

  1. Activity dependent CAM cleavage and neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Conant, Katherine; Allen, Megan; Lim, Seung T.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially localized proteolysis represents an elegant means by which neuronal activity dependent changes in synaptic structure, and thus experience dependent learning and memory, can be achieved. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that matrix metalloproteinase and adamalysin activity is concentrated at the cell surface, and emerging evidence suggests that increased peri-synaptic expression, release and/or activation of these proteinases occurs with enhanced excitatory neurotransmission. Synaptically expressed cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) could therefore represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Several CAM subtypes are expressed at the synapse, and their cleavage can influence the efficacy of synaptic transmission through a variety of non-mutually exclusive mechanisms. In the following review, we discuss mechanisms that regulate neuronal activity-dependent synaptic CAM shedding, including those that may be calcium dependent. We also highlight CAM targets of activity-dependent proteolysis including neuroligin and intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5). We include discussion focused on potential consequences of synaptic CAM shedding, with an emphasis on interactions between soluble CAM cleavage products and specific pre- and post-synaptic receptors. PMID:26321910

  2. Full-mouth composite rehabilitation of a mixed erosion and attrition patient: a case report with v-shaped veneers and ultra-thin CAD/CAM composite overlays.

    PubMed

    Bahillo, Jose; Jané, Luis; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo; Roig, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Loss of tooth substance has become a common pathology in modern society. It is of multifactorial origin, may be induced by a chemical process or by excessive attrition, and frequently has a combined etiology. Particular care should be taken when diagnosing the cause of dental tissue loss, in order to minimize its impact. Several publications have proposed the use of minimally invasive procedures to treat such patients in preference to traditional full-crown rehabilitation. The use of composite resins, in combination with improvements in dental adhesion, allows a more conservative approach. In this paper, we describe the step-by-step procedure of full-mouth composite rehabilitation with v-shaped veneers and ultra-thin computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM)- generated composite overlays in a young patient with a combination of erosion and attrition disorder.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Competencies of Nursing Students and Faculty: Results of Integrating CAM Into the Nursing Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Scott, Craig S.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.; Cornman, B. Jane; Lan, Ming-Chih; Bond, Eleanor F.; Swanson, Kristen M.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) R25 Education Grant Program, a faculty development program for integrating CAM into the nursing curriculum was instituted in 2003-2006. The Integrating CAM program comprised a number of elements; the primary strategy included a series of 4-week didactic and experiential summer CAM “camps,” attended by a total of 27 faculty members. Camps were designed to influence faculty integration of CAM material into course offerings. The Integrating CAM program was evaluated via a series of faculty and student surveys regarding CAM competencies, attitudes, and perceptions. For more than half of the faculty (out of the 43 who responded), the program yielded a moderate-to-strong influence on incorporation of CAM material into course content; and moderate-to-great increases in both enthusiasm for CAM and perceived CAM knowledge gains. Students at all levels (undergraduate, masters, doctoral; n = 184) reported that their courses contained CAM content; for 70% of students, their CAM knowledge increased; for 50% of students, level of CAM interest increased. Self-reported student CAM competencies were significantly greater in 2006-2007 (n = 191) than in 2003-2004 (n = 143). Results support the strategy of broadly infusing the nursing curriculum with CAM content via faculty development. PMID:20869029

  4. Utilizing optical coherence tomography for CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chityala, Ravishankar; Vidal, Carola; Jones, Robert

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has seen broad application in dentistry including early carious lesion detection and imaging defects in resin composite restorations. This study investigates expanding the clinical usefulness by investigating methods to use OCT for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) digital impressions, which can be integrated to CAD/CAM manufacturing of indirect restorations. 3D surface topography `before' and `after' a cavity preparation was acquired by an intraoral cross polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) system with a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) scanning mirror. Image registration and segmentation methods were used to digitally construct a replacement restoration that modeled the original surface morphology of a hydroxyapatite sample. After high resolution additive manufacturing (e.g. polymer 3D printing) of the replacement restoration, micro-CT imaging was performed to examine the marginal adaptation. This study establishes the protocol for further investigation of integrating OCT with CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations.

  5. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  6. Who Uses CAM? A Narrative Review of Demographic Characteristics and Health Factors Associated with CAM Use

    PubMed Central

    Lewith, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are used by an extensive number of patients in the UK and elsewhere. In order to understand this pattern of behavior, it is helpful to examine the characteristics of people who use CAM. This narrative review collates and evaluates the evidence concerning the demographic characteristics and health status factors associated with CAM use in community-based non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search of computerized databases was conducted, and published research papers which present evidence concerning associations between CAM use and demographic and health characteristics are discussed and evaluated. The evidence suggests that people who use CAM tend to be female, of middle age and have more education. In terms of their health, CAM users tend to have more than one medical condition, but might not be more likely than non-users to have specific conditions such as cancer or to rate their own general health as poor. The multivariate studies that have been conducted suggest that both demographic and health characteristics contribute independently to CAM use. In conclusion, demographic characteristics and factors related to an individual's health status are associated with CAM use. Future research is needed to address methodological limitations in existing studies. PMID:18955327

  7. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  8. Advanced CNC and CAM Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level positions as advanced computer numerical control (CNC) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) technicians.. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM…

  9. Coated Feedstock for Fabrication of Ceramic Parts by CAM-LEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhien; Suppakarn, N.; Cawley, James D.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In laminated object manufacturing of ceramic components, lamination is one of the most important materials issues. Good lamination ensures monolithic component after firing. Otherwise, lamination defects that inevitably will occur in the parts will affect the properties of ceramic components. Adhesive (both liquid and non-liquid) lamination processes were developed for the cut-then-stack (CAM-LEM) procedure. The non-liquid adhesive lamination is discussed in detail.

  10. Impact of SenseCam on memory, identity and mood in Korsakoff's syndrome: a single case experimental design study.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Jenny; Evans, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of SenseCam, a wearable, automatic camera, on subjective mood and identity in a patient with severe memory impairment due to Korsakoff's syndrome. It was hypothesised that SenseCam would improve Ms A's mood and identity through enhancing recall of autobiographical memories of recent events, therefore supporting a coherent sense of self; the lack of which was contributing to Ms A's mood deterioration. An ABA single case experimental design investigated whether using SenseCam to record regular activities impacted on Ms A's mood and identity. Ms A experienced improved recall for events recorded using SenseCam, and showed improvement on subjective ratings of identity. However, a corresponding improvement in mood was not seen, and the study was ended early at Ms A's request. Qualitative information was gathered to explore Ms A's experience of the study, and investigate psychosocial factors that may have impacted on the use of SenseCam. SenseCam may be of significant use as a compensatory memory aid for people with Korsakoff's syndrome and other types of alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD), but acceptance of memory impairment and consistent support may be among the factors required to support the use of such assistive technologies in a community setting. PMID:24131241

  11. Impact of SenseCam on memory, identity and mood in Korsakoff's syndrome: a single case experimental design study.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Jenny; Evans, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of SenseCam, a wearable, automatic camera, on subjective mood and identity in a patient with severe memory impairment due to Korsakoff's syndrome. It was hypothesised that SenseCam would improve Ms A's mood and identity through enhancing recall of autobiographical memories of recent events, therefore supporting a coherent sense of self; the lack of which was contributing to Ms A's mood deterioration. An ABA single case experimental design investigated whether using SenseCam to record regular activities impacted on Ms A's mood and identity. Ms A experienced improved recall for events recorded using SenseCam, and showed improvement on subjective ratings of identity. However, a corresponding improvement in mood was not seen, and the study was ended early at Ms A's request. Qualitative information was gathered to explore Ms A's experience of the study, and investigate psychosocial factors that may have impacted on the use of SenseCam. SenseCam may be of significant use as a compensatory memory aid for people with Korsakoff's syndrome and other types of alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD), but acceptance of memory impairment and consistent support may be among the factors required to support the use of such assistive technologies in a community setting.

  12. [Development of the dental CAD/CAM system].

    PubMed

    Kawanaka, M

    1990-06-01

    Studies have been undertaken to apply CAD/CAM system to Dentistry and to make prosthetic appliances with this system automatically. Specimens are 4 times large plaster models. For the inside of the crown, the plaster model of prepared tooth is measured with laser displacement meter then the numerical data is obtained. After modification of this data for the concave cutting, the modeling machine works with this numerical data. For the outside of the crown, the typical colonal figure data (= CAD Data Base) is prepared. And this data is modified with computer to fit the prepared tooth margin and proximal or antagonical tooth (= CAD). This CAD Data Base was obtained with 3 dimensional point digitizer (3DPD). Because this measuring method with 3DPD is to be able to select points, the CAD Data Base could be consists of characteristic points. When this data base is really used, it is interpolated with s-spline. Spline interpolation is indispensable to the CAD/CAM system. Further understanding of this system, explanation is divided into three parts which are 3D measurement, CAD and CAM. (3D measurement) Two types of 3D measurement is dealed with this system. One is for the CAD data base and another is for the prepared tooth model. 3D measurement of the prepared tooth model is equivalent of the impression takings in the routine method. For the clear marginal line and for the uniform distribution of measuring points, the prepared tooth model is tilted and rotated on the working table when it is measured with laser. (CAD) The CAD Data Base can be extended, contracted, parallel translated and rotated with the Affine transformation. For putting the individual margin data on the CAD Data Base, the prepared tooth margin is re-digitized with 3DPD. Occlusal data is taken from F.G.P. core. (CAM) The application of the spline interpolation to the tool offset theory, which is effective at the groove especially, makes easy to calculate the tool path. When the prepared tooth model is

  13. CAM and cell fate targeting: molecular and energetic insights into cell growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Carlo

    2005-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine is switching from the analysis of single diseases at a time toward an integrated assessment of a diseased person. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers multiple holistic approaches, including osteopathy, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, herbal and energy medicine and meditation, all potentially impacting on major human diseases. It is now becoming evident that acupuncture can modify the expression of different endorphin genes and the expression of genes encoding for crucial transcription factors in cellular homeostasis. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields have been found to prime the commitment to a myocardial lineage in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that magnetic energy may direct stem cell differentiation into specific cellular phenotypes without the aid of gene transfer technologies. This finding may pave the way to novel approaches in tissue engineering and regeneration. Different ginseng extracts have been shown to modulate growth and differentiation in pluripotent cells and to exert wound-healing and antitumor effects through opposing activities on the vascular system, prompting the hypothesis that ancient compounds may be the target for new logics in cell therapy. These observations and the subtle entanglement among different CAM systems suggest that CAM modalities may deeply affect both the signaling and transcriptional level of cellular homeostasis. Such a perception holds promises for a new era in CAM, prompting reproducible documentation of biological responses to CAM-related strategies and compounds. To this end, functional genomics and proteomics and the comprehension of the cell signaling networks may substantially contribute to the development of a molecular evidence-based CAM.

  14. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

  15. Development of manufacturing technologies for hard optical ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott; Cahill, Mike; Wolfs, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, or PCA can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Premature tool wear or tool loading during the grinding process is a common result of these tough mechanical properties. Another challenge is the requirement to create geometries that conform to the platforms they reside in, but still achieve optical window tolerances for wavefront. These shapes can be complex and require new technologies to control sub aperture finishing techniques in a deterministic fashion. In this paper we will present three technologies developed at OptiPro Systems to address the challenges associated with these materials and complex geometries. The technologies presented will show how Ultrasonic grinding can reduce grinding load by up to 50%, UltraForm Finishing (UFF) and UltraSmooth Finishing (USF) technologies can accurately figure and finish these shapes, and how all of them can be controlled deterministically, with utilizing metrology feedback, by a new Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software package developed by OptiPro called ProSurf.

  16. Using CAD/CAM to improve productivity - The IPAD approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in designing and implementing CAD/CAM systems as a result of the NASA Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design is discussed. Essential software packages have been identified as executive, data management, general user, and geometry and graphics software. Data communication, as a means to integrate data over a network of computers of different vendors, provides data management with the capability of meeting design and manufacturing requirements of the vendors. Geometry software is dependent on developmental success with solid geometry software, which is necessary for continual measurements of, for example, a block of metal while it is being machined. Applications in the aerospace industry, such as for design, analysis, tooling, testing, quality control, etc., are outlined.

  17. Characterization of SynCAM surface trafficking using a SynCAM derived ligand with high homophilic binding affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Breillat, Christelle; Thoumine, Olivier; Choquet, Daniel . E-mail: Daniel.Choquet@pcs.u-bordeaux2.fr

    2007-08-03

    In order to better probe SynCAM function in neurons, we produced a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of SynCAM1 and the constant fragment of human IgG (SynCAM-Fc). Whether in soluble form or immobilized on latex microspheres, the chimera bound specifically to the surface of hippocampal neurons and recruited endogenous SynCAM molecules. SynCAM-Fc was also used in combination with Quantum Dots to follow the mobility of transfected SynCAM receptors at the neuronal surface. Both immobile and highly mobile SynCAM were found. Thus, SynCAM-Fc behaves as a high affinity ligand that can be used to study the function of SynCAM at the neuronal membrane.

  18. Computer-aided process preparation for printed wiring boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, K. D.

    1981-11-01

    A pilot computer project using CAD-CAM software, and a graphics terminal which intergrates design, process preparation, and manufactures printed wiring boards through automation is described. A CAD-CAM data base was used to compare critical design features to statistical process models to predict yield before production begins. The onscreen display of digital design definitions is shown to contribute to greater, more predictable and reliable yields for complex multilayer and double sided designs. It is indicated that use of computer graphics and CAD-CAM software to fabricate printed wiring boards increases accuracy of yield and reduces engineering time required for manual procedures.

  19. Documentary analysis in CAM research: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    The analysis of documents can provide insights into important social and political issues related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper identifies some important sources of documents and outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of using documents in social research. A number of analytic strategies are illustrated with examples to demonstrate the potential for documentary analysis to answer particular CAM-related research questions. These strategies are described as quantitative content analysis, qualitative descriptive analysis, qualitative interpretive analysis and semiotic analysis. It is argued that documents are a convenient source of data and that their analysis can enrich our understanding of CAM. Part 1 covered quantitative and qualitative strategies. Part 2 focuses on semiotic analysis and the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies.

  20. Documentary analysis in CAM research: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kevin

    2005-12-01

    The analysis of documents can provide insights into important social and political issues related to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper identifies some important sources of documents and outlines some of the advantages and disadvantages of using documents in social research. A number of analytic strategies are illustrated with examples to demonstrate the potential for documentary analysis to answer particular CAM-related research questions. These strategies are described as quantitative content analysis, qualitative descriptive analysis, qualitative interpretive analysis and semiotic analysis. It is argued that documents are a convenient source of data and that their analysis can enrich our understanding of CAM. Part 1 covers quantitative and qualitative strategies and Part 2 focuses on semiotic analysis.

  1. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  2. Effectiveness of CAM therapy: understanding the evidence.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2011-02-01

    By definition, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) attempts to diagnose and treat illnesses in unconventional ways. CAM has been classified as: (1) alternative medical systems (eg, traditional Chinese medicine [including acupuncture], naturopathic medicine, ayurvedic medicine, and homeopathy); (2) biologic-based therapies (eg, herbal, special dietary, and individual biologic treatments); (3) energy therapies (eg, Reiki, therapeutic touch, magnet therapy, Qi Gong, and intercessory prayer); (4) manipulative and body-based systems (eg, chiropractic, osteopathy, and massage); and (5) mind-body interventions (eg, meditation, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and the relaxation response). This review focuses on how to assess the effectiveness of CAM therapies for chronic musculoskeletal pains, emphasizing the role of specific and nonspecific analgesic mechanisms, including placebo.

  3. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  4. Georeferencing CAMS data: Polynomial rectification and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinghe

    The Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS) is a sensor used in the commercial remote sensing program at NASA Stennis Space Center. In geographic applications of the CAMS data, accurate geometric rectification is essential for the analysis of the remotely sensed data and for the integration of the data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The commonly used rectification techniques such as the polynomial transformation and ortho rectification have been very successful in the field of remote sensing and GIS for most remote sensing data such as Landsat imagery, SPOT imagery and aerial photos. However, due to the geometric nature of the airborne line scanner which has high spatial frequency distortions, the polynomial model and the ortho rectification technique in current commercial software packages such as Erdas Imagine are not adequate for obtaining sufficient geometric accuracy. In this research, the geometric nature, especially the major distortions, of the CAMS data has been described. An analytical step-by-step geometric preprocessing has been utilized to deal with the potential high frequency distortions of the CAMS data. A generic sensor-independent photogrammetric model has been developed for the ortho-rectification of the CAMS data. Three generalized kernel classes and directional elliptical basis have been formulated into a rectification model of summation of multisurface functions, which is a significant extension to the traditional radial basis functions. The preprocessing mechanism has been fully incorporated into the polynomial, the triangle-based finite element analysis as well as the summation of multisurface functions. While the multisurface functions and the finite element analysis have the characteristics of localization, piecewise logic has been applied to the polynomial and photogrammetric methods, which can produce significant accuracy improvement over the global approach. A software module has been implemented with full

  5. 54 Cam - A new variable star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.; Vaucher, C. A.; Eaton, J. A.; Henry, G. W.; Louth, H.; Skillman, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Differential photometry of the RS CVn-type binary 54 Cam is presented, which shows that the light was variable with a period of 10.163 + or - 0.009 d, and with an amplitude increase from 0.03 to 0.06 m between 1979 and 1980. The photometric period of 10.163 d is 9% shorter than the orbital period of 11.0764 d, and is suggested as an explanation for the radio emission from 54 Cam due to a process of connection, disruption, and reconnection of magnetic field lines.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  7. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  8. Summary of second generation alpha CAM testing performed at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.; Goles, R.W.; Swinth, K.L.; Tinker, M.R.; Hickey, E.E.

    1994-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company tested six models of commercially available alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs): the Canberra Alpha Sentry, Eberline Alpha 6A-1, Merlin Gerin A-CAM, NE America CAM1A, SAIC/RADeCO Model 452, and Victoreen Model 758. The CAMs were tested for calibration and workmanship, performance in various environments, and human factors for field use.

  9. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  10. EpCAM proteolysis: new fragments with distinct functions?

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Ulrike; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    2013-01-01

    EpCAM [epithelial cell adhesion molecule; CD326 (cluster of differentiation 326)] is highly expressed on epithelium-derived tumours and can play a role in cell proliferation. Recently, RIP (regulated intramembrane proteolysis) has been implicated as the trigger for EpCAM-mediated proliferative signalling. However, RIP does not explain all EpCAM-derived protein fragments. To shed light on how proteolytic cleavage is involved in EpCAM signalling, we characterized the protein biochemically using antibodies binding to three different EpCAM domains. Using a newly generated anti-EpCAM antibody, we find that EpCAM can be cleaved at multiple positions within its ectodomain in addition to described peptides, revealing that EpCAM is processed via distinct proteolytic pathways. Here, we report on four new peptides, but also discuss the previously described cleavage products to provide a comprehensive picture of EpCAM cleavage at multiple positions. The complex regulation of EpCAM might not only result in the absence of full-length EpCAM, but the newly formed EpCAM-derived proteins may have their own signalling properties. PMID:23409978

  11. Bridging CAM practice and research: teaching CAM practitioners about research methodology.

    PubMed

    Zick, Suzanna M; Benn, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is continuing to provide funds directed to support research in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM providers typically have insufficient knowledge of scientific language or research methodology to develop rigorous proposals. Their ability to contribute meaningfully as advisors, teachers, or research partners in academic settings, is hence limited. To address this issue, we have developed and implemented a 7-week course designed to teach community-based CAM providers: (1) to understand scientific terminology, research design and grantsmanship; (2) to critically evaluate the research literature; and (3) to design pilot studies in areas of their interest. In this article, we describe the recruitment process for selecting course participants, the course design and instructional process and the evaluation results based on qualitative and quantitative methodology. We offer suggestions for developing training opportunities both at the local and national level that would increase the expertise of CAM providers in participating and seeking funded research.

