Science.gov

Sample records for aided surface representation

  1. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  2. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  3. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1991-04-02

    Modern computing resources permit the generation of large amounts of numerical data. These large data sets, if left in numerical form, can be overwhelming. Such large data sets are usually discrete points from some underlying physical phenomenon. Because we need to evaluate the phenomenon at places where we don't have data, a continuous representation (a surface'') is required. A simple example is a weather map obtained from a discrete set of weather stations. (For more examples including multi-dimensional ones, see the article by Dr. Rosemary Chang in the enclosed IRIS Universe). In order to create a scientific structure encompassing the data, we construct an interpolating mathematical surface which can evaluate at arbitrary locations. We can also display and analyze the results via interactive computer graphics. In our research we construct a very wide variety of surfaces for applied geometry problems that have sound theoretical foundations. However, our surfaces have the distinguishing feature that they are constructed to solve short or long term practical problems. This DOE-funded project has developed the premiere research team in the subject of constructing surfaces (3D and higher dimensional) that provide smooth representations of real scientific and engineering information, including state of the art computer graphics visualizations. However, our main contribution is in the development of fundamental constructive mathematical methods and visualization techniques which can be incorporated into a wide variety of applications. This project combines constructive mathematics, algorithms, and computer graphics, all applied to real problems. The project is a unique resource, considered by our peers to be a de facto national center for this type of research.

  4. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  5. Computer aided surface representation. Progress report, June 1, 1988--May 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a ``surface defined on a surface,`` which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such ``geometry processing`` is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  6. Computer aided surface representation. Progress report, June 1, 1989--May 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a ``surface defined on a surface``. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is ``geometry processing``. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  7. Cognitive representations of AIDS: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth H; Spencer, Margaret Hull

    2002-12-01

    Cognitive representations of illness determine behavior. How persons living with AIDS image their disease might be key to understanding medication adherence and other health behaviors. The authors' purpose was to describe AIDS patients' cognitive representations of their illness. A purposive sample of 58 men and women with AIDS were interviewed. Using Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological method, rigor was established through application of verification, validation, and validity. From 175 significant statements, 11 themes emerged. Cognitive representations included imaging AIDS as death, bodily destruction, and just a disease. Coping focused on wiping AIDS out of the mind, hoping for the right drug, and caring for oneself. Inquiring about a patient's image of AIDS might help nurses assess coping processes and enhance nurse-patient relationships.

  8. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.L.

    1981-07-06

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered.

  9. Death in Miami: AIDS, Gender, and Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddlee

    In "God's Work," an episode of the "Miami Vice" television series in which a gay character comes home to reunite with a childhood friend and ex-lover who is dying of AIDS, the show is at odds with itself over the issue of sexuality and AIDS. At one level, that of the "coming-out" story of the main character, it presents the gay character in a…

  10. Social representations about aids in people over 50, infected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Marislei; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes representations about AIDS in nine persons older than 50, infected by HIV. The analysis revealed representations: 'AIDS is a constant death threat'. These were categorized and named by means of the interviewers' statements: 'No doctor thinks, at first, that we can have aids; AIDS isn't cancer; to be old and have AIDS is to be discriminated twice. The results show the importance of integral care delivery by health services to decrease the psychosocial suffering of these people.

  11. Overview on surface representations for freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, H.; Brömel, A.; Beier, M.; Steinkopf, R.; Hartung, J.; Zhong, Y.; Oleszko, M.; Ochse, D.

    2015-09-01

    Freeform surfaces are a new and exciting opportunity in lens design. The technological boundary conditions for manufacturing surfaces with reduced symmetry are complicated. Recently the progress in understanding and controlling this kind of components is ready for use in commercial products. Nearly all procedures of classical design development are changing, if freeform surfaces are used. The mathematical description of the surfaces, the optimization algorithms in lens design and their convergence, the initial design approaches, the evaluation of performance over the field of view, the data transfer in the mechanical design software and in the manufacturing machines, the metrology for characterization of real surfaces and the return of the real surfaces into the simulation are affected. In this contribution, in particular an overview on possible mathematical formulations of the surfaces is given. One of the requirements on the descriptions is a good performance to correct optical aberrations. After fabrication of real surfaces, there are typical deviations seen in the shape. First more localized deformations are observed, which are only poorly described by mode expansions. Therefore a need in describing the surface with localized finite support exists. Secondly the classical diamond turning grinding process typically shows a regular ripple structure. These midfrequency errors are best described by special approaches. For all these cases it would be the best to have simple, robust solutions, that allow for fast calculation in fitting measured surfaces and in raytrace.

  12. Lyapunov Exponents for Surface Group Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroin, Bertrand; Dujardin, Romain

    2015-12-01

    Let be a holomorphic family of representations of a surface group into , where S is a topological (possibly punctured) surface with negative Euler characteristic. Given a structure of Riemann surface of finite type on S we construct a bifurcation current on the parameter space Λ, that is a (1,1) positive closed current attached to the bifurcations of the family. It is defined as the dd c of the Lyapunov exponent of the representation with respect to the Brownian motion on the Riemann surface S, endowed with its Poincaré metric. We show that this bifurcation current describes the asymptotic distribution of various codimension 1 phenomena in Λ. For instance, the random hypersurfaces of Λ defined by the condition that a random closed geodesic on S is mapped under ρ λ to a parabolic element or the identity are asymptotically equidistributed with respect to the bifurcation current. The proofs are based on our previous work (Deroin and Dujardin, Invent Math 190:57-118, 2012), and on a careful control of a discretization procedure of the Brownian motion.

  13. Workshop on Aircraft Surface Representation for Aerodynamic Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J. (Editor); Ashbaugh, J. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Papers and discussions on surface representation and its integration with aerodynamics, computers, graphics, wind tunnel model fabrication, and flow field grid generation are presented. Surface definition is emphasized.

  14. Linear Numerical-Magnitude Representations Aid Children's Memory for Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Clarissa A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relation between children's numerical-magnitude representations and their memory for numbers. Results of three experiments indicated that the more linear children's magnitude representations were, the more closely their memory of the numbers approximated the numbers presented. This relation was present for preschoolers and…

  15. Tensor decomposition in potential energy surface representations.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Lukas; Ziegler, Benjamin; Rauhut, Guntram

    2016-09-14

    In order to reduce the operation count in vibration correlation methods, e.g., vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) theory, a tensor decomposition approach has been applied to the analytical representations of multidimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs). It is shown that a decomposition of the coefficients within the individual n-mode coupling terms in a multimode expansion of the PES is feasible and allows for convenient contractions of one-dimensional integrals with these newly determined factor matrices. Deviations in the final VCI frequencies of a set of small molecules were found to be negligible once the rank of the factors matrices is chosen appropriately. Recommendations for meaningful ranks are provided and different algorithms are discussed. PMID:27634247

  16. Using Molecular Representations to Aid Student Understanding of Stereochemical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Michael; Varghese, Valsamma; Tang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Stereochemistry is an important topic in organic chemistry. It is also a difficult topic for students to learn. This study investigated the relative effectiveness on students' understanding of three kinds of molecular representations of stereochemistry concepts. Instructional activities compared the use of either: (i) computer-based molecular…

  17. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  18. Spinor representation of Lorentzian surfaces in R 2, 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayard, Pierre; Patty, Victor

    2015-09-01

    We prove that an isometric immersion of a simply connected Lorentzian surface in R 2, 2 is equivalent to a normalised spinor field solution of a Dirac equation on the surface. Using the quaternions and the Lorentz numbers, we also obtain an explicit representation formula of the immersion in terms of the spinor field. We then apply the representation formula in R 2, 2 to give a new spinor representation formula for Lorentzian surfaces in 3-dimensional Minkowski space. Finally, we apply the representation formula to the local description of the flat Lorentzian surfaces with flat normal bundle and regular Gauss map in R 2, 2, and show that these surfaces locally depend on four real functions of one real variable, or on one holomorphic function together with two real functions of one real variable, depending on the sign of a natural invariant.

  19. Sparse representation for a potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Atsuto; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Isao

    2014-07-01

    We propose a simple scheme to estimate the potential energy surface (PES) for which the accuracy can be easily controlled and improved. It is based on model selection within the framework of linear regression using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique. Basis functions are selected from a systematic large set of candidate functions. The sparsity of the PES significantly reduces the computational cost of evaluating the energy and force in molecular dynamics simulations without losing accuracy. The usefulness of the scheme for describing the elemental metals Na and Mg is clearly demonstrated.

  20. Interactive contacts resolution using smooth surface representation.

    PubMed

    Dequidt, Jérémie; Lenoir, Julien; Cotin, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    Accurately describing interactions between medical devices and anatomical structures, or between anatomical structures themselves, is an essential step towards the adoption of computer-based medical simulation as an alternative to traditional training methods. However, while substantial work has been done in the area of real-time soft tissue modeling, little has been done to study the problem of contacts occurring during tissue manipulation. In this paper we introduce a new method for correctly handling complex contacts between various combination of rigid and deformable objects. Our approach verifies Signorini's law by combining Lagrange multipliers and the status method to solve unilateral constraints. Our method handles both concave and convex surfaces by using a displacement subdivision strategy, and the proposed algorithm allows interactive computation times even in very constrained situations. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach in the context of interventional radiology, with the navigation of catheters and guidewires in tortuous vessels and with the deployment of coils to treat aneurysms.

  1. It's harder for boys? Children's representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    LeRoux-Rutledge, Emily; Guerlain, Madeleine A; Andersen, Louise B; Madanhire, Claudius; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon; Campbell, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether children in rural Zimbabwe have differing representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers based on the gender of those peers. A group of 128 children (58 boys, 70 girls) aged 10-14 participated in a draw-and-write exercise, in which they were asked to tell the story of either an HIV/AIDS-affected girl child, or an HIV/AIDS-affected boy child. Stories were inductively thematically coded, and then a post hoc statistical analysis was conducted to see if there were differences in the themes that emerged in stories about girls versus stories about boys. The results showed that boys were more often depicted as materially deprived, without adult and teacher support, and heavily burdened with household duties. Further research is needed to determine whether the perceptions of the children in this study point to a series of overlooked challenges facing HIV/AIDS-affected boys, or to a culture of gender inequality facing HIV/AIDS-affected girls - which pays more attention to male suffering than to female suffering.

  2. It's harder for boys? Children's representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    LeRoux-Rutledge, Emily; Guerlain, Madeleine A; Andersen, Louise B; Madanhire, Claudius; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon; Campbell, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether children in rural Zimbabwe have differing representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers based on the gender of those peers. A group of 128 children (58 boys, 70 girls) aged 10-14 participated in a draw-and-write exercise, in which they were asked to tell the story of either an HIV/AIDS-affected girl child, or an HIV/AIDS-affected boy child. Stories were inductively thematically coded, and then a post hoc statistical analysis was conducted to see if there were differences in the themes that emerged in stories about girls versus stories about boys. The results showed that boys were more often depicted as materially deprived, without adult and teacher support, and heavily burdened with household duties. Further research is needed to determine whether the perceptions of the children in this study point to a series of overlooked challenges facing HIV/AIDS-affected boys, or to a culture of gender inequality facing HIV/AIDS-affected girls - which pays more attention to male suffering than to female suffering. PMID:26615976

  3. It's harder for boys? Children's representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    LeRoux-Rutledge, Emily; Guerlain, Madeleine A.; Andersen, Louise B.; Madanhire, Claudius; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon; Campbell, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examines whether children in rural Zimbabwe have differing representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers based on the gender of those peers. A group of 128 children (58 boys, 70 girls) aged 10–14 participated in a draw-and-write exercise, in which they were asked to tell the story of either an HIV/AIDS-affected girl child, or an HIV/AIDS-affected boy child. Stories were inductively thematically coded, and then a post hoc statistical analysis was conducted to see if there were differences in the themes that emerged in stories about girls versus stories about boys. The results showed that boys were more often depicted as materially deprived, without adult and teacher support, and heavily burdened with household duties. Further research is needed to determine whether the perceptions of the children in this study point to a series of overlooked challenges facing HIV/AIDS-affected boys, or to a culture of gender inequality facing HIV/AIDS-affected girls – which pays more attention to male suffering than to female suffering. PMID:26615976

  4. [Representation and mathematical analysis of human corneal surface].

    PubMed

    Tălu, Stefan; Tălu, Mihai; Giovanzana, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In the description and analysis of human corneal surface are used various mathematical models based on parametric representations, used in biomechanical studies and 3D solid modeling of the cornea. Mathematical models are important into the biomechanics of the cornea to model the corneal behavior. Corneal biomechanics also has the potential to improve outcomes in refractive surgery. The objective of this paper is to present the most representative mathematical models currently used for modeling of human corneal in optics and biomechanics fields.

  5. New determinations and simplified representations of macromolecular surfaces.

    PubMed

    Perrot, G; Maigret, B

    1990-09-01

    Several new methods or improvements of older algorithms determining the different pieces of molecular surface are presented. Their improvement in time and their complexity are discussed. Only the indexes of the atoms on which the pieces are relying are, in fact, determined, since their explicit representation from these numbers varies according to the 3D capabilities of the graphic workstation (dots, grid, etc.), and this generation is not C.P.U. consuming. To have a simplified representation of the surface of macromolecules, a polyhedron with planar triangular faces is then introduced: Each concave triangular surface piece is replaced with planar triangles relying on its three atomic centers, while saddle-shaped rectangles and convex pieces are wholly ignored. A minimal data structure of the polyhedron is then proposed, which contains only topological informations, since no coordinates have been generated. If the atomic radius is then considered to be constant (independent of atomic type), the surface of a set of N points is now defined by the choice of a subset with a topology. This choice is controlled by a parameter of rugosity (the atomic radius). Contrary to Voronoi polyhedrons partition, which gives a topology for a set of N points, our approach gives a topology only for the exterior points of this set. A few applications of this very simple definition of molecular surface are then discussed: the 3D interactive manipulation of macromolecules, the steric intermolecular recognition, and the determination of local and global properties of the surface. PMID:2279010

  6. Aspect-Aided Dynamic Non-Negative Sparse Representation-Based Microwave Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Yang, Qiuyue; Liu, Miaomiao; Jia, Yunjian; Liu, Shujun; Li, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Classification of target microwave images is an important application in much areas such as security, surveillance, etc. With respect to the task of microwave image classification, a recognition algorithm based on aspect-aided dynamic non-negative least square (ADNNLS) sparse representation is proposed. Firstly, an aspect sector is determined, the center of which is the estimated aspect angle of the testing sample. The training samples in the aspect sector are divided into active atoms and inactive atoms by smooth self-representative learning. Secondly, for each testing sample, the corresponding active atoms are selected dynamically, thereby establishing dynamic dictionary. Thirdly, the testing sample is represented with ℓ 1 -regularized non-negative sparse representation under the corresponding dynamic dictionary. Finally, the class label of the testing sample is identified by use of the minimum reconstruction error. Verification of the proposed algorithm was conducted using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) database which was acquired by synthetic aperture radar. Experiment results validated that the proposed approach was able to capture the local aspect characteristics of microwave images effectively, thereby improving the classification performance. PMID:27598172

  7. Aspect-Aided Dynamic Non-Negative Sparse Representation-Based Microwave Image Classification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Yang, Qiuyue; Liu, Miaomiao; Jia, Yunjian; Liu, Shujun; Li, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Classification of target microwave images is an important application in much areas such as security, surveillance, etc. With respect to the task of microwave image classification, a recognition algorithm based on aspect-aided dynamic non-negative least square (ADNNLS) sparse representation is proposed. Firstly, an aspect sector is determined, the center of which is the estimated aspect angle of the testing sample. The training samples in the aspect sector are divided into active atoms and inactive atoms by smooth self-representative learning. Secondly, for each testing sample, the corresponding active atoms are selected dynamically, thereby establishing dynamic dictionary. Thirdly, the testing sample is represented with ℓ1-regularized non-negative sparse representation under the corresponding dynamic dictionary. Finally, the class label of the testing sample is identified by use of the minimum reconstruction error. Verification of the proposed algorithm was conducted using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) database which was acquired by synthetic aperture radar. Experiment results validated that the proposed approach was able to capture the local aspect characteristics of microwave images effectively, thereby improving the classification performance. PMID:27598172

  8. Efficient free-form surface representation with application in orthodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; El-Bialy, Ahmed M.

    1999-03-01

    Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the study of growth of the craniofacial complex. The detection and correction of malocclusion and other dental abnormalities is one of the most important and critical phases of orthodontic diagnosis. This paper introduces a system that can assist in automatic orthodontics diagnosis. The system can be used to classify skeletal and dental malocclusion from a limited number of measurements. This system is not intended to deal with several cases but is aimed at cases more likely to be encountered in epidemiological studies. Prior to the measurement of the orthodontics parameters, the position of the teeth in the jaw model must be detected. A new free-form surface representation is adopted for the efficient and accurate segmentation and separation of teeth from a scanned jaw model. THe new representation encodes the curvature and surface normal information into a 2D image. Image segmentation tools are then sued to extract structures of high/low curvature. By iteratively removing these structures, individual teeth surfaces are obtained.

  9. Texture segregation, surface representation and figure-ground separation.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, S; Pessoa, L

    1998-09-01

    A widespread view is that most texture segregation can be accounted for by differences in the spatial frequency content of texture regions. Evidence from both psychophysical and physiological studies indicate, however, that beyond these early filtering stages, there are stages of 3-D boundary segmentation and surface representation that are used to segregate textures. Chromatic segregation of element-arrangement patterns--as studied by Beck and colleagues--cannot be completely explained by the filtering mechanisms previously employed to account for achromatic segregation. An element arrangement pattern is composed of two types of elements that are arranged differently in different image regions (e.g. vertically on top and diagonally on the bottom). FACADE theory mechanisms that have previously been used to explain data about 3-D vision and figure-ground separation are here used to simulate chromatic texture segregation data, including data with equiluminant elements on dark or light homogeneous backgrounds, or backgrounds composed of vertical and horizontal dark or light stripes, or horizontal notched stripes. These data include the fact that segregation of patterns composed of red and blue squares decreases with increasing luminance of the interspaces. Asymmetric segregation properties under 3-D viewing conditions with the equiluminant elements close or far are also simulated. Two key model properties are a spatial impenetrability property that inhibits boundary grouping across regions with non-collinear texture elements and a boundary-surface consistency property that uses feedback between boundary and surface representations to eliminate spurious boundary groupings and separate figures from their backgrounds.

  10. Gist Representations and Communication of Risks about HIV-AIDS: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Wilhelms, Evan A; Reyna, Valerie F; Brust-Renck, Priscila; Weldon, Rebecca B; Corbin, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    As predicted by fuzzy-trace theory, people with a range of training—from untrained adolescents to expert physicians—are susceptible to biases and errors in judgment and perception of HIV-AIDS risk. To explain why this occurs, we introduce fuzzy-trace theory as a theoretical perspective that describes these errors to be a function of knowledge deficits, gist-based representation of risk categories, retrieval failure for risk knowledge, and processing interference (e.g., base-rate neglect) in combining risk estimates. These principles explain how people perceive HIV-AIDS risk and why they take risks with potentially lethal outcomes, often despite rote (verbatim) knowledge.For example, people inappropriately generalize the wrong gist about condoms' effectiveness against fluid-borne disease to diseases that are transferred skin-to-skin, such as HPV. We also describe how variation in processing in adolescence (e.g., more verbatim processing compared to adults) can be a route to risk-taking that explains key aspects of why many people are infected with HIV in youth, as well as how interventions that emphasize bottom-line gists communicate risks effectively.

  11. Gist Representations and Communication of Risks about HIV-AIDS: A Fuzzy-Trace Theory Approach.

    PubMed

    Wilhelms, Evan A; Reyna, Valerie F; Brust-Renck, Priscila; Weldon, Rebecca B; Corbin, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    As predicted by fuzzy-trace theory, people with a range of training—from untrained adolescents to expert physicians—are susceptible to biases and errors in judgment and perception of HIV-AIDS risk. To explain why this occurs, we introduce fuzzy-trace theory as a theoretical perspective that describes these errors to be a function of knowledge deficits, gist-based representation of risk categories, retrieval failure for risk knowledge, and processing interference (e.g., base-rate neglect) in combining risk estimates. These principles explain how people perceive HIV-AIDS risk and why they take risks with potentially lethal outcomes, often despite rote (verbatim) knowledge.For example, people inappropriately generalize the wrong gist about condoms' effectiveness against fluid-borne disease to diseases that are transferred skin-to-skin, such as HPV. We also describe how variation in processing in adolescence (e.g., more verbatim processing compared to adults) can be a route to risk-taking that explains key aspects of why many people are infected with HIV in youth, as well as how interventions that emphasize bottom-line gists communicate risks effectively. PMID:26149161

  12. Hippocampal shape analysis: surface-based representation and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; Ford, James; Makedon, Fillia; Saykin, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    Surface-based representation and classification techniques are studied for hippocampal shape analysis. The goal is twofold: (1) develop a new framework of salient feature extraction and accurate classification for 3D shape data; (2) detect hippocampal abnormalities in schizophrenia using this technique. A fine-scale spherical harmonic expansion is employed to describe a closed 3D surface object. The expansion can then easily be transformed to extract only shape information (i.e., excluding translation, rotation, and scaling) and create a shape descriptor comparable across different individuals. This representation captures shape features and is flexible enough to do shape modeling, identify statistical group differences, and generate similar synthetic shapes. Principal component analysis is used to extract a small number of independent features from high dimensional shape descriptors, and Fisher's linear discriminant is applied for pattern classification. This framework is shown to be able to perform well in distinguishing clear group differences as well as small and noisy group differences using simulated shape data. In addition, the application of this technique to real data indicates that group shape differences exist in hippocampi between healthy controls and schizophrenic patients.

  13. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  14. [Information, attitudes, perceptions, and symbolic representations of AIDS risk and prevention among poor adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Merchán-Hamann, E

    1995-01-01

    Four hundred and sixteen poor adolescents of both sexes in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed to study both their level of information and symbolic representations concerning AIDS risk and prevention. The most common source of information on HIV/AIDS was the mass media, particularly television broadcasts. There were doubts and lack of trust regarding official government information on HIV/AIDS. Nearly 70% of the adolescents interviewed believe in HIV transmission through mosquito bites and some 40% through casual contact with wounds or scars or sharing of bathroom utensils. Men seemed to show a greater awareness and autonomy vis- -vis taking initiatives in sex encounters. Attitudes of segregation and exclusion of people with AIDS persist. Lack of prevention was attributed to the impossibility of predicting sexual encounters. The study of symbolic aspects concerning causes of HIV/AIDS displayed broad variability: 80% of the interviewees associated AIDS with excesses in sexual behavior and 40% with homosexual practices. Causal images vary from the predominant view of AIDS as unfair punishment to the less frequent stance considering AIDS as fair punishment (due to sinful behavior). An ambiguous attitude towards transgression (taking as its sterotype the figure of Rio's "malandro", or "streetwise dude") may influence perception of risk and prevention. The paper calls attention to the need for implementing clearer and more direct educational programs. This could be useful for the implementation of culturally sensitive control measures through a reshaping of AIDS symbols. The author recommends a better understanding of the social and economic determinants of disease and reinforcement of the kinds of discourse which empower and raise the self-esteem of poor adolescents by endorsing their civil rights.

  15. Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Vinay; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. Results The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. Conclusion The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries. PMID:26504376

  16. Representation of AIDS in Televised Public Service Announcements: The Discursive Practices of Government in the Constitution of Knowledge about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Roger; And Others

    Using a textualist approach (looking at meaning above and beyond overt message elements), a study examined televised public service announcements (PSAs) about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) produced by the Ad Council and the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Both ads identify young people who should be concerned…

  17. Computer-aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuo, Hung Chang; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  18. Computer aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  19. Competing or co-existing? Representations of HIV/AIDS by white women teachers in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Kock, Lauren; Wills, Jane

    2007-11-01

    This study explores the social representations of HIV and AIDS that circulate among white women teachers in South Africa, a group whose personal risk of the disease is low but who have a major role to play in shaping attitudes to HIV/AIDS among children and young people. The study examines how white women talk about the origin and causes of the spread of HIV in South Africa and their personal and community risk. This was explored through 25 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with white female teachers in Johannesburg. A thematic analysis of the in-depth interviews revealed a shared private understanding of the disease, wherein the women distanced themselves by anchoring it in the context of racist cultural stereotypes of black sexuality and vulnerability. In contrast, the focus group discussions revealed a type of public talk in which HIV/AIDS is anchored in the contemporary cultural images of the new South Africa and the spirit of ubuntu or togetherness. These contradictory views reflect the racial tensions and social contexts of South Africa and which shape HIV/AIDS discourses. The findings suggest that more needs to be done to create a genuine understanding of HIV and AIDS within contemporary South African contexts.

  20. Competing or co-existing? Representations of HIV/AIDS by white women teachers in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Kock, Lauren; Wills, Jane

    2007-11-01

    This study explores the social representations of HIV and AIDS that circulate among white women teachers in South Africa, a group whose personal risk of the disease is low but who have a major role to play in shaping attitudes to HIV/AIDS among children and young people. The study examines how white women talk about the origin and causes of the spread of HIV in South Africa and their personal and community risk. This was explored through 25 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with white female teachers in Johannesburg. A thematic analysis of the in-depth interviews revealed a shared private understanding of the disease, wherein the women distanced themselves by anchoring it in the context of racist cultural stereotypes of black sexuality and vulnerability. In contrast, the focus group discussions revealed a type of public talk in which HIV/AIDS is anchored in the contemporary cultural images of the new South Africa and the spirit of ubuntu or togetherness. These contradictory views reflect the racial tensions and social contexts of South Africa and which shape HIV/AIDS discourses. The findings suggest that more needs to be done to create a genuine understanding of HIV and AIDS within contemporary South African contexts. PMID:25866169

  1. [Vulnerability of women in common-law marriage to becoming infected with HIV/AIDS: a study of social representations].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Larissa Silva Abreu; Paiva, Mirian Santos; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; da Nóbrega, Sheva Maia

    2012-04-01

    This article discusses the social representations of women living in common-law marriage in terms of their vulnerability to becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. Data were obtained through the free association of words, and consisted of an excerpt of a study founded on the Social Representations Theory developed with HIV-negative women living in the state capital and cities in the interior of Bahia. The correspondence factor analysis showed significance for the variables: origin, education level and time spent in common-law marriage. Their acceptance of marital affairs emerged as a vulnerability factor for respondents with one to five years spent in common-law marriage, living in cities in the interior. Women from the capital, with 6-10 years spent in common-law marriage, reported monogamy as a form of prevention. Women with a longer common-law marriage who had completed only a primary education reported feeling invulnerable, which was the opposite of those with one to five years in common-law marriage with a secondary education. Results show there is a need for more interventions aiming to denaturalize the socio-cultural coercions that generate representations and make women in common-law marriages more vulnerable to AIDS.