  12. Cam pully and cylinder head arrangement for an overhead cam engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, E.B.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes improvement in an air-cooled internal combustion engine. It includes a crankcase, a crankshaft disposed within the crankcase and extending externally of the crankcase, a cylinder extending from the crankcase and having a piston mounted for reciprocation therein and connected to the crankshaft, a cylinder head connected to the cylinder and including an overhead camshaft disposed therein, the camshaft extending externally of the cylinder head, a drive pulley mounted to the crankshaft externally of the crankcases, a cam pulley mounted to the camshaft externally of the cylinder head, drive means positively engaging the drive pulley and the cam pulley for transmitting rotary motion therebetween, and blower means driven by the crankshaft for drawing air in and blowing the air over the cylinder head. The improvement comprises: the cam pulley including means for directing air axially toward the cylinder head upon rotation of the cam pulley.

  13. 3D-WOVEN FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE FOR CAD/CAM DENTAL APPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard; Liu, Perng-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)-woven noncrimp fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) was tested for mechanical properties in the two principal directions of the main XY plane and compared to different Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Machining (CAD/CAM) Dental Materials. The Dental Materials included ceramic with Vitablock Mark II®, ProCAD®, InCeram® Spinel, InCeram® Alumina and InCeram® Zirconia in addition to a resin-based 3M Corp. Paradigm® particulate-filled composite. Alternate material controls included Coors 300 Alumina Ceramic and a tungsten carbide 22% cobalt cermet. The 3D-woven FRC was vacuum assisted resin transfer molding processed as a one-depth-thickness ~19-mm preform with a vinyl-ester resin and cut into blocks similar to the commercial CAD/CAM Dental Materials. Mechanical test samples prepared for a flexural three-point span length of 10.0 mm were sectioned for minimum-depth cuts to compare machinability and fracture resistance between groups. 3D-woven FRC improved mechanical properties with significant statistical differences over all CAD/CAM Dental Materials and Coors Alumina Ceramic for flexural strength (p<0.001), resilience (p<0.05), work of fracture (p<0.001), strain energy release (p<0.05), critical stress intensity factor (p<0.001) and strain (p<0.001). PMID:27642198

  14. A Prototype of CAD/CAM Education in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmey, James R.

    Drawing upon Elgin Community College's (ECC's) 7-year history of program development and operation, this paper demonstrates how ECC, in cooperation with Northern Illinois Industries, Computervision Corporation, Mazak Corporation, and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, established a Computer-Aided Design and Drafting/Computer-Aided Machining…

  15. Research on the processing speed of cam grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Baoying; Han, Qiushi

    2010-12-01

    Cam Grinding is a special kind of non-circular machining. The processing speed of cam grinding has a major influence on cam machining precision. In this paper, decomposed the X-axis feed speed and C-axis velocity by the tangential speed and normal speed in accordance with the curvature circle at the point of cam profile grinding. Proposed the cam grinding processing speed model and linear velocity calculation formula, the processing experiment on the CNC camshaft grinding machine results show that the cam grinding speed model is correct. Constant angular speed grinding and constant linear speed grinding are analyzed respectively, which provides a theoretical basis for cam grinding processing speed optimization.

  16. Research on the processing speed of cam grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Baoying; Han, Qiushi

    2011-05-01

    Cam Grinding is a special kind of non-circular machining. The processing speed of cam grinding has a major influence on cam machining precision. In this paper, decomposed the X-axis feed speed and C-axis velocity by the tangential speed and normal speed in accordance with the curvature circle at the point of cam profile grinding. Proposed the cam grinding processing speed model and linear velocity calculation formula, the processing experiment on the CNC camshaft grinding machine results show that the cam grinding speed model is correct. Constant angular speed grinding and constant linear speed grinding are analyzed respectively, which provides a theoretical basis for cam grinding processing speed optimization.

  17. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbey, D. J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D. J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force, and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  18. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Alex

    2007-03-01

    In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence-a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible 'new and improved mode of treatment' for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  19. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    PubMed

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration).

  20. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    PubMed

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration). PMID:26712135

  1. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    2003-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project was performed to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes developed in this project are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP). These membrane materials may be used in a variety of ISRU systems, for example as the atmospheric inlet filter for an ISPP process to enhance the concentration of CO2 for use as a reactant gas, to passively separate argon and nitrogen trace gases from CO2 for habitat pressurization, to provide a system for removal of CO2 from breathing gases in a closed environment, or within a process stream to selectively separate CO2 from other gaseous components. The membranes identified and developed for CAM were evaluated for use in candidate ISRU processes and other gas separation applications, and will help to lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. CAM is a cooperative project split among three institutions: Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  2. Camões e a cosmogonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os Lusíadas, escrito por Luis de Camões em 1572, é um poema épico renascentista e a visão Cosmogônica do autor é apresentada, principalmente, no último canto do poema, quando Tétis mostra ao Gama a Máquina do Mundo. A Cosmogonia de Camões neste poema reflete uma visão de uma época de transição, que ainda não incorporou os elementos da revolução Copernicana. É uma visão Grego- Ptolomaica e também medieval. O poeta guia-se pela tradução e notas feita por Pedro Nunes, inventor do Nonio, do Tratado da Esfera "De Sphaera" do Astrônomo Inglês John Holywood, mais conhecido pelo nome latinizado de Johannes Sacrobosco. Outra provável fonte de Camões, de acordo com Luciano Antonio Pereira da Silva em Astronomia de os Lusíadas, é o "Theoricae novae Planetarum" (1460) do astrólogo Alemão Jorge Purbáquio (1423 - 1461). A Astronomia de Os Lusíadas representa a ciência do tempo de Camões. Camões nunca emprega a palavra constelação e seu catálogo é bastante completo. A Máquina do Mundo tem a Terra no centro. Em redor, em círculos concêntricos, a lua (Diana), Mercúrio, Vênus, o Sol (Febo), Marte, Júpiter e Saturno. Envolvendo estes astros tem o firmamento seguido pelo "Céu Áqueo" ou cristalino, depois o 1o Móbil, esfera que arrasta todas as outras consigo. Este trabalho, multidisciplinar, serve tanto para ensinar aos alunos da Física como das Ciências Humanas, a concepção de mundo do renascimento de uma forma belamente poética em versos decassílabos Este trabalho também ajuda na apreciação do maior clássico da língua portuguesa e mostra como as Ciências e as artes, em geral, estão correlacionadas e refletem a visão de mundo da época em que foi produzida.

  3. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  4. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  5. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  6. Accuracy of machine milling and spark erosion with a CAD/CAM system.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M; Carlsson, L; Persson, M; Bergman, B

    1996-08-01

    A method for manufacturing crowns and fixed partial dentures based on CAD/CAM has been developed as an alternative to the lost wax technique and the casting of an alloy. In this process two steps are included: milling and spark erosion. The computer-assisted design (CAD) relies heavily on the accuracy of the milling and spark erosion processes to achieve a clinically acceptable restoration. These two processes must be able to produce the crown data generated in the CAD files. This study evaluated the accuracy of the Procera CAD/CAM system in creating specific geometric bodies that were compared with the known dimensions in the CAD files for these bodies. The manufacturing errors of milling (ellipse +/- 6.5 microm, square +/- 3.4 microm, and cylinder +/- 5.8 microm) and spark erosion (ellipse +/- 8.6 microm and square +/- 10.4 microm) were determined. The accuracy of this manufacturing process demonstrated that this system was capable of producing a crown with a clinically accepted range for marginal opening gap dimension of less than 100 microm.

  7. Error analysis of a CAD/CAM method for unidirectional mandibular distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of hemifacial microsomia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, Biao; Zhao, Zeliang; Zhang, Lei; Shen, Steve G F; Wang, Xudong

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the errors in a computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) method of unidirectional mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Six patients with hemifacial microsomia were selected, and studied on computed tomographic (CT) scans taken at 3 time intervals: preoperatively, at the end of the latent period, and at the end of consolidation. The plan for mandibular distraction osteogeneisis was designed using CT-based 3-dimensional visible software. The osteotomy line and site of the drill were transferred to a rapid prototyping surgical guide. The osteotomy of the mandible and implantation of the distraction device were completed under guidance. The accuracy of the transferred surgical plan was confirmed by fusion of images after the latency period. The 3-dimensional superimposition of the preoperative simulation, and the postoperative actual models at the end of consolidation, showed that the mean (SD) error between the actual and the predicted height of the ramus was 0.6 (0.6) mm. The error between the actual and predicted intercondylar distance was 8.1 (2.1) mm. There was a significant difference in intercondylar distance between the simulated and actual groups (p=0.00024). The 3-dimensional CT-based planning system described in this paper was transferred precisely from the virtual plan to the real-time operation. The planning system also gave a precise prediction of the height of the ramus after mandibular distraction osteogenesis. However, because of the pull of the lateral pterygoid muscle and pseudarthrosis, the intercondylar distance decreased compared with the predicted value. These influencing factors should be considered when the planning system is refined.

  8. New Conception of Waving Machine CamEl Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílkovský, A.; Marek, O.; Jirásko, P.; Volanský, Z.

    New mechatronic conception of waving machine CamEl drive is realized by two electronic cams Yaskawa and planetary gears. The first servo motor is used to slay and shedding motion in position mode and the second servo motor is used in automatic weaving mode. Moment of inertia of kinematic chain was reduced that it was possible used a smaller servo motor of electronic cam Yaskawa.

  9. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  10. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  11. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2012-02-15

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  12. An overview of CAM: components and clinical uses.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, David; Pitluk, Jessica; Klunk, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), more recently known as integrative health or integrative medicine, is a diverse field comprising numerous treatments and practitioners of various levels of training. This review defines several of the main CAM modalities and reviews some of the research relevant to their clinical application. The goal is to provide healthcare providers with a basic understanding of CAM to start the incorporation of proven treatments into their clinical practice as well as guide them to working with CAM providers; ultimately, such knowledge is a fundamental part of a collaborative approach to optimal patient health and wellness. PMID:19841244

  13. LANL Researcher Roger Wiens Discusses ChemCam

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Discussion of the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity Rover that occurred during the NASA press conference prior to launch of the Mars Science Laboratory. The ChemCam instrument was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the French Space Institute. Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Roger Wiens discusses the instrument on this video. ChemCam uses a laser to "zap" features of the Martian landscape and then uses a spectrometer to gather information about the composition of the sample. ChemCam will help the Curiosity Rover determine whether Mars is or was habitable. The Rover is expected to touch down on the Red Planet on August 5, 2012.

  14. T80Cam: a wide field camera for the J-PLUS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Franch, Antonio; Taylor, Keith; Cenarro, Javier; Cristobal-Hornillos, David; Moles, Mariano

    2015-08-01

    T80Cam is a wide-field camera mounted at the Cassegrain focus of the JAST/T80 telescope, a dedicated 0.83m wide-field telescope at the OAJ (Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre) in Teruel, Spain. The camera has been designed to carry out the J-PLUS (Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey), a multi-band photometric survey that will observe 8500 square degrees of the northern sky. The camera has been manufactured by Spectral Instruments and is equipped with an e2v CCD290-99 backside illuminated detector. This is a large format 9.2k-by-9.2k, 10μm pixel, high efficiency CCD that is read from 16 ports simultaneously allowing read times of 12s with a read out noise of 3.4 electrons (rms). T80Cam covers 2 square degrees FoV with a pixel scale of 0.55"/pixel. It will observe in the wavelength range 330-1000nm through a set of 12 carefully optimized broad-, intermediate- and narrow-band filters. In this talk the status of the T80Cam will be presented, including on telescope commissioning and performances results.

  15. Treatment of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement

    PubMed Central

    FIORENTINO, GENNARO; FONTANAROSA, ALBERTO; CEPPARULO, RICCARDO; GUARDOLI, ALBERTO; BERNI, LUCA; COVIELLO, GIANLUCA; GUARDOLI, ALDO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to evaluate preliminary clinical and radiographic results of arthroscopic treatment of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Methods thirty-eight patients underwent hip arthroscopy for cam-type FAI between 2009 and 2012. Preoperative assessment was based on clinical examination, modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and radiographic examination with anteroposterior pelvis, frog-leg and Lequesne views. The patients’ clinical conditions at follow-up were assessed using the mHHS administered as a telephone survey. Radiographic outcome measurements evaluated pre and postoperatively were the alpha angle and femoral head-neck offset. Results the patients were clinically evaluated at a mean follow-up of 36 months. Radiographic follow-up was performed at an average of 12.7 months. Thirty of the 38 patients (79%) were satisfied with the results of the arthroscopic procedure. A total of nine patients subsequently underwent a total hip replacement. All 30 patients who declared themselves satisfied recorded an mHHS increase; in particular, the mHHS increased from a mean of 52.9 preoperatively (range: 27.5–82.5) to a mean of 85.6 postoperatively (range: 45.1–100.1). Three significant differences between the two groups of patients (satisfied and not satisfied) were recorded: mean age, alpha angle and BMI were all significantly greater in the patients who were not satisfied with the treatment. Conclusions a crucial aspect in order to obtain good clinical outcomes of arthroscopic treatment of cam-type impingement is correct selection of patients who are likely to benefit from this kind of surgery. Hip arthroscopy should be avoided in patients aged over 50 years with risk factors for early osteoarthritis (high BMI and a significantly increased alpha angle). Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:26605253

  16. New nano-sized Al2O3-BN coating 3Y-TZP ceramic composites for CAD/CAM-produced all-ceramic dental restorations. Part I. Fabrication of powders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Se Fei; Yang, Li Qiang; Jin, Zhi Hao; Guo, Tian Wen; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hong Chen

    2009-06-01

    Partially sintered 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2), zirconia) polycrystal (3Y-TZP) ceramics are used in dental posterior restorations with computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. High strength is acquired after sintering, but shape distortion of preshaped compacts during their sintering is inevitable. The aim of this study is to fabricate new machinable ceramic composites with strong mechanical properties that are fit for all-ceramic dental restorations. Aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3))-coated 3Y-TZP powders were first prepared by the heterogeneous precipitation method starting with 3Y-TZP, Al(NO(3))(3) . 9H(2)O, and ammonia, then amorphous boron nitride (BN) was produced and the as-received composite powders were coated via in situ reaction with boric acid and urea. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the status of Al(2)O(3)-BN on the surface of the 3Y-TZP particles. TEM micrographs show an abundance of Al(2)O(3) particles and amorphous BN appearing uniformly on the surface of the 3Y-TZP particles after the coating process. The size of the Al(2)O(3) particles is about 20 nm. The XRD pattern shows clearly the peak of amorphous BN among the peaks of ZrO(2). PMID:19223246

  17. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.; Meyer, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing applications team (MATeam) in effecting widespread transfer of NASA technology to aid in the solution of manufacturing problems in the industrial sector are described. During the program's first year of operation, 450 companies, industry associations, and government agencies were contacted, 150 manufacturing problems were documented, and 20 potential technology transfers were identified. Although none of the technology transfers has been commercialized and put in use, several are in the applications engineering phase, and others are in the early stages of implementation. The technology transfer process is described and guidelines used for the preparation of problems statements are included.

  18. Synthetic biology as it relates to CAM photosynthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    DePaoli, Henrique C; Borland, Anne M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Cushman, John C; Yang, Xiaohan

    2014-07-01

    To meet future food and energy security needs, which are amplified by increasing population growth and reduced natural resource availability, metabolic engineering efforts have moved from manipulating single genes/proteins to introducing multiple genes and novel pathways to improve photosynthetic efficiency in a more comprehensive manner. Biochemical carbon-concentrating mechanisms such as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), which improves photosynthetic, water-use, and possibly nutrient-use efficiency, represent a strategic target for synthetic biology to engineer more productive C3 crops for a warmer and drier world. One key challenge for introducing multigene traits like CAM onto a background of C3 photosynthesis is to gain a better understanding of the dynamic spatial and temporal regulatory events that underpin photosynthetic metabolism. With the aid of systems and computational biology, vast amounts of experimental data encompassing transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics can be related in a network to create dynamic models. Such models can undergo simulations to discover key regulatory elements in metabolism and suggest strategic substitution or augmentation by synthetic components to improve photosynthetic performance and water-use efficiency in C3 crops. Another key challenge in the application of synthetic biology to photosynthesis research is to develop efficient systems for multigene assembly and stacking. Here, we review recent progress in computational modelling as applied to plant photosynthesis, with attention to the requirements for CAM, and recent advances in synthetic biology tool development. Lastly, we discuss possible options for multigene pathway construction in plants with an emphasis on CAM-into-C3 engineering.

  19. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  20. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  1. Readout Electronics for Hyper Suprime-Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa

    Hyper Suprime-Cam(HSC)isa1GigapixelCCD camerafora wide-fieldgalaxy surveyatthe Subaru8-mTelescope. It will be mounted on the prime focus of the SubaruTelescope and is scheduled to receive its first light in 2012. The primary science is to conduct a weak lensing survey over ∼ 2,000 square degrees. The HSC has a 1.5-degree-diameter fieldofview, 7timeslarger than thatofits predecessor Suprime-Cam.It consistsofalarge corrector lens systemand afocalplane equippedwith116piecesof2kx4kfully depletedCCDs. Combinedwiththesuperbimagequalityand large aperture of the Subaru telescope, the surveyusing HSC can cover a cosmological volume and reach the limiting magnitude of at least one magnitudefainter than the other surveys conducted using 4-m class telescopes. The readout electronics of the HSC consist of two parts: one is the analog front-end electronics (FEE) and the other is the digital back-end electronics (BEE). The FEE is placed in a vacuum dewar together with the CCDs, and processes the analog CCD signal into 16-bit digital data. The BEE is small and light enough to be integrated into the camera unit, and employs three linksofGigabit Ethernetto readouta 2.3-GByte singleexposure within10 secondsatfast readout operation. The readout noise from the electronics is smaller than that from CCDs.

  2. Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Project

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Masahiro

    2010-10-15

    The Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is the project building a new prime-focus camera for the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope with field-of-view of about 1.8 square degrees, about factor 10 larger than that of the current Suprime-Cam camera. We are planning to carry out a wide-field multi-passband imaging survey with the HSC covering an area of {approx}2000 square degrees and reaching to a depth of i{sub lim{approx}}26.2(5{sigma} for a point source). Thanks to the unique wide-field capabilities and excellent image quality of the Subaru Telescope the HSC wide-field survey will allow high-precision measurements of weak lensing distortions of distant galaxy images caused by foreground large-scale structures, which can be used to constrain cosmological parameters including the nature of dark energy as well as probe the properties of collision-less dark matter. Here I briefly describe the HSC project and the major scientific goals we can achieve with the planned HSC wide-field survey.

  3. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  4. Molecular dynamics of the P450cam-Pdx complex reveals complex stability and novel interface contacts.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Scott A; Poulos, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450cam catalyzes the stereo and regiospecific hydroxylation of camphor to 5-exo-hydroxylcamphor. The two electrons for the oxidation of camphor are provided by putidaredoxin (Pdx), a Fe2 S2 containing protein. Two recent crystal structures of the P450cam-Pdx complex, one solved with the aid of covalent cross-linking and one without, have provided a structural picture of the redox partner interaction. To study the stability of the complex structure and the minor differences between the recent crystal structures, a 100 nanosecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the cross-linked structure, mutated in silico to wild type and the linker molecule removed, was performed. The complex was stable over the course of the simulation though conformational changes including the movement of the C helix of P450cam further toward Pdx allowed for the formation of a number of new contacts at the complex interface that remained stable throughout the simulation. While several minor crystal contacts were lost in the simulation, all major contacts that had been experimentally studied previously were maintained. The equilibrated MD structure contained a mixture of contacts resembling both the cross-linked and noncovalent structures and the newly identified interactions. Finally, the reformation of the P450cam Asp251-Arg186 ion pair in the MD simulation mirrors the ion pair observed in the more promiscuous CYP101D1 and suggests that the Asp251-Arg186 ion pair may be important.