  2. Enhancing the Representation of Subgrid Land Surface Characteristics in Land Surface Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yinghai; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi

    2013-09-27

    Land surface heterogeneity has long been recognized and increasingly incorporated in the land surface modelling. In most existing land surface models, the spatial variability of surface cover is represented as subgrid composition of multiple surface cover types. In this study, we developed a new subgrid classification method (SGC) that accounts for the topographic variability of the vegetation cover. Each model grid cell was represented with a number of elevation classes and each elevation class was further described by a number of vegetation types. The numbers of elevation classes and vegetation types were variable and optimized for each model grid so that the spatial variability of both elevation and vegetation can be reasonably explained given a pre-determined total number of classes. The subgrid structure of the Community Land Model (CLM) was used as an example to illustrate the newly developed method in this study. With similar computational burden as the current subgrid vegetation representation in CLM, the new method is able to explain at least 80% of the total subgrid PFTs and greatly reduced the variations of elevation within each subgrid class compared to the baseline method where a single elevation class is assigned to each subgrid PFT. The new method was also evaluated against two other subgrid methods (SGC1 and SGC2) that assigned fixed numbers of elevation and vegetation classes for each model grid with different perspectives of surface cover classification. Implemented at five model resolutions (0.1°, 0.25°, 0.5°, 1.0° and 2.0°) with three maximum-allowed total number of classes N_class of 24, 18 and 12 representing different computational burdens over the North America (NA) continent, the new method showed variable performances compared to the SGC1 and SGC2 methods. However, the advantage of the SGC method over the other two methods clearly emerged at coarser model resolutions and with moderate computational intensity (N_class = 18) as it

  3. Computerized craniofacial reconstruction using CT-derived implicit surface representations.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, Dirk; Claes, Peter; Loeckx, Dirk; De Greef, Sven; Willems, Guy; Suetens, Paul

    2006-05-15

    In forensic craniofacial reconstruction, facial features of an unknown individual are estimated from an unidentified skull, based on a mixture of experimentally obtained guidelines on the relationship between soft tissues and the underlying skeleton. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using full 3D cross-sectional CT images for establishing a reference database of densely sampled distances between the external surfaces of the skull and head for automated craniofacial reconstruction. For each CT image in the reference database, the hard tissue (skull) and soft tissue (head) volumes are automatically segmented and transformed into signed distance transform (sDT) images, representing for each voxel in this image the Euclidean distance to the closest point on the skull and head surface, respectively, distances being positive (negative) for voxels inside (outside) the skull/head. Multiple craniofacial reconstructions are obtained by first warping each reference skull sDT maps to the target skull sDT using a B-spline based free form deformation algorithm and subsequently applying these warps to the reference head sDT maps. A single reconstruction of the target head surface is defined as the zero level set of the arithmetic average of all warped reference head sDT maps, but other reconstructions are possible, biasing the result to subject specific attributes (age, BMI, gender). Both qualitative and quantitative tests (measuring the similarity between the 3D reconstructed and corresponding original head surface) on a small (N = 20) database are presented to proof the validity of the concept.

  4. Novel mixture model for the representation of potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tien Lam; Kino, Hiori; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Miyake, Takashi; Dam, Hieu Chi

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate that knowledge of chemical physics on a materials system can be automatically extracted from first-principles calculations using a data mining technique; this information can then be utilized to construct a simple empirical atomic potential model. By using unsupervised learning of the generative Gaussian mixture model, physically meaningful patterns of atomic local chemical environments can be detected automatically. Based on the obtained information regarding these atomic patterns, we propose a chemical-structure-dependent linear mixture model for estimating the atomic potential energy. Our experiments show that the proposed mixture model significantly improves the accuracy of the prediction of the potential energy surface for complex systems that possess a large diversity in their local structures.

  5. Improved analytical flux surface representation and calculation models for poloidal asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collart, T. G.; Stacey, W. M.

    2016-05-01

    An orthogonalized flux-surface aligned curvilinear coordinate system has been developed from an up-down asymmetric variation of the "Miller" flux-surface equilibrium model. It is found that the new orthogonalized "asymmetric Miller" model representation of equilibrium flux surfaces provides a more accurate match than various other representations of DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614-633 (2002)] discharges to flux surfaces calculated using the DIII-D Equilibrium Fitting tokamak equilibrium reconstruction code. The continuity and momentum balance equations were used to develop a system of equations relating asymmetries in plasma velocities, densities, and electrostatic potential in this curvilinear system, and detailed calculations of poloidal asymmetries were performed for a DIII-D discharge.

  6. Calculating and controlling the error of discrete representations of Pareto surfaces in convex multi-criteria optimization.

    PubMed

    Craft, David

    2010-10-01

    A discrete set of points and their convex combinations can serve as a sparse representation of the Pareto surface in multiple objective convex optimization. We develop a method to evaluate the quality of such a representation, and show by example that in multiple objective radiotherapy planning, the number of Pareto optimal solutions needed to represent Pareto surfaces of up to five dimensions grows at most linearly with the number of objectives. The method described is also applicable to the representation of convex sets.

  7. Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Representation for General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, L.

    1994-01-01

    A simple two-layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC-2L) land surface model suitable for incorporation in general circulation models (GCMs) is described. The model consists of a two-layer characterization of the soil within a GCM grid cell, and uses an aerodynamic representation of latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The effects of GCM spatial subgrid variability of soil moisture and a hydrologically realistic runoff mechanism are represented in the soil layers. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatalogical data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters. Surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiments (FIFE) intensive field compaigns in the summer and fall of 1987 in central Kansas, and from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) in Brazil were used to validate the mode-simulated surface energy fluxes and surface temperature.

  8. Surface fluid registration of conformal representation: application to detect disease burden and genetic influence on hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Thompson, Paul M; Gutman, Boris; Wang, Yalin

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we develop a new automated surface registration system based on surface conformal parameterization by holomorphic 1-forms, inverse consistent surface fluid registration, and multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM). First, we conformally map a surface onto a planar rectangle space with holomorphic 1-forms. Second, we compute surface conformal representation by combining its local conformal factor and mean curvature and linearly scale the dynamic range of the conformal representation to form the feature image of the surface. Third, we align the feature image with a chosen template image via the fluid image registration algorithm, which has been extended into the curvilinear coordinates to adjust for the distortion introduced by surface parameterization. The inverse consistent image registration algorithm is also incorporated in the system to jointly estimate the forward and inverse transformations between the study and template images. This alignment induces a corresponding deformation on the surface. We tested the system on Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) baseline dataset to study AD symptoms on hippocampus. In our system, by modeling a hippocampus as a 3D parametric surface, we nonlinearly registered each surface with a selected template surface. Then we used mTBM to analyze the morphometry difference between diagnostic groups. Experimental results show that the new system has better performance than two publicly available subcortical surface registration tools: FIRST and SPHARM. We also analyzed the genetic influence of the Apolipoprotein E[element of]4 allele (ApoE4), which is considered as the most prevalent risk factor for AD. Our work successfully detected statistically significant difference between ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers in both patients of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy control subjects. The results show evidence that the ApoE genotype may be associated with accelerated brain atrophy so that our

  9. SURFACE FLUID REGISTRATION OF CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION: APPLICATION TO DETECT DISEASE BURDEN AND GENETIC INFLUENCE ON HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jie; Thompson, Paul M.; Gutman, Boris; Wang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new automated surface registration system based on surface conformal parameterization by holomorphic 1-forms, inverse consistentsurface fluid registration, and multivariate tensor-based morphometry (mTBM). First, we conformally map a surface onto a planar rectangle space with holomorphic 1-forms. Second, we compute surface conformal representation by combining its local conformal factor and mean curvature and linearly scale the dynamic range of the conformal representation to form the feature image of the surface. Third, we align the feature image with a chosen template image via the fluid image registration algorithm, which has been extended into the curvilinear coordinates to adjust for the distortion introduced by surface parameterization. The inverse consistent image registration algorithm is also incorporated in the system to jointly estimate the forward and inverse transformations between the study and template images. This alignment induces a corresponding deformation on the surface. We tested the system on Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) baseline dataset to study AD symptoms on hippocampus. In our system, by modeling a hippocampus as a 3D parametric surface, we nonlinearly registered each surface with a selected template surface. Then we used mTBM to analyze the morphometrydifference between diagnostic groups. Experimental results show that the new system has better performance than two publically available subcortical surface registration tools: FIRST and SPHARM. We also analyzed the genetic influence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4),which is considered as the most prevalent risk factor for AD.Our work successfully detected statistically significant difference between ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers in both patients of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy control subjects. The results show evidence that the ApoE genotype may be associated with accelerated brain atrophy so that our workprovides

  10. Compact encoding of 3-D voxel surfaces based on pattern code representation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a lossless compression algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D) binary voxel surfaces, based on the pattern code representation (PCR). In PCR, a voxel surface is represented by a series of pattern codes. The pattern of a voxel v is defined as the 3 x 3 x 3 array of voxels, centered on v. Therefore, the pattern code for informs of the local shape of the voxel surface around . The proposed algorithm can achieve the coding gain, since the patterns of adjacent voxels are highly correlated to each other. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using various voxel surfaces, which are scan-converted from triangular mesh models. It is shown that the proposed algorithm requires only 0.5 approximately 1 bits per black voxel (bpbv) to store or transmit the voxel surfaces.

  11. Is land surface processes representation a possible weak link in current Regional Climate Models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davin, Edouard L.; Maisonnave, Eric; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-07-01

    The representation of land surface processes and fluxes in climate models critically affects the simulation of near-surface climate over land. Here we present an evaluation of COSMO-CLM2, a model which couples the COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model to the Community Land Model (CLM4.0). CLM4.0 provides a more detailed representation of land processes compared to the native land surface scheme in COSMO-CLM. We perform historical reanalysis-driven simulations over Europe with COSMO-CLM2 following the EURO-CORDEX intercomparison protocol. We then evaluate simulations performed with COSMO-CLM2, the standard COSMO-CLM and other EURO-CORDEX RCMs against various observational datasets of temperature, precipitation and surface fluxes. Overall, the results indicate that COSMO-CLM2 outperforms both the standard COSMO-CLM and the other EURO-CORDEX models in simulating sensible, latent and surface radiative fluxes as well as 2-meter temperature across different seasons and regions. The performance improvement is particularly strong for turbulent fluxes and for daily maximum temperatures and more modest for daily minimum temperature, suggesting that land surface processes affect daytime even more than nighttime conditions. COSMO-CLM2 also alleviates a long-standing issue of overestimation of interannual summer temperature variability present in most EURO-CORDEX RCMs. Finally, we show that several factors contribute to these improvements, including the representation of evapotranspiration, radiative fluxes and ground heat flux. Overall, these results demonstrate that land processes represent a key area of development to tackle current deficiencies in RCMs.

  12. Robust Representation of Integrated Surface-subsurface Hydrology at Watershed Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, S. L.; Tang, G.; Collier, N.; Jan, A.; Karra, S.

    2015-12-01

    A representation of integrated surface-subsurface hydrology is the central component to process-rich watershed models that are emerging as alternatives to traditional reduced complexity models. These physically based systems are important for assessing potential impacts of climate change and human activities on groundwater-dependent ecosystems and water supply and quality. Integrated surface-subsurface models typically couple three-dimensional solutions for variably saturated flow in the subsurface with the kinematic- or diffusion-wave equation for surface flows. The computational scheme for coupling the surface and subsurface systems is key to the robustness, computational performance, and ease-of-implementation of the integrated system. A new, robust approach for coupling the subsurface and surface systems is developed from the assumption that the vertical gradient in head is negligible at the surface. This tight-coupling assumption allows the surface flow system to be incorporated directly into the subsurface system; effects of surface flow and surface water accumulation are represented as modifications to the subsurface flow and accumulation terms but are not triggered until the subsurface pressure reaches a threshold value corresponding to the appearance of water on the surface. The new approach has been implemented in the highly parallel PFLOTRAN (www.pflotran.org) code. Several synthetic examples and three-dimensional examples from the Walker Branch Watershed in Oak Ridge TN demonstrate the utility and robustness of the new approach using unstructured computational meshes. Representation of solute transport in the new approach is also discussed. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC0500OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid

  13. Molecular dynamics-based triangulation algorithm of free-form parametric surfaces for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznyakova, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    A new computational approach for automated triangulation of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) surface models, applicable to various CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) problems of practical interest is proposed. The complex shaped product configurations are represented by a set of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) surface patches. The suggested technique is based on the molecular dynamics method. The main idea of the approach is that the mesh nodes are considered as similarly charged interacting particles which move within the region to be meshed under the influence of internal (such as particle-particle interaction forces) and external forces as well as optional additional forces. Moreover, the particles experience a medium resistance due to which the system comes to equilibrium within a relatively short period of time. The proposed 3D surface mesh generation algorithm uses a parametric NURBS representation as initial definition of the domain boundary. This method first distributes the interacting nodes into optimal locations in the parametric domain of the NURBS surface patch using molecular dynamics simulation. Then, the well-shaped triangles can be created after connecting the nodes by Delaunay triangulation. Finally, the mapping from parametric space to 3D physical space is performed. Since the presented interactive algorithm allows to control the distance between a pair of nodes depending on the curvature of the NURBS surface, the method generates high quality triangular mesh. The algorithm enables to produce uniform mesh, as well as anisotropic adaptive mesh with refinement in the large gradient regions. The mesh generation approach has the abilities to preserve the representation accuracy of the input geometry model, create a close relationship between geometry modeling and grid generation process, be automated to a large degree. Some examples are considered in order to illustrate the method's ability to generate a surface mesh for a complicated CAD model.

  14. Quantification of the errors associated with the representation of surface emissivity in the RRTMG_LW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongze; Chen, Xiuhong; Huang, Xianglei

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that representation of surface spectral emissivity has a non-negligible impact on the polar radiation budget and on simulated climate. This fact motivates the inclusion of surface spectral emissivity into the radiative transfer scheme employed in the climate models. Using a line-by-line radiative transfer model, LBLRTM, as a benchmark, we quantify the errors due to the approximation of surface spectral emissivity in the RRTMG_LW, a radiation scheme widely used by climate models and numerical forecast models. Error quantifications are done using representative sounding profiles in the tropics, mid-latitude summer, sub-arctic winter and Sahara desert interfaced with either ocean or desert spectral emissivities. Though including surface emissivity causes little difference in broadband outgoing longwave radiation, it can cause noticeable differences in longwave radiative cooling rate from surface to 700 hPa. Compared to the benchmark, the largest deviation in radiative cooling rate usually happens at the lowest atmospheric layers next to the surface, ranging from -0.23 K/day to 0.19 K/day with the largest fractional difference being -16.22%. The discrepancies caused solely by the representation of surface emissivity are confined at the lowest atmospheric layer. Using the emissivity at the diffusive angle or the hemispherically averaged emissivity can affect the calculation accuracy, especially for strongly anisotropic surface emission. The band-by-band contribution to the discrepancies between the RRTMG_LW and benchmark reveals compensating errors among the bands used in the RRTMG_LW.

  15. Noah-MP-Crop: Enhancing cropland representation in the community land surface modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Chen, F.; Barlage, M. J.; Zhou, G.; Niyogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Croplands are important in land-atmosphere interactions and in modifying local and regional weather and climate. Despite their importance, croplands are poorly represented in the current version of the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)/ Noah land-surface modeling system, resulting in significant surface temperature and humidity biases across agriculture- dominated regions of the United States. This study aims to improve the WRF weather forecasting and regional climate simulations during the crop growing season by enhancing the representation of cropland in the Noah-MP land model. We introduced dynamic crop growth parameterization into Noah-MP and evaluated the enhanced model (Noah-MP-Crop) at both the field and regional scales with multiple crop biomass datasets, surface fluxes and soil moisture/temperature observations. We also integrated a detailed cropland cover map into WRF, enabling the model to simulate corn and soybean field across the U.S. Great Plains. Results show marked improvement in the Noah-MP-Crop performance in simulating leaf area index (LAI), crop biomass, soil temperature, and surface fluxes. Enhanced cropland representation is not only crucial for improving weather forecasting but can also help assess potential impacts of weather variability on regional hydrometeorology and crop yields. In addition to its applications to WRF, Noah-MP-Crop can be applied in high-spatial-resolution regional crop yield modeling and drought assessments

  16. On the temporal variability of the surface solar radiation by means of spectral representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-07-01

    This work deals with the temporal variability of daily means of the global broadband surface solar irradiance (SSI) impinging on a horizontal plane by studying a decennial time-series of high-quality measurements recorded at a BSRN ground station. Since the data have a non-linear and non-stationary character, two time-frequency-energy representations of signal processing are compared in their ability to resolve the temporal variability of the pyranometric signal. First, the continuous wavelet transform is used to construct the wavelet power spectrum of the data. Second, the adaptive, noise-assisted empirical mode decomposition is employed to extract the intrinsic mode functions of the signal, followed by Hilbert spectral analysis. In both spectral representations, the temporal variability of the SSI is portrayed having clearly distinguishable features: a plateau between scales of two days and two-three months that has decreasing power with increasing scale, a large spectral peak corresponding to the annual variability cycle, and a low power regime in between the previous two. It is shown that the data-driven, noise-assisted method yields a somewhat more sparse representation and that it is a suitable tool for inspecting the temporal variability of SSI measurements.

  17. Sorting of Single Biomolecules based on Fourier Polar Representation of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Aymeric; Brulé, Thibault; Buret, Mickael; Colas Des Francs, Gérard; Bouhelier, Alexandre; Dereux, Alain; Finot, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy becomes increasingly used in biosensors for its capacity to detect and identify single molecules. In practice, a large number of SERS spectra are acquired and reliable ranking methods are thus essential for analysing all these data. Supervised classification strategies, which are the most effective methods, are usually applied but they require pre-determined models or classes. In this work, we propose to sort SERS spectra in unknown groups with an alternative strategy called Fourier polar representation. This non-fitting method based on simple Fourier sine and cosine transforms produces a fast and graphical representation for sorting SERS spectra with quantitative information. The reliability of this method was first investigated theoretically and numerically. Then, its performances were tested on two concrete biological examples: first with single amino-acid molecule (cysteine) and then with a mixture of three distinct odorous molecules. The benefits of this Fourier polar representation were highlighted and compared to the well-established statistical principal component analysis method.

  18. Sorting of Single Biomolecules based on Fourier Polar Representation of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Leray, Aymeric; Brulé, Thibault; Buret, Mickael; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Bouhelier, Alexandre; Dereux, Alain; Finot, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy becomes increasingly used in biosensors for its capacity to detect and identify single molecules. In practice, a large number of SERS spectra are acquired and reliable ranking methods are thus essential for analysing all these data. Supervised classification strategies, which are the most effective methods, are usually applied but they require pre-determined models or classes. In this work, we propose to sort SERS spectra in unknown groups with an alternative strategy called Fourier polar representation. This non-fitting method based on simple Fourier sine and cosine transforms produces a fast and graphical representation for sorting SERS spectra with quantitative information. The reliability of this method was first investigated theoretically and numerically. Then, its performances were tested on two concrete biological examples: first with single amino-acid molecule (cysteine) and then with a mixture of three distinct odorous molecules. The benefits of this Fourier polar representation were highlighted and compared to the well-established statistical principal component analysis method. PMID:26833130

  19. On the Representation of Heterogeneity in Land-Surface-Atmosphere Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Schulz, Jan-Peter; Hagemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    A realistic representation of processes that are not resolved by the model grid is one of the key challenges in Earth-system modelling. In particular, the non-linear nature of processes involved makes a representation of the link between the atmosphere and the land surface difficult. This is especially so when the land surface is horizontally strongly heterogeneous. In the majority of present day Earth system models two strategies are pursued to couple the land surface and the atmosphere. In the first approach, surface heterogeneity is not explicitly accounted for, instead effective parameters are used to represent the entirety of the land surface in a model's grid box (parameter-aggregation). In the second approach, subgrid-scale variability at the surface is explicitly represented, but it is assumed that the blending height is located below the lowest atmospheric model level (simple flux-aggregation). Thus, in both approaches the state of the atmosphere is treated as being horizontally homogeneous within a given grid box. Based upon the blending height concept, an approach is proposed that allows for a land-surface-atmosphere coupling in which horizontal heterogeneity is considered not only at the surface, but also within the lowest layers of the atmosphere (the VERTEX scheme). Below the blending height, the scheme refines the turbulent mixing process with respect to atmospheric subgrid fractions, which correspond to different surface features. These subgrid fractions are not treated independently of each other, since an explicit horizontal component is integrated into the turbulent mixing process. The scheme was implemented into the JSBACH model, the land component of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth-system model, when coupled to the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM. The single-column version of the Earth system model is used in two example cases in order to demonstrate how the effects of surface heterogeneity are transferred into the

  20. Topography-Based Registration of Developing Cortical Surfaces in Infants Using Multidirectional Varifold Representation

    PubMed Central

    Rekik, Islem; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Cortical surface registration or matching facilitates atlasing, cortical morphology-function comparison and statistical analysis. Methods that geodesically shoot surfaces into one another, as currents or varifolds, provide an elegant mathematical framework for generic surface matching and dynamic local features estimation, such as deformation momenta. However, conventional current and varifold matching methods only use the normals of the surface to measure its geometry and guide the warping process, which overlooks the importance of the direction in the convoluted cortical sulcal and gyral folds. To cope with the stated limitation, we decompose each cortical surface into its normal and tangent varifold representations, by integrating principal curvature direction field into the varifold matching framework, thus providing rich information for the direction of cortical folding and better characterization of the cortical geometry. To include more informative cortical geometric features in the matching process, we adaptively place control points based on the surface topography, hence the deformation is controlled by points lying on gyral crests (or “hills”) and sulcal fundi (or “valleys”) of the cortical surface, which are the most reliable and important topographic and anatomical landmarks on the cortex. We applied our method for registering the developing cortical surfaces in 12 infants from 0 to 6 months of age. Both of these variants significantly improved the matching accuracy in terms of closeness to the target surface and the precision of alignment with regional anatomical boundaries, when compared with several state-of-the-art methods: (1) diffeomorphic spectral matching, (2) current-based surface matching and (3) original varifold-based surface matching. PMID:27169137

  1. [Computer-aided legal medical examination of body surface].

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Pu, F; Yu, X; Zhang, L; Zou, Y; Jiang, W

    1999-12-01

    This paper provides a package of automatic and semi-automatic methods for computing the area of different kinds of body surface injuries. Compared with traditional methods, these processes of examination are faster and the conclusions are more precise and objective. Also presented are the authors classify the items into many types by standards which are necessary to let computer draw conclusions automatically. This software is conducive to improvement in work efficiency and convenience for judicial supervision.

  2. Contributions of feature shapes and surface cues to the recognition and neural representation of facial identity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Timothy J; Baseler, Heidi; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike; Young, Andrew W

    2016-10-01

    A full understanding of face recognition will involve identifying the visual information that is used to discriminate different identities and how this is represented in the brain. The aim of this study was to explore the importance of shape and surface properties in the recognition and neural representation of familiar faces. We used image morphing techniques to generate hybrid faces that mixed shape properties (more specifically, second order spatial configural information as defined by feature positions in the 2D-image) from one identity and surface properties from a different identity. Behavioural responses showed that recognition and matching of these hybrid faces was primarily based on their surface properties. These behavioural findings contrasted with neural responses recorded using a block design fMRI adaptation paradigm to test the sensitivity of Haxby et al.'s (2000) core face-selective regions in the human brain to the shape or surface properties of the face. The fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA) showed a lower response (adaptation) to repeated images of the same face (same shape, same surface) compared to different faces (different shapes, different surfaces). From the behavioural data indicating the critical contribution of surface properties to the recognition of identity, we predicted that brain regions responsible for familiar face recognition should continue to adapt to faces that vary in shape but not surface properties, but show a release from adaptation to faces that vary in surface properties but not shape. However, we found that the FFA and OFA showed an equivalent release from adaptation to changes in both shape and surface properties. The dissociation between the neural and perceptual responses suggests that, although they may play a role in the process, these core face regions are not solely responsible for the recognition of facial identity.

  3. Solvent accessible surface representation in a database system for protein docking

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, T.; Kriegel, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    Protein docking is a new and challenging application for query processing in database systems. Our architecture for an efficient support of docking queries is based on the multistep query processing paradigm, a technique well-known from spatial database systems. Along with physicochemical parameters, the geometry of the molecules plays a fundamental role for docking retrieval. Thus, 3D structures and 3D surfaces of molecules are basic objects in molecular databases. We specify a molecular surface representation based on topology, define a class of neighborhood queries, and sketch some applications with respect to the docking problem. We suggest a patch-based data structure called the TriEdge structure, first, to efficiently support topological query processing, and second, to save space in comparison to common planar graph representations such as the quad-edge structure. In analogy to the quad-edge structure, the TriEdge structure has an algebraic interface and is implemented via complex pointers. However, we achieve a reduction of the space requirement by a factor of four. Finally, we investigate the time performance of our prototype.