  5. Cam McRobbie: A Man for All Occasions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gregory P.; Skamp, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the contributions of Campbell John McRobbie, Cam, to science education scholarship and research within the Australasian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) and within the broader science education community. Cam provided strong leadership and vision across many spheres of science education and leaves a legacy to the…

  6. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  7. Microscopical and chemical surface characterization of CAD/CAM zircona abutments after different cleaning procedures. A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe and characterize the surface topography and cleanliness of CAD/CAM manufactured zirconia abutments after steaming and ultrasonic cleaning. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 12 ceramic CAD/CAM implant abutments of various manufacturers were produced and randomly divided into two groups of six samples each (control and test group). Four two-piece hybrid abutments and two one-piece abutments made of zirconium-dioxide were assessed per each group. In the control group, cleaning by steam was performed. The test group underwent an ultrasonic cleaning procedure with acetone, ethyl alcohol and antibacterial solution. Groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify and characterize contaminant chemical characterization non-quantitatively. RESULTS All zirconia CAD/CAM abutments in the present study displayed production-induced wear particles, debris as well as organic and inorganic contaminants. The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure. However, an absolute removal of pollutants could not be achieved. CONCLUSION The presence of debris on the transmucosal surface of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments of various manufacturers was confirmed. Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing. Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented. PMID:25932314

  8. The use of a low cost 3D scanning and printing tool in the manufacture of custom-made foot orthoses: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Custom foot orthoses are currently recognized as the gold standard for treatment of foot and lower limb pathology. While foam and plaster casting methods are most widely used in clinical practice, technology has emerged, permitting the use of 3D scanning, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) for fabrication of foot molds and custom foot orthotic components. Adoption of 3D printing, as a form of CAM, requires further investigation for use as a clinical tool. This study provides a preliminary description of a new method to manufacture foot orthoses using a novel 3D scanner and printer and compare gait kinematic outputs from shod and traditional plaster casted orthotics. Findings One participant (male, 25 years) was included with no lower extremity injuries. Foot molds were created from both plaster casting and 3D scanning/printing methods. Custom foot orthoses were then fabricated from each mold. Lower body plug-in-gait with the Oxford Foot Model on the right foot was collected for both orthotic and control (shod) conditions. The medial longitudinal arch was measured using arch height index (AHI) where a decrease in AHI represented a drop in arch height. The lowest AHI was 21.2 mm in the running shoes, followed by 21.4 mm wearing the orthoses made using 3D scanning and printing, with the highest AHI of 22.0 mm while the participant wore the plaster casted orthoses. Conclusion This preliminary study demonstrated a small increase in AHI with the 3D printing orthotic compared to the shod condition. A larger sample size may demonstrate significant patterns for the tested conditions. PMID:25015013

  9. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  10. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  11. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  12. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  13. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  14. Hyper Suprime-Cam: CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Aihara, Hiroaki; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kamata, Yukiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko

    2008-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam is planned to employ about 120 2k×4k fully-depleted CCDs with 4 signal outputs for each. The data size of an image becomes larger than 2Gbytes. All of the CCDs are designed to be readout parallel within 20 seconds, and the readout noise is expected to be 5e. The frontend electronics will be mounted in a vacuumed cryostat, and connected to the backend electronics mounted on the outside of the cryostat. The frontend electronics includes entire analog circuits for CCD including CCD drivers, preamplifiers and ADC. The backend electronics consists of newly developed gigabit Ethernet modules combined with 2Gbytes memory modules, and several supporting boards. We will present the current status of the CCD readout electronics developments for HSC.

  15. Turnkey CAD/CAM selection and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, T.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology to be followed in evaluating and selecting a computer system for manufacturing applications is discussed. Main frames and minicomputers are considered. Benchmark evaluations, demonstrations, and contract negotiations are discussed.

  16. Cam drive diesel engine utilizing double acting pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Gassman, W.J.

    1991-05-21

    This patent describes a improved double acting piston internal combustion engine. It comprises: a least one double acting piston positioned in an internal combustion engine cylinder having first and second combustion chambers located at opposed ends thereof, the at least one double acting piston having first and second piston heads on opposed ends thereof, the first and second piston heads communicating with the first and second combustion chambers respectively, and cam drive means operably associated with the at least one double acting piston, the cam drive means operably converting a combustion actuated reciprocable movement of the at least one double acting piston into a rotational drive movement, thereby to effect a rotation movement of a drive shaft means so that the drive shaft means functions as a power takeoff for the internal combustion engine, and further including cam groove means positioned in the cam drive means, the follower means operably engaging the cam groove means to effect the rotational drive movement, and wherein the follower means comprises a radially extending pin orthogonally positioned relative to a reciprocable movement axis of the at least one double acting position, and further including a drive ring means slidably movable over a circumferential surface of the cam drive means, the drive ring means retaining the follower means therein and directing the follower means into the cam groove means.

  17. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  18. Subaru Hyper Suprime Cam Survey of the Andromeda Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Tanaka, Mikito; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    We present a progress report on our deep and wide-field imaging survey of the Andromeda halo with Hyper Suprime Cam (HSC) mounted on Subaru. HSC is the upgraded prime focus camera after Suprime-Cam, having a field of view of 1.77 square degree (1.5 degree in diameter), namely about 10 times larger than that of Suprime-Cam. This camera will thus offer us great opportunities to explore unique and legacy surveys for the Andromeda halo, as well as for other Galactic Archaeology science cases.

  19. The first light curve analysis of eclipsing binary NR Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli, F.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Poro, A.

    2015-05-01

    New observations of the eclipsing binary system NR Cam were carried out using a CCD in B, V, and R filters and new times of light minimum and new ephemeris were obtained. The B, V, and R light curves were analyzed using both the Binary Maker 3.0 and PHOEBE 0.31 programs to determine some geometrical and physical parameters of the system. These results show that NR Cam is an overcontact binary and that both components are Main Sequence stars. The O'Connell effect on NR Cam was studied and some variations in spot parameters were obtained over the different years.

  20. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  1. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  2. 3D-CAM: Derivation and Validation of a 3-Minute Diagnostic Interview for CAM-defined Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.; O’Connor, Margaret; Jones, Richard N.; Crane, Paul K.; Metzger, Eran D.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delirium is common, morbid, and costly, yet remains often unrecognized in most clinical settings. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is the most widely used diagnostic algorithm, and operationalizing its features would represent a substantial advance for clinical care. Objective To derive the 3D-CAM, a new 3-minute diagnostic assessment for CAM-defined delirium, and to validate it against a clinical reference standard. Design Diagnostic test study Setting 4 general medicine units in an academic medical center Participants 201 inpatients aged ≥ 75 years old Measurements We identified 20 items that best operationalized the 4 CAM diagnostic features to create the 3D-CAM. For prospective validation, 3D-CAM assessments were administered by trained research assistants. Independently, clinicians performed an extensive assessment that included patient interviews, family interviews, and review of the medical record. These data were considered by an expert panel to determine the presence or absence of delirium and dementia (reference standard). We compared the 3D-CAM delirium determination to the reference standard in all patients and in subgroups with and without dementia. Results The 201 participants in the prospective validation study had mean age (SD) of 84 (5.5) years, and 27% had dementia. The expert panel identified delirium in 21%. Median administration time for 3D-CAM was 3 minutes (inter-quartile range: 2–5 minutes). The sensitivity [95% CI] of 3D-CAM was 95% [84%, 99%] and the specificity was 94% [90%, 97%]. The 3D-CAM performed well in patients both with dementia (sensitivity=96% [82%, 100%], specificity=86% [67%, 96%]) and without dementia (sensitivity=93% [66%, 100%], specificity=96% [91%,99%]). Limitations Limited to single center, cross-sectional, and medicine patients only Conclusion The 3D-CAM operationalizes the CAM algorithm using a 3-minute structured assessment with high sensitivity and specificity relative to a reference standard and

  3. Computerized Manufacturing Automation. Employment, Education, and the Workplace. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The application of programmable automation (PA) offers new opportunities to enhance and streamline manufacturing processes. Five PA technologies are examined in this report: computer-aided design, robots, numerically controlled machine tools, flexible manufacturing systems, and computer-integrated manufacturing. Each technology is in a relatively…

  4. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America.Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme.The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010.

  5. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  6. Cam-type deformities: Concepts, criteria, and multidetector CT features.

    PubMed

    Mellado, J M; Radi, N

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting imaging studies of a painful hip requires detailed knowledge of the regional anatomy. Some variants of the proximal femur, such as cam-type deformities, can course asymptomatically or cause femoroacetabular impingement. The principal numerical criterion for defining cam-type deformities, the alpha angle, has some limitations. In this article, we review the anatomic variants of the anterior aspect of the proximal femur, focusing on cam-type deformities. Using diagrams and multidetector CT images, we describe the parameters that are useful for characterizing these deformities in different imaging techniques. We also discuss the potential correspondence of imaging findings of cam-type deformities with the terms coined by anatomists and anthropologists to describe these phenomena. PMID:25660594

  7. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  8. The Etiology and Arthroscopic Surgical Management of Cam Lesions.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Gaudiani, Michael A; Ranawat, Anil S

    2016-07-01

    Cam-type deformity of the proximal femur is a relative increase in the discrepancy of the femoral head-neck offset. The etiology is unknown; several conditions have been implicated in the development of abnormal proximal femoral anatomy. Recent evidence suggests that high-impact sports place stress on the immature physis during growth and may play an important role. Imaging is essential in the initial diagnostic workup, characterization of pathology, preoperative planning, and intraoperative decision making. Short-term and mid-term outcomes for arthroscopic osteoplasty of cam lesions for both isolated cam-type deformity and mixed cam-pincer femoroacetabular impingement have been well-described and are favorable. PMID:27343392

  9. Cam-type deformities: Concepts, criteria, and multidetector CT features.

    PubMed

    Mellado, J M; Radi, N

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting imaging studies of a painful hip requires detailed knowledge of the regional anatomy. Some variants of the proximal femur, such as cam-type deformities, can course asymptomatically or cause femoroacetabular impingement. The principal numerical criterion for defining cam-type deformities, the alpha angle, has some limitations. In this article, we review the anatomic variants of the anterior aspect of the proximal femur, focusing on cam-type deformities. Using diagrams and multidetector CT images, we describe the parameters that are useful for characterizing these deformities in different imaging techniques. We also discuss the potential correspondence of imaging findings of cam-type deformities with the terms coined by anatomists and anthropologists to describe these phenomena.

  10. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, Y.

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  11. Engine testing of ceramic cam-roller followers

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, Y. )

    1992-04-01

    For several years, DDC has been developing monolithic ceramic heat engine components. One of the components, developed for an application in our state-of-the-art on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine, the Series 60, is a silicon nitride cam-roller follower. Prior to starting this program, each valve train component in the Series 60 was considered for conversion to a ceramic material. Many advantages and disadvantages (benefits and risks) were considered. From this effort, one component was selected, the cam-roller follower. Using a system design approach, a ceramic cam-roller follower offered functional improvement at a reasonable cost. The purpose of the project was to inspect and test 100 domestically produced silicon nitride cam-roller followers built to the requirements of the DDC series 60 engine.

  12. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  13. 24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. 22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-47 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. 47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. 48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS AND STEMS WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. SEE CA-290-24 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Selected Applications of Virtual Reality in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak-Marcincin, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become an important and useful tool in science and engineering. VR applications cover a wide range of industrial areas from product design to analysis, from product prototyping to manufacturing. The design and manufacturing of a product can be viewed, evaluated and improved in a virtual environment before its prototype is made, which is an enormous cost saving. Virtual Manufacturing (VM) is the use of computer models and simulations of manufacturing processes to aid in the design and production of manufactured products. VM is the use of manufacturing-based simulations to optimize the design of product and processes for a specific manufacturing goal such as: design for assembly; quality; lean operations; and/or flexibility.

  18. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  19. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology.

  20. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit after banana in terms of international trade. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties ‘F153’ and ‘MD2’, and a wild pineapple relative A. bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole genome duplications than sequenced grass genomes and, therefore, provides an important reference for elucidating gene content and structure in the last common ancestor of extant members of the grass family (Poaceae). Pineapple has a conserved karyotype with seven pre rho duplication chromosomes that are ancestral to extant grass karyotypes. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues using beta-carbonic anhydrase (βCA) for initial capture of CO2. Promoter regions of all three βCA genes contain a CCA1 binding site that can bind circadian core oscillators. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements including the morning (CCACAC) and evening (AAAATATC) elements associated with regulation of circadian-clock genes, providing the first link between CAM and the circadian clock regulation. Gene-interaction network analysis revealed both activation and repression of regulatory elements that control key enzymes in CAM photosynthesis, indicating that CAM evolved by reconfiguration of pathways preexisting in C3 plants. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis is the result of regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting gene copies and not acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole genome or tandem gene duplication. PMID:26523774

  1. CAMS 2009 PC Co-chairs' Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, Annika; Buchanan, George

    In the four years since the first CAMS workshop, context awareness has become an increasingly commonplace tool for mobile developers. The limited screen displays of many mobile devices mean that content must be carefully selected to match the user's needs and expectations, and context provides one powerful means of performing such tailoring. Furthermore, increasing availability of additional hardware sensors has bolstered the use of context. GPS, Near-Field Communication, Bluetooth and WiFi have all been used to sense the general environment and to determine the devices' location. Light and tilt sensors have also been used to tune simple features such as the strength of the display lighting, through to complex uses in game control. Context-aware mobile systems are becoming ubiquitous. With this hardware comes the opportunity for "on-board" applications to use location data to provide new services - until recently such systems could only be created with complex and expensive components. Furthermore, the current "mode" of the phone (e.g., silent, meeting, outdoors), contents of the built-in calendar, etc., can all used to provide a rich context for the user's immediate environment.

  2. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C; Bowers, John E; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Paull, Robert E; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication. PMID:26523774

  3. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-11-02

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Lastly, we found pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  4. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C; Bowers, John E; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Paull, Robert E; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  5. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  6. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  7. Establishing CAD/CAM in Preclinical Dental Education: Evaluation of a Hands-On Module.

    PubMed

    Schwindling, Franz Sebastian; Deisenhofer, Ulrich Karl; Porsche, Monika; Rammelsberg, Peter; Kappel, Stefanie; Stober, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a hands-on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) module in a preclinical dental course in restorative dentistry. A controlled trial was conducted by dividing a class of 56 third-year dental students in Germany into study and control groups; allocation to the two groups depended on student schedules. Prior information about CAD/CAM-based restorations was provided for all students by means of lectures, preparation exercises, and production of gypsum casts of prepared resin teeth. The study group (32 students) then participated in a hands-on CAD/CAM module in small groups, digitizing their casts and designing zirconia frameworks for single crowns. The digitization process was introduced to the control group (24 students) solely by means of a video-supported lecture. To assess the knowledge gained, a 20-question written examination was administered; 48 students took the exam. The results were analyzed with Student's t-tests at a significance level of 0.05. The results on the examination showed a significant difference between the two groups: the mean scores were 16.8 (SD 1.7, range 13-19) for the study group and 12.5 (SD 3, range 4-18) for the control group. After the control group had also experienced the hands-on module, a total of 48 students from both groups completed a questionnaire with 13 rating-scale and three open-ended questions evaluating the module. Those results showed that the module was highly regarded by the students. This study supports the idea that small-group hands-on courses are helpful for instruction in digital restoration design. These students' knowledge gained and satisfaction seemed to justify the time, effort, and equipment needed.

  8. Are different generations of CAD/CAM milling machines capable to produce restorations with similar quality?

    PubMed Central

    Roperto, Renato; Assaf, Hussein; Soares-Porto, Thiago; Lang, Lisa; Teich, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Background Different CAD/CAM machines’ generation may impact the restoration overall quality. The present study evaluated the marginal fit of CAD/CAM restorations manufactured with different generations of CEREC milling unit systems. Material and Methods Sixteen typodont teeth were divided into two groups (n=8) according to the machine’s generation assigned. These are control group (G1): Cerec AC with Bluecam/Cerec 3 milling unit and (G2): Cerec AC with Bluecam/MC XL Premium Package milling unit. Scanning of the preparation were performed and crowns were milled using the Vita Mark II blocks. Blocks were cemented using epoxy glue on the pulpal floor only and finger pressure applied for 1 min. Upon completion of the cementation step, misfits between the restoration and abutment were measured by microphotography and the silicone replica technique using light body silicon material on Mesial (M) and Distal (D) surfaces. Results Mean and SDs of marginal gaps in micrometers were: G1/M: 94.90 (±38.52), G1/D: 88.53 (±44.87), G2/M: 85.65 (±29.89), G2/D: 95.28 (±28.13). Two-way ANOVA indicated no significant differences among different groups (P>0.05); surface area (P>0.05) and the interaction (P>0.05). Overall, G2 had greater margin gaps than G1, however, without statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusions Difference in milling unit generation did not significantly affect the marginal fit. Marginal gap means were in the range of the clinical acceptance levels for both generations of Cerec milling units, regardless the teeth site area. Key words:CAD/CAM, margin, ceramics. PMID:27703611

  9. Establishing CAD/CAM in Preclinical Dental Education: Evaluation of a Hands-On Module.

    PubMed

    Schwindling, Franz Sebastian; Deisenhofer, Ulrich Karl; Porsche, Monika; Rammelsberg, Peter; Kappel, Stefanie; Stober, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a hands-on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) module in a preclinical dental course in restorative dentistry. A controlled trial was conducted by dividing a class of 56 third-year dental students in Germany into study and control groups; allocation to the two groups depended on student schedules. Prior information about CAD/CAM-based restorations was provided for all students by means of lectures, preparation exercises, and production of gypsum casts of prepared resin teeth. The study group (32 students) then participated in a hands-on CAD/CAM module in small groups, digitizing their casts and designing zirconia frameworks for single crowns. The digitization process was introduced to the control group (24 students) solely by means of a video-supported lecture. To assess the knowledge gained, a 20-question written examination was administered; 48 students took the exam. The results were analyzed with Student's t-tests at a significance level of 0.05. The results on the examination showed a significant difference between the two groups: the mean scores were 16.8 (SD 1.7, range 13-19) for the study group and 12.5 (SD 3, range 4-18) for the control group. After the control group had also experienced the hands-on module, a total of 48 students from both groups completed a questionnaire with 13 rating-scale and three open-ended questions evaluating the module. Those results showed that the module was highly regarded by the students. This study supports the idea that small-group hands-on courses are helpful for instruction in digital restoration design. These students' knowledge gained and satisfaction seemed to justify the time, effort, and equipment needed. PMID:26427781

  10. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  11. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  12. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  13. AEGIS Automated Targeting for the MSL ChemCam Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estlin, T.; Anderson, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Bornstein, B.; Burl, M. C.; Castano, R.; Gaines, D.; Judd, M.; Thompson, D. R.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system enables automated science data collection by a planetary rover. AEGIS has been in use on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission Opportunity rover since 2010 to provide onboard targeting of the MER Panoramic Camera based on scientist-specified objectives. AEGIS is now being applied for use with the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission ChemCam spectrometer. ChemCam uses a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to analyze the elemental composition of rocks and soil from up to seven meters away. ChemCam's tightly-focused laser beam (350-550 um) enables targeting of very fine-scale terrain features. AEGIS is being applied in two ways to help ChemCam collect valuable science data. The first application is to enable automated targeting of ChemCam during or after or in the middle of long drives. The majority of ChemCam measurements are collected by allowing the science team to select specific targets in rover images. However this requires the rover to stay in the same area while images are downlinked, analyzed for targets, and new commands uplinked. The only data that can be acquired without this communication cycle is via blind targeting, where measurements are often of soil patches vs. instead of more valuable targets such as rocks with specific properties. AEGIS is being applied to automatically analyze images onboard and select targets for ChemCam analysis. This approach allows the rover to autonomously select and sequence targeted measurements in an opportunistic fashion at different points along the rover's drive path. Rock targets can be prioritized for measurement based on various geologically relevant features, including size, shape and albedo. A second application is to enable intelligent pointing refinement of ChemCam when acquiring data of small targets, such as veins or concretions that are only a few millimeters wide. Due to backlash and other pointing challenges, it can often

  14. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  15. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  16. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  17. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  18. Design and development of a quad copter (UMAASK) using CAD/CAM/CAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manarvi, Irfan Anjum; Aqib, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Khurshid, Saqib; Sikandar, Usman

    Micro flying vehicles1 (MFV) have become a popular area of research due to economy of production, flexibility of launch and variety of applications. A large number of techniques from pencil sketching to computer based software are being used for designing specific geometries and selection of materials to arrive at novel designs for specific requirements. Present research was focused on development of suitable design configuration using CAD/CAM/CAE tools and techniques. A number of designs were reviewed for this purpose. Finally, rotary wing Quadcopter flying vehicle design was considered appropriate for this research. Performance requirements were planned as approximately 10 meters ceiling, weight less than 500grams and ability to take videos and pictures. Parts were designed using Finite Element Analysis, manufactured using CNC machines and assembled to arrive at final design named as UMAASK. Flight tests were carried out which confirmed the design requirements.