  4. Aluminum runway surface as possible aid to aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.; Pinkel, I. I.

    1973-01-01

    Several concepts are described for use singly or in combination to improve aircraft braking. All involve a thin layer of aluminum covering all or part of the runway. Advantage would derive from faster heat conduction from the tire-runway interface. Heating of tread surface with consequent softening and loss of friction coefficient should be reduced. Equations are developed indicating that at least 99 percent of friction heat should flow into the aluminum. Preliminary test results indicate a coefficient of sliding friction of 1.4, with predictably slight heating of tread. Elimination of conventional brakes is at least a remote possibility.

  5. Remote Sensing by Spaceborne Lidar Aided by Surface Returns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. A.; Cooley, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar offers the possibility of global mapping of clouds and atmospheric aerosols. Mapping of cloud-top heights, multiple layers of thin clouds and the depth of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), given sufficient aerosols, are applications that should be fairly easy to accomplish from space with even a modest lidar system. However, the constraints imposed on spaceborne lidar by large ranging distances, limited available power/weight, and fast moving platforms present significant challenges to achieving more quantitative retrievals such as extracting aerosol extinction profiles, PBL optical depths and cloud optical depths. Ways to take advantage of the strong signals available from ground/sea reflections to improve upon atmospheric aerosol and cloud retrievals as well as to distinguish certain surface types are explored.

  6. Multivariate tensor-based morphometry on surfaces: application to mapping ventricular abnormalities in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Zhang, Jie; Gutman, Boris; Chan, Tony F; Becker, James T; Aizenstein, Howard J; Lopez, Oscar L; Tamburo, Robert J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-02-01

    Here we developed a new method, called multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry (TBM), and applied it to study lateral ventricular surface differences associated with HIV/AIDS. Using concepts from differential geometry and the theory of differential forms, we created mathematical structures known as holomorphic one-forms, to obtain an efficient and accurate conformal parameterization of the lateral ventricular surfaces in the brain. The new meshing approach also provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects, and improves on prior methods as it handles surfaces that branch and join at complex 3D junctions. To analyze anatomical differences, we computed new statistics from the Riemannian surface metrics-these retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. We applied this framework to analyze lateral ventricular surface morphometry in 3D MRI data from 11 subjects with HIV/AIDS and 8 healthy controls. Our method detected a 3D profile of surface abnormalities even in this small sample. Multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave better effect sizes for detecting group differences, relative to other TBM-based methods including analysis of the Jacobian determinant, the largest and smallest eigenvalues of the surface metric, and the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The resulting analysis pipeline may improve the power of surface-based morphometry studies of the brain.

  7. Multivariate tensor-based morphometry on surfaces: application to mapping ventricular abnormalities in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Zhang, Jie; Gutman, Boris; Chan, Tony F; Becker, James T; Aizenstein, Howard J; Lopez, Oscar L; Tamburo, Robert J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-02-01

    Here we developed a new method, called multivariate tensor-based surface morphometry (TBM), and applied it to study lateral ventricular surface differences associated with HIV/AIDS. Using concepts from differential geometry and the theory of differential forms, we created mathematical structures known as holomorphic one-forms, to obtain an efficient and accurate conformal parameterization of the lateral ventricular surfaces in the brain. The new meshing approach also provides a natural way to register anatomical surfaces across subjects, and improves on prior methods as it handles surfaces that branch and join at complex 3D junctions. To analyze anatomical differences, we computed new statistics from the Riemannian surface metrics-these retain multivariate information on local surface geometry. We applied this framework to analyze lateral ventricular surface morphometry in 3D MRI data from 11 subjects with HIV/AIDS and 8 healthy controls. Our method detected a 3D profile of surface abnormalities even in this small sample. Multivariate statistics on the local tensors gave better effect sizes for detecting group differences, relative to other TBM-based methods including analysis of the Jacobian determinant, the largest and smallest eigenvalues of the surface metric, and the pair of eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. The resulting analysis pipeline may improve the power of surface-based morphometry studies of the brain. PMID:19900560

  8. Health Education in Primary Schools: The Effects of an Educational Programme on the Representations of HIV/AIDS in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Dominique; Jourdan, Didier; Barnoin, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Health education is a part of the primary school science curriculum in France. Teachers often consider sexuality education and sexually transmitted diseases prevention as a topic they cannot teach without the help of partners. This paper is an account of a research carried out to study the representations of primary school pupils (Key Stage 2,…

  9. Surface representations of two- and three-dimensional fluid flow topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1990-01-01

    We discuss our work using critical point analysis to generate representations of the vector field topology of numerical flow data sets. Critical points are located and characterized in a two-dimensional domain, which may be either a two-dimensional flow field or the tangential velocity field near a three-dimensional body. Tangent curves are then integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the two-dimensional vector field topology. When generated from the tangential velocity field near a body in a three-dimensional flow, the skeleton includes the critical points and curves which provide a basis for analyzing the three-dimensional structure of the flow separation. The points along the separation curves in the skeleton are used to start tangent curve integrations to generate surfaces representing the topology of the associated flow separations.

  10. Evaluation of the Surface Representation of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.; Zhao, Bin; Suarez, Max J.

    2014-01-01

    Simulated surface conditions of the Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS 5) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) are examined for the contemporary Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). A surface parameterization that explicitly models surface processes including snow compaction, meltwater percolation and refreezing, and surface albedo is found to remedy an erroneous deficit in the annual net surface energy flux and provide an adequate representation of surface mass balance (SMB) in an evaluation using simulations at two spatial resolutions. The simulated 1980-2008 GrIS SMB average is 24.7+/-4.5 cm yr(- 1) water-equivalent (w.e.) at.5 degree model grid spacing, and 18.2+/-3.3 cm yr(- 1) w.e. for 2 degree grid spacing. The spatial variability and seasonal cycle of the simulation compare favorably to recent studies using regional climate models, while results from 2 degree integrations reproduce the primary features of the SMB field. In comparison to historical glaciological observations, the coarser resolution model overestimates accumulation in the southern areas of the GrIS, while the overall SMB is underestimated. These changes relate to the sensitivity of accumulation and melt to the resolution of topography. The GEOS-5 SMB fields contrast with available corresponding atmospheric models simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). It is found that only a few of the CMIP5 AGCMs examined provide significant summertime runoff, a dominant feature of the GrIS seasonal cycle. This is a condition that will need to be remedied if potential contributions to future eustatic change from polar ice sheets are to be examined with GCMs.

  11. Surface and semantic processing of cellular transport representations by high school students with low and high prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prior knowledge of cell transport processes on how students viewed and interpreted visual representations related to that topic. The participants were high school students (n=65) enrolled in Advanced Placement biology. Prior knowledge was assessed using a modified version of the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (Odom & Barrow, 1995). Eye movements were measured to reveal how students distribute their visual attention as they perceive and interpret graphics; in addition, interviews and questionnaires were employed to provide more interpretive data sources. The first manuscript of the study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and students' ability to perceive salient features and interpret graphic representations of cellular transport. The results from eye tracking data, interviews, and questionnaire responses were triangulated and revealed differences in how high and low prior knowledge students attended to and interpreted various features of the graphic representations. Without adequate domain knowledge, low prior knowledge students focused on surface features of the graphics to build an understanding of the concepts represented. High prior knowledge students, with more abundant and better organized domain knowledge, were more likely to attend to thematically relevant content in the graphics and construct deeper understandings. The second manuscript of the study examines the influence of prior knowledge on how students transitioned among the macroscopic and molecular representations of selected graphics. Eye tracking and sequential analysis results indicated that high prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the molecular representations, where as low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the macroscopic representations. In addition, low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between macroscopic and molecular representations

  12. Incorporation of groundwater pumping in a global Land Surface Model with the representation of human impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Koirala, Sujan; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Hanasaki, Naota; Longuevergne, Laurent; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    Observations indicate that groundwater levels are declining in many regions around the world. Simulating such depletion of groundwater at the global scale still remains a challenge because most global Land Surface Models (LSMs) lack the physical representation of groundwater dynamics in general and well pumping in particular. Here we present an integrated hydrologic model, which explicitly simulates groundwater dynamics and pumping within a global LSM that also accounts for human activities such as irrigation and reservoir operation. The model is used to simulate global water fluxes and storages with a particular focus on groundwater withdrawal and depletion in the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) and Central Valley Aquifer (CVA). Simulated global groundwater withdrawal and depletion for the year 2000 are 570 and 330 km3 yr-1, respectively; the depletion agrees better with observations than our previous model result without groundwater representation, but may still contain certain uncertainties and is on the higher side of other estimates. Groundwater withdrawals from the HPA and CVA are ˜22 and ˜9 km3 yr-1, respectively, which are also consistent with the observations of ˜24 and ˜13 km3 yr-1. The model simulates a significant decline in total terrestrial water storage in both regions as caused mainly by groundwater storage depletion. Groundwater table declined by ˜14 cm yr-1 in the HPA during 2003-2010; the rate is even higher (˜71 cm yr-1) in the CVA. These results demonstrate the potential of the developed model to study the dynamic relationship between human water use, groundwater storage, and the entire hydrologic cycle.

  13. A neuromorphic model for achromatic and chromatic surface representation of natural images.

    PubMed

    Hong, Simon; Grossberg, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This study develops a neuromorphic model of human lightness perception that is inspired by how the mammalian visual system is designed for this function. It is known that biological visual representations can adapt to a billion-fold change in luminance. How such a system determines absolute lightness under varying illumination conditions to generate a consistent interpretation of surface lightness remains an unsolved problem. Such a process, called 'anchoring' of lightness, has properties including articulation, insulation, configuration, and area effects. The model quantitatively simulates such psychophysical lightness data, as well as other data such as discounting the illuminant, and lightness constancy and contrast effects. The model retina embodies gain control at retinal photoreceptors, and spatial contrast adaptation at the negative feedback circuit between mechanisms that model the inner segment of photoreceptors and interacting horizontal cells. The model can thereby adjust its sensitivity to input intensities ranging from dim moonlight to dazzling sunlight. A new anchoring mechanism, called the Blurred-Highest-Luminance-As-White rule, helps simulate how surface lightness becomes sensitive to the spatial scale of objects in a scene. The model is also able to process natural color images under variable lighting conditions, and is compared with the popular RETINEX model.

  14. Molecular mechanisms for surfactant-aided oil removal from a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shumeng; Li, Zhi; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Xianren; Yang, Qingyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the detachment mechanism of oil molecules from the hydrophobic solid surface in the aqueous surfactant solution is studied with lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Three different mechanisms for oil removal, including oil carrying microemulsion model, oil film stripping model, and surfactant-aided diffusion model are identified. The molecular mechanisms that agree with experimental observations are found to be dependent sensitively on surfactant structure.

  15. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  16. Intuitive representation of surface properties of biomolecules using BioBlender

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In living cells, proteins are in continuous motion and interaction with the surrounding medium and/or other proteins and ligands. These interactions are mediated by protein features such as electrostatic and lipophilic potentials. The availability of protein structures enables the study of their surfaces and surface characteristics, based on atomic contribution. Traditionally, these properties are calculated by physico-chemical programs and visualized as range of colors that vary according to the tool used and imposes the necessity of a legend to decrypt it. The use of color to encode both characteristics makes the simultaneous visualization almost impossible, requiring these features to be visualized in different images. In this work, we describe a novel and intuitive code for the simultaneous visualization of these properties. Methods Recent advances in 3D animation and rendering software have not yet been exploited for the representation of biomolecules in an intuitive, animated form. For our purpose we use Blender, an open-source, free, cross-platform application used professionally for 3D work. On the basis Blender, we developed BioBlender, dedicated to biological work: elaboration of protein motion with simultaneous visualization of their chemical and physical features. Electrostatic and lipophilic potentials are calculated using physico-chemical software and scripts, organized and accessed through BioBlender interface. Results A new visual code is introduced for molecular lipophilic potential: a range of optical features going from smooth-shiny for hydrophobic regions to rough-dull for hydrophilic ones. Electrostatic potential is represented as animated line particles that flow along field lines, proportional to the total charge of the protein. Conclusions Our system permits visualization of molecular features and, in the case of moving proteins, their continuous perception, calculated for each conformation during motion. Using real world tactile

  17. Combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation of potential energy surfaces: a preliminary assessment for H3 and HO2.

    PubMed

    Varandas, A J C

    2013-02-01

    The purpose is to fit an accurate smooth function of the many-body expansion type to a multidimensional large data set using a basis-set type method. By adopting a combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation for the basis, the novel approach is tested in detail for the ground electronic state of tri-hydrogen and hydroperoxyl systems, assuming that their potential energy surfaces are single-sheeted representable. It is also shown that the method can be easily applicable to potential energy curves by considering as prototypes molecular oxygen and the hydroxyl radical. PMID:23406111

  18. Combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation of potential energy surfaces: A preliminary assessment for H_3 and HO_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandas, A. J. C.

    2013-02-01

    The purpose is to fit an accurate smooth function of the many-body expansion type to a multidimensional large data set using a basis-set type method. By adopting a combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation for the basis, the novel approach is tested in detail for the ground electronic state of tri-hydrogen and hydroperoxyl systems, assuming that their potential energy surfaces are single-sheeted representable. It is also shown that the method can be easily applicable to potential energy curves by considering as prototypes molecular oxygen and the hydroxyl radical.

  19. Computer-aided high-accuracy testing of reflective surface with reverse Hartmann test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daodang; Zhang, Sen; Wu, Rengmao; Huang, Chih Yu; Cheng, Hsiang-Nan; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-08-22

    The deflectometry provides a feasible way for surface testing with a high dynamic range, and the calibration is a key issue in the testing. A computer-aided testing method based on reverse Hartmann test, a fringe-illumination deflectometry, is proposed for high-accuracy testing of reflective surfaces. The virtual "null" testing of surface error is achieved based on ray tracing of the modeled test system. Due to the off-axis configuration in the test system, it places ultra-high requirement on the calibration of system geometry. The system modeling error can introduce significant residual systematic error in the testing results, especially in the cases of convex surface and small working distance. A calibration method based on the computer-aided reverse optimization with iterative ray tracing is proposed for the high-accuracy testing of reflective surface. Both the computer simulation and experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed measurement method, and good measurement accuracy has been achieved. The proposed method can achieve the measurement accuracy comparable to the interferometric method, even with the large system geometry calibration error, providing a feasible way to address the uncertainty on the calibration of system geometry. PMID:27557245

  20. Computer-aided high-accuracy testing of reflective surface with reverse Hartmann test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daodang; Zhang, Sen; Wu, Rengmao; Huang, Chih Yu; Cheng, Hsiang-Nan; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-08-22

    The deflectometry provides a feasible way for surface testing with a high dynamic range, and the calibration is a key issue in the testing. A computer-aided testing method based on reverse Hartmann test, a fringe-illumination deflectometry, is proposed for high-accuracy testing of reflective surfaces. The virtual "null" testing of surface error is achieved based on ray tracing of the modeled test system. Due to the off-axis configuration in the test system, it places ultra-high requirement on the calibration of system geometry. The system modeling error can introduce significant residual systematic error in the testing results, especially in the cases of convex surface and small working distance. A calibration method based on the computer-aided reverse optimization with iterative ray tracing is proposed for the high-accuracy testing of reflective surface. Both the computer simulation and experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed measurement method, and good measurement accuracy has been achieved. The proposed method can achieve the measurement accuracy comparable to the interferometric method, even with the large system geometry calibration error, providing a feasible way to address the uncertainty on the calibration of system geometry.

  1. An investigation of constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Originally, computer programs for engineering design focused on detailed geometric design. Later, computer programs for algorithmically performing the preliminary design of specific well-defined classes of objects became commonplace. However, due to the need for extreme flexibility, it appears unlikely that conventional programming techniques will prove fruitful in developing computer aids for engineering conceptual design. The use of symbolic processing techniques, such as object-oriented programming and constraint propagation, facilitate such flexibility. Object-oriented programming allows programs to be organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, rather than around fixed sequences of function- and subroutine-calls. Constraint propagation allows declarative statements to be understood as designating multi-directional mathematical relationships among all the variables of an equation, rather than as unidirectional assignments to the variable on the left-hand side of the equation, as in conventional computer programs. The research has concentrated on applying these two techniques to the development of a general-purpose computer aid for engineering conceptual design. Object-oriented programming techniques are utilized to implement a user-extensible database of design components. The mathematical relationships which model both geometry and physics of these components are managed via constraint propagation. In addition, to this component-based hierarchy, special-purpose data structures are provided for describing component interactions and supporting state-dependent parameters. In order to investigate the utility of this approach, a number of sample design problems from the field of aerospace engineering were implemented using the prototype design tool, Rubber Airplane. The additional level of organizational structure obtained by representing design knowledge in terms of components is observed to provide greater convenience to the program user, and to

  2. Femtosecond laser induced tunable surface transformations on (111) Si aided by square grids diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Weina; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei Liu, Yang

    2015-12-21

    We report an extra freedom to modulate the femtosecond laser energy distribution to control the surface ablated structures through a copper-grid mask. Due to the reduced deposited pulse energy by changing the scanning speed or the pulse fluence, a sequential evolution of three distinctly different surface patterns with periodic distributions is formed, namely, striped ripple lines, ripple microdots, and surface modification. By changing the scanning speed, the number of the multiple dots in a lattice can be modulated. Moreover, by exploring the ablation process through the copper grid mask, it shows an abnormal enhanced ablation effect with strong dependence of the diffraction-aided fs laser ablated surface structures on polarization direction. The sensitivity shows a quasi-cosinusoid-function with a periodicity of π/2. Particularly, the connection process of striped ripple lines manifests a preferential formation direction with the laser polarization.

  3. Femtosecond laser induced tunable surface transformations on (111) Si aided by square grids diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Weina; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Yang; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-12-01

    We report an extra freedom to modulate the femtosecond laser energy distribution to control the surface ablated structures through a copper-grid mask. Due to the reduced deposited pulse energy by changing the scanning speed or the pulse fluence, a sequential evolution of three distinctly different surface patterns with periodic distributions is formed, namely, striped ripple lines, ripple microdots, and surface modification. By changing the scanning speed, the number of the multiple dots in a lattice can be modulated. Moreover, by exploring the ablation process through the copper grid mask, it shows an abnormal enhanced ablation effect with strong dependence of the diffraction-aided fs laser ablated surface structures on polarization direction. The sensitivity shows a quasi-cosinusoid-function with a periodicity of π/2. Particularly, the connection process of striped ripple lines manifests a preferential formation direction with the laser polarization.

  4. Reconstruction of surfaces from mixed hydrocarbon and PEG components in water: responsive surfaces aid fouling release.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngjin; Sundaram, Harihara S; Finlay, John A; Dimitriou, Michael D; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

    2012-06-11

    Coatings derived from surface active block copolymers (SABCs) having a combination of hydrophobic aliphatic (linear hydrocarbon or propylene oxide-derived groups) and hydrophilic poly(ethlyene glycol) (PEG) side chains have been developed. The coatings demonstrate superior performance against protein adsorption as well as resistance to biofouling, providing an alternative to coatings containing fluorinated side chains as the hydrophobe, thus reducing the potential environmental impact. The surfaces were examined using dynamic water contact angle, captive air-bubble contact angle, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The PS(8K)-b-P(E/B)(25K)-b-PI(10K) triblock copolymer precursor (K3) initially dominated the dry surface. In contrast to previous studies with mixed fluorinated/PEG surfaces, these new materials displayed significant surface changes after exposure to water that allowed fouling resistant behavior. PEG groups buried several nanometers below the surface in the dry state were able to occupy the coating surface after placement in water. The resulting surface exhibits a very low contact angle and good antifouling properties that are very different from those of K3. The surfaces are strongly resistant to protein adsorption using bovine serum albumin as a standard protein challenge. Biofouling assays with sporelings of the green alga Ulva and cells of the diatom Navicula showed the level of adhesion was significantly reduced relative to that of a PDMS standard and that of the triblock copolymer precursor of the SABCs.

  5. Mesh optimization of vessel surface model for computer-aided simulation of percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Mi, Shao-Hua; Bian, Gui-Bin; Xie, Xiao-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is the gold standard to coronary diseases in the past decades due to much less trauma and quick recovery. However, due to the traits of minimal invasiveness, clinicians have to defeat the difficulties in eye-hand coordination during the procedure, which also makes it a non-trivial task in the catheterization lab. The computer-aided surgical simulation is designed to provide a reliable tool for the early stage of the training of the procedure. In this simulation system, the surface model of the vessels contribute the major part in the virtual anatomic environment. On the other hand, heavy interactions between the virtual surgical tools and the model surface occur during the training. In order to achieve acceptable performances, the patient-specific vessel surface model needs further process to adapt to this situation. We proposed in this paper an approach to optimize the meshes that consist the surface model with its application in consideration. The connectivity of the surface model is firstly checked. Next a smooth processing is applied without modifying the geometry of the largest-connected surface. Then the quantities of the polygons consisting the model surface are eliminated both dramatically and appropriately. The resultant surface model is applied in the validation test interacting with the virtual guidewire.

  6. Evaluation of computer-aided procedure for detecting surface water. [using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results from an evaluation of a computer-aided procedure for processing ERTS-1 data to detect and locate surface water are presented. The procedure was evaluated using data from a study area in the vicinity of the Lake Somerville area in Washington County, Texas. The procedure consisted of (1) selecting water training fields, (2) aggregating the training samples together and clustering them into unimodal clusters, (3) computing the mean vector and covariance matrix for each cluster, (4) classifying all of the study area into classes corresponding to the clusters using the maximum likelihood classifier, and (5) thresholding out the nonwater pixels.

  7. Combining multiple feature representations and AdaBoost ensemble learning for reducing false-positive detections in computer-aided detection of masses on mammograms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Dae Hoe; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N; Ro, Yong Man

    2012-01-01

    One of the drawbacks of current Computer-aided Detection (CADe) systems is a high number of false-positive (FP) detections, especially for detecting mass abnormalities. In a typical CADe system, classifier design is one of the key steps for determining FP detection rates. This paper presents the effective classifier ensemble system for tackling FP reduction problem in CADe. To construct ensemble consisting of correct classifiers while disagreeing with each other as much as possible, we develop a new ensemble construction solution that combines data resampling underpinning AdaBoost learning with the use of different feature representations. In addition, to cope with the limitation of weak classifiers in conventional AdaBoost, our method has an effective mechanism for tuning the level of weakness of base classifiers. Further, for combining multiple decision outputs of ensemble members, a weighted sum fusion strategy is used to maximize a complementary effect for correct classification. Comparative experiments have been conducted on benchmark mammogram dataset. Results show that the proposed classifier ensemble outperforms the best single classifier in terms of reducing the FP detections of masses.

  8. Efficient generation of sum-of-products representations of high-dimensional potential energy surfaces based on multimode expansions.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Benjamin; Rauhut, Guntram

    2016-03-21

    The transformation of multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) from a grid-based multimode representation to an analytical one is a standard procedure in quantum chemical programs. Within the framework of linear least squares fitting, a simple and highly efficient algorithm is presented, which relies on a direct product representation of the PES and a repeated use of Kronecker products. It shows the same scalings in computational cost and memory requirements as the potfit approach. In comparison to customary linear least squares fitting algorithms, this corresponds to a speed-up and memory saving by several orders of magnitude. Different fitting bases are tested, namely, polynomials, B-splines, and distributed Gaussians. Benchmark calculations are provided for the PESs of a set of small molecules.

  9. Computer-aided detection of lung nodules using outer surface features.

    PubMed

    Demir, Önder; Yılmaz Çamurcu, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a computer-aided detection (CAD) system was developed for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. The CAD system consists of four phases, including two-dimensional and three-dimensional preprocessing phases. In the feature extraction phase, four different groups of features are extracted from volume of interests: morphological features, statistical and histogram features, statistical and histogram features of outer surface, and texture features of outer surface. The support vector machine algorithm is optimized using particle swarm optimization for classification. The CAD system provides 97.37% sensitivity, 86.38% selectivity, 88.97% accuracy and 2.7 false positive per scan using three groups of classification features. After the inclusion of outer surface texture features, classification results of the CAD system reaches 98.03% sensitivity, 87.71% selectivity, 90.12% accuracy and 2.45 false positive per scan. Experimental results demonstrate that outer surface texture features of nodule candidates are useful to increase sensitivity and decrease the number of false positives in the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. PMID:26405880

  10. Optimal Image Stitching for Concrete Bridge Bottom Surfaces Aided by 3d Structure Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yahui; Yao, Jian; Liu, Kang; Lu, Xiaohu; Xia, Menghan

    2016-06-01

    Crack detection for bridge bottom surfaces via remote sensing techniques is undergoing a revolution in the last few years. For such applications, a large amount of images, acquired with high-resolution industrial cameras close to the bottom surfaces with some mobile platform, are required to be stitched into a wide-view single composite image. The conventional idea of stitching a panorama with the affine model or the homographic model always suffers a series of serious problems due to poor texture and out-of-focus blurring introduced by depth of field. In this paper, we present a novel method to seamlessly stitch these images aided by 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces, which are extracted from 3D camera data. First, we propose to initially align each image in geometry based on its rough position and orientation acquired with both a laser range finder (LRF) and a high-precision incremental encoder, and these images are divided into several groups with the rough position and orientation data. Secondly, the 3D structure lines of bridge bottom surfaces are extracted from the 3D cloud points acquired with 3D cameras, which impose additional strong constraints on geometrical alignment of structure lines in adjacent images to perform a position and orientation optimization in each group to increase the local consistency. Thirdly, a homographic refinement between groups is applied to increase the global consistency. Finally, we apply a multi-band blending algorithm to generate a large-view single composite image as seamlessly as possible, which greatly eliminates both the luminance differences and the color deviations between images and further conceals image parallax. Experimental results on a set of representative images acquired from real bridge bottom surfaces illustrate the superiority of our proposed approaches.

  11. A Global Analytical Representation of the Potential Energy Surface of the FHF(-) Anion.

    PubMed

    Cornaton, Yann; Marquardt, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    A global analytical representation of the potential energy hypersurface of the lowest adiabatic electronic state of the FHF(-) anion is derived from ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with full single and double and perturbative triple excitations using explicitly correlated atomic basis functions. The new compact function of interatomic distances combines covalent short-range and long-range electrostatic interaction forms and assesses accurately both the lowest reaction channels between the F(-) and HF fragments, with reaction enthalpies to within 1 kJ mol(-1), as well as vibrational terms to within 1.5 cm(-1) deviation from experimental values.

  12. A Global Analytical Representation of the Potential Energy Surface of the FHF(-) Anion.

    PubMed

    Cornaton, Yann; Marquardt, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    A global analytical representation of the potential energy hypersurface of the lowest adiabatic electronic state of the FHF(-) anion is derived from ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with full single and double and perturbative triple excitations using explicitly correlated atomic basis functions. The new compact function of interatomic distances combines covalent short-range and long-range electrostatic interaction forms and assesses accurately both the lowest reaction channels between the F(-) and HF fragments, with reaction enthalpies to within 1 kJ mol(-1), as well as vibrational terms to within 1.5 cm(-1) deviation from experimental values. PMID:27400137

  13. Critique of Macro Flow/Damage Surface Representations for Metal Matrix Composites Using Micromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidance for the formulation of robust, multiaxial, constitutive models for advanced materials is provided by addressing theoretical and experimental issues using micromechanics. The multiaxial response of metal matrix composites, depicted in terms of macro flow/damage surfaces, is predicted at room and elevated temperatures using an analytical micromechanical model that includes viscoplastic matrix response as well as fiber-matrix debonding. Macro flow/damage surfaces (i.e., debonding envelopes, matrix threshold surfaces, macro 'yield' surfaces, surfaces of constant inelastic strain rate, and surfaces of constant dissipation rate) are determined for silicon carbide/titanium in three stress spaces. Residual stresses are shown to offset the centers of the flow/damage surfaces from the origin and their shape is significantly altered by debonding. The results indicate which type of flow/damage surfaces should be characterized and what loadings applied to provide the most meaningful experimental data for guiding theoretical model development and verification.

  14. System maintenance manual for master modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by three-dimensional explicit representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs has been developed to model general three-dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinate to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface intersection curves. Internal details of the implementation of this system are explained, and maintenance procedures are specified.

  15. Utilizing CLASIC observations and multiscale models to study the impact of improved Land surface representation on modeling cloud- convection

    SciTech Connect

    Niyogi, Devdutta S.

    2013-06-07

    The CLASIC experiment was conducted over the US southern great plains (SGP) in June 2007 with an objective to lead an enhanced understanding of the cumulus convection particularly as it relates to land surface conditions. This project was design to help assist with understanding the overall improvement of land atmosphere convection initiation representation of which is important for global and regional models. The study helped address one of the critical documented deficiency in the models central to the ARM objectives for cumulus convection initiation and particularly under summer time conditions. This project was guided by the scientific question building on the CLASIC theme questions: What is the effect of improved land surface representation on the ability of coupled models to simulate cumulus and convection initiation? The focus was on the US Southern Great Plains region. Since the CLASIC period was anomalously wet the strategy has been to use other periods and domains to develop the comparative assessment for the CLASIC data period, and to understand the mechanisms of the anomalous wet conditions on the tropical systems and convection over land. The data periods include the IHOP 2002 field experiment that was over roughly same domain as the CLASIC in the SGP, and some of the DOE funded Ameriflux datasets.

  16. Determination of earth-surface point displacements and their three-dimensional representation in a subsidence area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, H. G.

    1986-11-01

    The study area is one section of the Tia Juana Oilfield on the east shore of Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela. It has an area of about 45 km 2. The absolute vertical subsidence component attains 4 m, due to the oil extraction in the last 50 years. Some years ago, the boundary area of the subsidence cone showed cracks in the earth's surface. The length of the crackline is about 4 km. Strong horizontal movements were observed along this rupture zone. To study the horizontal component of the earth-surface movement, a high-precision traverse network was installed and measured, the first time in June 1978 and reobserved in December 1978. In 1984 another measurement compaign was carried out which permitted a comparison of the results of the two epochs. To know the behavior of the affected field better, a three-dimensional representation of horizontal and vertical measurements, including the orientation of the resultant vector, was made.

  17. Turbulent heat transfer from a sparsely vegetated surface - Two-component representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Novak, M. D.; Starr, D. O'C.

    1993-01-01

    The conventional calculation of heat fluxes from a vegetated surface involving the coefficient of turbulent heat transfer which increases logarithmically with surface roughness, is inappropriate such highly structured surfaces as desert scrub or open forest. An approach is developed here for computing sensible heat flux from sparsely vegetated surfaces, where the absorption of insolation and the transfer of absorbed heat to the atmosphere are calculated separately for the plants and for the soil. This approach is applied to a desert-scrub surface in the northern Sinai, for which the turbulent transfer coefficient of sensible heat flux from the plants is much larger than that from the soil below, as shown by an analysis of plant, soil, and air temperatures. The plant density is expressed as the sum of products (plant-height) x (plant-diameter) of plants per unit horizontal surface area. The solar heat absorbed by the plants is assumed to be transferred immediately to the airflow. The effective turbulent transfer coefficient k(g-eff) for sensible heat from the desert-scrub/soil surface computed under this assumption increases sharply with increasing solar zenith angle, as the plants absorb a greater fraction of the incoming irradiation. The surface absorptivity (the coalbedo) also increases sharply with increasing solar zenith angle, and thus the sensible heat flux from such complex surfaces is a much broader function of time of day than when computed under constant k(g-eff) and constant albedo assumptions.

  18. Multidirectional and Topography-based Dynamic-scale Varifold Representations with Application to Matching Developing Cortical Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Islem; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-07-15

    The human cerebral cortex is marked by great complexity as well as substantial dynamic changes during early postnatal development. To obtain a fairly comprehensive picture of its age-induced and/or disorder-related cortical changes, one needs to match cortical surfaces to one another, while maximizing their anatomical alignment. Methods that geodesically shoot surfaces into one another as currents (a distribution of oriented normals) and varifolds (a distribution of non-oriented normals) provide an elegant Riemannian framework for generic surface matching and reliable statistical analysis. However, both conventional current and varifold matching methods have two key limitations. First, they only use the normals of the surface to measure its geometry and guide the warping process, which overlooks the importance of the orientations of the inherently convoluted cortical sulcal and gyral folds. Second, the 'conversion' of a surface into a current or a varifold operates at a fixed scale under which geometric surface details will be neglected, which ignores the dynamic scales of cortical foldings. To overcome these limitations and improve varifold-based cortical surface registration, we propose two different strategies. The first strategy decomposes each cortical surface into its normal and tangent varifold representations, by integrating principal curvature direction field into the varifold matching framework, thus providing rich information of the orientation of cortical folding and better characterization of the complex cortical geometry. The second strategy explores the informative cortical geometric features to perform a dynamic-scale measurement of the cortical surface that depends on the local surface topography (e.g., principal curvature), thereby we introduce the concept of a topography-based dynamic-scale varifold. We tested the proposed varifold variants for registering 12 pairs of dynamically developing cortical surfaces from 0 to 6 months of age. Both

  19. Multidirectional and Topography-based Dynamic-scale Varifold Representations with Application to Matching Developing Cortical Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Islem; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-07-15

    The human cerebral cortex is marked by great complexity as well as substantial dynamic changes during early postnatal development. To obtain a fairly comprehensive picture of its age-induced and/or disorder-related cortical changes, one needs to match cortical surfaces to one another, while maximizing their anatomical alignment. Methods that geodesically shoot surfaces into one another as currents (a distribution of oriented normals) and varifolds (a distribution of non-oriented normals) provide an elegant Riemannian framework for generic surface matching and reliable statistical analysis. However, both conventional current and varifold matching methods have two key limitations. First, they only use the normals of the surface to measure its geometry and guide the warping process, which overlooks the importance of the orientations of the inherently convoluted cortical sulcal and gyral folds. Second, the 'conversion' of a surface into a current or a varifold operates at a fixed scale under which geometric surface details will be neglected, which ignores the dynamic scales of cortical foldings. To overcome these limitations and improve varifold-based cortical surface registration, we propose two different strategies. The first strategy decomposes each cortical surface into its normal and tangent varifold representations, by integrating principal curvature direction field into the varifold matching framework, thus providing rich information of the orientation of cortical folding and better characterization of the complex cortical geometry. The second strategy explores the informative cortical geometric features to perform a dynamic-scale measurement of the cortical surface that depends on the local surface topography (e.g., principal curvature), thereby we introduce the concept of a topography-based dynamic-scale varifold. We tested the proposed varifold variants for registering 12 pairs of dynamically developing cortical surfaces from 0 to 6 months of age. Both

  20. The global land surface energy balance and its representation in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Hakuba, Maria; Schär, Christoph; Seneviratne, Sonia; Kato, Seiji; Rutan, David; Ammann, Christof; Wood, Eric; König-Langlo, Gert

    2015-04-01

    The energy budget over terrestrial surfaces is a key determinant of the land surface climate and governs a variety of physical, chemical and biological surface processes. The purpose of the present study is to establish new reference estimates for the different components of the energy balance over global land surfaces. Thanks to the impressive progress in space-based observation systems in the past decade, we now know the energy exchanges between our planet and the surrounding space with unprecedented accuracy. However, the energy flows at the Earth's surface have not been established with the same accuracy, since they cannot be directly measured from satellites. Accordingly, estimates on the magnitude of the fluxes at terrestrial surfaces largely vary, and latest climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) still show significant differences in their simulated energy budgets on a land mean basis, which prevents a consistent simulation of the land surface processes in these models. In the present study we use to the extent possible direct observations of surface radiative fluxes from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) to better constrain the simulated fluxes over global land surfaces. These model-calculated fluxes stem from the comprehensive set of more than 40 global climate from CMIP5 used in the latest IPCC report AR5. The CMIP5 models overall still show a tendency to overestimate the downward solar and underestimate the downward thermal radiation at terrestrial surfaces, a long standing problem in climate modelling. Based on the direct radiation observations and the bias structure of the CMIP5 models we infer best estimates for the downward solar and thermal radiation averaged over global land surfaces. They amount to 184 Wm-2 and 306 Wm-2, respectively. These values closely agree with the respective quantities independently derived by recent state-of-the-art reanalyses

  1. A Novel Multi-Purpose Matching Representation of Local 3D Surfaces: A Rotationally Invariant, Efficient, and Highly Discriminative Approach With an Adjustable Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Al-Osaimi, Faisal R

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to local 3D surface matching representation suitable for a range of 3D vision applications is introduced. Local 3D surface patches around key points on the 3D surface are represented by 2D images such that the representing 2D images enjoy certain characteristics which positively impact the matching accuracy, robustness, and speed. First, the proposed representation is complete, in the sense, there is no information loss during their computation. Second, the 3DoF 2D representations are strictly invariant to all the 3DoF rotations. To optimally avail surface information, the sensitivity of the representations to surface information is adjustable. This also provides the proposed matching representation with the means to optimally adjust to a particular class of problems/applications or an acquisition technology. Each 2D matching representation is a sequence of adjustable integral kernels, where each kernel is efficiently computed from a triple of precise 3D curves (profiles) formed by intersecting three concentric spheres with the 3D surface. Robust techniques for sampling the profiles and establishing correspondences among them were devised. Based on the proposed matching representation, two techniques for the detection of key points were presented. The first is suitable for static images, while the second is suitable for 3D videos. The approach was tested on the face recognition grand challenge v2.0, the 3D twins expression challenge, and the Bosphorus data sets, and a superior face recognition performance was achieved. In addition, the proposed approach was used in object class recognition and tested on a Kinect data set. PMID:26513787

  2. A Novel Multi-Purpose Matching Representation of Local 3D Surfaces: A Rotationally Invariant, Efficient, and Highly Discriminative Approach With an Adjustable Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Al-Osaimi, Faisal R

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to local 3D surface matching representation suitable for a range of 3D vision applications is introduced. Local 3D surface patches around key points on the 3D surface are represented by 2D images such that the representing 2D images enjoy certain characteristics which positively impact the matching accuracy, robustness, and speed. First, the proposed representation is complete, in the sense, there is no information loss during their computation. Second, the 3DoF 2D representations are strictly invariant to all the 3DoF rotations. To optimally avail surface information, the sensitivity of the representations to surface information is adjustable. This also provides the proposed matching representation with the means to optimally adjust to a particular class of problems/applications or an acquisition technology. Each 2D matching representation is a sequence of adjustable integral kernels, where each kernel is efficiently computed from a triple of precise 3D curves (profiles) formed by intersecting three concentric spheres with the 3D surface. Robust techniques for sampling the profiles and establishing correspondences among them were devised. Based on the proposed matching representation, two techniques for the detection of key points were presented. The first is suitable for static images, while the second is suitable for 3D videos. The approach was tested on the face recognition grand challenge v2.0, the 3D twins expression challenge, and the Bosphorus data sets, and a superior face recognition performance was achieved. In addition, the proposed approach was used in object class recognition and tested on a Kinect data set.

  3. Modeling plant, microorganisms, and mineral surface competition for soil nitrogen and phosphorus: Competition representations and ecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Chambers, J. Q.; Tang, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics are strongly coupled and controlled by soil nutrients status. Nutrient availability serves as an indicator of aboveground carbon productivity and ecosystem stability, especially when soils are infertile. In these conditions, plants have to outcompete microorganism and mineral surfaces to acquire nutrients required for photosynthesis, respiration, seed production, defense, etc. It is usually hypothesized that microbes are short-term winners but long-term losers in nutrient competition. Microbes quickly trap available soil nitrogen and phosphorous, thereby preventing nutrient inaccessibility through hydrological leaching and mineral surface adsorption. Over longer temporal scales, nutrients are released into the soil and become available for plant uptake. Despite its ecological significance, nutrient competition is either absent or over-simplified (e.g., assuming all consumers are equally competitive) in terrestrial biogeochemistry models. Here, we aim to test the representation of different competitive strategies and to investigate their ecological consequences with a newly developed biogeochemical model structure. The new model includes three major soil nutrients (ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate) and multiple consumers (plants, microbes, mineral surfaces, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers). We analyze predicted soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics with three different competitive strategies: (1) plants compete poorly against microorganisms; (2) all consumers are equally competitive; and (3) an explicit Equilibrium Chemical Approximation (ECA; Tang and Riley (2013)) treatment. We find that very different ecosystem states are predicted when assuming different competitive structures, and that the ECA approach provides the best match with a large suite of observational constraints from tropical experimental and transect studies. We conclude that terrestrial biogeochemical models should represent a

  4. Image Representation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields in Source-Surface Models of Corona and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M.

    2008-12-01

    Source-surface models of the solar corona and heliosphere typically entail spherical-harmonic expansions of scalar magnetic potentials that extend to rather high degree and order so as to accommodate localized magnetic fields associated with sunspots. Here it is proposed to approximate sunspot magnetic fields in the corona by placing a few magnetic monopoles beneath the Sun's surface (i.e., inside the Sun), so as to reduce the number of internal spherical harmonics required for a good fit. (Magnetic monopoles are permitted in such a construction if they add-up to zero magnetic charge and reside outside the region of physical interest.) Magnetic image charges placed outside the source surface can serve to nullify the tangential component of the resulting magnetic field on a sphere of any desired radius (e.g., rs = 2.5rsun). More generally, however, the source surface should be non-spherical (typically prolate) in a way that reflects the underlying structure of the Sun's main B field. A source surface that seems to work well in this respect [Schulz, Ann. Geophysicae, 15, 1379-1387, 1997] is a surface of constant F = r- kB, where B is the scalar strength of the Sun's main magnetic field (including any sunspot fields thus modeled) and k (~ 1.4) is a shape parameter. If the region surrounded by the source surface is regarded as current-free, then the source surface itself should be made (as nearly as possible) an equipotential surface for the corresponding magnetic scalar potential (expanded, for example, in a combination of spherical harmonics and offset-monopole terms). More generally, the mean-square tangential component of the coronal magnetic field on the source surface should be minimized [Schulz et al., Solar Phys., 60, 83-104, 1978] with respect to any adjustable parameters (e.g., external spherical-harmonic expansion coefficients) of the field model. Solar wind should then be regarded as flowing not quite radially, but rather in a straight line along the

  5. Binaural sonar electronic travel aid provides vibrotactile cues for landmark, reflector motion and surface texture classification.

    PubMed

    Kuc, Roman

    2002-10-01

    Electronic travel aids (ETAs) for the blind commonly employ conventional time-of-flight sonars to provide range measurements, but their wide beams prevent accurate determination of object bearing. We describe a binaural sonar that detects objects over a wider bearing interval compared with a single transducer and also determines if the object lies to the left or right of the sonar axis in a robust manner. The sonar employs a pair of Polaroid 6500 ranging modules connected to Polaroid 7000 transducers operating simultaneously in a binaural array configuration. The sonar determines which transducer detects the echo first. An outward vergence angle between the transducers improves the first-echo detection reliability by increasing the delay between the two detected echoes, a consequence of threshold detection. We exploit this left/right detection capability in an ETA that provides vibrotactile feedback. Pager motors mount on both sides of the sonar, possibly worn on the user's wrists. The motor on the same side as the reflecting object vibrates with speed inversely related to range. As the sonar or object moves, vibration patterns provide landmark, motion and texture cues. Orienting the sonar at 45 degrees relative to the travel direction and passing a right-angle corner produces a characteristic vibrational pattern. When pointing the sonar at a moving object, such as a fluttering flag, the motors alternate in a manner to give the user a perception of the object motion. When the sonar translates or rotates to scan a foliage surface, the vibrational patterns are related to the surface scatterer distribution, allowing the user to identify the foliage.

  6. A novel representation of chalk hydrology in a land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mostaquimur; Rosolem, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Unconfined chalk aquifers contain a significant portion of water in the United Kingdom. In order to optimize the assessment and management practices of water resources in the region, modelling and monitoring of soil moisture in the unsaturated zone of the chalk aquifers are of utmost importance. However, efficient simulation of soil moisture in such aquifers is difficult mainly due to the fractured nature of chalk, which creates high-velocity preferential flow paths in the unsaturated zone. In this study, the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is applied on a study area encompassing the Kennet catchment in Southern England. The fluxes and states of the coupled water and energy cycles are simulated for 10 consecutive years (2001-2010). We hypothesize that explicit representation for the soil-chalk layers and the inclusion of preferential flow in the fractured chalk aquifers improves the reproduction of the hydrological processes in JULES. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a new parametrization for preferential flow in JULES. This parametrization explicitly describes the flow of water in soil matrices and preferential flow paths using a simplified approach which can be beneficial for large-scale hydrometeorological applications. We also define the overlaying soil properties obtained from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) in the model. Our simulation results are compared across spatial scales with measured soil moisture and river discharge, indicating the importance of accounting for the physical properties of the medium while simulating hydrological processes in the chalk aquifers.

  7. 4D Hyperspherical Harmonic (HyperSPHARM) Representation of Surface Anatomy: A Holistic Treatment of Multiple Disconnected Anatomical Structures

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinbor, A. Pasha; Chung, Moo K.; Koay, Cheng Guan; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Schmitz, Lara Peschke; Sutterer, Matt; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Image-based parcellation of the brain often leads to multiple disconnected anatomical structures, which pose significant challenges for analyses of morphological shapes. Existing shape models, such as the widely used spherical harmonic (SPHARM) representation, assume topological invariance, so are unable to simultaneously parameterize multiple disjoint structures. In such a situation, SPHARM has to be applied separately to each individual structure. We present a novel surface parameterization technique using 4D hyperspherical harmonics in representing multiple disjoint objects as a single analytic function, terming it HyperSPHARM. The underlying idea behind Hyper-SPHARM is to stereographically project an entire collection of disjoint 3D objects onto the 4D hypersphere and subsequently simultaneously parameterize them with the 4D hyperspherical harmonics. Hence, HyperSPHARM allows for a holistic treatment of multiple disjoint objects, unlike SPHARM. In an imaging dataset of healthy adult human brains, we apply HyperSPHARM to the hippocampi and amygdalae. The HyperSPHARM representations are employed as a data smoothing technique, while the HyperSPHARM coefficients are utilized in a support vector machine setting for object classification. HyperSPHARM yields nearly identical results as SPHARM, as will be shown in the paper. Its key advantage over SPHARM lies computationally; Hyper-SPHARM possess greater computational efficiency than SPHARM because it can parameterize multiple disjoint structures using much fewer basis functions and stereographic projection obviates SPHARM's burdensome surface flattening. In addition, HyperSPHARM can handle any type of topology, unlike SPHARM, whose analysis is confined to topologically invariant structures. PMID:25828650

  8. SHARC: ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Surface Hopping in the Adiabatic Representation Including Arbitrary Couplings.

    PubMed

    Richter, Martin; Marquetand, Philipp; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Sola, Ignacio; González, Leticia

    2011-05-10

    We present a semiclassical surface-hopping method which is able to treat arbitrary couplings in molecular systems including all degrees of freedom. A reformulation of the standard surface-hopping scheme in terms of a unitary transformation matrix allows for the description of interactions like spin-orbit coupling or transitions induced by laser fields. The accuracy of our method is demonstrated in two systems. The first one, consisting of two model electronic states, validates the semiclassical approach in the presence of an electric field. In the second one, the dynamics in the IBr molecule in the presence of spin-orbit coupling after laser excitation is investigated. Due to an avoided crossing that originates from spin-orbit coupling, IBr dissociates into two channels: I + Br((2)P3/2) and I + Br*((2)P1/2). In both systems, the obtained results are in very good agreement with those calculated from exact quantum dynamical simulations.

  9. Improved representation of cell surface structures by freeze substitution and backscattered electron imaging.

    PubMed

    Walther, P; Hentschel, J

    1989-01-01

    A surface preparation method for the SEM based on cryofixation is presented suitable for the demonstration of membrane particles on whole cells. LLC-PK1 cells (a renal epithelial cell line in culture) were fast frozen, freeze substituted, critical point dried, shadowed with 2 nm of platinum carbon and stabilized with a carbon backing layer. Membrane bound particles are visualized by the material dependent backscattered electron image mainly originating from the platinum shadow. The surface of the LLC-PK1 cells is almost free of precipitated material indicating that the culture medium is removed during freeze substitution or critical point drying. The apical plasma membrane with microvilli and ciliae is well preserved and differences in particle density can be detected. The feasibility of the coating technique for backscattered electron imaging was tested on the well known hexagonally arranged intramembranous particles of fractured and partially freeze dried yeast. This 16.5 nm periodic structure is clearly demonstrable on the bulk SEM-specimen stablized with the carbon backing layer. Without a carbon layer severe shrinking artifacts occurred.

  10. Large Scale Isosurface Bicubic Subdivision-Surface Wavelets for Representation and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

    2000-01-05

    We introduce a new subdivision-surface wavelet transform for arbitrary two-manifolds with boundary that is the first to use simple lifting-style filtering operations with bicubic precision. We also describe a conversion process for re-mapping large-scale isosurfaces to have subdivision connectivity and fair parameterizations so that the new wavelet transform can be used for compression and visualization. The main idea enabling our wavelet transform is the circular symmetrization of the filters in irregular neighborhoods, which replaces the traditional separation of filters into two 1-D passes. Our wavelet transform uses polygonal base meshes to represent surface topology, from which a Catmull-Clark-style subdivision hierarchy is generated. The details between these levels of resolution are quickly computed and compactly stored as wavelet coefficients. The isosurface conversion process begins with a contour triangulation computed using conventional techniques, which we subsequently simplify with a variant edge-collapse procedure, followed by an edge-removal process. This provides a coarse initial base mesh, which is subsequently refined, relaxed and attracted in phases to converge to the contour. The conversion is designed to produce smooth, untangled and minimally-skewed parameterizations, which improves the subsequent compression after applying the transform. We have demonstrated our conversion and transform for an isosurface obtained from a high-resolution turbulent-mixing hydrodynamics simulation, showing the potential for compression and level-of-detail visualization.

  11. On the representation of coupled adiabatic potential energy surfaces using quasi-diabatic Hamiltonians: A distributed origins expansion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R.

    2012-05-01

    In two previous papers we have introduced a method to generate coupled quasi-diabatic Hamiltonians (Hd) that are capable of representing adiabatic energies, energy gradients, and derivative couplings over a wide range of geometries including seams of conical intersection. In this work, two new synergistic features are introduced. Firstly, the functional form of Hd is generalized. Rather than requiring there to be a low energy point of high symmetry to serve as the unique origin, functions centered on points distributed in nuclear coordinate space are used in the polynomials that comprise the matrix elements in Hd. The use of functions with distributed origins, allows reproduction of the ab initio data with lower order expansions, and offers the possibility of describing multichannel dissociation. The fitting algorithm is combined with a three-step procedure in which the domain of Hd is extended from a core set of nuclear configurations to a region of nuclear coordinate space appropriate for nuclear dynamics, with a prescribed accuracy. This significant extension of the domain of definition compared to our original work, which is facilitated by the distributed origin approach, is achieved largely through the use of surface hopping trajectories. The 1,21A states of NH3, which provide an archetypical example of nonadiabatic dynamics, are used to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The representation describes 21 points on the 11A-21A seam of conical intersection and their local topography flawlessly and on the entire domain, the electronic structure data is represented to an accuracy of 77.00 (46.90) cm-1, as measured by the root mean square (mean unsigned) error for energies lower than 50 000 cm-1. This error is a factor of 10 lower than that of the most accurate representation of high quality ab initio data, on a comparable domain, previously reported for this system.

  12. Improved representations of coupled soil-canopy processes in the CABLE land surface model (Subversion revision 3432)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, Vanessa; Cuntz, Matthias; Nieradzik, Lars P.; Harman, Ian N.