  19. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  20. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger; Subramaniam, Naresh; Suckling, John

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  1. Concerns of hydrothermal degradation in CAD/CAM zirconia.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-W; Covel, N S; Guess, P C; Rekow, E D; Zhang, Y

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed.

  2. NrCAM regulating neural systems and addiction related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Hiroki; Hall, Frank S.; Horiuchi, Yasue; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Grumet, Martin; Uhl, George R.; Onaivi, Emmanuel S.; Arinami, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that a haplotype associated with decreased NrCAM expression in brain is protective against addiction vulnerability for polysubstance abuse in humans and that Nrcam knockout mice do not develop conditioned place preferences for morphine, cocaine, or amphetamine. In order to gain insight into NrCAM involvement in addiction vulnerability, which may involve specific neural circuits underlying behavioral characteristics relevant to addiction, we evaluated several behavioral phenotypes in Nrcam knockout mice. Consistent with a potential general reduction in motivational function, Nrcam knockout mice demonstrated less curiosity for novel objects and for an unfamiliar conspecific, showed also less anxiety in the zero maze. Nrcam heterozygote knockout mice reduced alcohol preference and buried fewer marbles in home cage. These observations provide further support for a role of NrCAM in substance abuse including alcoholism vulnerability, possibly through its effects on behavioral traits that may affect addiction vulnerability, including novelty seeking, obsessive compulsion and responses to aversive or anxiety-provoking stimuli. Additionally, in order to prove glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction, we analyzed glutamatergic molecules regulated by NRCAM. Glutaminase appears to be involved in NrCAM-related molecular pathway in two different tissues from human and mouse. An inhibitor of the enzyme, PLG, treatment produced, at least, some of the phenotypes of mice shown in alcohol preference and in anxiety-like behavior. Thus, NrCAM could affect addiction-related behaviors via at least partial modulation of some glutamatargic pathways and neural function in brain. PMID:22780223

  3. Detection of Zn with ChemCam on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, J.; Clegg, S. M.; Forni, O.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Lanza, N.; Mangold, N.; Berger, J.; Blaney, D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Johnson, J.; LeDeit, L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maurice, S.; M. S. L. Science Team

    2015-10-01

    C h e m C a m i s a L a s e r- I n d u c e d B r e a k d o w n Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument on-board the NASA Curiosity rover currently exploring Mars. ChemCam can analyze the chemical composition of geological samples without preparation and at a distance by detecting the laser induced atomic emission lines from elements present [1, 2]. ChemCam is sensitive to most chemical elements. In addition to the major elements, ChemCam can be used to detect and quantify a set of minor and trace elements such as Li, Sr, Ba, and Rb using univariate and multivariate regression techniques [3]. Mn has also been detected and quantified with ChemCam at high concentrations indicating that highly oxidizing conditions must have occurred on the surface of Mars [4]. We report here the detection of high Zn content targets with ChemCam at the Kimberley location at Gale Crater that are linked to high-Mn concentrations.

  4. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; et al

    2015-11-02

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAMmore » pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Lastly, we found pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.« less

  5. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T.; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger; Subramaniam, Naresh; Suckling, John

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs. PMID:19826470

  6. The inducible CAM plants in putative lunar lander experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, Olexii; Zaetz, Iryna; Soldatkin, Olexii; Rogutskyy, Ivan; Danilchenko, Boris; Mikheev, Olexander; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Vidmachenko, Anatolii; Foing, Bernard H.; Kozyrovska, Natalia

    Precursory lunar lander experiments on growing plants in locker-based chambers will increase our understanding of effect of lunar conditions on plant physiology. The inducible CAM (Cras-sulacean Acid Metabolism)-plants are reasonable model for a study of relationships between environmental challenges and changes in plant/bacteria gene expression. In inducible CAM-plants the enzymatic machinery for the environmentally activated CAM switches on from a C3-to a full-CAM mode of photosynthesis in response to any stresses (Winter et al., 2008). In our study, Kalanchoe spp. are shown to be promising candidates for putative lunar experiments as resistant to irradiation and desiccation, especially after inoculation with a bacterial consortium (Boorlak et al., 2010). Within frames of the experiment we expect to get information about the functional activity of CAM-plants, in particular, its organogenesis, photosystem, the circadian regulation of plant metabolism on the base of data gaining with instrumental indications from expression of the reporter genes fused to any genes involved in vital functions of the plant (Kozyrovska et al., 2009). References 1. Winter K., Garcia M., Holtum J. (2008) J. Exp. Bot. 59(7):1829-1840 2. Bourlak O., Lar O., Rogutskyy I., Mikheev A., Zaets I., Chervatyuk N., de Vera J.-P., Danilchenko A.B. Foing B.H., zyrovska N. (2010) Space Sci. Technol. 3. Kozyrovska N.O., Vidmachenko A.P., Foing B.H. et al. Exploration/call/estec/ESA. 2009.

  7. Digital data acquisition for a CAD/CAM-fabricated titanium framework and zirconium oxide restorations for an implant-supported fixed complete dental prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Metz, Michael J; Pollini, Adrien; Ntounis, Athanasios; Morton, Dean

    2014-12-01

    This dental technique report describes a digital workflow with digital data acquisition at the implant level, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing fabricated, tissue-colored, anodized titanium framework, individually luted zirconium oxide restorations, and autopolymerizing injection-molded acrylic resin to fabricate an implant-supported, metal-ceramic-resin fixed complete dental prosthesis in an edentulous mandible. The 1-step computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing fabrication of titanium framework and zirconium oxide restorations can provide a cost-effective alternative to the conventional metal-resin fixed complete dental prosthesis.

  8. Digital data acquisition for a CAD/CAM-fabricated titanium framework and zirconium oxide restorations for an implant-supported fixed complete dental prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Metz, Michael J; Pollini, Adrien; Ntounis, Athanasios; Morton, Dean

    2014-12-01

    This dental technique report describes a digital workflow with digital data acquisition at the implant level, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing fabricated, tissue-colored, anodized titanium framework, individually luted zirconium oxide restorations, and autopolymerizing injection-molded acrylic resin to fabricate an implant-supported, metal-ceramic-resin fixed complete dental prosthesis in an edentulous mandible. The 1-step computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing fabrication of titanium framework and zirconium oxide restorations can provide a cost-effective alternative to the conventional metal-resin fixed complete dental prosthesis. PMID:25258258

  9. My body, my life, my choice: practices and meanings of complementary and alternative medicine among a sample of Australian people living with HIV/AIDS and their practitioners.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Karalyn; Slavin, Sean

    2010-10-01

    In this study we examine the sociocultural meaning and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by nine people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and four CAM practitioners. Analysis revealed five themes: focus on health not illness; resistance to antiretroviral therapy and adherence; allopathic medicine as narrow; difficulty disclosing to doctors; and a continuum of CAM that sometimes included conventional medicine and sometimes excluded it entirely. Literature on PLWHA in the West commonly describes them as sophisticated health consumers. We explore the concepts of individual responsibility in relation to health, holism, control and well-being in the context of CAM. We also consider the meaning and significance of CAM and western medicine to comment on the contemporary experience of HIV, including the possible impact of stigma and the perceived limits of allopathic medicine among some PLWHA. Understanding this will enable better insight into the treatment choices of PLWHA, particularly those who may be described as sceptical of conventional medical science.

  10. Mesoscale organization in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmeister, J. T.; Trier, S.; Davis, C. A.; Callaghan, P.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate simulations using CAM with horizontal resolution of 25 km begin to show interesting features that appear to be connected with mesoscale organization. These features include a reasonable climatology of tropical cyclones. Simulated precipitation in sub-Saharan West Africa is dominated by westward moving disturbances that show qualitative similarities to observations. Both the TCs and sub-Saharan disturbances appear to be dynamically-driven by resolved precipitation processes instead of parameterized convection. Disappointingly, simulations of propagating convection and related precipitation features in the US Midwest during summer are not significantly improved at 25 km resolution compared to 100 km resolution. This presentation will diagnose convective organization in CAM. Case-studies using nudging to re-analysis and regional-refinement over the US will be examined. These simulations will help to distinguish between errors due to large-scale forcing biases and those related to parameterization or dynamical deficiencies in CAM.

  11. CaM and CML emergence in the green lineage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Dunand, Christophe; Snedden, Wayne; Galaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a well-studied calcium sensor that is ubiquitous in all eukaryotes and contributes to signaling during developmental processes and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Among eukaryotes, plants have a remarkable variety of CaM-like proteins (CMLs). The expansion of genomic data sets offers the opportunity to explore CaM and CML evolution among the green lineage from algae to land plants. Database analysis indicates that a striking diversity of CaM and CMLs evolved in angiosperms during terrestrial colonization and reveals the emergence of new CML classes throughout the green lineage that correlate with the acquisition of novel biological traits. Here, we speculate that expansion of the CML family was driven by selective pressures to process environmental signals efficiently as plants adapted to land environments. PMID:26115779

  12. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). A multifaceted experimental model.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, wound healing, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Moreover, being naturally immunodeficient, the chick embryo may receive transplantations from different tissues and species, without immune responses. PMID:27178379

  13. The ubiquitous neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM).

    PubMed

    Weledji, Elroy P; Assob, Jules C

    2014-09-01

    Adhesive interactions are important for cell trafficking, differentiation, function and tissue differentiation. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. This review discusses the actions and association of N-CAM and variants, PSA CAM. L1CAM and receptor tyrosine kinase. Their interactions with the interstitial cells of Cajal - the pacemaker cells of the gut in the manifestation of gut motility disorders, expression in carcinomas and mesenchymal tumours are discussed. PMID:25568792

  14. [CAM products as therapeutic placebos: theoretical and bioethical reflections].

    PubMed

    Schöne-Seifert, Bettina; Friedrich, Daniel R; Reichardt, Jan-Ole

    2015-01-01

    In Germany as well as in many other countries the project of 'integrating' CAM interventions into conventional medicine is currently underway. It is a highly contested endeavour. One backdoor of justifying CAM interventions - even if, according to the scientific standards of conventional medicine, they have been proved to lack specific effectiveness - is their use as therapeutic placebos. In this paper we will first discuss general critical considerations regarding deceptive placebo use and then argue that in the specific case of CAM interventions used as placebos general ethical reservations are reinforced by the fact that their use is prone to promote a non- or antiscientific attitude among physicians and patients, which we consider highly problematic. PMID:26189176

  15. Prevalence of Cam Morphology in Females with Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Hellman, Michael D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Haughom, Bryan; Frank, Rachel M.; Nho, Shane J.

    2015-01-01

    Cam and pincer are two common morphologies responsible for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Previous literature has reported that cam deformity is predominantly a male morphology, while being significantly less common in females. Cam morphology is commonly assessed with the alpha angle, measured on radiographs. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of cam morphology utilizing the alpha angle in female subjects diagnosed with symptomatic FAI. All females presenting to the senior author’s clinic diagnosed with symptomatic FAI between December 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Alpha (α) angles were measured on anteroposterior and lateral (Dunn 90°, cross-table lateral, and/or frog-leg lateral) plain radiographs by two blinded physicians, and the largest measured angle was used. Using Gosvig et al.’s classification, alpha angle was characterized as (pathologic > 57°), borderline (51–56°), subtle (46–50°), very subtle (43–45°), or normal (≤42°). Three hundred and ninety-one patients (438 hips) were analyzed (age 36.2 ± 12.3 years). Among the hips included, 35.6% were normal, 14.6% pathologic, 15.1% borderline, 14.6% subtle, and 20.1% very subtle. There was no correlation between alpha angle and patient age (R = 0.17) or body mass index (R = 0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient for α-angle measurements was 0.84. Sixty-four percent of females in this cohort had an alpha angle >42°. Subtle cam deformity plays a significant role in the pathoanatomy of female patients with symptomatic FAI. As the majority of revision hip arthroscopies are performed due to incomplete cam correction, hip arthroscopists need to be cognizant of and potentially surgically address these subtle lesions. PMID:26649291

  16. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  17. Chairside CAD/CAM: an overview of restorative material options.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    A number of categories of materials are available for chairside CAD/CAM restorations that have demonstrated predictability and longevity. These materials include esthetic and high-strength ceramics, composite resins for both final and temporary restorations, and newer nanoceramics that offer ease of handling and a glossy surface finish. Each category of materials has unique features designed for specific clinical applications. This article will examine currently available materials designed for chairside CAD/CAM restorations and the various outcomes that are possible with this technologically advanced process.

  18. Aerosol specification in single-column CAM5

    DOE PAGES

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P.

    2014-11-17

    The ability to run a global climate model in single-column mode is very useful for testing model improvements because single-column models (SCMs) are inexpensive to run and easy to interpret. A major breakthrough in Version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is the inclusion of prognostic aerosol. Unfortunately, this improvement was not coordinated with the SCM version of CAM5 and as a result CAM5-SCM initializes aerosols to zero. In this study we explore the impact of running CAM5-SCM with aerosol initialized to zero (hereafter named Default) and test three potential fixes. The first fix is to use CAM5's prescribedmore » aerosol capability, which specifies aerosols at monthly climatological values. The second method is to prescribe aerosols at observed values. The third approach is to fix droplet and ice crystal numbers at prescribed values. We test our fixes in four different cloud regimes to ensure representativeness: subtropical drizzling stratocumulus (based on the DYCOMS RF02 case study), mixed-phase Arctic stratocumulus (using the MPACE-B case study), tropical shallow convection (using the RICO case study), and summertime mid-latitude continental convection (using the ARM95 case study). Stratiform cloud cases (DYCOMS RF02 and MPACE-B) were found to have a strong dependence on aerosol concentration, while convective cases (RICO and ARM95) were relatively insensitive to aerosol specification. This is perhaps expected because convective schemes in CAM5 do not currently use aerosol information. Adequate liquid water content in the MPACE-B case was only maintained when ice crystal number concentration was specified because the Meyers et al. (1992) deposition/condensation ice nucleation scheme used by CAM5 greatly overpredicts ice nucleation rates, causing clouds to rapidly glaciate. Surprisingly, predicted droplet concentrations for the ARM95 region in both SCM and global runs were around 25 cm−3, which is much lower than observed. This finding

  19. Impact of IPAD on CAD/CAM database university research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, L. M.; Wozny, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    IPAD program has provided direction, focus and software products which impacted on CAD/CAM data base research and follow-on research. The relationship of IPAD to the research projects which involve the storage of geometric data in common data ase facilities such as data base machines, the exchange of data between heterogeneous data bases, the development of IGES processors, the migration of lrge CAD/CAM data base management systems to noncompatible hosts, and the value of RIM as a research tool is described.

  20. Improving Aerosol Transport to the Arctic in CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Rasch, P.; Wang, M.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S.; Qian, Y.; Yoon, J.; Ma, P.; Vinoj, V.

    2011-12-01

    Of the many factors contributing to the rapid arctic climate change, arctic haze has been identified as a potentially important forcing agent. It has been well established that arctic aerosols largely originate from lower latitudes. Hence, the long-range atmospheric transport of aerosols to the Arctic is of great concern for studying arctic climate change. The treatment of aerosol and cloud processes has been substantially improved in the current version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) which is widely used in the research of aerosol effects on clouds and climate. However, like many other global models, the CAM5 produces a relatively poor simulation of arctic aerosols and clouds. For example, previous studies have shown that the standard version of CAM5 remarkably underpredicts arctic aerosol concentrations, particularly during the arctic haze season, compared to various measurements. In this study, we focus on improving processes associated with aerosol-cloud interactions, cloud microphysics and macrophysics, and aerosol emission, transformation, removal, and deposition that are key to determining the amount of aerosols reaching the Arctic. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to understand the role of each of the processes and to identify sources of uncertainties, and improvements are made to processes that are not well represented in the CAM5. The evaluation and improvement are guided by aerosol and cloud measurements together with process-oriented model results from the multi-scale aerosol-climate model (PNNL-MMF) that embeds a cloud-resolving model in each CAM5 grid column to explicitly represent convection and aerosol-cloud interactions. Results show that including black carbon (BC) aging process through a more complete 7-mode version of the aerosol module in CAM5 can substantially increase the amount of arctic BC, compared to simulations with the standard 3-mode version, but has minimal effect on other species such as dust and sulfate. Excessive mid

  1. Accuracy of fibular sectioning and insertion into a rapid-prototyped bone plate, for mandibular reconstruction using CAD-CAM technology.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Marchetti, Claudio; Mazzoni, Simona; Baldissara, Paolo; Gatto, Maria Rosaria Antonella; Cipriani, Riccardo; Scotti, Roberto; Tarsitano, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Modern techniques of mandibular reconstruction, such as CAD-CAM technology and rapid prototyping, offer new means by which reconstructive surgery can be planned to optimise aesthetic outcomes and prosthetic rehabilitation. The high degree of accuracy afforded by these approaches is principally attributable to high-precision fibular sectioning and insertion of the bone into a customised bone plate. CAD-CAM mandibular reconstruction procedures using vascularised bone free-flap transfers were performed on 10 patients with benign or malignant neoplasms. Five were not treated with the aid of CAD-CAM technology, and served as the control group. Five were scheduled for maxillofacial surgery using surgical cutting guides and customised bone plates. A generalised linear model for linear measures was used to compare the accuracy of reconstruction between the two groups. A difference, even though not significant, in the lateral shift of the mesial and distal positions of the fibular units was evident between groups. CAD-CAM-generated fibular surgical guides afford improved accuracy when used to restore native anatomy, especially in the context of mandibular arch restoration, and both operating room time and related costs are reduced during fibular sectioning. PMID:25434288

  2. Sedona Red Rock Cam footage of fireball on June 2, 2016

    NASA Video Gallery

    This footage from the Sedona Red Rock Cam (part of the EarthCam network) shows how brightly the ground was illuminated during the fireball, which entered the atmosphere over Arizona shortly before ...

  3. Cam impingement of the hip: a risk factor for hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Agricola, Rintje; Waarsing, Jan H; Arden, Nigel K; Carr, Andrew J; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Thomas, Geraint E; Weinans, Harrie; Glyn-Jones, Sion

    2013-10-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is characterized by abnormal contact between the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Two subtypes have been described: pincer impingement, caused by an overcovered acetabulum; and cam impingement, which occurs as a result of an aspherical femoral head (cam abnormality). A strong correlation exists between cam impingement and the subsequent development of hip osteoarthritis (OA). Major cam abnormalities confer a high risk of OA. However, the association between cam abnormalities and the pathology of OA has been difficult to compare between studies, as different methods have been used to define the abnormality. Cam abnormalities are acquired during skeletal growth and could be influenced by high impact sporting activities. Preventative treatments aiming to reduce the incidence of cam abnormalities and subsequent OA could, therefore, be developed. In this Perspective, we discuss the current understanding of FAI, focusing on cam abnormalities and their association with OA.