    2016-09-01

    CABLE is a global land surface model, which has been used extensively in offline and coupled simulations. While CABLE performs well in comparison with other land surface models, results are impacted by decoupling of transpiration and photosynthesis fluxes under drying soil conditions, often leading to implausibly high water use efficiencies. Here, we present a solution to this problem, ensuring that modelled transpiration is always consistent with modelled photosynthesis, while introducing a parsimonious single-parameter drought response function which is coupled to root water uptake. We further improve CABLE's simulation of coupled soil-canopy processes by introducing an alternative hydrology model with a physically accurate representation of coupled energy and water fluxes at the soil-air interface, including a more realistic formulation of transfer under atmospherically stable conditions within the canopy and in the presence of leaf litter. The effects of these model developments are assessed using data from 18 stations from the global eddy covariance FLUXNET database, selected to span a large climatic range. Marked improvements are demonstrated, with root mean squared errors for monthly latent heat fluxes and water use efficiencies being reduced by 40 %. Results highlight the important roles of deep soil moisture in mediating drought response and litter in dampening soil evaporation.

  13. A potential energy surface for the process H2 + H2O yielding H + H + H2O - Ab initio calculations and analytical representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.; Walch, Stephen P.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive ab initio calculations on the ground state potential energy surface of H2 + H2O were performed using a large contracted Gaussian basis set and a high level of correlation treatment. An analytical representation of the potential energy surface was then obtained which reproduces the calculated energies with an overall root-mean-square error of only 0.64 mEh. The analytic representation explicitly includes all nine internal degrees of freedom and is also well behaved as the H2 dissociates; it thus can be used to study collision-induced dissociation or recombination of H2. The strategy used to minimize the number of energy calculations is discussed, as well as other advantages of the present method for determining the analytical representation.

  14. Towards a Process-based Representation of Annual Crops Within the Land Surface Model JULES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoof, C.; Vidale, P.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce a generic crop structure within the Joint UK Land surface Exchange Scheme JULES (Cox, 1998) that is able to evaluate the interaction between growing crops and the environment at large scales for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. JULES was designed to simulate land surface processes in natural ecosystems. The importance of representing agricultural land within global biosphere models has been pointed out in many studies (De Noblet-Ducoudre et al., 2004; Bondeau 2005 et al.). Prior to any model development, the sensitivity of JULES to morphological and physiological differences between natural vegetation and crops has been investigated by reparameterising a natural C3 grass into a C3 crop. For a case study of fallow versus wheat at Grignon (France), the model output shows important soil water savings after crop harvest at the beginning of the summer. Owing to the lack of a rooting system, the deeper soil moisture cannot contribute anymore to the moisture flux to the atmosphere. On a shorter timescale, the harvest, and by consequence the sudden appearance of bare soil, also disrupt the energy and momentum fluxes between surface and atmosphere. Having established the sensitivity of the JULES system to a crop-like forcing, some components from the crop model SUCROS (Goudriaan and van Laar, 1994) that are relevant to the global water, energy and carbon cycles, have been introduced in JULES. The new version of JULES, denoted by JULES-SUCROS, incorporates crops and natural vegetation within a single modelling framework, without discontinuity in the photosynthesis-assimilation scheme between both vegetation types. Simulations have been performed with JULES-SUCROS for wheat at the Grignon site in current and doubled CO2 atmospheric conditions. Changing atmospheric conditions in JULES-SUCROS affects the sowing date and the length of the growing season. The results show that the positive effect of the CO2 fertilisation partly

  15. Compact representation of continuous energy surfaces for more efficient protein design

    PubMed Central

    Hallen, Mark A.; Gainza, Pablo; Donald, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    In macromolecular design, conformational energies are sensitive to small changes in atom coordinates, so modeling the small, continuous motions of atoms around low-energy wells confers a substantial advantage in structural accuracy; however, modeling these motions comes at the cost of a very large number of energy function calls, which form the bottleneck in the design calculation. In this work, we remove this bottleneck by consolidating all conformational energy evaluations into the precomputation of a local polynomial expansion of the energy about the “ideal” conformation for each low-energy, “rotameric” state of each residue pair. This expansion is called Energy as Polynomials in Internal Coordinates (EPIC), where the internal coordinates can be sidechain dihedrals, backrub angles, and/or any other continuous degrees of freedom of a macromolecule, and any energy function can be used without adding any asymptotic complexity to the design. We demonstrate that EPIC efficiently represents the energy surface for both molecular-mechanics and quantum-mechanical energy functions, and apply it specifically to protein design to model both sidechain and backbone degrees of freedom. PMID:26089744

  16. Sub-grid scale representation of vegetation iin global land surface schemes: Implications for estimation of the terrestrial carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, J. R.; Arora, V.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem models commonly represent vegetation in terms of plant functional types (PFTs) and use their vegetation attributes in calculations of the energy and water balance and to investigate questions relating to the terrestrial carbon cycle. To accomplish these tasks two approaches for PFT spatial representation are widely used: ';composite' and ';mosaic'. In a composite (single-tile) approach, the vegetation attributes of different PFTs present in a grid cell are aggregated and used in calculations to determine the resulting physical environmental conditions (soil moisture, soil temperature, etc.) that are common to all PFTs. In the mosaic (multi-tile) approach, energy and water balance calculations are performed separately for each PFT tile and each tile's physical land surface environmental conditions evolve differently. The impact of these two approaches on the global carbon balance has been investigated with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v 1.2) coupled to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS v 3.6). Pre-industrial equilibrium simulations yield global totals of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity, and soil carbon that compare reasonably well with observation-based estimates but differ by less than 5% between the mosaic and composite configurations. Differences between the two approaches are more pronounced spatially (> 30%), especially in areas with high heterogeneity in land cover. Simulations over the historical period (1959 - 2005) show different responses to evolving climate and carbon dioxide concentrations from the two approaches. The cumulative global terrestrial carbon sink estimated over the 1959-2005 period (excluding land use change effects) differs by around 5% between the two approaches (96.3 and 101.3 Pg, for the mosaic and composite approaches, respectively) and compares well with the observation-based estimate of 82.2 × 35 Pg C over the same period. Inclusion of LUC causes the different configuration

  17. Sub-grid scale representation of vegetation in global land surface schemes: implications for estimation of the terrestrial carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, J. R.; Arora, V. K.

    2013-10-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem models commonly represent vegetation in terms of plant functional types (PFTs) and use their vegetation attributes in calculations of the energy and water balance and to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. To accomplish these tasks, two approaches for PFT spatial representation are widely used: "composite" and "mosaic". The impact of these two approaches on the global carbon balance has been investigated with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v 1.2) coupled to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS v 3.6). In the composite (single-tile) approach, the vegetation attributes of different PFTs present in a grid cell are aggregated and used in calculations to determine the resulting physical environmental conditions (soil moisture, soil temperature, etc.) that are common to all PFTs. In the mosaic (multi-tile) approach, energy and water balance calculations are performed separately for each PFT tile and each tile's physical land surface environmental conditions evolve independently. Pre-industrial equilibrium CLASS-CTEM simulations yield global totals of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity, and soil carbon that compare reasonably well with observation-based estimates and differ by less than 5% between the mosaic and composite configurations. However, on a regional scale the two approaches can differ by > 30%, especially in areas with high heterogeneity in land cover. Simulations over the historical period (1959-2005) show different responses to evolving climate and carbon dioxide concentrations from the two approaches. The cumulative global terrestrial carbon sink estimated over the 1959-2005 period (excluding land use change (LUC) effects) differs by around 5% between the two approaches (96.3 and 101.3 Pg, for the mosaic and composite approaches, respectively) and compares well with the observation-based estimate of 82.2 ± 35 Pg C over the same period. Inclusion of LUC causes the estimates of the terrestrial C sink to

  18. A review of computer-aided body surface area determination: SAGE II and EPRI's 3D Burn Vision.

    PubMed

    Neuwalder, J M; Sampson, C; Breuing, K H; Orgill, D P

    2002-01-01

    Estimates of percent body surface area (%BSA) burns correlate well with fluid needs, nutritional requirements, and prognosis. Most burn centers rely on the Lund Browder chart and "rule of nines," to calculate the %BSA. Computer-based methods may improve precision and data analysis. We studied two new methods of determining %BSA: a two-dimensional Web-based program (Sage II) and a three-dimensional computer-aided design program (EPRI 3D Burn Vision). Members of our burn team found the Sage II program easy to use and found many of the features useful for patient care. The EPRI program has the advantage of 3D images and different body morphologies but required training to use. Computer-aided methods offer the potential for improved precision and data analysis of %BSA measurements.

  19. Sub-grid scale representation of vegetation in global land surface schemes: implications for estimation of the terrestrial carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, J. R.; Arora, V. K.

    2014-02-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem models commonly represent vegetation in terms of plant functional types (PFTs) and use their vegetation attributes in calculations of the energy and water balance as well as to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. Sub-grid scale variability of PFTs in these models is represented using different approaches with the "composite" and "mosaic" approaches being the two end-members. The impact of these two approaches on the global carbon balance has been investigated with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v 1.2) coupled to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS v 3.6). In the composite (single-tile) approach, the vegetation attributes of different PFTs present in a grid cell are aggregated and used in calculations to determine the resulting physical environmental conditions (soil moisture, soil temperature, etc.) that are common to all PFTs. In the mosaic (multi-tile) approach, energy and water balance calculations are performed separately for each PFT tile and each tile's physical land surface environmental conditions evolve independently. Pre-industrial equilibrium CLASS-CTEM simulations yield global totals of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity, and soil carbon that compare reasonably well with observation-based estimates and differ by less than 5% between the mosaic and composite configurations. However, on a regional scale the two approaches can differ by > 30%, especially in areas with high heterogeneity in land cover. Simulations over the historical period (1959-2005) show different responses to evolving climate and carbon dioxide concentrations from the two approaches. The cumulative global terrestrial carbon sink estimated over the 1959-2005 period (excluding land use change (LUC) effects) differs by around 5% between the two approaches (96.3 and 101.3 Pg, for the mosaic and composite approaches, respectively) and compares well with the observation-based estimate of 82.2 ± 35 Pg C over the same period. Inclusion

  20. Towards a Representation of Flexible Canopy N Stiochiometry for Land-surface Models Based on Optimality Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaehle, S.; Caldararu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Foliar nitrogen (N) is know to acclimate to environmental conditions. One particular pertinent response is the general decline in foliar N following exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 (eCO2). Associated with reduced foliar N is an increased plant nitrogen-use efficiency, which contributes to the plants' sustained growth response to eCO2 in the absence of any counteracting litter N feedbacks. Flexible leaf N thus has important consequences for the mid- to long-term response of terrestrial ecosystems to eCO2. The current generation of land-surface models including a prognostic N cycle generally employ heuristic, and simply mass-balancing parameterisations to estimate changes in stoichiometry given altered N and carbon (C) availability. This generation generally and substantially overestimates the decline of foliar N (and thus the increase in plant nitrogen use efficiency) observed in Free Air CO2 Enrichment Experiments (FACE; Zaehle et al. 2014). In this presentation, I develop a simple, prognostic and dynamic representation of flexible foliar N for use in land-surface models by maximising the marginal gain of net assimilation with respect to the energy investment to generate foliar area and foliar N. I elucidate the underlying assumptions required to simulate the commonly observed decline in foliar N with eCO2 under different scenarios of N availability (Feng et al. 2015). References: Zaehle, Sönke, Belinda E Medlyn, Martin G De Kauwe, Anthony P Walker, Michael C Dietze, Hickler Thomas, Yiqi Luo, et al. 2014. "Evaluation of 11 Terrestrial Carbon-Nitrogen Cycle Models Against Observations From Two Temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Studies." New Phytologist 202 (3): 803-22. doi:10.1111/nph.12697. Feng, Zhaozhong, Tobias RUtting, Håkan Pleijel, GORAN WALLIN, Peter B Reich, Claudia I Kammann, Paul C D Newton, Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Yunjian Luo, and Johan Uddling. 2015. "Constraints to Nitrogen Acquisition of Terrestrial Plants Under Elevated CO 2." Global

  1. Why Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James E.; Waters, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses representations in the context of solving a system of linear equations. Views representations (concrete, tables, graphs, algebraic, matrices) from perspectives of understanding, technology, generalization, exact versus approximate solution, and learning style. (KHR)

  2. Computer-aided design of curved surfaces with automatic model generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staley, S. M.; Jerard, R. B.; White, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The design and visualization of three-dimensional objects with curved surfaces have always been difficult. The paper given below describes a computer system which facilitates both the design and visualization of such surfaces. The system enhances the design of these surfaces by virtue of various interactive techniques coupled with the application of B-Spline theory. Visualization is facilitated by including a specially built model-making machine which produces three-dimensional foam models. Thus, the system permits the designer to produce an inexpensive model of the object which is suitable for evaluation and presentation.

  3. Using reactive transport codes to provide mechanistic biogeochemistry representations in global land surface models: CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Yuan, F.; Bisht, G.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Kumar, J.; Mills, R. T.; Xu, X.; Andre, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; Painter, S. L.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models; our goal is to facilitate testing of alternative models and incorporation of new understanding. A reaction network with the CLM-CN decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN code, coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM), and test at Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. To make the reaction network designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLM compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation of nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. To achieve accurate, efficient, and robust numerical solutions, care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60-100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10-3 to 10-9 mol m-3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %; computing time can be doubled for log transformation. Caution needs to be taken in choosing the appropriate scaling factor because a small value caused by a negative update to a small concentration may diminish the update and result in false convergence even with very tight relative

  4. Using reactive transport codes to provide mechanistic biogeochemistry representations in global land surface models: CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, G.; Yuan, F.; Bisht, G.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Kumar, J.; Mills, R. T.; Xu, X.; Andre, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; et al

    2015-12-17

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models; our goal is to facilitate testing of alternative models and incorporation of new understanding. A reaction network with the CLM-CN decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN code, coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM), and test at Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. To make the reaction network designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLM compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN,more » the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation of nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. To achieve accurate, efficient, and robust numerical solutions, care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 % more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60–100 % more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10−3 to 10−9 mol m−3, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 %; computing time can be doubled for log transformation. Caution needs to be taken in choosing the appropriate scaling factor because a small value caused by a negative update to a small concentration may diminish the update and result in false convergence even with very

  5. Aerodynamic heating and surface temperatures on vehicles for computer-aided design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Kania, L. A.; Chitty, A.

    1983-01-01

    A computer subprogram has been developed to calculate aerodynamic and radiative heating rates and to determine surface temperatures by integrating the heating rates along the trajectory of a vehicle. Convective heating rates are calculated by applying the axisymmetric analogue to inviscid surface streamlines and using relatively simple techniques to calculate laminar, transitional, or turbulent heating rates. Options are provided for the selection of gas model, transition criterion, turbulent heating method, Reynolds Analogy factor, and entropy-layer swallowing effects. Heating rates are compared to experimental data, and the time history of surface temperatures are given for a high-speed trajectory. The computer subprogram is developed for preliminary design and mission analysis where parametric studies are needed at all speeds.

  6. Correction of Distortion in Flattened Representations of the Cortical Surface Allows Prediction of V1-V3 Functional Organization from Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Noah C.; Butt, Omar H.; Brainard, David H.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Several domains of neuroscience offer map-like models that link location on the cortical surface to properties of sensory representation. Within cortical visual areas V1, V2, and V3, algebraic transformations can relate position in the visual field to the retinotopic representation on the flattened cortical sheet. A limit to the practical application of this structure-function model is that the cortex, while topologically a two-dimensional surface, is curved. Flattening of the curved surface to a plane unavoidably introduces local geometric distortions that are not accounted for in idealized models. Here, we show that this limitation is overcome by correcting the geometric distortion induced by cortical flattening. We use a mass-spring-damper simulation to create a registration between functional MRI retinotopic mapping data of visual areas V1, V2, and V3 and an algebraic model of retinotopy. This registration is then applied to the flattened cortical surface anatomy to create an anatomical template that is linked to the algebraic retinotopic model. This registered cortical template can be used to accurately predict the location and retinotopic organization of these early visual areas from cortical anatomy alone. Moreover, we show that prediction accuracy remains when extrapolating beyond the range of data used to inform the model, indicating that the registration reflects the retinotopic organization of visual cortex. We provide code for the mass-spring-damper technique, which has general utility for the registration of cortical structure and function beyond the visual cortex. PMID:24676149

  7. Survey, Representation and Analysis of a War i Complex System of Surface and Underground Fortifications in the Gresta Valley, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, I.; Vitti, A.

    2011-09-01

    This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" - APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino), a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the practical advantage of

  8. Visual processing in Alzheimer's disease: surface detail and colour fail to aid object identification.

    PubMed

    Adlington, Rebecca L; Laws, Keith R; Gale, Tim M

    2009-10-01

    It has been suggested that object recognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be strongly influenced both by image format (e.g. colour vs. line-drawn) and by low-level visual impairments. To examine these notions, we tested basic visual functioning and picture naming in 41 AD patients and 40 healthy elderly controls. Picture naming was examined using 105 images representing a wide range of living and nonliving subcategories (from the Hatfield image test [HIT]: [Adlington, R. A., Laws, K. R., & Gale, T. M. (in press). The Hatfield image test (HIT): A new picture test and norms for experimental and clinical use. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology]), with each item presented in colour, greyscale, or line-drawn formats. Whilst naming for elderly controls improved linearly with the addition of surface detail and colour, AD patients showed no benefit from the addition of either surface information or colour. Additionally, controls showed a significant category by format interaction; however, the same profile did not emerge for AD patients. Finally, AD patients showed widespread and significant impairment on tasks of visual functioning, and low-level visual impairment was predictive of patient naming. PMID:19450614

  9. The influence of ageing and surface type on the odour profile of blood-detection dog training aids.

    PubMed

    Rust, LaTara; Nizio, Katie D; Forbes, Shari L

    2016-09-01

    Cadaver-detection dogs are a preferred search tool utilised by law enforcement agencies for the purposes of locating victim remains due to their efficiency and minimal disturbance to the crime scene. In Australia, a specific group of these canines are blood-detection dogs, which are trained to detect and locate blood evidence and search potential crime scenes in cases where a cadaver may not be present. Their role sometimes requires searches to be carried out after considerable time has passed since the crime occurred, and this is important for developing effective training protocols. This study aimed to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced from fresh and aged human blood on various surfaces. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used to extract VOCs from the headspace of dried blood samples aged and sampled periodically over 12 months from a non-porous (i.e. aluminium) and porous (i.e. cotton) surface. Samples were analysed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Fresh blood produced distinctively different VOC patterns compared to blood aged longer than 1 week with the overall profile differing between the two surface types, and a large subset of the VOC profile found to be responsible for these differences. When analysing the various functional groups present in the samples, a common pattern between ages and surface types was observed with no specific chemical class dominating the overall profile. The results highlight the importance of evaluating training aids for scent-detection canines to ensure the greatest efficacy during training and subsequently at crime scene searches. PMID:27382970

  10. Effectiveness of Air Drying and Magnification Methods for Detecting Initial Caries on Occlusal Surfaces Using Three Different Diagnostic Aids.

    PubMed

    Goel, Deepti; Sandhu, Meera; Jhingan, Pulkit; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objective-The aim of this study was to assess the effect of magnification and air-drying on detection of carious lesion. Study Design-44 human extracted premolars were selected with sound occlusal surfaces without frank cavitation. The Diagnostic techniques used were Unaided visual examination, Magnifying Loupes (4.2×) and Stereomicroscope (10×, before and after air-drying) and then the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and both the surfaces were examined under Stereomicroscope (50×) to assess the presence or absence of carious lesion in the pit and fissures. The scores were compared to obtain Cohen's kappa coefficient (Reproducibility) and subjected to the Friedman Test and Paired t test. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value used to assess accuracy. Results-On Statistical analysis, visual examination before and after air drying had highest specificity but lowest sensitivity compared to different diagnostic techniques. Magnifying loupes after air-drying had highest sensitivity and lowest specificity compared to other diagnostic techniques. Conclusion-Air drying combined with magnifying aids are cost-effective, reliable method for detection of early carious lesion. If used in pediatric clinical practice, any undesirable pain and discomfort to the patient due to invasive procedures and helps in employing preventive measures. PMID:27472570

  11. User's manual for master: Modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by 3-dimensional explicit representation. [input to three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs was developed to model general three dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinates, to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface/surface intersection curves. Input and output data formats are described; detailed suggestions are given for user input. Instructions for execution are given, and examples are shown.

  12. System for conversion between the boundary representation model and a constructive solid geometry model of an object

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Noel C.; Emery, James D.; Smith, Maurice L.

    1988-04-05

    A system converts from the boundary representation of an object to the constructive solid geometry representation thereof. The system converts the boundary representation of the object into elemental atomic geometrical units or I-bodies which are in the shape of stock primitives or regularized intersections of stock primitives. These elemental atomic geometrical units are then represented in symbolic form. The symbolic representations of the elemental atomic geometrical units are then assembled heuristically to form a constructive solid geometry representation of the object usable for manufacturing thereof. Artificial intelligence is used to determine the best constructive solid geometry representation from the boundary representation of the object. Heuristic criteria are adapted to the manufacturing environment for which the device is to be utilized. The surface finish, tolerance, and other information associated with each surface of the boundary representation of the object are mapped onto the constructive solid geometry representation of the object to produce an enhanced solid geometry representation, particularly useful for computer-aided manufacture of the object.

  13. System for conversion between the boundary representation model and a constructive solid geometry model of an object

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, N.C.; Emery, J.D.; Smith, M.L.

    1985-04-29

    A system converts from the boundary representation of an object to the constructive solid geometry representation thereof. The system converts the boundary representation of the object into elemental atomic geometrical units or I-bodies which are in the shape of stock primitives or regularized intersections of stock primitives. These elemental atomic geometrical units are then represented in symbolic form. The symbolic representations of the elemental atomic geometrical units are then assembled heuristically to form a constructive solid geometry representation of the object usable for manufacturing thereof. Artificial intelligence is used to determine the best constructive solid geometry representation from the boundary representation of the object. Heuristic criteria are adapted to the manufacturing environment for which the device is to be utilized. The surface finish, tolerance, and other information associated with each surface of the boundary representation of the object are mapped onto the constructive solid geometry representation of the object to produce an enhanced solid geometry representation, particularly useful for computer-aided manufacture of the object. 19 figs.

  14. Channel representation in physically based models coupling groundwater and surface water: pitfalls and how to avoid them.

    PubMed

    Käser, Daniel; Graf, Tobias; Cochand, Fabien; McLaren, Rob; Therrien, René; Brunner, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Recent models that couple three-dimensional subsurface flow with two-dimensional overland flow are valuable tools for quantifying complex groundwater/stream interactions and for evaluating their influence on watershed processes. For the modeler who is used to defining streams as a boundary condition, the representation of channels in integrated models raises a number of conceptual and technical issues. These models are far more sensitive to channel topography than conventional groundwater models. On all spatial scales, both the topography of a channel and its connection with the floodplain are important. For example, the geometry of river banks influences bank storage and overbank flooding; the slope of the river is a primary control on the behavior of a catchment; and at the finer scale bedform characteristics affect hyporheic exchange. Accurate data on streambed topography, however, are seldom available, and the spatial resolution of digital elevation models is typically too coarse in river environments, resulting in unrealistic or undulating streambeds. Modelers therefore perform some kind of manual yet often cumbersome correction to the available topography. In this context, the paper identifies some common pitfalls, and provides guidance to overcome these. Both aspects of topographic representation and mesh discretization are addressed. Additionally, two tutorials are provided to illustrate: (1) the interpolation of channel cross-sectional data and (2) the refinement of a mesh along a stream in areas of high topographic variability.

  15. 'The surface management system' (SuMS) database: a surface-based database to aid cortical surface reconstruction, visualization and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, J.; Drury, H.; Van Essen, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    Surface reconstructions of the cerebral cortex are increasingly widely used in the analysis and visualization of cortical structure, function and connectivity. From a neuroinformatics perspective, dealing with surface-related data poses a number of challenges. These include the multiplicity of configurations in which surfaces are routinely viewed (e.g. inflated maps, spheres and flat maps), plus the diversity of experimental data that can be represented on any given surface. To address these challenges, we have developed a surface management system (SuMS) that allows automated storage and retrieval of complex surface-related datasets. SuMS provides a systematic framework for the classification, storage and retrieval of many types of surface-related data and associated volume data. Within this classification framework, it serves as a version-control system capable of handling large numbers of surface and volume datasets. With built-in database management system support, SuMS provides rapid search and retrieval capabilities across all the datasets, while also incorporating multiple security levels to regulate access. SuMS is implemented in Java and can be accessed via a Web interface (WebSuMS) or using downloaded client software. Thus, SuMS is well positioned to act as a multiplatform, multi-user 'surface request broker' for the neuroscience community.

  16. Nutrient Channels Aid the Growth of Articular Surface-Sized Engineered Cartilage Constructs.

    PubMed

    Cigan, Alexander D; Durney, Krista M; Nims, Robert J; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-09-01

    Symptomatic osteoarthritic lesions span large regions of joint surfaces and the ability to engineer cartilage constructs at clinically relevant sizes would be highly desirable. We previously demonstrated that nutrient transport limitations can be mitigated by the introduction of channels in 10 mm diameter cartilage constructs. In this study, we scaled up our previous system to cast and cultivate 40 mm diameter constructs (2.3 mm overall thickness); 4 mm diameter and channeled 10 mm diameter constructs were studied for comparison. Furthermore, to assess whether prior results using primary bovine cells are applicable for passaged cells-a more clinically realistic scenario-we cast constructs of each size with primary or twice-passaged cells. Constructs were assessed mechanically for equilibrium compressive Young's modulus (EY), dynamic modulus at 0.01 Hz (G*), and friction coefficient (μ); they were also assessed biochemically, histologically, and immunohistochemically for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen contents. By maintaining open channels, we successfully cultured robust constructs the size of entire human articular cartilage layers (growing to ∼52 mm in diameter, 4 mm thick, mass of 8 g by day 56), representing a 100-fold increase in scale over our 4 mm diameter constructs, without compromising their functional properties. Large constructs reached EY of up to 623 kPa and GAG contents up to 8.9%/ww (% of wet weight), both within native cartilage ranges, had G* >2 MPa, and up to 3.5%/ww collagen. Constructs also exhibited some of the lowest μ reported for engineered cartilage (0.06-0.11). Passaged cells produced tissue of lower quality, but still exhibited native EY and GAG content, similar to their smaller controls. The constructs produced in this study are, to our knowledge, the largest engineered cartilage constructs to date which possess native EY and GAG, and are a testament to the effectiveness of nutrient channels in

  17. An improved quasi-diabatic representation of the 1, 2, 3(1)A coupled adiabatic potential energy surfaces of phenol in the full 33 internal coordinates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Malbon, Christopher L; Yarkony, David R

    2016-03-28

    In a recent work we constructed a quasi-diabatic representation, H(d), of the 1, 2, 3(1)A adiabatic states of phenol from high level multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction electronic structure data, energies, energy gradients, and derivative couplings. That H(d) accurately describes surface minima, saddle points, and also regions of strong nonadiabatic interactions, reproducing the locus of conical intersection seams and the coordinate dependence of the derivative couplings. The present work determines the accuracy of H(d) for describing phenol photodissociation. Additionally, we demonstrate that a modest energetic shift of two diabats yields a quantifiably more accurate H(d) compared with experimental energetics. The analysis shows that in favorable circumstances it is possible to use single point energies obtained from the most reliable electronic structure methods available, including methods for which the energy gradients and derivative couplings are not available, to improve the quality of a global representation of several coupled potential energy surfaces. Our data suggest an alternative interpretation of kinetic energy release measurements near λphot ∼ 248 nm.

  18. An improved quasi-diabatic representation of the 1, 2, 31A coupled adiabatic potential energy surfaces of phenol in the full 33 internal coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Malbon, Christopher L.; Yarkony, David R.

    2016-03-01

    In a recent work we constructed a quasi-diabatic representation, Hd, of the 1, 2, 31A adiabatic states of phenol from high level multireference single and double excitation configuration interaction electronic structure data, energies, energy gradients, and derivative couplings. That Hd accurately describes surface minima, saddle points, and also regions of strong nonadiabatic interactions, reproducing the locus of conical intersection seams and the coordinate dependence of the derivative couplings. The present work determines the accuracy of Hd for describing phenol photodissociation. Additionally, we demonstrate that a modest energetic shift of two diabats yields a quantifiably more accurate Hd compared with experimental energetics. The analysis shows that in favorable circumstances it is possible to use single point energies obtained from the most reliable electronic structure methods available, including methods for which the energy gradients and derivative couplings are not available, to improve the quality of a global representation of several coupled potential energy surfaces. Our data suggest an alternative interpretation of kinetic energy release measurements near λphot ˜ 248 nm.

  19. Improving the representation of river-groundwater interactions in land surface modeling at the regional scale: Observational evidence and parameterization applied in the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampieri, M.; Serpetzoglou, E.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Nikolopoulos, E. I.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2012-02-01

    SummaryGroundwater is an important component of the hydrological cycle, included in many land surface models to provide a lower boundary condition for soil moisture, which in turn plays a key role in the land-vegetation-atmosphere interactions and the ecosystem dynamics. In regional-scale climate applications land surface models (LSMs) are commonly coupled to atmospheric models to close the surface energy, mass and carbon balance. LSMs in these applications are used to resolve the momentum, heat, water and carbon vertical fluxes, accounting for the effect of vegetation, soil type and other surface parameters, while lack of adequate resolution prevents using them to resolve horizontal sub-grid processes. Specifically, LSMs resolve the large-scale runoff production associated with infiltration excess and sub-grid groundwater convergence, but they neglect the effect from loosing streams to groundwater. Through the analysis of observed data of soil moisture obtained from the Oklahoma Mesoscale Network stations and land surface temperature derived from MODIS we provide evidence that the regional scale soil moisture and surface temperature patterns are affected by the rivers. This is demonstrated on the basis of simulations from a land surface model (i.e., Community Land Model - CLM, version 3.5). We show that the model cannot reproduce the features of the observed soil moisture and temperature spatial patterns that are related to the underlying mechanism of reinfiltration of river water to groundwater. Therefore, we implement a simple parameterization of this process in CLM showing the ability to reproduce the soil moisture and surface temperature spatial variabilities that relate to the river distribution at regional scale. The CLM with this new parameterization is used to evaluate impacts of the improved representation of river-groundwater interactions on the simulated water cycle parameters and the surface energy budget at the regional scale.

  20. The Effects of 3D-Representation Instruction on Composite-Solid Surface-Area Learning for Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Shih, Pao-Chen; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    Providing instruction on spatial geometry, specifically how to calculate the surface areas of composite solids, challenges many elementary school teachers. Determining the surface areas of composite solids involves complex calculations and advanced spatial concepts. The goals of this study were to build on students' learning processes for…

  1. The hydrogen peroxide-rare gas systems: quantum chemical calculations and hyperspherical harmonic representation of the potential energy surface for atom-floppy molecule interactions.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Patricia R P; Vilela, Alessandra F A; Lombardi, Andrea; Maciel, Glauciete S; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2007-12-13

    A quantum chemical exploration is reported on the interaction potentials of H2O2 with the rare gases, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Hydrogen peroxide (the simplest example of chiral molecule in its equilibrium geometry) is modeled as rigid except for the torsional mode around the O-O bond. However, on the basis of previous work (Maciel, G. S.; et al. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2006 432, 383), the internal mode description is based, rather than on the vectors of the usual valence picture, on the orthogonal local representation, which was demonstrated useful for molecular dynamics simulations, because the torsion around the vector joining the center-of-mass of the two OH radicals mimics accurately the adiabatic reaction path for chirality changing isomerization, following the torsional potential energy profile from equilibrium through the barriers for the trans and cis geometries. The basic motivation of this work is the determination of potential energy surfaces for the interactions to be used in classical and quantum simulations of molecular collisions, specifically those leading to chirality changes of possible relevance in the modeling of prebiotic phenomena. Particular attention is devoted to the definition of coordinates and expansion formulas for the potentials, allowing for a faithful representation of geometrical and symmetry properties of these systems, prototypical of the interaction of an atom with a floppy molecule.

  2. Functional representation for the born-oppenheimer diagonal correction and born-huang adiabatic potential energy surfaces for isotopomers of H3.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Steven L; Schwenke, David W; Schatz, George C; Garrett, Bruce C; Peterson, Kirk A

    2009-04-23

    Multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations of the Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction (BODC) for H(3) were performed at 1397 symmetry-unique configurations using the Handy-Yamaguchi-Schaefer approach; isotopic substitution leads to 4041 symmetry-unique configurations for the DH(2) mass combination. These results were then fit to a functional form that permits calculation of the BODC for any combination of isotopes. Mean unsigned fitting errors on a test grid of configurations not included in the fitting process were 0.14, 0.12, and 0.65 cm(-1) for the H(3), DH(2), and MuH(2) isotopomers, respectively. This representation can be combined with any Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface (PES) to yield Born-Huang (BH) PESs; herein, we choose the CCI potential energy surface, the uncertainties of which ( approximately 0.01 kcal/mol) are much smaller than the magnitude of the BODC. Fortran routines to evaluate these BH surfaces are provided. Variational transition state theory calculations are presented comparing thermal rate constants for reactions on the BO and BH surfaces to provide an initial estimate of the significance of the diagonal correction for the dynamics. PMID:19290604

  3. Representing Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.

    2010-01-01

    What can be known and how to render what we know are perpetual quandaries met by qualitative research, complicated further by the understanding that the everyday discourses influencing our representations are often tacit, unspoken or heard so often that they seem to warrant little reflection. In this article, I offer analytic memos as a means for…

  4. A Technique for Assimilating GOES-Derived Land Surface Products into Regional Models to Improve the Representation of Land Surface Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary

    1998-01-01

    As the parameterizations of surface energy budgets in regional models have become more complete physically, models have the potential to be much more realistic in simulations of coupling between surface radiation, hydrology, and surface energy transfer. Realizing the importance of properly specifying the surface energy budget, many institutions are using land-surface models to represent the lower boundary forcing associated with biophysical processes and soil hydrology. However, the added degrees of freedom due to inclusion of such land-surface schemes require the specification of additional parameters within the model system such as vegetative resistances, green vegetation fraction, leaf area index, soil physical and hydraulic characteristics, stream flow, runoff, and the vertical distribution of soil moisture. A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-IR skin temperature tendencies into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite-observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. An advantage of this technique for short-range forecasts is that it does not require a complex land-surface formulation within the

  5. Explicit representation of microbes, enzymes, mineral surfaces, and isotopic tracers helps explain soil organic carbon decomposition and priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Tang, J.; Riley, W. J.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Increased plant carbon inputs from CO2 fertilization could accelerate native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition through the priming effect. Although this increase in SOC turnover rate due to priming might have important consequences for SOC dynamics, there are large uncertainties in the sign and magnitude of priming, as well as large challenges in identifying underlying mechanisms. Current SOC models, mostly based on first-order decomposition representations, do no represent many important biotic and abiotic processes, including the priming effect. The incorporation of explicit biotic and abiotic interactions in modeling SOC decomposition may improve our ability to accurately predict SOC dynamics. In this study, we (1) develop a microbe-explicit SOC decomposition model to simulate SOC turnovers and priming and (2) test the model with a soil incubation experiment with 14C-labeled glucose addition. We report (1) the evolutions of modeled carbon pools, (2) the fate of 14C labeled glucose addition, (3) the model performance compared to observations, (4) the transient behavior of priming components, and (5) an analysis of the effects of carbon input magnitudes and frequencies on the priming effect. Here are some findings from our model-experiment analyses: (1) the inclusion of an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET) in addition to intracellular microbial respiration helps improve the model performance; (2) priming is dominated by intracellular microbial respiration at the beginning of incubation (~ first 5 days) but later on dominated by EXOMET, which explains observed long-term sustaining priming; (3) the varying magnitudes of glucose addition do not change the magnitude of priming per unit addition; (4) the varying frequencies of glucose addition change the magnitude of priming per unit addition, but with contrast changing patterns for non-steady-state and steady state simulations; (5) constant annual total glucose addition shift the system to another

  6. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  7. A novel path generation method of onsite 5-axis surface inspection using the dual-cubic NURBS representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-long; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Gang; Pang, Chang-tao; Yin, Zhou-pin

    2016-09-01

    Onsite surface inspection with a touch probe or a laser scanner is a promising technique for efficiently evaluating surface profile error. The existing work of 5-axis inspection path generation bears a serious drawback, however, as there is a drastic orientation change of the inspection axis. Such a sudden change may exceed the stringent physical limit on the speed and acceleration of the rotary motions of the machine tool. In this paper, we propose a novel path generation method for onsite 5-axis surface inspection. The accessibility cones are defined and used to generate alternative interference-free inspection directions. Then, the control points are optimally calculated to obtain the dual-cubic non-Uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves, which respectively determine the path points and the axis vectors in an inspection path. The generated inspection path is smooth and non-interference, which deals with the ‘mutation and shake’ problems and guarantees a stable speed and acceleration of machine tool rotary motions. Its feasibility and validity is verified by the onsite inspection experiments of impeller blade.

  8. Representation of vegetation effects on the snow-covered albedo in the Noah land surface model with multiple physics options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Park, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Snow albedo plays a critical role in calculating the energy budget, but parameterization of the snow surface albedo is still under great uncertainty. It varies with snow grain size, snow cover thickness, snow age, forest shading factor and other variables. Snow albedo of forest is typically lower than that of short vegetation; thus snow albedo is dependent on the spatial distributions of characteristic land cover and on the canopy density and structure. In the Noah land surface model with multiple physics options (Noah-MP), almost all vegetation types in East Asia during winter have the minimum values of leaf area index (LAI) and stem area index (SAI), which are too low and do not consider the vegetation types. Because LAI and SAI are represented in terms of photosynthetic activeness, the vegetation effect rarely exerts on the surface albedo in winter in East Asia with only these parameters. Thus, we investigated the vegetation effects on the snow-covered albedo from observations and evaluated the model improvement by considering such effect. We found that calculation of albedo without proper reflection of the vegetation effect is mainly responsible for the large positive bias in winter. Therefore, we developed new parameters, called leaf index (LI) and stem index (SI), which properly manage the effect of vegetation structure on the winter albedo. As a result, the Noah-MP's performance in albedo has been significantly improved - RMSE is reduced by approximately 73%.

  9. Dynamics of H2 Eley-Rideal abstraction from W(110): sensitivity to the representation of the molecule-surface potential.

    PubMed

    Pétuya, R; Larrégaray, P; Crespos, C; Busnengo, H F; Martínez, A E

    2014-07-14

    Dynamics of the Eley-Rideal (ER) abstraction of H2 from W(110) is analyzed by means of quasi-classical trajectory calculations. Simulations are based on two different molecule-surface potential energy surfaces (PES) constructed from Density Functional Theory results. One PES is obtained by fitting, using a Flexible Periodic London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato (FPLEPS) functional form, and the other by interpolation through the corrugation reducing procedure (CRP). Then, the present study allows us to elucidate the ER dynamics sensitivity on the PES representation. Despite some sizable discrepancies between both H+H/W(110) PESs, the obtained projectile-energy dependence of the total ER cross sections are qualitatively very similar ensuring that the main physical ingredients are captured in both PES models. The obtained distributions of the final energy among the different molecular degrees of freedom barely depend on the PES model, being most likely determined by the reaction exothermicity. Therefore, a reasonably good agreement with the measured final vibrational state distribution is observed in spite of the pressure and material gaps between theoretical and experimental conditions.

  10. Evaluating coastal sea surface heights based on a novel sub-waveform approach using sparse representation and conditional random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebbing, Bernd; Roscher, Ribana; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Satellite radar altimeters allow global monitoring of mean sea level changes over the last two decades. However, coastal regions are less well observed due to influences on the returned signal energy by land located inside the altimeter footprint. The altimeter emits a radar pulse, which is reflected at the nadir-surface and measures the two-way travel time, as well as the returned energy as a function of time, resulting in a return waveform. Over the open ocean the waveform shape corresponds to a theoretical model which can be used to infer information on range corrections, significant wave height or wind speed. However, in coastal areas the shape of the waveform is significantly influenced by return signals from land, located in the altimeter footprint, leading to peaks which tend to bias the estimated parameters. Recently, several approaches dealing with this problem have been published, including utilizing only parts of the waveform (sub-waveforms), estimating the parameters in two steps or estimating additional peak parameters. We present a new approach in estimating sub-waveforms using conditional random fields (CRF) based on spatio-temporal waveform information. The CRF piece-wise approximates the measured waveforms based on a pre-derived dictionary of theoretical waveforms for various combinations of the geophysical parameters; neighboring range gates are likely to be assigned to the same underlying sub-waveform model. Depending on the choice of hyperparameters in the CRF estimation, the classification into sub-waveforms can either be more fine or coarse resulting in multiple sub-waveform hypotheses. After the sub-waveforms have been detected, existing retracking algorithms can be applied to derive water heights or other desired geophysical parameters from particular sub-waveforms. To identify the optimal heights from the multiple hypotheses, instead of utilizing a known reference height, we apply a Dijkstra-algorithm to find the "shortest path" of all

  11. A new diabatic representation of the coupled potential energy surfaces for Na(3p P-2) + H2 yields Na(3s S-2) + H2 or NaH + H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halvick, Philippe; Truhlar, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    A diabatic representation is presented of the coupled potential-energy surfaces for Na(3p P-2) + H2 yields Na (3s S-2) + H2 or NaH + H. The representation is designed to yield, upon diagonalization, realistic values for the two lowest energy adiabatic states at both asymptotes of the chemical reaction as well as near the conical intersection in the three-body interaction region. It is economical to evaluate and portable. It is suitable for dynamics calculations on both the quenching process and the electronically nonadiabatic chemical reaction.

  12. ERTS-1 data in support of the national program of inspection of dams. [computer-aided detection and location of surface waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybeal, G. E.; Hall, F. G.; Moore, B. H.; Schlosser, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-aided procedure, for use in the detection and location of areas of surface water, has been developed. The procedure was developed in support of the National Program of Inspection of Dams established by Public Law 92-367. The procedure utilizes data acquired by the unmanned Earth Resources Technology Satellite in conjunction with ancillary data in the form of topographic and highway maps, and meteorological data summaries. The procedure is divided into several distinct phases. A five-volume manual has been prepared to instruct potential users of the procedure.

  13. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  14. Graphical Description of Johnson-Neyman Outcomes for Linear and Quadratic Regression Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, William D.; Wang, Yuh-Yin

    A modification of the usual graphical representation of heterogeneous regressions is described that can aid in interpreting significant regions for linear or quadratic surfaces. The standard Johnson-Neyman graph is a bivariate plot with the criterion variable on the ordinate and the predictor variable on the abscissa. Regression surfaces are drawn…

  15. Concepts and Their Surface Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Joan Gay

    1984-01-01

    Considers the use of picture-word and bilingualism research together to look for parallels at both the theoretical and empirical levels. Describes some of the criteria that have been used in both fields to infer common or separate codes and points out how conclusions based on the various criteria proposed can differ. (EKN)

  16. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  17. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  19. Assessment of a handheld fluorescence imaging device as a visual-aid for detection of food residues on processing surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of food with pathogenic bacteria can lead to foodborne illnesses. Food processing surfaces can serve as a medium for cross-contamination if sanitization procedures are inadequate. Ensuring that food processing surfaces are correctly cleaned and sanitized is important in the food indust...

  20. Fock Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strocchi, Franco

    The general lesson from the GNS theorem is that a state on the algebra of observables, namely a set of expectations, defines a realization of the system in terms of a Hilbert space of states with a reference vector which represents as a cyclic vector (so that all the other vectors of can be obtained by applying the observables to PSgrOHgr). In this sense, a state identifies the family of states related to it by observables, equivalently accessible from it by means of physically realizable operations. Thus, one may say that mathcal{H}_{Omega} describes a closed world, or phase, to which OHgr belongs. An interesting physical and mathematical question is how many closed worlds or phases are associated to a quantum system. In the mathematical language this amounts to investigating how many inequivalent (physically acceptable) representations of the observable algebra which defines the system exist.

  1. Graphic Representations as Tools for Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the use of graphic representations to enable students to improve their decision making skills in the social studies. Explores three visual aids used in assisting students with decision making: (1) the force field; (2) the decision tree; and (3) the decision making grid. (CMK)

  2. Using reactive transport codes to provide mechanistic biogeochemistry representations in land surface models: A proof of concept with CLM-PFLOTRAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; Hammond, Glenn; Lichtner, Peter; Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard; Xu, Xiaofeng; Andre, Ben; Painter, Scott; Thornton, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We explore coupling to a configurable subsurface reactive transport code as a flexible and extensible approach to biogeochemistry in land surface models. A reaction network with the CLM-CN decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant uptake similar to CLM4.5 is used as an example. We implement the reactions in the open-source PFLOTRAN code, coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM), and test at Arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. To make the reaction network designed for use in explicit time stepping in CLM compatible with the implicit time stepping used in PFLOTRAN, the Monod substrate rate-limiting function with a residual concentration is used to represent the limitation of nitrogen availability on plant uptake and immobilization. Switching from explicit to implicit methods increases numerical rigor but introduces computational challenges. Our objective is to achieve accurate, efficient, and robust numerical solutions to demonstrate the feasibility of CLM-PFLOTRAN soil biogeochemistry. Our results suggest that care needs to be taken to use scaling, clipping, or log transformation to avoid negative concentrations during the Newton iterations. With a tight relative update tolerance to avoid false convergence, an accurate solution can be achieved with about 50 {%} more computing time than CLM in point mode site simulations using either the scaling or clipping methods. The log transformation method takes 60-100 {%} more computing time than CLM. The computing time increases slightly for clipping and scaling; it increases substantially for log transformation for half saturation decrease from 10-3 to 10-9 \\unit{mol m-3}, which normally results in decreasing nitrogen concentrations. The frequent occurrence of very low concentrations (e.g. below nanomolar) can increase the computing time for clipping or scaling by about 20 {%}; computing time can be doubled for log transformation. Caution needs to be taken in choosing the appropriate scaling factor

  3. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  4. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  5. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  6. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.

  7. Computer aided photographic engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixson, Jeffrey A.; Rieckhoff, Tom

    1988-01-01

    High speed photography is an excellent source of engineering data but only provides a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional event. Multiple cameras can be used to provide data for the third dimension but camera locations are not always available. A solution to this problem is to overlay three-dimensional CAD/CAM models of the hardware being tested onto a film or photographic image, allowing the engineer to measure surface distances, relative motions between components, and surface variations.

  8. In vitro biocompatibility of plasma-aided surface-modified 316L stainless steel for intracoronary stents.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Cem; Mizrak, Alpay Koray; Aktürk, Selçuk; Kurşaklioğlu, Hurkan; Iyisoy, Atila; Ifran, Ahmet; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2010-10-01

    316L-type stainless steel is a raw material mostly used for manufacturing metallic coronary stents. The purpose of this study was to examine the chemical, wettability, cytotoxic and haemocompatibility properties of 316L stainless steel stents which were modified by plasma polymerization. Six different polymeric compounds, polyethylene glycol, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, ethylenediamine, acrylic acid, hexamethyldisilane and hexamethyldisiloxane, were used in a radio frequency glow discharge plasma polymerization system. As a model antiproliferative drug, mitomycin-C was chosen for covalent coupling onto the stent surface. Modified SS 316L stents were characterized by water contact angle measurements (goniometer) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. C1s binding energies showed a good correlation with the literature. Haemocompatibility tests of coated SS 316L stents showed significant latency (t-test, p < 0.05) with respect to SS 316L and control groups in each test. PMID:20844318

  9. Accurate combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation of ab initio potential energy surface for the hydroperoxyl radical and dynamics study of O + OH reaction.

    PubMed

    Varandas, A J C

    2013-04-01

    The Combined-Hyperbolic-Inverse-Power-Representation method, which treats evenly both short- and long-range interactions, is used to fit an extensive set of ab initio points for HO2 previously utilized [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244305 (2005)] to develop a spline interpolant. The novel form is shown to perform accurately when compared with others, while quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the O + OH reaction clearly pinpoint the role of long-range forces at low temperatures. PMID:23574218

  10. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  11. Representation of Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Roscoe B. White

    2013-01-15

    One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through δ Β = ∇ X (xi X B) ensures that δ B • ∇ ψ = 0 at a resonance, with ψ labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation δ Β = ∇ X αB. These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of δ B • ∇ψ at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in xi to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed

  12. A pH dependent Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of citrazinic acid aided by theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sougata; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Dutta, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-12-01

    A pH dependent normal Raman scattering (NRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral patterns of citrazinic acid (CZA), a biologically important molecule, have been investigated. The acid, with different pKa values (~ 4 and ~ 11) for the two different functional groups (-COOH and -OH groups), shows interesting range of color changes (yellow at pH ~ 14 and brown at pH ~ 2) with the variation in solution pH. Thus, depending upon the pH of the medium, CZA molecule can exist in various protonated and/or deprotonated forms. Here we have prescribed the existence different possible forms of CZA at different pH (Forms "C", "H" and "Dprot" at pH ~ 14 and Forms "A", "D", and "P" at pH ~ 2 respectively). The NRS spectra of these solutions and their respective SERS spectra over gold nanoparticles were recorded. The spectra clearly differ in their spectral profiles. For example the SERS spectra recorded with the CZA solution at pH ~ 2 shows blue shift for different bands compared to its NRS window e.g. 406 to 450 cm- 1, 616 to 632 cm- 1, 1332 to 1343 cm- 1 etc. Again, the most enhanced peak at ~ 1548 cm- 1 in NRS while in the SERS window this appears at ~ 1580 cm- 1. Similar observation was also made for CZA at pH ~ 14. For example, the 423 cm- 1 band in the NRS profile experience a blue shift and appears at ~ 447 cm- 1 in the SERS spectrum as well as other bands at ~ 850, ~ 1067 and ~ 1214 cm- 1 in the SERS window are markedly enhanced. It is also worth noting that the SERS spectra at the different pH also differ from each other. These spectral differences indicate the existence of various adsorptive forms of the CZA molecule depending upon the pH of the solution. Therefore based on the experimental findings we propose different possible molecular forms of CZA at different pH (acidic and alkaline) conditions. For example forms 'A', 'D' and 'P' existing in acidic pH (pH ~ 2) and three other deprotonated forms 'C', 'H' and 'Dprot' in alkaline pH (pH ~ 14). The DFT

  13. A pH dependent Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of citrazinic acid aided by theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sougata; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Dutta, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-12-01

    A pH dependent normal Raman scattering (NRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral patterns of citrazinic acid (CZA), a biologically important molecule, have been investigated. The acid, with different pKa values (~4 and ~11) for the two different functional groups (-COOH and -OH groups), shows interesting range of color changes (yellow at pH~14 and brown at pH~2) with the variation in solution pH. Thus, depending upon the pH of the medium, CZA molecule can exist in various protonated and/or deprotonated forms. Here we have prescribed the existence different possible forms of CZA at different pH (Forms "C", "H" and "Dprot" at pH~14 and Forms "A", "D", and "P" at pH~2 respectively). The NRS spectra of these solutions and their respective SERS spectra over gold nanoparticles were recorded. The spectra clearly differ in their spectral profiles. For example the SERS spectra recorded with the CZA solution at pH~2 shows blue shift for different bands compared to its NRS window e.g. 406 to 450cm(-1), 616 to 632cm(-1), 1332 to 1343cm(-1) etc. Again, the most enhanced peak at ~1548cm(-1) in NRS while in the SERS window this appears at ~1580cm(-1). Similar observation was also made for CZA at pH~14. For example, the 423cm(-1) band in the NRS profile experience a blue shift and appears at ~447cm(-1) in the SERS spectrum as well as other bands at ~850, ~1067 and ~1214cm(-1) in the SERS window are markedly enhanced. It is also worth noting that the SERS spectra at the different pH also differ from each other. These spectral differences indicate the existence of various adsorptive forms of the CZA molecule depending upon the pH of the solution. Therefore based on the experimental findings we propose different possible molecular forms of CZA at different pH (acidic and alkaline) conditions. For example forms 'A', 'D' and 'P' existing in acidic pH (pH~2) and three other deprotonated forms 'C', 'H' and 'Dprot' in alkaline pH (pH~14). The DFT calculations for these

  14. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  15. Explorations of Representational Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael H.; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    1987-01-01

    Figures that undergo an implied rotation are remembered as being slightly beyond their final position, a phenomenon called representational momentum. Eight experiments explored the questions of what gets transformed and what types of transformations induce such representational distortions. (GDC)

  16. Accurate combined-hyperbolic-inverse-power-representation of ab initio potential energy surface for the hydroperoxyl radical and dynamics study of O+OH reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandas, A. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    The Combined-Hyperbolic-Inverse-Power-Representation method, which treats evenly both short- and long-range interactions, is used to fit an extensive set of ab initio points for HO2 previously utilized [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244305 (2005), 10.1063/1.1944290] to develop a spline interpolant. The novel form is shown to perform accurately when compared with others, while quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the O + OH reaction clearly pinpoint the role of long-range forces at low temperatures.