  4. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  5. Mitochondrial respiration in ME-CAM, PEPCK-CAM, and C₃ succulents: comparative operation of the cytochrome, alternative, and rotenone-resistant pathways.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, Klaus; von Willert, Dieter J; Martin, Craig E; Herppich, Werner B

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondria are important in the function and control of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) during organic acid accumulation at night and acid decarboxylation in the day. In plants of the malic enzyme-(ME) type and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase- (PEPCK) type, mitochondria may exert their role in the control of the diurnal rhythm of malic and citric acids to a differential degree. In plants of both CAM types, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria, as well as the activity of CAM-linked mitochondrial enzymes, and of the alternative and the rotenone-resistant pathways of substrate oxidation were compared. Furthermore, a C₃ succulent was included, as well as both C₃ and CAM forms of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum during a salt-induced C₃-to-CAM shift. Mitochondria of PEPCK-type CAM plants exhibited a lower activity of malate oxidation, ratio of malate to succinate oxidation, and activity of mitochondrial NAD-ME. With the exception of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, leaf mitochondria of all other CAM species were highly sensitive to cyanide (80-100%), irrespective of the oxidant used. This indicates that the alternative oxidase is not of general importance in CAM. By contrast, rotenone-insensitive substrate oxidation was very high (50-90%) in all CAM species. This is the first comparison of the rotenone-insensitive pathway of respiration in plants with different CAM-types. The results of this study confirm that mitochondria are involved in the control of CAM to different degrees in the two CAM types, and they highlight the multiple roles of mitochondria in CAM.

  6. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

  7. Classification of CAM Use and its Correlates in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Juliann; Madlensky, Lisa; Kealey, Sheila; Saquib, Nazmus; Natarajan, Loki; Newman, Vicky A.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Pierce, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis Self-reported use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been shown to increase following a cancer diagnosis, and breast cancer survivors are the heaviest users among cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence estimate of CAM use varied according to classification of CAM. We used a comprehensive system to classify CAM users and test differences in demographic, lifestyle, quality of life, and cancer characteristics among them. Study Design and Methods Participants were 2562 breast cancer survivors participating in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study, aged 28-74 years. A structured telephone interview assessed CAM use, questioning about specific CAM practices, and whether use was related to cancer. We examined CAM use in relation to demographics, health behaviors, and quality of life. Results Approximately 80% of the women used CAM for general purposes but only 50% reported CAM use for cancer purposes. Visual imagery, spiritual healing, and meditation were the most frequently used practices for cancer purposes. CAM use, defined as consulting a CAM practitioner and regular use, was significantly related to younger age, higher education, increased fruit & vegetable intake, and lower body mass index (p < .05). CAM users who had seen a practitioner were also more likely to report poor physical and mental health than non-CAM users (p < .05). CAM use was not associated with changes in physical and mental health between study baseline and 1-year follow-up. Conclusion This study addressed important differences in the classification of CAM use among breast cancer survivors. Future studies need to further test the potential benefits and risks associated with CAM use. PMID:21382963

  8. Engineering specification and system design for CAD/CAM of custom shoes: UMC project effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project is to supplement the footwear design system of North Carolina State University (NCSU) with a software module to design and manufacture a combination sole. The four areas of concentration were: customization of NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design) to the footwear project; use of CENCIT data; computer aided manufacturing activities; and beginning work for the bottom elements of shoes. The task of generating a software module for producing a sole was completed with a demonstrated product realization. The software written in C was delivered to NCSU for inclusion in their design system for custom footwear known as LASTMOD. The machining process of the shoe last was improved using a spiral tool path approach.

  9. CAD/CAM-fabricated template for locating implant abutment screws in cement-retained anatomic zirconia restorations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Du-Hyeong

    2015-09-01

    Currently, appropriate access to the abutment screw within cement-retained implant restorations is determined using labor-intensive techniques. The introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture technology has facilitated a digitized fabrication process to yield a template that can enhance the accuracy of drilling a screw channel. This article describes the method used to create these guide templates by using advanced dental design programs and machining.

  10. Potential worker risk as a function of CAM airflow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, J.J.

    1994-03-21

    The goal of the continuous air monitor (CAM) system at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility (PF-4) is to have a flow rate of 1 cubic feet per minute (cfm) drawn through the CAMs. However, design limitations in the house vacuum result in many CAMs having less than 1 cfm being drawn through them. Reduced flow rates through CAMs present a compromise in worker protection. Laboratory Health and Safety personnel and DOE officials established a flow rate of 0.5 cfm or less as operationally unacceptable. This report quantitatively estimated the difference in risk to workers from a reduced flow rate of 0.5 cfm relative to the risk inherent with a flow rate of 1 cfm. I calculated risk in terms of Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE) and used units of rem. Estimates for the increase in risk for 0.5 cfm compared to 1 cfm ranged from 0.32 rem to 3.3 rem. The difference in the minimum alarm concentration between 0.5 cfm and I cfm was also compared and was estimated to range from 0.4 rem to 4 rem.

  11. CAMS--A Think Tank for Global Ocean Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaharl, Victoria A.

    1985-01-01

    The Center for the Analysis of Marine Systems (CAMS) was created as an interdisciplinary "think tank" to meet needs of modern oceanography. The international research center's focus and success rests on theory, observation, and computer modeling. Projects involving lava flow and year-to-year variations in abundance of fish are described. (DH)

  12. GOOSE CAM: The Development of a Practical Underwater Exploration Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Mitchell, Colleen; Miller, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    We challenged an Aquatic Biology class to find a way to access, observe, and record aquatic habitats and organisms without causing disruption. Using off the shelf components the class was guided in the design and assembly of a remote controlled, video broadcasting, data collecting, floating vehicle based on a molded goose decoy. GOOSE-CAM or…

  13. Including CAD/CAM dentistry in a dental school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Browning, William D; Reifeis, Paul; Willis, Lisa; Kirkup, Michele L

    2013-01-01

    Shaping a clinical curriculum that is appropriate for novice dentists, is based on high-quality evidence of efficacy, yet reflects current practices is challenging. CAD/CAM units have been available to dentists since the late '80s. Recent improvements in the software, hardware and the clinical performance of available all-ceramic blocks have keyed a surge in interest. Based on a careful review of the systems available and, equally importantly, a review of the research regarding the longevity of reinforced glass ceramics, IUSD decided to add training on the use of the E4D CAD/CAM system to the curriculum. Students now receive lectures, preclinical hands-on training and clinical experience in fabricating all-ceramic restorations. At present any student who is interested in providing an all-ceramic restoration for his/her patient can do so using our CAD/CAM system. In a little less than one year our undergraduate dental students have provided 125 all-ceramic crowns to their patients. Clinical faculty have been impressed with the marginal fit and esthetics of the crowns. Finally, with students designing, milling, sintering and staining the restorations the CAD/CAM systems has reduced lab costs significantly.

  14. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  15. NARSTO EPA SS HOUSTON TEXAQS2000 CAMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS HOUSTON TEXAQS2000 CAMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... TEOM Fluorescence Spectroscopy Location:  Houston, Texas Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ... Monoxide Nitrogen Oxides Ozone Surface Winds Air Temperature Humidity Solar Irradiance Particulate Matter Sulfur ...

  16. Safety Modification of Cam-and-Groove Hose Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwindt, Paul; Littlefield, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A modification has been made in the mating halves of a cam-and-groove hose coupling to prevent rapid separation of the halves in the event that the cam levers are released while the fluid in the hose is pressurized. The need for this modification arises because commercial off-the-shelf cam-and-groove hose-coupling halves do not incorporate safety features to prevent separation in the pressurized state. Especially when the pressurized fluid is compressible (e.g., steam or compressed air), the separated halves can be propelled with considerable energy, causing personal injury and/or property damage. Therefore, one purpose served by the modification is to provide for venting to release compressive energy in a contained and safe manner while preventing personal injury and/or property damage. Another purpose served by the modification, during the process of connecting the coupling halves, is to ensure that the coupling halves are properly aligned before the cam levers can be locked into position.

  17. Doing Performance Appraisal the Right Way: The CAM Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsgard, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the CAM (Clarity, Awareness, Merit Recognition) process for performance reviews in which supervisors declare personal values, expectations, and operational methods; select employee skills for enhancement and define results; provide feedback, recognition and reinforcement; and distribute merit rewards and build deeper mutual commitments to…

  18. Energy considerations in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, David L.; Olson, Jerry G.; Hannay, Cécile; Toniazzo, Thomas; Yudin, Valery; Taylor, Mark

    2015-06-30

    An error in the energy formulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is identified and corrected. Ten year AMIP simulations are compared using the correct and incorrect energy formulations. Statistics of selected primary variables all indicate physically insignificant differences between the simulations, comparable to differences with simulations initialized with rounding sized perturbations. The two simulations are so similar mainly because of an inconsistency in the application of the incorrect energy formulation in the original CAM. CAM used the erroneous energy form to determine the states passed between the parameterizations, but used a form related to the correct formulation for the state passed from the parameterizations to the dynamical core. If the incorrect form is also used to determine the state passed to the dynamical core the simulations are significantly different. In addition, CAM uses the incorrect form for the global energy fixer, but that seems to be less important. The difference of the magnitude of the fixers using the correct and incorrect energy definitions is very small.

  19. Energy considerations in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    DOE PAGES

    Williamson, David L.; Olson, Jerry G.; Hannay, Cécile; Toniazzo, Thomas; Yudin, Valery; Taylor, Mark

    2015-06-30

    An error in the energy formulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is identified and corrected. Ten year AMIP simulations are compared using the correct and incorrect energy formulations. Statistics of selected primary variables all indicate physically insignificant differences between the simulations, comparable to differences with simulations initialized with rounding sized perturbations. The two simulations are so similar mainly because of an inconsistency in the application of the incorrect energy formulation in the original CAM. CAM used the erroneous energy form to determine the states passed between the parameterizations, but used a form related to the correct formulation for themore » state passed from the parameterizations to the dynamical core. If the incorrect form is also used to determine the state passed to the dynamical core the simulations are significantly different. In addition, CAM uses the incorrect form for the global energy fixer, but that seems to be less important. The difference of the magnitude of the fixers using the correct and incorrect energy definitions is very small.« less

  20. 46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL OF UPPER STAMP BATTERIES CAMS, TAPPETS, STEMS, AND RELATIONSHIP OF BULL WHEEL (LOWER RIGHT) LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST. SEE CA-290-22 FOR A SIMILAR B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  2. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time. PMID:27004181

  3. RAPID MANUFACTURING SYSTEM OF ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS.

    PubMed

    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time.

  4. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve. The meteors assigned to the various showers are identified in the CAMS Meteoroid Orbit Database 2.0 submitted to the IAU Meteor Data Center, and can be accessed also at cams.seti.org" xlink:type="simple"

  5. Internal combustion engine and cam drive mechanism therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T.T.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a cam mechanism for driving the camshaft of a four-stroke internal combustion engine having one or more sets of n number of cylinders where n is a positive integer, a piston connected to a crankshaft and reciprocable in each cylinder and is either in phase or out of phase with any other piston in the set to which it belongs by a phase angle A/sup 0/, or an integral multiple thereof. A camshaft carries rotatable cams for actuating inlet and/or exhaust valves for each cylinder in the set. Characterized in the cam drive mechanism consist of means for rotating the camshaft with a rotational movement which is a combination of a circular motion about its axis of rotation which has a predetermined phase relationship with the circular movement of the crankshaft and an oscillatory motion about its axis of rotation to advance and retard the angular position of the cams relative to the valves with which they are associated. The oscillatory motion has a predetermined phase relationship with the crankshaft, and means for varying the amplitude of the oscillatory motion whereby the timing of the opening and closing of the valves may be varied, characterized in that the speed of the circular movement of the camshaft is half the speed of the crankshaft. The frequency of oscillations of the camshaft is f times the frequency of rotation of the crankshaft. The cam drive mechanism consists of a rotatable drive member drivable by the crankshaft. A connection is between the drive member and camshaft for transmitting the rotary motion of the drive member thereto. The connection including a sleeve element rotatable by the drive element and axially slidable relative thereto and having a helically splined connection with the camshaft whereby axial movement of the sleeve element effects a rotation of the camshaft relative to the drive member.

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  7. Evolution of CAM and C4 carbon-concentrating mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms for concentrating carbon around the Rubisco enzyme, which drives the carbon-reducing steps in photosynthesis, are widespread in plants; in vascular plants they are known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C4 photosynthesis. CAM is common in desert succulents, tropical epiphytes, and aquatic plants and is characterized by nighttime fixation of CO2. The proximal selective factor driving the evolution of this CO2-concentrating pathway is low daytime CO2, which results from the unusual reverse stomatal behavior of terrestrial CAM species or from patterns of ambient CO2 availability for aquatic CAM species. In terrestrials the ultimate selective factor is water stress that has selected for increased water use efficiency. In aquatics the ultimate selective factor is diel fluctuations in CO2 availability for palustrine species and extreme oligotrophic conditions for lacustrine species. C4 photosynthesis is based on similar biochemistry but carboxylation steps are spatially separated in the leaf rather than temporally as in CAM. This biochemical pathway is most commonly associated with a specialized leaf anatomy known as Kranz anatomy; however, there are exceptions. The ultimate selective factor driving the evolution of this pathway is excessively high photorespiration that inhibits normal C3 photosynthesis under high light and high temperature in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. CAM is an ancient pathway that likely has been present since the Paleozoic era in aquatic species from shallow-water palustrine habitats. While atmospheric CO2 levels have undoubtedly affected the evolution of terrestrial plant carbon-concentrating mechanisms, there is reason to believe that past atmospheric changes have not played as important a selective role in the aquatic milieu since palustrine habitats today are not generally carbon sinks, and the selective factors driving aquatic CAM are autogenic. Terrestrial CAM, in contrast, is of increasing selective value under

  8. Transient coupling of Ng-CAM expression to NgCAM-dependent calcium signaling during migration of new neurons in the adult songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Goldman, S A; Williams, S; Barami, K; Lemmon, V; Nedergaard, M

    1996-01-01

    The adult avian forebrain continues to generate neurons from subependymal zone (SZ) precursor cells, whose neuronal progeny migrate into the brain upon radial guide fibers. These neurons express the immunoglobulin-family adhesion molecule NgCAM, and their migration in culture is disrupted by anti-NgCAM Fab. Confocal imaging of adult zebra finch SZ loaded with the calcium indicator fluo-3, as well as ratio imaging with the indicator fura-2, revealed that migrating new neurons responded to microgram amounts of NgCAM with reversible increments in cytosolic calcium. The calcium response to NgCAM antigen was developmentally restricted, in that it was only manifested by neurons for roughly the 3- to 4-day period between 6 and 9 DIV, even though NgCAM expression persisted tonically thereafter. The period during which NgCAM elicited a calcium signal corresponded to the postmitotic age at which new, bipolar neurons leave the adult SZ to enter the brain parenchyma in vivo. Accordingly, the calcium response to NgCAM was largely limited to morphologically bipolar cells. Anti-NgCAM IgG also evoked a neuronal calcium signal over the same restricted period that NgCAM protein exerted its effect. These findings suggest a dynamic coupling and uncoupling of calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways to a stably expressed surface adhesion molecule, whose function in a given neuron may therefore evolve with cellular maturation.

  9. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  10. A comparative study of gold UCLA-type and CAD/CAM titanium implant abutments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Man; Lee, Jai-Bong; Heo, Seong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the interface accuracy of computer-assisted designed and manufactured (CAD/CAM) titanium abutments and implant fixture compared to gold-cast UCLA abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS An external connection implant system (Mark III, n=10) and an internal connection implant system (Replace Select, n=10) were used, 5 of each group were connected to milled titanium abutment and the rest were connected to the gold-cast UCLA abutments. The implant fixture and abutment were tightened to torque of 35 Ncm using a digital torque gauge, and initial detorque values were measured 10 minutes after tightening. To mimic the mastication, a cyclic loading was applied at 14 Hz for one million cycles, with the stress amplitude range being within 0 N to 100 N. After the cyclic loading, detorque values were measured again. The fixture-abutment gaps were measured under a microscope and recorded with an accuracy of ±0.1 µm at 50 points. RESULTS Initial detorque values of milled abutment were significantly higher than those of cast abutment (P<.05). Detorque values after one million dynamic cyclic loadings were not significantly different (P>.05). After cyclic loading, detorque values of cast abutment increased, but those of milled abutment decreased (P<.05). There was no significant difference of gap dimension between the milled abutment group and the cast abutment group after cyclic loading. CONCLUSION In conclusion, CAD/CAM milled titanium abutment can be fabricated with sufficient accuracy to permit screw joint stability between abutment and fixture comparable to that of the traditional gold cast UCLA abutment. PMID:24605206

  11. Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism.

    PubMed

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P; Bräutigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F; Hibberd, Julian M; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J

    2014-07-01

    CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes. PMID:24638902

  12. Family Medicine Residency Program Directors Attitudes and Knowledge of Family Medicine CAM Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Lebensohn, Patricia; Bonakdar, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Context Little is known about the incorporation of integrative medicine (IM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into family medicine residency programs. Objective The Society for Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) approved a set of CAM/IM competencies for family medicine residencies. We hope to evaluate with an online survey tool, whether residency programs are implementing such competencies into their curriculum. We also hope to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Residency Directors (RDs) on the CAM/IM competencies. Design A survey was distributed by the CAFM (Council of Academic Family Medicine) Educational Research Alliance to RDs via email. The survey was distributed to 431 RDs. Of those who received it, 212 responded for a response rate of 49.1%. Questions assessed the knowledge and attitudes of CAM/IM competencies and incorporation of CAM/IM into residency curriculum. Results Forty-five percent of RDs were aware of the competencies. In term of RD attitudes, 58% reported that CAM/IM is an important component of residents' curriculum yet, 60% report not having specific learning objectives for CAM/IM in their residency curriculum. Among all programs, barriers to CAM/IM implementation included: time in residents' schedules (77%); faculty training (75%); access to CAM experts (43%); lack of reimbursement (43%), and financial resources (29%). Conclusions While many RDs are aware of the STFM CAM/IM competencies and acknowledge their role in residence education, there are many barriers preventing residencies to implementing the STFM CAM/IM competencies. PMID:24021471

  13. How parents choose to use CAM: a systematic review of theoretical models

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Ava; Ilan-Clarke, Yael; Robinson, Nicola; Blair, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used throughout the UK and the Western world. CAM is commonly used for children and the decision-making process to use CAM is affected by numerous factors. Most research on CAM use lacks a theoretical framework and is largely based on bivariate statistics. The aim of this review was to identify a conceptual model which could be used to explain the decision-making process in parental choice of CAM. Methods A systematic search of the literature was carried out. A two-stage selection process with predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria identified studies using a theoretical framework depicting the interaction of psychological factors involved in the CAM decision process. Papers were critically appraised and findings summarised. Results Twenty two studies using a theoretical model to predict CAM use were included in the final review; only one examined child use. Seven different models were identified. The most commonly used and successful model was Andersen's Sociobehavioural Model (SBM). Two papers proposed modifications to the SBM for CAM use. Six qualitative studies developed their own model. Conclusion The SBM modified for CAM use, which incorporates both psychological and pragmatic determinants, was identified as the best conceptual model of CAM use. This model provides a valuable framework for future research, and could be used to explain child CAM use. An understanding of the decision making process is crucial in promoting shared decision making between healthcare practitioners and parents and could inform service delivery, guidance and policy. PMID:19386106

  14. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOEpatents

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1985-01-01

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270.degree. around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass 74 of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions.

  15. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOEpatents

    Sisk, F.J.

    1985-01-22

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270[degree] around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions. 7 figs.

  16. Acylinder and freeform optical manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank; DeFisher, Scott; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Aspheric cylinders have the ability to improve optical performance over standard cylindrical surfaces. Over the last several years there has also been development into the application and functionality of utilizing freeform surfaces to improve optical performance. Freeforms have the ability to not only improve image quality over a greater field of view, but can open up the design space of an optical system making it more compact. Freeform geometries, much like aspheric cylinders, may not have an axis of rotation to spin the optic about during manufacturing. This leads to costly fabrication processes and custom metrology set ups, which may inhibit their use. Over the last several years, OptiPro Systems has developed and optimized our eSX grinding, UFF and USF polishing, UltraSurf metrology, and ProSurf software programming technologies to make the processing of these complex geometries much easier and deterministic. In this paper we will discuss the challenges associated with manufacturing complex shapes like aspheric cylinders as well as freeform geometries, and how several technologies working together can overcome them. The technologies focus on metrology feedback to a grinding and polishing machine that is controlled through an iterative computer aided manufacturing software system. We will also present examples of these hard to manufacture shapes with results.

  17. Compliance assurance monitoring (CAM) plans/illustrations for control devices with prevalent applicability

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, T.S.; Levy, J.A. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The Compliance Assurance Monitoring (CAM) rule was promulgated on October 22, 1997 as 62 FR 54899. This rule generally requires that Title V facilities with active control devices apply CAM to pollutant-specific emission units to ensure that Federally enforceable emissions limitations are being met. At Title V permit renewal, smaller sources at Title V facilities also may become subject to CAM. EPA has published a draft Technical Guidance Document (TGD) for CAM (revised draft dated August 1998). This document contains applicability information, flow diagrams, indicator range development approach data, measurement system data, sample CAM plans, sample CAM illustrations, and other guidelines useful in meeting the CAM requirements for control devices on applicable pollutant-specific emission units. This poster paper illustrates CAM plans and provides illustrations of control devices likely to have prevalent CAM applicability. The poster contains a clear applicability diagram of the CAM requirements which guides the reader to other diagrams showing apparent CAM applicability for key major industry sources. Within the identified industrial sources, the most prevalent control devices have been researched and CAM plan elements displayed along with a short bibliography of references used to identify indicators and indicator ranges. Control devices currently not covered in the TGD are covered in this poster paper in addition to a couple of examples from the TGD (e.g., condensers, baghouses/dust collectors). Emphasis is given to control devices likely to be covered under CAM which have not been covered in the TGD. Examples of such control devices include sulfur recovery plant tail gas units and flue gas desulfurization units. Additionally, this poster paper graphically demonstrates a recommended approach to CAM plan development in a step-by-step manner with an explanation provided for each step.

  18. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  19. Marginal and internal fit of heat pressed versus CAD/CAM fabricated all-ceramic onlays after exposure to thermo-mechanical fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Petra C.; Vagopoulou, Thaleia; Zhang, Yu; Wolkewitz, Martin; Strub, Joerg R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of heat-pressed and CAD/CAM fabricated all-ceramic onlays before and after luting as well as after thermo-mechanical fatigue. Materials and Methods Seventy-two caries-free, extracted human mandibular molars were randomly divided into three groups (n=24/group). All teeth received an onlay preparation with a mesio-occlusal-distal inlay cavity and an occlusal reduction of all cusps. Teeth were restored with heat-pressed IPS-e.max-Press* (IP, *Ivoclar-Vivadent) and Vita-PM9 (VP, Vita-Zahnfabrik) as well as CAD/CAM fabricated IPS-e.max-CAD* (IC, Cerec 3D/InLab/Sirona) all-ceramic materials. After cementation with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (VariolinkII*), all restorations were subjected to mouth-motion fatigue (98N, 1.2 million cycles; 5°C/55°C). Marginal fit discrepancies were examined on epoxy replicas before and after luting as well as after fatigue at 200x magnification. Internal fit was evaluated by multiple sectioning technique. For the statistical analysis, a linear model was fitted with accounting for repeated measurements. Results Adhesive cementation of onlays resulted in significantly increased marginal gap values in all groups, whereas thermo-mechanical fatigue had no effect. Marginal gap values of all test groups were equal after fatigue exposure. Internal discrepancies of CAD/CAM fabricated restorations were significantly higher than both press manufactured onlays. Conclusions Mean marginal gap values of the investigated onlays before and after luting as well as after fatigue were within the clinically acceptable range. Marginal fit was not affected by the investigated heat-press versus CAD/CAM fabrication technique. Press fabrication resulted in a superior internal fit of onlays as compared to the CAD/CAM technique. Clinical Relevance Clinical requirements of 100 μm for marginal fit were fulfilled by the heat-press as well as by the CAD/CAM fabricated all-ceramic onlays

  20. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  1. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  2. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  3. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  4. Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) disclosure to the health care providers: a qualitative insight from Malaysian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abdul Shatar, Aishah Knight; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam; Saleem, Fahad; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2012-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate Malaysian oncology patients CAM disclosure to the health care providers. Patients were interviewed across three major Malaysian ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese and Indian. Thematic content analysis identified three themes: reasons of CAM disclosure, reasons of CAM non-disclosure and preference of CAM discussion to health care providers. Patients agreed that CAM disclosure is important to avoid any interaction with the conventional medicines. Perceived lack of physicians' knowledge & interest in CAM, fear of termination of therapy by the physicians upon CAM disclosure, and perceived simplicity of some of the CAM therapies were among the reasons of non-disclosure. Given the option of oncologists, pharmacists or nurses, patients described oncologists as the most suitable person to discuss or disclose CAM use due to confidence in their clinical skills. Understanding the underlying beliefs of patients' reluctance to disclose CAM to health care providers is important especially when they are on an ongoing treatment for cancer.

  5. The faulty statistics of complementary alternative medicine (CAM).

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-09-01

    The authors illustrate the difficulties involved in obtaining a valid statistical significance in clinical studies especially when the prior probability of the hypothesis under scrutiny is low. Since the prior probability of a research hypothesis is directly related to its scientific plausibility, the commonly used frequentist statistics, which does not take into account this probability, is particularly unsuitable for studies exploring matters in various degree disconnected from science such as complementary alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. Any statistical significance obtained in this field should be considered with great caution and may be better applied to more plausible hypotheses (like placebo effect) than that examined - which usually is the specific efficacy of the intervention. Since achieving meaningful statistical significance is an essential step in the validation of medical interventions, CAM practices, producing only outcomes inherently resistant to statistical validation, appear not to belong to modern evidence-based medicine.

  6. High-performance CAM-based Prolog execution scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Yahia, Tahar; Dana, Michel

    1991-03-01

    In this paper, we present an execution scheme allowing a direct and a pipeline evaluation of a Prolog Program. The execution scheme enhances Prolog performances in interpreted mode, by means of associative processing tools embodied in Content Addressable Memories and potential parallelism existing between clauses selection, unification, and access to clause arguments. The interpretation algorithm is distributed on several processing units, which are Content Addressable Memories (CAMs). These latter are generic and reconfigurable dealing with much more Artificial Intelligence applications, through improved target languages like Prolog, Lisp, and Object oriented languages. The model has been evaluated with a functional simulator written in Le-lisp. The results show the CAMs feasibility in improving Prolog execution at performances greater than 160 KLIPS, in interpreted mode.

  7. ChemCam Passive Reflectance Spectroscopy at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gasnault, O.; Kinch, K. M.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rice, M. S.; Wiens, R. C.; DeFlores, L.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) portion of the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover uses 3 dispersive spectrometers to cover the ultraviolet (240-342 nm), visible (382-469 nm) and visible/near-infrared (474-906 nm) spectral regions at high spectral (<0.5nm) and spatial (0.65mrad) resolution. In active LIBS mode, light emitted from a laser-generated plasma is dispersed onto these spectrometers and used to detect elemental emission lines. Typical observations include 3 msec-exposure 'dark' spectra (acquired with the LIBS laser off) used to remove the background signal from the LIBS measurement. Similar 'passive' observations of the ChemCam calibration target holder can be made at similar times of day and at identical exposure times (to minimize variations from dark current). Because this target exhibits ~95% flat reflectance in the ~400-900 nm region, radiance spectra ratios (surface/calibration target) can be normalized to known calibration target lab spectra to produce relative reflectance spectra (400-900 nm) with an estimated accuracy of 10-20%. Initial results replicated the known spectral shape and overall reflectance values of the ChemCam calibration targets and green color chip on the Mastcam calibration target. Dust contamination was evident, although dust on the ChemCam calibration targets is minimized by their tilted placement on the rover deck. All ChemCam targets that were sunlit during LIBS acquisition (~80% of all measurements) provide 'dark' spectra for which relative reflectance spectra can be obtained. Owing to the dusty nature of the Gale landing sites, passive spectra observed to date exhibit spectral shapes indicative of ferric phases, similar to spectra of palagonitic soils. Most spectra are bracketed in reflectance by typical 'bright' and 'dark' spectra from the OMEGA and CRISM orbital spectrometers. Preliminary Mastcam reflectance spectra are similar, providing additional confidence regarding the

  8. The SuperCam Instrument for the Mars2020 Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Le Mouélic, S.; Anderson, R.; Beyssac, O.; Bonal, L.; Clegg, S.; DeFlores, L.; Dromart, G.; Fischer, W.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J.; Johnson, J.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Mangold, N.; McLennan, S.; Montmessin, F.; Rull, F.; Sharma, S.

    2015-10-01

    Micro-scale characterization of the mineralogy and elemental chemistry of the Martian surface, along with the search for organic materials, are fundamental investigations that lay the groundwork for all types of Mars geochemistry and astrobiology investigations. SuperCam, being developed for the Mars 2020 rover, is a suite of four co-aligned instruments that remotely provide these critical observations via Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman spectroscopy, timeresolved fluorescence (TRF), visible and nearinfrared spectroscopy (VISIR), and high resolution color remote micro-imaging (RMI) (Fig. 1). The LIBS, VIS, and RMI capabilities rely heavily on heritage from the ChemCam instrument on MSL [e.g. 1]. Information on the LIBS, Raman, and TRF investigations and their implementation can be found in [2]. VISIR is described in [3] and RMI in [4].

  9. Compact Atomic Magnetometer for Global Navigation (NAV-CAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Northrop Grumman Navigation Systems Division is developing an atom-based magnetometer technology that has the potential for providing a global position reference independent of GPS. The NAV-CAM sensor is a direct outgrowth of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyro under development by the same technical team. It will be the only known magnetic field sensor capable of providing all 3 axes of magnetic vector direction and magnitude simultaneously with a whole-field scalar measurement, all within a single multi-axis sensing element measuring 4mm cube or smaller, essentially eliminating many of the problems encountered when using physically separate sensors or sensing elements. According to information presented by Ariyur et al. at the 2010 American Control Conference [1], the anticipated accuracy of 10 pico-Tesla (pT) and precision of <0.5 pT of the NAV-CAM sensor will enable magnetic determination of position with 20 meter accuracy and 1 meter resolution.

  10. First observations with SuperCam and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloosterman, Jenna; Cottam, Tiara; Swift, Brandon; Lesser, David; Schickling, Paul; Groppi, Christopher; Borden, Michael; Towner, Allison; Schmidt, Per; Kulesa, Craig; d'Aubigny, Christian; Walker, Christopher; Golish, Dathon; Weinreb, Sander; Jones, Glenn; Mani, Hamdi; Kooi, Jacob; Lichtenberger, Art; Puetz, Patrick; Narayanan, Gopal

    2012-09-01

    Supercam is a 345 GHz, 64-pixel heterodyne imaging array for the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (HHSMT). By integrating SIS mixer devices with Low Noise Ampliers (LNAs) in 8 - 1x8 pixel modules, the size needed for the cryostat and the complexity of internal wiring is signicantly reduced. All subsystems including the optics, cryostat, bias system, IF boxes, and spectrometer have been integrated for all 64 pixels. In the spring of 2012, SuperCam was installed on the HHSMT for an engineering run where it underwent system level tests and performed rst light observations. In the fall of 2012 SuperCam will begin a 500 square degree survey of the Galactic Plane in 12CO J=3-2. This large-scale survey will help answer fundamental questions about the formation, physical conditions, and energetics of molecular clouds within the Milky Way. The data set will be available via the web to all interested researchers.

  11. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  12. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries. PMID:6100848

  13. Group technology methods for integrated CAD/CAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propen, M.; Jacko, J.

    1984-10-01

    The use of a single product definition and comprehensive database are key factors in integrating CAD and CAM. This paper describes one approach for investigating the scope of developing a full scale Group Technology (GT) system. The prototype GT system discussed required the integration of a decision logic processor, relational database, and design/drafting system, and demonstrated a generative process planning system for a family of gas turbine engine components.

  14. Surgical hip dislocation for treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Milind M; Chaudhary, Ishani M; Vikas, KN; KoKo, Aung; Zaw, Than; Siddhartha, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cam femoroacetabular impingement is caused by a misshapen femoral head with a reduced head neck offset, commonly in the anterolateral quadrant. Friction in flexion, adduction and internal rotation causes limitation of the hip movements and pain progressively leading to labral and chondral damage and osteoarthritis. Surgical hip dislocation described by Ganz permits full exposure of the hip without damaging its blood supply. An osteochondroplasty removes the bump at the femoral head neck junction to recreate the offset for impingement free movement. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients underwent surgery with surgical hip dislocation for the treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement by open osteochondroplasty over last 6 years. Eight patients suffered from sequelae of avascular necrosis (AVN). Three had a painful dysplastic hip. Two had sequelae of Perthes disease. Three had combined cam and pincer impingement caused by retroversion of acetabulum. All patients were operated by the trochanteric flip osteotomy with attachments of gluteus medius and vastus lateralis, dissection was between the piriformis and gluteus minimus preserving the external rotators. Z-shaped capsular incision and dislocation of the hip was done in external rotation. Three cases also had subtrochanteric osteotomy. Two cases of AVN also had an intraarticular femoral head reshaping osteotomy. Results: Goals of treatment were achieved in all patients. No AVN was detected after a 6 month followup. There were no trochanteric nonunions. Hip range of motion improved in all and Harris hip score improved significantly in 15 of 16 cases. Mean alpha angle reduced from 86.13° (range 66°–108°) to 46.35° (range 39°–58°). Conclusion: Cam femoroacetabular Impingement causing pain and limitation of hip movements was treated by open osteochondroplasty after surgical hip dislocation. This reduced pain, improved hip motion and gave good to excellent results in the short term. PMID

  15. Web-based Hyper Suprime-Cam Data Providing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, M.; Furusawa, H.; Takata, T.; Price, P.; Okura, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yamanoi, H.; Yasuda, N.; Bickerton, S.; Katayama, N.; Mineo, S.; Lupton, R.; Bosch, J.; Loomis, C.

    2014-05-01

    We describe a web-based user interface to retrieve Hyper Suprime-Cam data products, including images and. Users can access data directly from a graphical user interface or by writing a database SQL query. The system provides raw images, reduced images and stacked images (from multiple individual exposures), with previews available. Catalog queries can be executed in preview or queue mode, allowing for both exploratory and comprehensive investigations.

  16. Integrated CAD/CAM: Problems, prognosis, and role of IPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilson, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Major technology problems impede the development and evolution of totally integrated interactive CAD/CAM systems. IPAD is playing an important role in the identification of these problems and is contributing significantly to their solution. It is the purpose of this presentation to examine some of these issues, look at the prognosis of obtaining effective solutions, and point up some of the past and expected contributions of IPAD to this technology.

  17. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    ScienceCinema

    Wiens, Roger

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  18. ChemCam rock laser for Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity"

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger

    2010-09-03

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. The Flight Model was shipped in August, 2010 for installation on the rover at JPL. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components were concurrently assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2011. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  19. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-03-24

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  20. ChemCam Rock Laser for the Mars Science Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instr... Los Alamos has a long history of space-related instruments, tied primarily to its role in defense-related treaty verification. Space-based detectors have helped determine the differences between signals from lightning bolts and potential nuclear explosions. LANL-developed gamma-ray detection instruments first revealed the existence of what we now know as gamma-ray bursts, an exciting area of astrophysical research. And the use of LANL instruments on varied space missions continues with such products as the ChemCam rock laser for NASA, shown here. The Engineering Model of the ChemCam Mars Science Laboratory rover instrument arrived at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory on February 6, 2008. ChemCam will use imaging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine rock and soil compositions on Mars, up to 9 meters from the rover. The engineering model is being integrated into the rover test bed for the development and testing of the rover software. The actual flight model components are concurrently being assembled at Los Alamos and in Toulouse, France, and will be delivered to JPL in July. The Mars Science Laboratory is scheduled to launch in 2009. Animations courtesy of JPL/NASA.

  1. CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of research studies that were carried out with a PC-based task environment called Cabin Air Management System (CAMS) simulating the operation of a spacecraft's life support system. As CAMS was a multiple task environment, it allowed the measurement of performance at different levels. Four task components of different priority were embedded in the task environment: diagnosis and repair of system faults, maintaining atmospheric parameters in a safe state, acknowledgement of system alarms (reaction time), and keeping a record of critical system resources (prospective memory). Furthermore, the task environment permitted the examination of different task management strategies and changes in crew member state (fatigue, anxiety, mental effort). A major goal of the research programme was to examine how crew members adapted to various forms of sub-optimal working conditions, such as isolation and confinement, sleep deprivation and noise. None of the studies provided evidence for decrements in primary task performance. However, the results showed a number of adaptive responses of crew members to adjust to the different sub-optimal working conditions. There was evidence for adjustments in information sampling strategies (usually reductions in sampling frequency) as a result of unfavourable working conditions. The results also showed selected decrements in secondary task performance. Prospective memory seemed to be somewhat more vulnerable to sub-optimal working conditions than performance on the reaction time task. Finally, suggestions are made for future research with the CAMS environment.

  2. An analysis of parameterization interactions and sensitivity of single-column model simulations to convection schemes in CAM4 and CAM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaocong; Zhang, Minghua

    2013-08-01

    This paper uses different deep convection triggering functions and closure assumptions in two versions of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM4 and CAM5) to investigate the interactions of parameterization components and the sensitivity of single-column model simulations of tropical convection. The schemes include those used in the standard CAM4 and CAM5 as well as two variants used in other global models. Large-scale forcing and verification data are from the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment and Kwajalein Experiment field campaigns during which many deep and shallow convective events were observed. Results show that in both CAM4 and CAM5, when the intensity of deep convection decreases as a result of parameterization change, the intensity of shallow convection increases, leading to little change in the total simulated precipitation but very different changes in precipitation types. The different precipitation types manifest themselves in other measures of model performances including temperature and humidity. The standard CAM4 and CAM5 both simulated warm bias in the middle troposphere and dry bias in the lower troposphere. In experiments where deep convection is reduced, these biases are also reduced, but the associated changes in shallow convection create new patterns of model biases. Results imply the need to use multiple independent observations simultaneously to constrain models so that the degrees of model freedom are reduced and to treat model physical parameterizations as an integrated system rather than individual components.

  3. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product manufacture interactions with the design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowell, H. A.

    1979-01-01

    The product manufacturing interactions with the design process and the IPAD requirements to support the interactions are described. The data requirements supplied to manufacturing by design are identified and quantified. Trends in computer-aided manufacturing are discussed and the manufacturing process of the 1980's is anticipated.

  4. Widespread Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Osian, S. Rausch; Leal, A.D.; Allmer, C.; Maurer, M.J.; Nowakowski, G.; Inwards, D.J.; Macon, W.R.; Ehlers, S.L.; Weiner, G.J.; Habermann, T.M.; Cerhan, J.R.; Thompson, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies examining complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and beliefs among non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) survivors. 719 NHL patients from the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Molecular Epidemiology Resource who completed the 3-year post-diagnosis questionnaire were included in this study. 636 (89%) reported ever using CAM, with 78% utilizing vitamins, 54% alternative therapies and 45% herbals. Female gender was associated with increased overall CAM use (P<.0001) as well as use of vitamins (P<.0001), herbals (P=.006) and alternative therapy (P=.0002) for cancer. Older age (>60) was associated with increased vitamin use (P=.005) and decreased herbal use (P=.008). Among users, 143 (20%) believe CAM assists healing, 123 (17%) believe CAM relieves symptoms, 122 (17%) believe CAM gives a feeling of control, 110 (15%) believe CAM assists other treatments, 108 (15%) believe CAM boosts immunity, 26 (4%) believe CAM cures cancer, and 36 (5%) believe CAM prevents the spread of cancer. PMID:24745936

  5. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3–CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3–CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. PMID:26717954

  6. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  7. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  8. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  9. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-22

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  10. Computer-aided lens assembly.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Richard; Alcock, Rob; Petzing, Jon; Coupland, Jeremy

    2004-01-20

    We propose a computer-aided method of lens manufacture that allows assembly, adjustment, and test phases to be run concurrently until an acceptable level of optical performance is reached. Misalignment of elements within a compound lens is determined by a comparison of the results of physical ray tracing by use of an array of Gaussian laser beams with numerically obtained geometric ray traces. An estimate of misalignment errors is made, and individual elements are adjusted in an iterative manner until performance criteria are achieved. The method is illustrated for the alignment of an air-spaced doublet. PMID:14765916

  11. Evaluating Rare Amino Acid Substitutions (RGC_CAMs) in a Yeast Model Clade

    PubMed Central

    Polzin, Kenneth; Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions) requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution). We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity. PMID:24637883

  12. EpCAM modulates NF-κB signaling and interleukin-8 expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sankpal, Narendra V; Fleming, Timothy P; Gillanders, William E

    2013-04-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a 40-kD type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in human epithelial cancers and is currently the target of molecular therapy based on its overexpression at the cell surface. Recently, we and others have shown a role for EpCAM in cell signaling and carcinogenesis, and EpCAM expression seems to promote breast cancer invasion. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is an inflammatory cytokine that has recently been shown to modulate breast cancer invasion and angiogenesis. In preliminary experiments, we identified a correlation between EpCAM and IL-8 expression in primary human breast cancers. Specific ablation of EpCAM in breast cancer cell lines results in decreased IL-8 expression, and IL-8 contributes to EpCAM-dependent breast cancer invasion. Specific ablation of EpCAM is also associated with decreased NF-κB transcription factor activity, decreased phosphorylation of the NF-κB family member RELA, and increased IκBα protein expression. EpCAM modulates IL-8 expression at baseline, and following IL-1β stimulation, which is known to be a potent inducer of NF-κB in breast cancer. In functional rescue experiments, specific ablation of RELA or forced expression of the NF-κB inhibitor protein IκBα prevented EpCAM-dependent rescue of IL-8 promoter activity. These studies show for the first time that EpCAM can modulate NF-κB transcription factor activity and IL-8 expression in breast cancer and confirm the role of EpCAM signaling in modulating breast cancer invasion. Further study is required to define the molecular mechanism(s) of EpCAM signaling in breast cancer and to direct the rational development of molecular therapies targeting EpCAM.