  17. Representations of fuzzy torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, N.; Chakrabarti, R.

    2008-08-01

    A classification of Hermitian representations for the recently introduced fuzzy torus algebra is presented. This is carried out by regarding the fuzzy torus algebra as a q-deformation of parafermion. In addition to the known representations, new representations of both finite and infinite dimension are found. Using the infinite dimensional representation, coherent state for the fuzzy torus is constructed. Dirac operator on commutative torus is also discussed.

  18. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  19. Representation in Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

    This paper reviews work on the representation of knowledge from within psychology and artificial intelligence. The work covers the nature of representation, the distinction between the represented world and the representing world, and significant issues concerned with propositional, analogical, and superpositional representations. Specific topics…

  20. Coverage and representation of condoms in conjunction with HIV/AIDS in the Kenyan Daily Nation Newspaper from 1989-2003: a qualitative content analysis to inform health promotion.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Shannon L; Lagerwey, Mary D; Ford, Leigh A

    HIV/AIDS has been a pressing problem in the East African country of Kenya for over 20 years. Promotion of condom use is one prevention strategy embraced in global health prevention of HIV, but use remains relatively low in Kenya. In order to better understand the socio-historic context of discourses about condoms in Kenya, this study explored how condoms were covered and represented in the Kenyan Daily Nation newspaper from 1989-2003. Qualitative content analysis was conducted for 91 items from the Daily Nation including articles, letters to the editor, columns, opinion and editorial pieces, advertisements, and cartoons. These items were systematically examined for the manner and content of manifest and latent references to condoms. Researchers found four major themes, "controversy and confusion," "we need to do more: condoms might help," "not for Kenyans or from Kenyans," and "stigmatized associations." Findings provide needed insight into the socio-cultural context surrounding condoms in Kenya that is often lacking within health promotion and HIV prevention programs.

  1. The Use of Coincident Synthetic Aperture Radar and Visible Imagery to Aid in the Analysis of Photon-Counting Lidar Data Sets Over Complex Ice/Snow Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, Kimberly H.

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-sensor data is becoming increasingly useful as a method of improving our understanding of complex environments, and can be an effective tool in the arsenal to help climate scientists to predict sea level rise due to change in the mass balance of large glaciers in the Arctic and Antarctic. A novel approach to remote sensing of the continuously changing polar environment involves the use of coincident RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and Landsat 7 visible/near-infrared imagery, combined with digital elevation models (DEM) developed from Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL) data sets. MABEL is a scaled down model of the lidar altimeter that will eventually be flown on ICESat-2, and provides dense along-track and moderate slope (cross-track) elevation data over narrow (~198 m) aircraft transects. Because glacial terrain consists of steep slopes, crevices, glacial lakes, and outflow into the sea, accurate slope information is critical to our understanding of any changes that may be happening in the ice sheets. RADARSAT-2 operates in the C-band, at a wavelength of 5.55 cm, and was chosen partly for its ability to image the Earth under all atmospheric conditions, including clouds. The SAR images not only provide spatial context for the elevation data found using the lidar, but also offer key insights into the consistency of the snow and ice making up the glacier, giving us some idea of mean temperature and surface conditions on the ice sheet. Finally, Landsat 7 images provide us with information on the extent of the glacier, and additional understanding of the state of the glacial surface. To aid in the analysis of the three data sets, proper preparation of each data set must first be performed. For the lidar data, this required the development of a new data reduction technique, based on statistical analysis, to reduce the number of received photons to those representing only the surface return

  2. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  3. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  4. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  5. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual...

  6. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual...

  7. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual...

  8. CAGI: Computer Aided Grid Interface. A work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Vaughn, David

    1992-01-01

    Progress realized in the development of a Computer Aided Grid Interface (CAGI) software system in integrating CAD/CAM geometric system output and/or Interactive Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) files, geometry manipulations associated with grid generation, and robust grid generation methodologies is presented. CAGI is being developed in a modular fashion and will offer fast, efficient and economical response to geometry/grid preparation, allowing the ability to upgrade basic geometry in a step-by-step fashion interactively and under permanent visual control along with minimizing the differences between the actual hardware surface descriptions and corresponding numerical analog. The computer code GENIE is used as a basis. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) representation of sculptured surfaces is utilized for surface grid redistribution. The computer aided analysis system, PATRAN, is adapted as a CAD/CAM system. The progress realized in NURBS surface grid generation, the development of IGES transformer, and geometry adaption using PATRAN will be presented along with their applicability to grid generation associated with rocket propulsion applications.

  9. Converting Boundary Representation Solid Models to Half-Space Representation Models for Monte Carlo Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis JE, Eddy MJ, Sutton TM, Altomari TJ

    2007-03-01

    Solid modeling computer software systems provide for the design of three-dimensional solid models used in the design and analysis of physical components. The current state-of-the-art in solid modeling representation uses a boundary representation format in which geometry and topology are used to form three-dimensional boundaries of the solid. The geometry representation used in these systems is cubic B-spline curves and surfaces--a network of cubic B-spline functions in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space. Many Monte Carlo codes, however, use a geometry representation in which geometry units are specified by intersections and unions of half-spaces. This paper describes an algorithm for converting from a boundary representation to a half-space representation.

  10. The Number Namer: An Aid to Understanding Place Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beattie, Ian D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an aid designed to reinforce the meaning of one- and two-digit numbers by building a strong bridge between iconic representation of numbers and their various abstract, symbolic representations. Although most suited for first- and second-grade students, it has been used successfully with kindergartners and in remedial work with older…

  11. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  12. The African American Family and AIDS: Counseling Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Patrick; Beamish, Patricia M.

    This document discusses the application of a systems approach for family counseling for African American families with a family member infected with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It begins by citing statistics that illustrate that there exists a disproportionate representation of cases of AIDS among African Americans. A discussion on…

  13. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  14. It's about TIME: engendering AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses how TIME magazine represents sub-Saharan African women in its coverage of HIV/AIDS. As rates of infection escalate across the continent, researchers are increasingly emphasising the need to understand the socioeconomic and cultural contexts that make women particularly vulnerable to infection. Yet popular media representations of AIDS continue to rely on older colonial imageries of Africa as the feminised, diseased 'dark continent'. This article identifies three major themes in TIME's representation of sub-Saharan African women and HIV/AIDS: the metaphor of Africa as a woman in crisis, the construction of women as the means of transmission, and the engendered nature of the debate about the impact of international development policies. It is argued that the reliance on familiar cultural narratives often obscures the epidemiological, economic and cultural realities within which sub-Saharan women live. Not merely a consequence of unprotected sex, AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is also the result of global economics and politics, reflecting the inequities between the West and Africa, male and female, white and black. The paper concludes with a call for further research on the role of representations of HIV/AIDS and its actual routes of transmission. PMID:17612957

  15. It's about TIME: engendering AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brijnath, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses how TIME magazine represents sub-Saharan African women in its coverage of HIV/AIDS. As rates of infection escalate across the continent, researchers are increasingly emphasising the need to understand the socioeconomic and cultural contexts that make women particularly vulnerable to infection. Yet popular media representations of AIDS continue to rely on older colonial imageries of Africa as the feminised, diseased 'dark continent'. This article identifies three major themes in TIME's representation of sub-Saharan African women and HIV/AIDS: the metaphor of Africa as a woman in crisis, the construction of women as the means of transmission, and the engendered nature of the debate about the impact of international development policies. It is argued that the reliance on familiar cultural narratives often obscures the epidemiological, economic and cultural realities within which sub-Saharan women live. Not merely a consequence of unprotected sex, AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is also the result of global economics and politics, reflecting the inequities between the West and Africa, male and female, white and black. The paper concludes with a call for further research on the role of representations of HIV/AIDS and its actual routes of transmission.

  16. Inscriptions Becoming Representations in Representational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Richard; Suthers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of 3 students working on mathematics problems over several days in a virtual math team. Our analysis traces out how successful collaboration in a later session is contingent upon the work of prior sessions and shows how the development of representational practices is an important aspect of these participants' problem…

  17. Surface kinetics modeling of silicon and silicon oxide plasma etching. III. Modeling of silicon oxide etching in fluorocarbon chemistry using translating mixed-layer representation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ohseung; Bai Bo; Sawin, Herbert H.

    2006-09-15

    Silicon oxide etching was modeled using a translating mixed-layer model, a novel surface kinetic modeling technique, and the model showed good agreement with measured data. Carbon and fluorine were identified as the primary contributors to deposition and etching, respectively. Atomic fluorine flux is a major factor that determines the etching behavior. With a chemistry having a small amount of atomic fluorine (such as the C{sub 4}F{sub 8} chemistry), etching yield shows stronger dependence on the composition change in the gas flux.

  18. Representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.

    2013-02-15

    One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign ({xi}(vector sign) Multiplication-Sign B(vector sign)) ensures that {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi}=0 at a resonance, with {psi} labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign {alpha}B(vector sign). These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi} at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in {xi}(vector sign) to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed.

  19. [Multi-Scale Convergence of Cold-Land Process Representation in Land-Surface Models, Microwave Remote Sensing, and Field Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jiancheng

    2005-01-01

    The cryosphere is a major component of the hydrosphere and interacts significantly with the global climate system, the geosphere, and the biosphere. Measurement of the amount of water stored in the snow pack and forecasting the rate of melt are thus essential for managing water supply and flood control systems. Snow hydrologists are confronted with the dual problems of estimating both the quantity of water held by seasonal snow packs and time of snow melt. Monitoring these snow parameters is essential for one of the objectives of the Earth Science Enterprise-understanding of the global hydrologic cycle. Measuring spatially distributed snow properties, such as snow water equivalence (SWE) and wetness, from space is a key component for improvement of our understanding of coupled atmosphere-surface processes. Through the GWEC project, we have significantly advanced our understandings and improved modeling capabilities of the microwave signatures in response to snow and underground properties.

  20. Toward Chemical Accuracy in the Description of Ion-Water Interactions through Many-Body Representations. I. Halide-Water Dimer Potential Energy Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Pushp; Götz, Andreas W; Paesani, Francesco

    2016-06-14

    Despite recent progress, a unified understanding of how ions affect the structure and dynamics of water across different phases remains elusive. Here, we report the development of full-dimensional many-body potential energy functions, called MB-nrg (Many-Body-energy), for molecular simulations of halide ion-water systems from the gas phase to the condensed phase. The MB-nrg potentials are derived entirely from "first-principles" calculations carried out at the F12 explicitly correlated coupled-cluster level including single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T)-F12, in the complete basis set limit. Building upon the functional form of the MB-pol water potential, the MB-nrg potentials are expressed through the many-body expansion of the total energy in terms of explicit contributions representing one-body, two-body, and three-body interactions, with all higher-order contributions being described by classical induction. The specific focus of this study is on the MB-nrg two-body terms representing the full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the corresponding H2O-X(-) dimers, with X(-)= F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-). The accuracy of the MB-nrg PESs is systematically assessed through extensive comparisons with results obtained using both ab initio models and polarizable force fields for energies, structures, and harmonic frequencies of the H2O-X(-) dimers.

  1. The sensitivity of simulated competition between different plant functional types to subgrid-scale representation of vegetation in a land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R. K.; Arora, V. K.; Melton, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    The Canadian Land Surface Scheme coupled to the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model is used to simulate competition between the model's seven non-crop plant functional types (PFTs) for available space. Our objective is to assess if the model is successfully able to reproduce the observed mix of PFTs and their fractional coverages and to what extent the simulated competition is affected by the manner in which the subgrid-scale variability of vegetation is represented. The model can be run either in a composite (single tile) configuration, where structural vegetation attributes of PFTs are aggregated for use in grid-averaged energy and water balance calculations, or a mosaic (multiple tiles) configuration, where separate energy and water balance calculations are performed for each PFT. The model realistically simulates the fractional coverages of trees, grasses, and bare ground, as well as that of individual tree and grass PFTs and their succession patterns. Our results show that the model is not overly sensitive to the manner in which subgrid-scale variability of vegetation is represented. Of the seven sites chosen across the globe to illustrate the difference between the two configurations, the simulated fractional coverage of PFTs are generally very similar (root-mean-square difference, RMSD, < 5%) between the composite and mosaic configurations at locations characterized by low heterogeneity (e.g., Amazonia, Vancouver Island, and the Tibetan Plateau), whereas at locations characterized by high heterogeneity (e.g., India, South Sudan and California), the two configurations yield somewhat different results (RMSD > 5%).

  2. Toward Chemical Accuracy in the Description of Ion-Water Interactions through Many-Body Representations. I. Halide-Water Dimer Potential Energy Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Pushp; Götz, Andreas W; Paesani, Francesco

    2016-06-14

    Despite recent progress, a unified understanding of how ions affect the structure and dynamics of water across different phases remains elusive. Here, we report the development of full-dimensional many-body potential energy functions, called MB-nrg (Many-Body-energy), for molecular simulations of halide ion-water systems from the gas phase to the condensed phase. The MB-nrg potentials are derived entirely from "first-principles" calculations carried out at the F12 explicitly correlated coupled-cluster level including single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T)-F12, in the complete basis set limit. Building upon the functional form of the MB-pol water potential, the MB-nrg potentials are expressed through the many-body expansion of the total energy in terms of explicit contributions representing one-body, two-body, and three-body interactions, with all higher-order contributions being described by classical induction. The specific focus of this study is on the MB-nrg two-body terms representing the full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the corresponding H2O-X(-) dimers, with X(-)= F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-). The accuracy of the MB-nrg PESs is systematically assessed through extensive comparisons with results obtained using both ab initio models and polarizable force fields for energies, structures, and harmonic frequencies of the H2O-X(-) dimers. PMID:27145081

  3. AIDS as social construction: text mining of AIDS-related information in the Italian press.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Andrea; Giacchetta, Agnese; Langher, Viviana

    2016-09-01

    Given the relevance of AIDS as a public health problem in the Italian context and of the role of mass media in the social construction of the phenomenon, the aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main AIDS-related themes in the Italian popular press; (2) to analyse the temporal trends of AIDS representations over the last decades. For the research, we decided to consult Italian newspaper articles produced between 1985 and 1990 and between 2005 and 2010 using the archives of the main two national newspapers (La Repubblica and Corriere della Sera), resulting in an overall sample of 446 newspaper articles. A computer-aided content analysis allowed the detection of five different thematic domains (clusters), respectively focused on: Medical care (7.47%), Family support (37.03%), Science and religion debate (27%), Social exclusion (17.6%) and Healthcare policies (10.9%). These thematic domains are conceived along two main latent dimensions (factors) which explain 72.47% of the data variance which respectively deal with: (1) Attitudes towards people with AIDS (care versus avoidance) and (2) Social mandate on AIDS (powerlessness versus control). The study results also reveal the potential evolution of representations of people with AIDS over time: from stigmatised subjects who represent a risk for the entire society within a climate of social control to people progressively symbolised as frail subjects that need to be taken care of. PMID:26923156

  4. Unifying Geometrical Representations of Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsid, Scott; Serna, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We unify three approaches within the vast body of gauge-theory research that have independently developed distinct representations of a geometrical surface-like structure underlying the vector-potential. The three approaches that we unify are: those who use the compactified dimensions of Kaluza-Klein theory, those who use Grassmannian models (also called gauge theory embedding or models) to represent gauge fields, and those who use a hidden spatial metric to replace the gauge fields. In this paper we identify a correspondence between the geometrical representations of the three schools. Each school was mostly independently developed, does not compete with other schools, and attempts to isolate the gauge-invariant geometrical surface-like structures that are responsible for the resulting physics. By providing a mapping between geometrical representations, we hope physicists can now isolate representation-dependent physics from gauge-invariant physical results and share results between each school. We provide visual examples of the geometrical relationships between each school for electric and magnetic fields. We highlight a first new result: in all three representations a static electric field (electric field from a fixed ring of charge or a sphere of charge) has a hidden gauge-invariant time dependent surface that is underlying the vector potential.

  5. Bridging the Gap: Possible Roles and Contributions of Representational Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2006-01-01

    Memory for the position of a moving target is often displaced in the direction of anticipated motion, and this has been referred to as "representational momentum". Such displacement might aid spatial localization by bridging the gap between perception and action, and might reflect a second-order isomorphism between subjective consequences of…

  6. Computational Geometry and Computer-Aided Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, T. H. (Compiler); Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Extended abstracts of papers addressing the analysis, representation, and synthesis of shape information are presented. Curves and shape control, grid generation and contouring, solid modelling, surfaces, and curve intersection are specifically addressed.

  7. Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent Gajo); "Le crepuscule…

  8. The Sensitivity of Simulated Competition Between Different Plant Functional Types to Subgrid Scale Representation of Vegetation in a Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R. K.; Arora, V.; Melton, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation is a dynamic component of the earth system that affects weather and climate at hourly to centennial time scales. However, most current dynamic vegetation models do not explicitly simulate competition among Plant Functional Types (PFTs). Here we use the coupled CLASS-CTEM model (Canadian Land Surface Scheme coupled to Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model) to explicitly simulate competition between nine PFTs for available space using a modified version of Lotka - Volterra (LV) predator-prey equations. The nine PFTs include evergreen and deciduous needleleaf trees, evergreen and cold and drought deciduous broadleaf trees and C3 and C4 crops and grasses. The CLASS-CTEM model can be configured either in the composite (single tile) or the mosaic (multiple tiles) mode. Our results show that the model is sensitive to the chosen mode. The simulated fractional coverage of PFTs are similar between two approaches at some locations whereas at the other locations the two approaches yield different results. The simulated fractional coverage of PFTs are also compared with the available observations-based estimates. Simulated results at selected locations across the globe show that the model is able to realistically simulate the fractional coverage of tree and grass PFTs and the bare fraction, as well as the fractional coverage of individual tree and grass PFTs. Along with the observed patterns of vegetation distribution the CLASS-CTEM modelling framework is also able to simulate realistic succession patterns. Some differences remain and these are attributed to the coarse spatial resolution of the model (~3.75°) and the limited number of PFTs represented in the model.

  9. Promoting Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Representations: Students' Use of a Visualization Tool in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-kai; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Soloway, Elliot

    This study investigated how students develop their understanding of chemical representations with the aid of a visualizing tool, eChem, that allows them to build molecular models and simultaneously view multiple representations. Multiple sources of data were collected with the participation of high school students (n=71) over a six-week period.…

  10. Promoting Understanding of Chemical Representations: Students' Use of a Visualization Tool in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Soloway, Elliot

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how students develop an understanding of chemical representations with the aid of a computer-based visualizing too called eChem that allows them to build molecular models and view multiple representations simultaneously. Involves 11th grade students (n=71) at a small public high school and examines the changes in students'…

  11. Examining the Task and Knowledge Demands Needed to Teach with Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Charalambous, Charalambos Y.; Hill, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Representations are often used in instruction to highlight key mathematical ideas and support student learning. Despite their centrality in scaffolding teaching and learning, most of our understanding about the tasks involved with using representations in instruction and the knowledge requirements imposed on teachers when using these aids is…

  12. When Best Intentions Go Awry: The Failures of Concrete Representations to Help Solve Probability Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitzel, Brian D.; Staley, Richard K.; DuBois, Nelson F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has cast doubt on the efficacy of utilizing external representations as an aid to solving word problems. The present study replicates previous findings that concrete representations hinder college students' ability to solve probability word problems, and extends those findings to apply to a multimedia instructional context. Our…

  13. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  14. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  15. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  16. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries. PMID:6100848

  17. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  18. Umbra's system representation.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2005-07-01

    This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

  19. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs Surface and Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An...

  20. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing...

  1. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs Surface and Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An...

  2. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing...

  3. On volume-source representations based on the representation theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Mie; Kusakabe, Tetsuya; Kame, Nobuki; Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss different ways to characterize a moment tensor associated with an actual volume change of ΔV C , which has been represented in terms of either the stress glut or the corresponding stress-free volume change ΔV T . Eshelby's virtual operation provides a conceptual model relating ΔV C to ΔV T and the stress glut, where non-elastic processes such as phase transitions allow ΔV T to be introduced and subsequent elastic deformation of - ΔV T is assumed to produce the stress glut. While it is true that ΔV T correctly represents the moment tensor of an actual volume source with volume change ΔV C , an explanation as to why such an operation relating ΔV C to ΔV T exists has not previously been given. This study presents a comprehensive explanation of the relationship between ΔV C and ΔV T based on the representation theorem. The displacement field is represented using Green's function, which consists of two integrals over the source surface: one for displacement and the other for traction. Both integrals are necessary for representing volumetric sources, whereas the representation of seismic faults includes only the first term, as the second integral over the two adjacent fault surfaces, across which the traction balances, always vanishes. Therefore, in a seismological framework, the contribution from the second term should be included as an additional surface displacement. We show that the seismic moment tensor of a volume source is directly obtained from the actual state of the displacement and stress at the source without considering any virtual non-elastic operations. A purely mathematical procedure based on the representation theorem enables us to specify the additional imaginary displacement necessary for representing a volume source only by the displacement term, which links ΔV C to ΔV T . It also specifies the additional imaginary stress necessary for representing a moment tensor solely by the traction term, which gives the "stress glut." The

  4. On narrow-band representation of ocean waves: 1. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayfun, M. Aziz

    1986-06-01

    The description of linear random waves in the form of an amplitude-modulated carrier wave is known as narrow-band representation. Herewith, the theoretical basis of such a representation is examined in terms of integral properties of surface spectra and criteria governing the statistical and kinematic characteristics of the carrier wave. These considerations are then extended systematically to derive two narrow-band type representations for nonlinear waves. The nature of these representations and their statistical properties are discussed and compared with other models such as those proposed earlier by Tayfun (1980) and Huang et al. (1983).

  5. The Problem of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tervo, Juuso

    2012-01-01

    In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…

  6. Reading Students' Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; McCosker, Natalie T.

    2011-01-01

    Representations play a key role in mathematical thinking: They offer "a medium" to express mathematical knowledge or organize mathematical information and to discern mathematical relationships (e.g., relative household expenditures on a pie chart) using text, symbols, or graphics. They also furnish "tools" for mathematical processes (e.g., use of…

  7. Women and political representation.

    PubMed

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  8. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  9. [Time perceptions and representations].

    PubMed

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  10. TOWARDS A NEW SPATIAL REPRESENTATION OF BONE REMODELING

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jason M.; Ayati, Bruce P.; Ramakrishnan, Prem S.; Martin, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Irregular bone remodeling is associated with a number of bone diseases such as osteoporosis and multiple myeloma. Computational and mathematical modeling can aid in therapy and treatment as well as understanding fundamental biology. Different approaches to modeling give insight into different aspects of a phenomena so it is useful to have an arsenal of various computational and mathematical models. Here we develop a mathematical representation of bone remodeling that can effectively describe many aspects of the complicated geometries and spatial behavior observed. There is a sharp interface between bone and marrow regions. Also the surface of bone moves in and out, i.e. in the normal direction, due to remodeling. Based on these observations we employ the use of a level-set function to represent the spatial behavior of remodeling. We elaborate on a temporal model for osteoclast and osteoblast population dynamics to determine the change in bone mass which influences how the interface between bone and marrow changes. We exhibit simulations based on our computational model that show the motion of the interface between bone and marrow as a consequence of bone remodeling. The simulations show that it is possible to capture spatial behavior of bone remodeling in complicated geometries as they occur in vitro and in vivo. By employing the level set approach it is possible to develop computational and mathematical representations of the spatial behavior of bone remodeling. By including in this formalism further details, such as more complex cytokine interactions and accurate parameter values, it is possible to obtain simulations of phenomena related to bone remodeling with spatial behavior much as in vitro and in vivo. This makes it possible to perform in silica experiments more closely resembling experimental observations. PMID:22901065

  11. Identifying Representational Competence with Multi-Representational Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, multi-representational educational technologies are being deployed in science classrooms to support science learning and the development of representational competence. Several studies have indicated that students experience significant challenges working with these multi-representational displays and prefer to use only one…

  12. On the representation of many-body interactions in water

    SciTech Connect

    Medders, Gregory; Gotz, Andreas; Morales, Miguel A.; Bajaj, Pushp; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-09-09

    Recent work has shown that the many-body expansion of the interaction energy can be used to develop analytical representations of global potential energy surfaces (PESs) for water. In this study, the role of short- and long-range interactions at different orders is investigated by analyzing water potentials that treat the leading terms of the many-body expansion through implicit (i.e., TTM3-F and TTM4-F PESs) and explicit (i.e., WHBB and MB-pol PESs) representations. It is found that explicit short-range representations of 2-body and 3-body interactions along with a physically correct incorporation of short- and long-range contributions are necessary for an accurate representation of the water interactions from the gas to the condensed phase. Similarly, a complete many-body representation of the dipole moment surface is found to be crucial to reproducing the correct intensities of the infrared spectrum of liquid water.