  13. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  14. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  15. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  16. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  17. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  18. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (<2-3 microns) composition is analyzed on the first shot of each Mars target. It is reproducible over time and present a composition characteristic of the global martian fine dust, which covers the entire planet and contributes to the local geology analyzed by MSL. Its composition can also be retrieved on the ChemCam Calibration Targets (CCCT) by subtraction of the well characterized CCCT spectra. The CCCT include eight glasses and ceramics that have been generated to simulate Martian rocks of interest and two targets of a single element (graphite for carbon and an alloy of titanium). ChemCam passive spectroscopy also indicates varying deposition of the dust cover on the CCCT.Major elements are quantified and shown to be very similar to the fine soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely

  19. Pattern and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among pediatric patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jan H; Reuner, Gitta; Kadish, Navah E; Pietz, Joachim; Schubert-Bast, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Parents of pediatric patients with chronic conditions such as epilepsy increasingly opt for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, data on the pattern and reasons of CAM use in childhood epilepsy are scarce. The objectives of this study were as follows: first, to characterize CAM use among pediatric patients with epilepsy by assessing its spectrum, prevalence, costs, and frequency of use; second, to evaluate the influence of CAM use on compliance and satisfaction with conventional care as well as to explore parent-child neurologist communication concerning CAM; and third, to investigate predictors of CAM use. A postal survey was administered to all parents of pediatric outpatients with epilepsy aged 6 to 12, who have received treatment at the neuropediatric outpatient clinic of the University Children's Hospital Heidelberg between 2007 and 2009. One hundred thirty-two of the 297 distributed questionnaires were suitable for inclusion in statistical analysis (44.7%). Forty-nine participants indicated that their children used CAM during the previous year (37.1%). Thirty different types of CAM were used, with homeopathy (55.1%), osteopathy (24.5%), and kinesiology (16.3%) being the most commonly named. A mean of 86€ (0€-500€) and 3h (1 h-30 h) per month was committed to CAM treatment. Only 53% of the users informed their child neurologist of the additional CAM treatment, while 85.6% of all parents wished to discuss CAM options with their child neurologist. Seventy-five percent of users considered the CAM treatment effective. Among the participants most likely to seek CAM treatment are parents whose children show a long duration of epileptic symptoms, parents who make use of CAM treatment themselves, and parents who value a holistic and natural treatment approach. A substantial portion of pediatric patients with epilepsy receive CAM treatment. The high prevalence of use and significant level of financial and time resources spent on CAM indicate the

  20. ChemCam Targeted Science at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Clark, B. C.; Bridges, N. T.; Clegg, S. M.; Maurice, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Vaniman, D. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ollila, A. M.; Gasnault, O.; Pinet, P. C.; Dromart, G.; Barraclough, B. L.; Lasue, J.

    2011-12-01

    The MSL rover, Curiosity, uses a novel remote-sensing instrument, ChemCam, which combines laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with a high resolution remote micro-imager (RMI). ChemCam uses a focused, pulsed laser beam at targets up to 7 m away to excite a light-emitting plasma. Spectral analysis identifies elements present and provides rapid semi-quantitative analyses. Repeated laser pulses remove dust and weathering coatings from rock samples to depths >0.5 mm and ~0.4 mm in diameter. The RMI, with ~20x20 mrad field of view, provides a broad-band image with 100 μm resolution. LIBS yields abundances of H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zr, Rb, Sr, As, Ba, and Pb. Interference from atmospheric constituents raises the detection limits of C, N, and O (e.g., >2% wt for C). LIBS is very sensitive to alkali and alkali earth elements, with some detection limits to ~1 ppm at close range. Conversely, LIBS is insensitive to F, Cl, S, P, and N, with detection limits of several wt. %. Pointing accuracy is ~3 mrad, however relative pointing accuracy is better, so line scans and rasters will enable analyses of targeted features to ~1 mm. At Gale Crater, determination of elements not previously analyzed in-situ, i.e., H, Li, Rb, Sr, and Ba, along with other elements will constrain aqueous, hydrothermal and vapor geochemical transport processes. Initial analyses after landing will characterize air fall dust and weathering coatings on local rocks, and profile the soil and surfacial materials including bedforms to investigate compositional differences in near-surface layers. Targets within the landing ellipse include fan and inverted channel deposits derived from the crater rim, which may contain alteration minerals produced by impact hydrothermal processes. Enigmatic deposits with bright fracture fill could represent lake sediments modified by injection of deposits from groundwater. During the drive to the Gale mound, ChemCam will

  1. Marginal fit of heat-pressed vs. CAD/CAM processed all-ceramic onlays using a milling unit prototype.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Gozdowski, Stephan; Trentzsch, Lars; Frankenberger, Roland; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The composite luting gap between ceramic and dental hard tissue can be termed an "Achilles heel". Therefore, one major goal of luting ceramics focuses on minimizing the inter-marginal gap area. This study evaluated the marginal accuracy of two all-ceramic systems. The null hypothesis was that there is no statistical difference between the marginal accuracy of the IPS Empress and Cerec 3D all-ceramic systems. On 16 casts, representing different clinical situations, the left first mandibular molar was prepared to receive large onlays (MOD and replacement of the distobuccal and distal cusps). For each cavity, one laboratory heat-pressed (IPS Empress) and one chairside CAD/CAM restoration (Cerec 3D) were manufactured. A newly developed milling unit was used for CAM processing. The restorations were placed in their respective cavities and die replicas were taken and examined under SEM for quantitative gap measurement. The gap width was measured at 11 defined landmarks by two different examiners. An overall gap width of 56 microm (+/- 31 microm) was measured for IPS Empress, compared to the significantly increased value of 70 pm (+/- 32 microm) for Cerec 3D. From a clinical viewpoint, the statistically significant difference between the two systems is not relevant, since both systems still exhibit a clinically acceptable gap width of less than 100 microm.

  2. Computer-Aided Quantification of Interstitial Lung Disease from High Resolution Computed Tomography Images in Systemic Sclerosis: Correlation with Visual Reader-Based Score and Physiologic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Bosello, Silvia; Bichisecchi, Elisabetta; Giuseppetti, Gianmarco; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of a computerized-aided method (CaM) for quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis and to determine its correlation with the conventional visual reader-based score (CoVR) and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. All patients underwent chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scored by two radiologists adopting the CoVR. All HRCT images were then analysed by a CaM using a DICOM software. The relationships among the lung segmentation analysis, the readers, and the PFTs results were calculated using linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed for determination of CaM extent threshold. Results. A strong correlation between CaM and CoVR was observed (P < 0.0001). The CaM showed a significant negative correlation with forced vital capacity (FVC) (P < 0.0001) and the single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLco) (P < 0.0001). A CaM optimal extent threshold of 20% represented the best compromise between sensitivity (75.6%) and specificity (97.4%). Conclusions. CaM quantification of SSc-ILD can be useful in the assessment of extent of lung disease and may provide reliable tool in daily clinical practice and clinical trials. PMID:25629053

  3. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    conditions were successfully treated with antibiotics, and only 1% to 2% required surgical revision. Less than 1% required removal of the fixture. Other complications included failure to osseointegrate and loss of fixture and/or abutment due to trauma or infection. Effectiveness Studies showed that BAHAs were implanted in people who have conduction or mixed hearing loss, congenital atresia or suppurative otitis media who were not candidates for surgical repair, and who cannot use conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The need for BAHA is not age- related. Objective audiometric measures and subjective patient satisfaction surveys showed that BAHA significantly improved the unaided and aided free field and sound field thresholds as well as speech discrimination in quiet and in noise for former users of conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The outcomes were ambiguous for former users of air conduction hearing aids. BAHA has been shown to reduce the frequency of ear infection and reduce the discharge particularly among patients with suppurative otitis media. Patients have reported that BAHA improved their quality of life. Reported benefits were improved speech intelligibility, better sound comfort, less pressure on the head, less skin irritation, greater cosmetic acceptance and increase in confidence. Main reported shortcomings were wind noise, feedback and difficulty in using the telephone. Experts and the BAHA manufacturer recommended that recipients of a BAHA implant be at least 5 years old. Challenges associated with the implantation of BAHA in pediatric patients include thin bone, soft bone, higher rates of fixture loss due to trauma, psychological problems, and higher revision rates due to rapid bone growth. The overall outcomes are comparable to adult BAHA. The benefits of pediatric BAHA (e.g. on speech development) appear to outweigh the disadvantages. Screening according to strict eligibility criteria, preoperative counselling, close monitoring by a physician

  4. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  5. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  6. Blade Manufacturing Improvement: Remote Blade Manufacturing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate manufacturing improvements for wind turbine blades. The program included a series of test activities to evaluate the strength, deflection, performance, and loading characteristics of the prototype blades. The original contract was extended in order to continue development of several key blade technologies identified in the project. The objective of the remote build task was to demonstrate the concept of manufacturing wind turbine blades at a temporary manufacturing facility in a rural environment. TPI Composites successfully completed a remote manufacturing demonstration in which four blades were fabricated. The remote demonstration used a manufacturing approach which relied upon material ''kits'' that were organized in the factory and shipped to the site. Manufacturing blades at the wind plant site presents serious logistics difficulties and does not appear to be the best approach. A better method appears to be regional manufacturing facilities, which will eliminate most of the transportation cost, without incurring the logistical problems associated with fabrication directly onsite. With this approach the remote facilities would use commonly available industrial infrastructure such as enclosed workbays, overhead cranes, and paved staging areas. Additional fatigue testing of the M20 root stud design was completed with good results. This design provides adhesive bond strength under fatigue loading that exceeds that of the fastener. A new thru-stud bonding concept was developed for the M30 stud design. This approach offers several manufacturing advantages; however, the test results were inconclusive.

  7. Evaluation of direct and indirect additive manufacture of maxillofacial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Eggbeer, Dominic; Bibb, Richard; Evans, Peter; Ji, Lu

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy of computer-aided technologies in the design and manufacture of maxillofacial prostheses has not been fully proven. This paper presents research into the evaluation of direct and indirect additive manufacture of a maxillofacial prosthesis against conventional laboratory-based techniques. An implant/magnet-retained nasal prosthesis case from a UK maxillofacial unit was selected as a case study. A benchmark prosthesis was fabricated using conventional laboratory-based techniques for comparison against additive manufactured prostheses. For the computer-aided workflow, photogrammetry, computer-aided design and additive manufacture (AM) methods were evaluated in direct prosthesis body fabrication and indirect production using an additively manufactured mould. Qualitative analysis of position, shape, colour and edge quality was undertaken. Mechanical testing to ISO standards was also used to compare the silicone rubber used in the conventional prosthesis with the AM material. Critical evaluation has shown that utilising a computer-aided work-flow can produce a prosthesis body that is comparable to that produced using existing best practice. Technical limitations currently prevent the direct fabrication method demonstrated in this paper from being clinically viable. This research helps prosthesis providers understand the application of a computer-aided approach and guides technology developers and researchers to address the limitations identified.

  8. Mid-range shoulder instability modeled as a cam-follower mechanism.

    PubMed

    Willemot, Laurent; Thoreson, Andrew; Ryan Breighner; Hooke, Alexander; Verborgt, Olivier; An, Kai-Nan

    2015-07-16

    In this paper, we model a simplified glenohumeral joint as a cam-follower mechanism during experimental simulated dislocation. Thus, humeral head trajectory and translational forces are predicted using only contact surface geometry and compressive forces as function inputs. We demonstrate this new interpretation of glenohumeral stability and verify the accuracy of the method by physically testing a custom-molded, idealized shoulder model and comparing data to the output of the 2D mathematical model. Comparison of translational forces between experimental and mathematical approaches resulted in r(2) of 0.88 and 0.90 for the small and large humeral head sizes, respectively. Comparison of the lateral displacement resulted in r(2) of 0.99 and 0.98 for the small and larger humeral head sizes, respectively. Comparing translational forces between experiments and the mathematical model when varying the compressive force to 30 N, 60 N, and 90 N resulted in r(2) of 0.90, 0.82, and 0.89, respectively. The preliminary success of this study is motivation to introduce the effects of soft tissue such as cartilage and validation with a cadaver model. The use of simple mathematical models such as this aid in the set-up and understanding of experiments in stability research and avoid unnecessary depletion of cadaveric resources. PMID:25865644

  9. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program.

  10. The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hollyer, Taras; Boon, Heather; Georgousis, Alexia; Smith, Michael; Einarson, Adrienne

    2002-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) affects two-thirds of pregnant women to varying degrees and over the years many modalities have been used to try to alleviate this often debilitating condition. There is a paucity of information in the literature about the use or efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of this condition that affects so many women. Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments. Methods Women who called The Motherisk NVP helpline, were asked after the counseling session to complete a questionnaire, which included demographic data as well as information about their CAM use. Results Seventy women completed the questionnaire. 61% reported using CAM therapies, of which the three most popular were: ginger, vitamin B6 and acupressure. 21% of those who reported using CAM, had consulted CAM practitioners, 8% their physicians or pharmacists and 71% discussed the usage with family, friends and other allied health professionals. Women who did not use CAM stated they would probably use these modalities if there was more information about the safety in pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant women with NVP are mirroring the trend in the general population of the use of CAM. They are also using CAM therapies with little supervision from practitioners experienced in the use of these modalities. PMID:12033990

  11. Optimized large-capacity content addressable memory (CAM) for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Tumar, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    A content addressable memory system includes CAM cells, each having a compare circuit and a memory bit cell that stores complementary bits. The main CAM design challenge is to reduce power consumption associated with large amount of parallel switching circuitry, without sacrificing speed or density. In this paper, we present a new technique to eliminate crowbar current during bit-cell write operation (saving 0.0114mA per cell in 22nm process), reduce average current consumption during cam operation and eliminate the need for routing the complementary data to every cam cell, saving routing track in smaller node technology where wire cap is dominant.

  12. Nucleic acid encoding DS-CAM proteins and products related thereto

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, Julie R.

    2005-11-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there are provided Down Syndrome-Cell Adhesion Molecule (DS-CAM) proteins. Nucleic acid sequences encoding such proteins and assays employing same are also disclosed. The invention DS-CAM proteins can be employed in a variety of ways, for example, for the production of anti-DS-CAM antibodies thereto, in therapeutic compositions and methods employing such proteins and/or antibodies. DS-CAM proteins are also useful in bioassays to identify agonists and antagonists thereto.

  13. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program. PMID:25314111

  14. An artificial electron donor supported catalytic cycle of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450{sub cam}

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Swati . E-mail: swati@scripps.edu; Murugan, Rajamanickam; Mitra, Samaresh

    2005-09-23

    Putidaredoxin (PdX), the physiological effector of cytochrome P450{sub cam} (P450{sub cam}), serves to gate electron transfer into oxy-P450{sub cam} during the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. Redox-linked structural changes in PdX are necessary for the effective P450{sub cam} turnover reaction. PdX is believed to be difficult to be replaced by an artificial electron donor in the reaction pathway of P450{sub cam}. We demonstrate that the catalytic cycle of wild-type P450{sub cam} can be supported in the presence of an artificial reductant, potassium ferrocyanide. Upon rapid mixing of ferrocyanide ion with P450{sub cam}, we observed an intermediate with spectral features characteristic of compound I. The rate constant for the formation of compound I in the presence of ferrocyanide supported reaction cycle was found to be comparable to the ones observed for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} supported compound I formation in wild-type P450{sub cam}, but was much lower than those observed for classical peroxidases. The results presented in this paper form the first kinetic analysis of this intermediate for an artificial electron-driven P450{sub cam} catalytic pathway in solution.

  15. A review of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Sherri A

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, unpredictable disease of the central nervous system without a known cure. Because of this, people with MS often seek complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) to manage their disease symptoms. The goal of this review article was to describe the use of CAM by individuals diagnosed with MS. Evidence was obtained by searching Medline (1950-2007), EBSCOhost and PubMed for studies relating CAM to MS. Results from the literature showed that people with MS reported that they used CAM from 27 to 100%. The major reasons for choosing CAM were as follows: conventional treatment was not effective, anecdotal reports of CAM's help, and doctor referral. The types of CAM reported by people with MS included exercise, vitamins, herbal and mineral supplements, relaxation techniques, acupuncture, cannabis and massage. The major symptoms treated by CAM as noted in the literature were pain, fatigue and stress. There is a need for further research to evaluate the effectiveness of CAM with MS patients and their application by occupational therapists. The limitation of this literature review was the low response rate in many of the surveys reported.

  16. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2002-06-19

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002).

  17. A Sensitivity Study of Radiative Fluxes at the Top of Atmosphere to Cloud-Microphysics and Aerosol Parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; McFarlane, Sally A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Ben; Ma, Po-Lun; Yan, Huiping; Bao, Jie

    2013-11-08

    In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of net radiative fluxes (FNET) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to 16 selected uncertain parameters mainly related to the cloud microphysics and aerosol schemes in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). We adopted a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach to effectively explore the high dimensional parameter space. The output response variables (e.g., FNET) were simulated using CAM5 for each parameter set, and then evaluated using generalized linear model analysis. In response to the perturbations of these 16 parameters, the CAM5-simulated global annual mean FNET ranges from -9.8 to 3.5 W m-2 compared to the CAM5-simulated FNET of 1.9 W m-2 with the default parameter values. Variance-based sensitivity analysis was conducted to show the relative contributions of individual parameter perturbation to the global FNET variance. The results indicate that the changes in the global mean FNET are dominated by those of cloud forcing (CF) within the parameter ranges being investigated. The size threshold parameter related to auto-conversion of cloud ice to snow is confirmed as one of the most influential parameters for FNET in the CAM5 simulation. The strong heterogeneous geographic distribution of FNET variation shows parameters have a clear localized effect over regions where they are acting. However, some parameters also have non-local impacts on FNET variance. Although external factors, such as perturbations of anthropogenic and natural emissions, largely affect FNET variations at the regional scale, their impact is weaker than that of model internal parameters in terms of simulating global mean FNET in this study. The interactions among the 16 selected parameters contribute a relatively small portion of the total FNET variations over most regions of the globe. This study helps us better understand the CAM5 model behavior associated with parameter uncertainties, which will aid the next step of reducing model

  18. EpCAM Knockdown Alters MicroRNA Expression in Retinoblastoma- Functional Implication of EpCAM Regulated MiRNA in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Beta, Madhu; Khetan, Vikas; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Suganeswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    The co-ordinated regulation of oncogenes along with miRNAs play crucial role in carcinogenesis. In retinoblastoma (RB), several miRNAs are known to be differentially expressed. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) gene is involved in many epithelial cancers including, retinoblastoma (RB) tumorigenesis. EpCAM silencing effectively reduces the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. In order to investigate whether EpCAM has wider effect as an inducer or silencer of miRNAs, we performed a global microRNA expression profile in EpCAM siRNA knockdown Y79 cells. MicroRNA profiling in EpCAM silenced Y79 cells showed seventy-three significantly up regulated and thirty-six down regulated miRNAs. A subset of these miRNAs was also validated in tumors. Functional studies on Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells transfected with antagomirs against two miRNAs of miR-181c and miR-130b showed striking changes in tumor cell properties in RB cells. Treatment with anti-miR-181c and miR-130b showed significant decrease in cell viability and cell invasion. Increase in caspase-3 level was noticed in antagomir transfected cell lines indicating the induction of apoptosis. Possible genes altered by EpCAM influenced microRNAs were predicted by bioinformatic tools. Many of these belong to pathways implicated in cancer. The study shows significant influence of EpCAM on global microRNA expression. EpCAM regulated miR-181c and miR-130b may play significant roles in RB progression. EpCAM based targeted therapies may reduce carcinogenesis through several miRNAs and target genes. PMID:25502397

  19. EpCAM knockdown alters microRNA expression in retinoblastoma--functional implication of EpCAM regulated miRNA in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Beta, Madhu; Khetan, Vikas; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Suganeswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    The co-ordinated regulation of oncogenes along with miRNAs play crucial role in carcinogenesis. In retinoblastoma (RB), several miRNAs are known to be differentially expressed. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) gene is involved in many epithelial cancers including, retinoblastoma (RB) tumorigenesis. EpCAM silencing effectively reduces the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster. In order to investigate whether EpCAM has wider effect as an inducer or silencer of miRNAs, we performed a global microRNA expression profile in EpCAM siRNA knockdown Y79 cells. MicroRNA profiling in EpCAM silenced Y79 cells showed seventy-three significantly up regulated and thirty-six down regulated miRNAs. A subset of these miRNAs was also validated in tumors. Functional studies on Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells transfected with antagomirs against two miRNAs of miR-181c and miR-130b showed striking changes in tumor cell properties in RB cells. Treatment with anti-miR-181c and miR-130b showed significant decrease in cell viability and cell invasion. Increase in caspase-3 level was noticed in antagomir transfected cell lines indicating the induction of apoptosis. Possible genes altered by EpCAM influenced microRNAs were predicted by bioinformatic tools. Many of these belong to pathways implicated in cancer. The study shows significant influence of EpCAM on global microRNA expression. EpCAM regulated miR-181c and miR-130b may play significant roles in RB progression. EpCAM based targeted therapies may reduce carcinogenesis through several miRNAs and target genes. PMID:25502397

  20. Zink rotary kiln seal: Cam followers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1994-12-09

    The CIF will treat hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste in a rotary kiln and secondary combustion chamber. A high efficiency air pollution control system follows the secondary chamber. The rotary kiln is designed with a gas seal at each end of its rotating barrel which provides a barrier between the interior of the kiln and outside air. The internal pressure of the rotary kiln will be maintained below atmospheric pressure, so exterior air passing the seals is forced into the kiln`s interior. Positive pressure may be applied in the seal labyrinth, adding a barrier to flow. Both CIF seals will be covered entirely with exhaust hoods, drawing air over the outside of the seal and into a HEPA filtered exhaust system. Cam follower misalignment on a John Zink rotary kiln seal caused damage to the seal`s rotor. The misalignment was quantified, corrected, and checked to verify straightness. The primary purpose of the correction was to allow seal testing 1 to continue, but the information is applicable to the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) since two large seals of similar design will be installed there. Cam follower straightness was off as much as 3.5{degrees}, causing followers to run untrue on the rotor. High contact forces resulted, removing flakes of metal from the rotor surface. The misalignment caused weight bearing followers on one side of the seal to back out of their threaded mounts. The root cause was poor machining of the follower mounting holes. Correction was accomplished by relieving the holes and installing machined spacers and retaining nuts. Cam followers on the CIF`s Zink seals should be inspected for straightness before the seals are installed.

  1. PREFACE: Conference on Atoms and Molecules near Surfaces (CAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, John; Feenstra, Louw; Schmiedmeyer, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    This conference, held at Internationales Wissenschaftsforum, Heidelberg, Germany, from 4-8 April 2005, brought together physicists, chemists, and surface scientists from around the world to discuss advances in our understanding of how atoms and molecules interact with each other and with applied fields when they are near surfaces. The fields include static magnetic and electric fields as well as electromagnetic fields in the optical frequency range. This understanding is, of course, essential for the controlled manipulation of matter at the atomic scale by micro- and nanostructured devices. Several principal themes motivate the efforts of this interdisciplinary community: the fundamental physics of quantum degenerate gases near surfaces, the realisation of `atom chips' for the construction of quantum information gates and registers, the development of integrated `on chip' sources providing atoms on demand, the ability to control precision doping, at the atomic level, new molecular spectroscopies appearing under reduced dimensionality imposed by surfaces, and advances in STM and AFM `bottom up' construction of functional devices, starting from the fundamental atom building block. What follows here are the written CAMS proceedings based on the presentations, oral and poster, of the research pursued by the various participating groups. CAMS was organised and supported by FASTNet, Field-Atom-Surface Training Network, a 5th Framework Research and Training Network of the European Union. A sister network, ATOMCHIPS, also participated in the financial and scientific support of the conference. The CAMS workshop emphasised the participation of the young scientists, post-docs and pre-docs of the two networks. In addition financial support from the European Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. The conference was held at the Internationales Wissenschaftsforum of the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg. The excellent facilities and the competent support of the

  2. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  3. CoverCAM - a land cover composition change assessment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Bie, C. D.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The cover-composition on a specific piece of land can change over time due to natural and anthropogenic factors. Accurate detection of where and when changes occur requires a method that uses remotely sensed imagery that represents a continuous and consistent record on the state of the green land-cover. Such data are offered through hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery. Until recently, NDVI-images were mainly used for anomaly mapping to monitor the influence of weather on vegetation; the monitoring basically assume that, over time, the land cover composition of a studied area remains static. This study presents a novel cover change assessment method, labelled ';CoverCAM' that extracts from hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery the probabilities that the original land cover composition did change. CoverCAM, unlike all existing change-detection methods, makes adjustments based on seasonal NDVI-anomalies experienced at landscape level. We tested the method by processing SPOT-VGT NDVI-imagery (10-day Maximum Value Composites; 1km pixels) for Andalucía, Spain. CoverCAM requires specification that two time periods are specified: a reference period (we used 2000-04), and a change detection period (we used 2005-10). All images of the reference period were classified using the ISODATA algorithm and by evaluating divergence statistics. The generated map depicts strata (group of polygons), characterized by temporal NDVI and standard deviation (SD) profiles. For the change assessment period, first, mean NDVI-values were calculated by decade and polygon (NDVId,p), and then for each pixel of the polygon its pixel change values specified through the remaining difference between the pixel NDVI and [NDVId,p × the SD value of the stratum for that decade]. The above process was repeated to produce decadal land cover change probability maps, each with its own undefined scale. The decadal change maps were then aggregated to annual change probability maps. This validation was only carried out for

  4. Experimental and analytical investigation of finger-follower cam systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wensyang

    A predictive dynamic model to compute the motions of components in cam systems, along with the experimental work to verify the model are described. The major components in finger-follower cam systems include the cam, the follower, the hydraulic lash adjuster, and the valve spring, equipped sometimes with a helical valve spring cup damper. In order to fully describe the dynamics of such a system, a lumped/distributed parameter model for the finger-follower cam system with a moving follower pivot is proposed. The valve spring is modeled as a distributed parameter element, and the adjuster is modeled as a stiff spring with viscous damping. The coulomb friction combined with viscous damping between sliding surfaces are also considered. The model predicts toss between the adjuster and the follower at 2535 rpm, and experiment indicates toss starting at 2520 rpm. It is found by simulation that designing hydraulic lash adjuster to be as rigid as possible is essential to successful high speed operation of finger-follower valve trains because a 50 percent decrease in the compliance of the adjuster could increase the maximum camshaft operating speed 150 rpm. Total elimination of the hydraulic lash adjuster is not always feasible because hydraulic lash adjusters can eliminate the clearance between components and do not need to be mechanically, manually adjusted. In order to provide a more stable and precise description on the dynamic response of the adjuster, a two-mode dynamic model for the adjuster is proposed by considering the oil compressibility in the oil chamber, as well as the oil leakage through the annular gap. Furthermore, the effect due to the oil flow from the central orifice to the oil chamber is also studied analytically and experimentally. The inertia effects of the helical valve spring can be suppressed by a cup damper. Damping between the damper and spring wire is found to depend only weakly on relative sliding velocity. The current formula in computing

  5. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  6. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  7. A Basis for Solid Modeling of Gear Teeth with Application in Design and Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios; Oswald, Fred B.; Liu, Yung Sheng

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to modeling gear tooth surfaces. A computer graphics solid modeling procedure is used to simulate the tooth fabrication processes. This procedure is based on the principles of differential geometry that pertain to envelopes of curves and surfaces. The procedure is illustrated with the modeling of spur, helical, bevel, spiral bevel and hypoid gear teeth. Applications in design and manufacturing arc discussed. Extensions to nonstandard tooth forms, to cams, and to rolling element hearings are proposed.

  8. A basis for solid modeling of gear teeth with application in design and manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios; Oswald, Fred B.; Liu, Yung Sheng

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to modeling gear tooth surfaces is discussed. A computer graphics solid modeling procedure is used to simulate the tooth fabrication process. This procedure is based on the principles of differential geometry that pertain to envelopes of curves and surfaces. The procedure is illustrated with the modeling of spur, helical, bevel, spiral bevel, and hypoid gear teeth. Applications in design and manufacturing are discussed. Extensions to nonstandard tooth forms, to cams, and to rolling element bearings are proposed.

  9. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NrCAM Regulates Semaphorin 3F-Induced Dendritic Spine Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Demyanenko, Galina P.; Mohan, Vishwa; Zhang, Xuying; Brennaman, Leann H.; Dharbal, Katherine E.S.; Tran, Tracy S.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a regulator of axon growth and repellent guidance, and has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Here a novel postsynaptic role for NrCAM in Semaphorin3F (Sema3F)-induced dendritic spine remodeling was identified in pyramidal neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1). NrCAM localized to dendritic spines of star pyramidal cells in postnatal V1, where it was coexpressed with Sema3F. NrCAM deletion in mice resulted in elevated spine densities on apical dendrites of star pyramidal cells at both postnatal and adult stages, and electron microscopy revealed increased numbers of asymmetric synapses in layer 4 of V1. Whole-cell recordings in cortical slices from NrCAM-null mice revealed increased frequency of mEPSCs in star pyramidal neurons. Recombinant Sema3F-Fc protein induced spine retraction on apical dendrites of wild-type, but not NrCAM-null cortical neurons in culture, while re-expression of NrCAM rescued the spine retraction response. NrCAM formed a complex in brain with Sema3F receptor subunits Neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) and PlexinA3 (PlexA3) through an Npn-2-binding sequence (TARNER) in the extracellular Ig1 domain. A trans heterozygous genetic interaction test demonstrated that Sema3F and NrCAM pathways interacted in vivo to regulate spine density in star pyramidal neurons. These findings reveal NrCAM as a novel postnatal regulator of dendritic spine density in cortical pyramidal neurons, and an integral component of the Sema3F receptor complex. The results implicate NrCAM as a contributor to excitatory/inhibitory balance in neocortical circuits. PMID:25143608

  10. Answering the AIDS denialists: is AIDS real?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-12-01

    This article looks at theories that say AIDS does not exist, or is not a new disease but only a collection of old ones--and explains some of the history behind earlier changes in the official definition of AIDS in the U.S., changes which caused some public confusion. PMID:12171004

  11. ''Virtual Welding,'' a new aid for teaching Manufacturing Process Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portela, José M.; Huerta, María M.; Pastor, Andrés; Álvarez, Miguel; Sánchez-Carrilero, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    Overcrowding in the classroom is a serious problem in universities, particularly in specialties that require a certain type of teaching practice. These practices often require expenditure on consumables and a space large enough to hold the necessary materials and the materials that have already been used. Apart from the budget, another problem concerns the attention paid to each student. The use of simulation systems in the early learning stages of the welding technique can prove very beneficial thanks to error detection functions installed in the system, which provide the student with feedbach during the execution of the practice session, and the significant savings in both consumables and energy.

  12. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.

  13. Artificial intelligence programming languages for computer aided manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Samet, H.; Rosenberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    Eight Artificial Intelligence programming languages (SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, CONNIVER, MLISP, POP-2, AL, and QLISP) are presented and surveyed, with examples of their use in an automated shop environment. Control structures are compared, and distinctive features of each language are highlighted. A simple programming task is used to illustrate programs in SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, and CONNIVER. The report assumes reader knowledge of programming concepts, but not necessarily of the languages surveyed.

  14. Computer-aided manufacturing technologies for guided implant placement.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Stachulla, Gerhard; Ritter, Lutz; Dreiseidler, Timo; Mischkowski, Robert A; Keeve, Erwin; Zöller, Joachim E

    2010-01-01

    Implant treatment increasingly focuses on the reduction of treatment time and postoperative impairment. The improvement of 3D dental diagnosis by ConeBeam computed tomography allows detailed preparation for the surgical placement of dental implants under prosthetic considerations. While the first generation of implant planning software used high-contrast multislice computed tomography, software that has been specifically designed for ConeBeam computed tomography is now available. Implant placement can be performed using surgical guides or under the control of optical tracking systems. Surgical guides are more commonly used in private office owing to their availability. The accuracy for both techniques is clinically acceptable for achieving implant placement in critical anatomical indications. When using prefabricated superstructures and in flapless surgery, special abutments or an adjusted workflow are still necessary to compensate misfits of between 150 and 600 microm. The proposition to ensure proper implant placement by dentists with limited surgical experience through the use of surgical guides is unlikely to be successful, because there is also a specific learning curve for guided implant placement. Current and future development will continue to decrease the classical laboratory-technician work and will integrate the fabrication of superstructures with virtual treatment planning from the start.

  15. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S.; Ma Shuangge; Jagsi, Reshma; Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan; Higgins, Susan A.; Weidhaas, Joanne B.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Lloyd, Shane; Peschel, Richard; Gaudreau, Bryant; Rockwell, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  16. A longitudinal analysis of mid-age women's use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Australia, 1996-1998.

    PubMed

    Sibbritt, David W; Adams, Jon; Young, Anne F

    2004-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular amongst healthcare consumers world-wide. As such, CAM is now an important public health issue with taking non-prescription medications. This paper constitutes an exploratory investigation into CAM use over time. As such, there is need for further research to provide in-depth examination of the adoption and relinquishment of CAM use over a longer time period. serious implications for healthcare organization and delivery. While previous studies have provided a profile of CAM users, there remains very limited analysis of CAM consumption over time. The purpose of this paper is to describe the changing use of CAM practitioners over time by 11,454 mid-age women in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Over the study period (1996-1998), 10% of women adopted the use of CAM and 9% relinquished CAM. The predominant factor found to be predictive of CAM adoption was changes in health status. Specifically, those women experiencing more illness over time are more likely to adopt CAM than those experiencing no change or better health. CAM relinquishment was associated with use of non-prescription medications, where women were more likely to relinquish CAM if they never used non-prescription medications or if they stopped.

  17. Extensions to the D-Cam sub-unit architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Padraig; Connell, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    Multispectral imaging produces large amounts of data which extend processing, transmission and storage systems to their upper limits. Although there are several interface standards specific to image data acquisition, such as CameraLink, it is Firewire which provides a high-speed data bus, integrated control capability, without loss of flexibility, and which is commonly available as a low cost solution. The class of multispectral imaging requires a different treatment of the processing principals than standard imaging. The same spatial region is captured multiple times using different optical wavelengths. This technique finds application in such diverse areas as coastal monitoring, fruit sorting and automated agriculture. Modifications and additional features to the camera operating and configuration parameters are therefore required which are not generally present with conventional imaging sensors. This paper describes extensions to the IIDC Digital Camera (D-Cam) specification in the development of a Firewire technology platform for transmitting the data structures described and for providing real-time, online control of spectral information acquisition. Additionally, it describes how a set of registers in the sub-unit architecture of the Firewire protocol is augmented to accommodate the demands of a multispectral system. The extensions are specification conformant and do not alter underlining compliance with the base standard. The paper also describes the implementation of the extended D-Cam in the Firewire subsystem of a smart multispectral camera used in commercial applications.

  18. Curiosity ChemCam Finds High-Silica Mars Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenvang, Jens

    2015-12-17

    A team of scientists, including one from Los Alamos National Laboratory, has found much higher concentrations of silica at some sites the Curiosity rover has investigated in the past seven months than anywhere else it has visited since landing on Mars 40 months ago. The first discovery was as Curiosity approached the area “Marias Pass,” where a lower geological unit contacts an overlying one. ChemCam, the rover’s laser-firing instrument for checking rock composition from a distance, detected bountiful silica in some targets the rover passed along the way to the contact zone. The ChemCam instrument was developed at Los Alamos in partnership with the French IRAP laboratory in Toulouse and the French Space Agency. “The high silica was a surprise,” said Jens Frydenvang of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Copenhagen, also a Curiosity science team member. “While we’re still working with multiple hypotheses on how the silica got so enriched, these hypotheses all require considerable water activity, and on Earth high silica deposits are often associated with environments that provide excellent support for microbial life. Because of this, the science team agreed to make a rare backtrack to investigate it more.”

  19. Hyper Suprime-Cam: development of the CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Aihara, Hiroaki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kamata, Yukiko; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Okura, Yuki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Utsumi, Yosuke

    2010-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) employs 116 of 2k×4k CCDs with 464 signal outputs in total. The image size exceeds 2 GBytes, and the data can be readout every 10 seconds which results in the data rate of 210 Mbytes / sec. The data is digitized to 16-bit. The readout noise of the electronics at the readout time of 20 seconds is ~0.9 ADU, and the one with CCD is ~1.5 ADU which corresponds to ~4.5 e. The linearity error fits within +/- 0.5 % up to 150,000 e. The CCD readout electronics for HSC was newly developed based on the electronics for Suprime-Cam. The frontend electronics (FEE) is placed in the vacuum dewar, and the backend electronics (BEE) is mounted on the outside of the dewar on the prime focus unit. The FEE boards were designed to minimize the outgas and to maximize the heat transfer efficiency to keep the vacuum of the dewar. The BEE boards were designed to be simple and small as long as to achieve the readout time within 10 seconds. The production of the system has been finished, and the full set of the boards are being tested with several CCDs installed in the HSC dewar. We will show the system design, performance, and the current status of the development.

  20. Observations of HCN associated with TX Cam and IK Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    1999-12-01

    I present observations of HCN associated with the oxygen-rich stars TX Cam and IK Tau. These observations were obtained with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory millimeter array telescope, funded in part by the National Science Foundation. The distribution of HCN near these evolved stars is generally spherical in nature although mildly asymmetric. The emission is optically thick and therefore quantitative interpretation is difficult. It is clear from the images that the HCN is centrally peaked in every channel and clearly does not exist in a shell-like distribution. The overall diameter of the emission is about 750 AU for IK Tau and 940 AU for TX Cam, assuming distances of 260 pc (Loup et al. 1993) and 280 pc (Knapp et al. 1998) respectively. How oxygen-rich stars can exhibit emission from carbon-based molecules has long challenged chemical models for these sources. Charnley et al. (1995) proposed a chemical model, which also predicted the presence of C2H and CH3OH in detectable quantities. Charnley et al. (1997) subsequently used the NRAO 12-m to show that these molecules do not exist in detectable quantities near these stars. I confirm this result using interferometric observations, which are more sensitive to compact distributions of gas.