  13. On the representation of many-body interactions in water

    SciTech Connect

    Medders, Gregory R.; Gotz, Andreas W.; Morales, Miguel A.; Bajaj, Pushp; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-09-09

    Our recent work has shown that the many-body expansion of the interactionenergy can be used to develop analytical representations of global potential energy surfaces (PESs) for water. In this study, the role of short- and long-range interactions at different orders is investigated by analyzing water potentials that treat the leading terms of the many-body expansion through implicit (i.e., TTM3-F and TTM4-F PESs) and explicit (i.e., WHBB and MB-pol PESs) representations. Moreover, it is found that explicit short-range representations of 2-body and 3-body interactions along with a physically correct incorporation of short- and long-range contributions are necessary for an accurate representation of the waterinteractions from the gas to the condensed phase. Likewise, a complete many-body representation of the dipole moment surface is found to be crucial to reproducing the correct intensities of the infrared spectrum of liquid water.

  14. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  15. The Functions of Multiple Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron

    1999-01-01

    Discusses multiple representations and multimedia learning environments; describes a functional taxonomy of MERs (multiple external representations); and considers how MERs are used to support cognitive processes in learning and problem solving with computers. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/LRW)

  16. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  17. Naturalising Representational Content

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  18. Representation in incremental learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Work focused on two areas in machine learning: representation for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning state preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of representation on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of states, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.

  19. Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when…

  20. [Time perceptions and representations].

    PubMed

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  1. The field representation language.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field. PMID:17434811

  2. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  3. A method to convert algebraic boundary representations to CSG representations for three-dimensional solids

    SciTech Connect

    Buchele, S.F.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent advances in reverse engineering have focused on recovering a boundary representation (b-rep) of an object, often for integration with rapid prototyping. This boundary representation may be a 3-D point cloud, a triangulation of points, or piecewise algebraic or parametric surfaces. This paper presents work in progress to develop an algorithm to extend the current state of the art in reverse engineering of mechanical parts. This algorithm will take algebraic surface representations as input and will produce a constructive solid geometry (CSG) description that uses solid primitives such as rectangular block, pyramid, sphere, cylinder, and cone. The proposed algorithm will automatically generate a CSG solid model of a part given its algebraic b-rep, thus allowing direct input into a CAD system and subsequent CSG model generation.

  4. Answering the AIDS denialists: is AIDS real?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-12-01

    This article looks at theories that say AIDS does not exist, or is not a new disease but only a collection of old ones--and explains some of the history behind earlier changes in the official definition of AIDS in the U.S., changes which caused some public confusion. PMID:12171004

  5. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  6. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  7. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  8. Are face representations depth cue invariant?

    PubMed

    Dehmoobadsharifabadi, Armita; Farivar, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The visual system can process three-dimensional depth cues defining surfaces of objects, but it is unclear whether such information contributes to complex object recognition, including face recognition. The processing of different depth cues involves both dorsal and ventral visual pathways. We investigated whether facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues resulted in meaningful face representations-representations that maintain the relationship between the population of faces as defined in a multidimensional face space. We measured face identity aftereffects for facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and tested whether the aftereffect transfers across depth cues (Experiments 3 and 4). Facial surfaces and their morphs to the average face were defined purely by one of shading, texture, motion, or binocular disparity. We obtained identification thresholds for matched (matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), non-matched (non-matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), and no-adaptation (showing only the test stimuli) conditions for each cue and across different depth cues. We found robust face identity aftereffect in both experiments. Our results suggest that depth cues do contribute to forming meaningful face representations that are depth cue invariant. Depth cue invariance would require integration of information across different areas and different pathways for object recognition, and this in turn has important implications for cortical models of visual object recognition. PMID:27271993

  9. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  10. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  11. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  12. Students with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

  13. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

  14. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  15. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  16. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  17. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  18. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  19. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  20. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  1. Manipulatives and Number Sentences in Computer-Aided Arithmetic Word Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellingwerf, Berend P.; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the relative contribution of two main components often used in the instruction of arithmetic and word-problem solving to first-grade children and children with learning problems: external representation with manipulatives and formal mathematical representation with number sequences. Four computer-aided treatments were developed along…

  2. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  3. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  4. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  5. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  6. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  7. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  8. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  9. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  10. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  11. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  12. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  13. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  14. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  15. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  16. [Suffering: representations and challenges].

    PubMed

    Dany, Lionel; Dormieux, Anne; Futo, Francette; Favre, Roger

    2006-03-01

    Research that we carried out aimed to analyzing the suffering as an object of the relation of care and common experiment of this relation. In this way, we have conducted 55 interviews with patients and nurses in an oncology unit. The results underline the central role of the relation for giving meaning to the suffering. The knowledge of the suffering representations appears as a tool for understanding the complex realities connected to the experiences of suffering, and allows to imagine more adapted evaluation methods which could be anchored on "practical knowledge". PMID:16711083

  17. Magnetic monopole in the loop representation

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Lorenzo; Lopez, Alexander

    2006-01-15

    We quantize, within the Loop Representation formalism, the electromagnetic field in the presence of a static magnetic pole. It is found that the loop-dependent physical wave functionals of the quantum Maxwell theory become multivalued, through a topological phase factor depending on the solid angle subtended at the monopole by a surface bounded by the loop. It is discussed how this fact generalizes what occurs in ordinary quantum mechanics in multiply connected spaces.

  18. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  19. Wear your hat: representational resistance in safer sex discourse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S D

    1994-01-01

    Through an analysis of four posters used by the AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts, this article asks how representation can effectively promote safer sex practices. The images under investigation have different targeted groups--one is aimed at African-American men, one at Latinas, and two at gay men. Using a frame-work that connects definitions of sex in the respective communities with differences surrounding gender, race, and class, the imagery is unpacked in order to expose the effects of safer sex representation. This essay then argues that the degree to which ingrained definitions of sex are challenged constitutes a determining factor in the success or failure of safer sex representations. PMID:7798606

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experience regarding HIV/AIDS among Older Adult Inner-City Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Although Latinos, now the largest minority group in the U.S., comprise 13% of the population, they represent 18% of all new HIV and AIDS cases. This disproportionate representation also appears among older adult Latinos. Semi-structured interviews with 45 inner-city Spanish speaking older adult Latinos provide new data regarding HIV/AIDS among…

  1. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  2. Quantifying soil evaporation and transpiration at the scale of a remote sensing pixel by extrapolating mini-lysimeter results with the aid of remote sensed surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voortman, B.; Bartholomeus, R.; Witte, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Lysimeters are often used to measure evapotranspiration (Et) by changes in mass of a volume of soil. Precision lysimeters generate data of Et at a high resolution in the order of 0.02 to 0.05 mm. This resolution is often reported as the accuracy of the lysimeter, which is in fact the accuracy of the weighing device. Improper installation or design of lysimeters is often not accounted for when assessing their accuracy. In general, measurement errors due to improper environmental conditions will decrease with increasing surface area and depth of the lysimeter. This is primarily because a larger part of the lysimeter is unaffected by its boundaries and because heterogeneities in soil hydraulic properties and micro-climate are more averaged out. However, the cost of large systems make them unattractive and scientists often choose for more economical solutions, optimizing between lysimeter dimensions and costs. One of the difficulties when designing a lysimeter is controlling the boundary condition at the base of the lysimeter. In case of a freely draining lysimeter (atmospheric pressure at the bottom), the lower portion of the lysimeter must saturate to generate a hydraulic gradient in downward direction, after which the lysimeter starts to drain. In groundwater independent sites this will lead to a higher soil moisture content in the lysimeter in comparison with the surrounding soil. One could overcome this problem by using suction plates and vacuum pumps to set a suction level at the base of the lysimeter equal to the surrounding soil., In dry soils, however, suction plates may dry out beyond the air entry value of the ceramic material, which neutralizes the suction pressure. Furthermore, a sophisticated drainage system will increase the maintenance and construction cost of the lysimeter. Moisture conditions in lysimeters are difficult to control and whenever this affects the available water for rooting plants this will lead to erroneous measurements of Et. We

  3. Home-use cancer detecting band aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Sheinman, Victor; Tzoy, Andrey; Toktosunov, Aitmamat; Adashov, Arkady

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept in which special band aid is developed for early detection of cancer. The band aid contains an array of micro needles with small detection array connected to each needle which inspects the color of the surface of the skin versus time after being pinched with the needles. We were able to show in pre-clinical trials that the color varies differently if the skin is close to tumor tissue.

  4. Resource representation in COMPASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Barry R.

    1991-01-01

    A set of viewgraphs on resource representation in COMPASS is given. COMPASS is an incremental, interactive, non-chronological scheduler written in Ada with an X-windows user interface. Beginning with an empty schedule, activities are added to the schedule one at a time, taking into consideration the placement of the activities already on the timeline and the resources that have been reserved for them. The order that the activities are added to the timeline and their location on the timeline are controlled by selection and placement commands invoked by the user. The order that activities are added to the timeline and their location are independent. The COMPASS code library is a cost effective platform for the development of new scheduling applications. It can be effectively used off the shelf for compatible scheduling applications or it can be used as a parts library for the development of custom scheduling systems.

  5. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  6. Parental representations of transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Parker, G; Barr, R

    1982-06-01

    The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered. PMID:7138296

  7. Novel lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Longbottom, C; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A

    2009-01-01

    Several non-invasive and novel aids for the detection of (and in some cases monitoring of) caries lesions have been introduced in the field of 'caries diagnostics' over the last 15 years. This chapter focusses on those available to dentists at the time of writing; continuing research is bound to lead to further developments in the coming years. Laser fluorescence is based on measurements of back-scattered fluorescence of a 655-nm light source. It enhances occlusal and (potentially) approximal lesion detection and enables semi-quantitative caries monitoring. Systematic reviews have identified false-positive results as a limitation. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence is another sensitive method to quantitatively detect and measure mineral loss both in enamel and some dentine lesions; again, the trade-offs with lower specificity when compared with clinical visual detection must be considered. Subtraction radiography is based on the principle of digitally superimposing two radiographs with exactly the same projection geometry. This method is applicable for approximal surfaces and occlusal caries involving dentine but is not yet widely available. Electrical caries measurements gather either site-specific or surface-specific information of teeth and tooth structure. Fixed-frequency devices perform best for occlusal dentine caries but the method has also shown promise for lesions in enamel and other tooth surfaces with multi-frequency approaches. All methods require further research and further validation in well-designed clinical trials. In the future, they could have useful applications in clinical practice as part of a personalized, comprehensive caries management system. PMID:19494675

  8. Age Differences in Symbolic Representation: Fluidity in Representational Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifel, Stuart

    This paper reports a cross-sectional, developmental study of the fluidity of children's mental functioning (representational skills) in contexts involving the representational use of blocks. Data were collected from a sample of 40 children from a laboratory school: 20 four-year-olds and 20 seven-year-olds, with an equal number of boys and girls in…

  9. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  10. Pediatric AIDS: psychosocial impact.

    PubMed

    Mangos, J A; Doran, T; Aranda-Naranjo, B; Rodriguez-Escobar, Y; Scott, A; Setzer, J R

    1990-06-01

    There is no question that the domain of the American family has been invaded by the HIV infection/AIDS epidemic. The disease, and particularly its form affecting children (pediatric AIDS), has had marked psychosocial impact on patients and families (intellectual/cognitive, emotional/behavioral, spiritual, and financial) and on our society in general (adverse or favorable). These impacts of pediatric AIDS are discussed in the present communication. PMID:2371699

  11. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  12. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  13. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  14. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation."

  15. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  16. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  17. Symbolic representation of probabilistic worlds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-04-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of symbolic representation, and develops formal constraints under which such representation is in fact warranted. The effectiveness of symbolic representation hinges on the probabilistic structure of the environment that is to be represented. For arbitrary probability distributions (i.e., environments), symbolic representation is generally not warranted. But in modal environments, defined here as those that consist of mixtures of component distributions that are narrow ("spiky") relative to their spreads, symbolic representation can be shown to represent the environment with a relatively negligible loss of information. Modal environments support propositional forms, logical relations, and other familiar features of symbolic representation. Hence the assumption that our environment is, in fact, modal is a key tacit assumption underlying the use of symbols in cognitive science. PMID:22270145

  18. Symbolic Representation of Probabilistic Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative…

  19. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship between…

  20. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  1. Knowledge Representation: A Brief Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews different structures and techniques of knowledge representation: structure of database records and files, data structures in computer programming, syntatic and semantic structure of natural language, knowledge representation in artificial intelligence, and models of human memory. A prototype expert system that makes use of some of these…

  2. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    PubMed

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed. PMID:23659891

  3. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    PubMed

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.

  4. A generalized wavelet extrema representation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jian; Lades, M.

    1995-10-01

    The wavelet extrema representation originated by Stephane Mallat is a unique framework for low-level and intermediate-level (feature) processing. In this paper, we present a new form of wavelet extrema representation generalizing Mallat`s original work. The generalized wavelet extrema representation is a feature-based multiscale representation. For a particular choice of wavelet, our scheme can be interpreted as representing a signal or image by its edges, and peaks and valleys at multiple scales. Such a representation is shown to be stable -- the original signal or image can be reconstructed with very good quality. It is further shown that a signal or image can be modeled as piecewise monotonic, with all turning points between monotonic segments given by the wavelet extrema. A new projection operator is introduced to enforce piecewise inonotonicity of a signal in its reconstruction. This leads to an enhancement to previously developed algorithms in preventing artifacts in reconstructed signal.

  5. We are all people living with AIDS: myths and realities of AIDS in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daniel, H

    1991-01-01

    Although AIDS was expected in Brazil, no serious efforts were undertaken to prevent AIDS from taking root. Irresponsible press and media coverage highlighted the spread of AIDS within the gay community of the United States, creating an aura of immunity in Brazil to what was characterized as a "foreign" disorder. When AIDS did surface in 1983, the official response was to adopt an abstract, inappropriate, and ideological "Western" model, in which only stigmatized "others" and "minorities" were at risk of HIV infection. Brazilian health authorities subsequently downplayed the significance of the sale of contaminated blood in HIV transmission, and likewise ignored the rising rates of AIDS among Brazil's one unarguable majority group: the poor. An analysis of efforts to force the "facts" of AIDS to fit a false model's predictions leads to a clearer definition of the broader context of the Brazilian epidemic: we all are people living with AIDS, precisely because we live in this age of AIDS; it is sheer folly to discriminate against persons infected by HIV and to obstruct their participation in efforts to curtail the epidemic's spread; and the necessary response to AIDS is solidarity, not because it is poetic, but because no other response will suffice.

  6. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  7. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  8. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  9. Representation of research hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypotheses are now being automatically produced on an industrial scale by computers in biology, e.g. the annotation of a genome is essentially a large set of hypotheses generated by sequence similarity programs; and robot scientists enable the full automation of a scientific investigation, including generation and testing of research hypotheses. Results This paper proposes a logically defined way for recording automatically generated hypotheses in machine amenable way. The proposed formalism allows the description of complete hypotheses sets as specified input and output for scientific investigations. The formalism supports the decomposition of research hypotheses into more specialised hypotheses if that is required by an application. Hypotheses are represented in an operational way – it is possible to design an experiment to test them. The explicit formal description of research hypotheses promotes the explicit formal description of the results and conclusions of an investigation. The paper also proposes a framework for automated hypotheses generation. We demonstrate how the key components of the proposed framework are implemented in the Robot Scientist “Adam”. Conclusions A formal representation of automatically generated research hypotheses can help to improve the way humans produce, record, and validate research hypotheses. Availability http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/cs/research/cb/projects/robotscientist/results/ PMID:21624164

  10. Stable face representations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A. Mike

    2011-01-01

    Photographs are often used to establish the identity of an individual or to verify that they are who they claim to be. Yet, recent research shows that it is surprisingly difficult to match a photo to a face. Neither humans nor machines can perform this task reliably. Although human perceivers are good at matching familiar faces, performance with unfamiliar faces is strikingly poor. The situation is no better for automatic face recognition systems. In practical settings, automatic systems have been consistently disappointing. In this review, we suggest that failure to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar face processing has led to unrealistic expectations about face identification in applied settings. We also argue that a photograph is not necessarily a reliable indicator of facial appearance, and develop our proposal that summary statistics can provide more stable face representations. In particular, we show that image averaging stabilizes facial appearance by diluting aspects of the image that vary between snapshots of the same person. We review evidence that the resulting images can outperform photographs in both behavioural experiments and computer simulations, and outline promising directions for future research. PMID:21536553

  11. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Surface Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Surface fitting techniques and their utilization are addressed. Surface representation, approximation, and interpolation are discussed. Along with statistical estimation problems associated with surface fitting.

  12. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  13. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  14. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  15. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  16. Teachers with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

  17. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  18. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  19. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  20. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  1. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  2. AIDS: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-08-01

    Each country currently experiencing an AIDS epidemic did not believe that the epidemics would develop, but they did and more than 6 million people have since died. However, if the governments of the approximately 2.3 billion people who live in developing countries where HIV/AIDS has not yet spread to the general population, together with the international community and nongovernmental organizations, act promptly, many lives will be saved. The World Bank publication "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" brings, for the first time, an economic perspective to the problem of AIDS. The author considers how developing country governments should respond to the AIDS epidemic when they also face so many other major and pressing problems related to raising more than 1 billion people out of severe poverty. While AIDS is an important problem which must be immediately addressed, using resources to help people with AIDS will come at the expense of other objectives such as sending children to school, providing safe drinking water, and building infrastructure. The serious nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and what governments should do are considered. PMID:12294026

  3. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  4. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  5. Community responses to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1994-01-01

    Some examples of care in the community for people with HIV/AIDS are reported from Africa. Members of communities committed to fighting the AIDS epidemic cannot do so alone and should be given every possible help. Inadequate care favours the spread of HIV, as does the stigmatization of people with HIV infection and their families.

  6. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  7. AIDS -- a modern hydra.

    PubMed

    Chen, D W

    1988-10-01

    So far, AIDS has not been a major problem in Taiwan. Only 79 people have tested HIV-seropositive, and only 6 have been stricken by the disease. The government has allocated money for AIDS research; blood screening is mandatory in all hospitals; confidential AIDS testing is widely available; and doctors are advised to administer azidothymidine to anyone who tests positive. Azidothymidine is not a cure, but it can prevent the virus from destroying more cells. Nevertheless, a climate of irrational fear of and ignorance about AIDS pervades Taiwan. Many people believe that AIDS can be transmitted by casual contact, and people who are HIV-seropositive are treated as social outcasts. One student at the University of Taipei, only a few credits from graduation, has been refused readmission to the university because he tested HIV-positive. Sex education in the schools is not a good route for AIDS education because sex and especially homosexuality are simply not mentioned in public in Taiwan. Activists, including gay-rights representative, Chi Chia-Wei, have turned to the mass media, especially television as a vehicle for AIDS education, and several programs on AIDS have been shown since 1986.

  8. Representations of filtered solvable Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Panov, Alexander N

    2012-01-31

    The representation theory of filtered solvable Lie algebras is constructed. In this framework a classification of irreducible representations is obtained and spectra of some reducible representations are found. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  9. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  10. Prevention implications of AIDS discourses among South African women.

    PubMed

    Strebel, A

    1996-08-01

    Social constructionist and feminist analyses have done much to extend the understanding of AIDS beyond the biomedical to include social accounts of the constitution of AIDS knowledge and meanings. However, these frameworks have not translated easily into realistic responses to the paradox of women being seen as responsible for HIV prevention, while they lack the power to implement safe sex behavior. This study explores the range and interplay of discursive themes which South African women drew on regarding AIDS and identifies constraints and opportunities for realistic prevention. The research involved 14 focus group discussions with women. Two main interpretative repertoires regarding AIDS were identified from the texts: one concerning the medicalization and the other the stigmatization of the disease. Although these representations were not unchallenged, the pervasive sense was of denial of own risk, fear, and fatalism. However, the analysis highlighted the complexity of issues to be faced in developing effective prevention initiatives.

  11. Representation of the visual field in the occipital striate cortex.

    PubMed Central

    McFadzean, R; Brosnahan, D; Hadley, D; Mutlukan, E

    1994-01-01

    The representation of the field of vision in the human striate cortex is based on the Holmes map in which about 25% of the surface area of the striate cortex is allocated to the central 15 degrees of vision. Following the introduction of computed tomography of the brain, the accuracy of the Holmes map was apparently confirmed by clinical/radiological correlation, but a revision has been proposed by Horton and Hoyt based on a magnetic resonance imaging study of three patients with visual field defects due to striate lesions. They propose that the central cortical representation of vision occupies a much larger area. This study reviews the perimetric and imaging findings in a larger series of patients with striate cortical disease and provides support for the revised representation. The clinical phenomenon of macular sparing and its relation to representation of the macula at the occipital pole is also discussed. Images PMID:8148333

  12. Computer aided flexible envelope designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Computer aided design methods are presented for the design and construction of strong, lightweight structures which require complex and precise geometric definition. The first, flexible structures, is a unique system of modeling folded plate structures and space frames. It is possible to continuously vary the geometry of a space frame to produce large, clear spans with curvature. The second method deals with developable surfaces, where both folding and bending are explored with the observed constraint of available building materials, and what minimal distortion result in maximum design capability. Alternative inexpensive fabrication techniques are being developed to achieve computer defined enclosures which are extremely lightweight and mathematically highly precise.

  13. Orbital Shape Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the use of orbital shapes for instructional purposes, emphasizing that differences between polar, contour, and three-dimensional plots must be made clear to students or misconceptions will occur. Also presents three-dimensional contour surfaces for the seven 4f atomic orbitals of hydrogen and discusses their computer generation. (JN)

  14. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  15. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways. PMID:12349153

  16. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  17. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  18. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  19. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  20. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  1. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  2. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  3. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  4. Latina women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worth, D; Rodriguez, R

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS in Latina women is over 11 times that of white women. Women account for 13% of all Latino AIDS deaths since 1980. This examination of the impact of AIDS on Latino women concentrates on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The AIDS deaths among Puerto Rican women in this neighborhood are predominantly intravenous drug abuse related. Latina women accounted for more than 1/2 of all female AIDS deaths on the Lower East Side during the 1980-1985 period. The age range is parallel with that in the rest of New York City, with the exception of a higher number of deaths on the Lower East Side in the age ranges of 15-19 and over 40. Serious obstacles exist to providing AIDS risk reduction information to Puerto Rican women and their partners. Latinos account for 11% of all US AIDS cases among gay and bisexual men. The cultural proscription against these sexual practices in the Puerto Rican community makes AIDS education related to such practices extremely difficult. Many of the female sex partners of these men are unaware of their bisexuality, and, therefore not aware that they are at risk of HIV infection. The Latina women most at risk are young, poor, and have low educational levels. Latina women seriously underutilize ongoing primary health care, family planning, prenatal or pediatric care. Attempts to reach Latina women with AIDS risk reduction education must also contend with issues such as cultural gender roles. Females tend to be dependent on males and defer to male decision making related to sexual practices. In formulating policy regarding services and education, it is essential to involve the leadership of the Latino community. PMID:12268416

  5. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  6. An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

  7. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  8. AIDS and public health.

    PubMed

    Moskop, J C

    1988-01-01

    After briefly stating the significance of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for public health, this paper considers programs or proposals to control the spread of AIDS in the following eight general areas: (a) education; (b) distribution of sterile needles; (c) screening and treatment of blood, blood products, and other tissues; (d) voluntary and mandatory screening of persons for evidence of infection; (e) reporting; (f) contact tracing; (g) isolation and other restrictions on freedom of movement or association; and (h) physical marking of persons with AIDS. Significant moral issues within each of these areas are discussed, and the overall justifiability of various proposals is examined.

  9. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  10. Model Manipulation and Learning: Fostering Representational Competence with Virtual and Concrete Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Andrew T.; Hegarty, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the development of representational competence among organic chemistry students by using 3D (concrete and virtual) models as aids for teaching students to translate between multiple 2D diagrams. In 2 experiments, students translated between different diagrams of molecules and received verbal feedback in 1 of the following 3…

  11. Setting apart the amateur from the professional: maintaining the value of standardised representational photography.

    PubMed

    Banks, Debbie

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of standard representational photography in clinical photography and its aid in maintaining the gold standard in the medical illustration profession. it is important that professionals are aware of potential threats to good practice with many areas identified in the article.

  12. How Young Children View Mathematical Representations: A Study Using Eye-Tracking Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, David; Barmby, Patrick; Raine, Stephanie; Gardner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that mathematical representations can aid children's understanding of mathematical concepts but that children can sometimes have difficulty in interpreting them correctly. New advances in eye-tracking technology can help in this respect because it allows data to be gathered concerning children's focus of…

  13. Social Representations of Cybersecurity by University Students and Implications for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Suzanne D.; Jung, Yoonhyuk

    2015-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become an essential topic in introductory information systems (IS) core courses. As an aid to course design, the exploratory research in this paper uses a social representations lens to elucidate the perceptions of cybersecurity and cybersecurity threats held by students. Analysis of qualitative survey data from 152 students at a…

  14. Exploring children's stigmatisation of AIDS-affected children in Zimbabwe through drawings and stories.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Skovdal, Morten; Mupambireyi, Zivai; Gregson, Simon

    2010-09-01

    AIDS-related stigma is a major contributor to the health and psychosocial well-being of children affected by AIDS. Whilst it is often suggested that AIDS-affected children may be stigmatised by other children, to date no research focuses specifically on child-on-child stigma. Using social representations theory, we explore how Zimbabwean children represent AIDS-affected peers, examining (i) whether or not they stigmatise, (ii) the forms stigma takes, and (iii) the existence of non-stigmatising representations that might serve as resources for stigma-reduction interventions. Our interest in identifying both stigmatising and non-stigmatising representations is informed by a theory of change which accords a central role to community-level debate and dialogue in challenging and reframing stigmatising representations. In late 2008, 50 children (aged 10-12) were asked to "draw a picture of a child whose family has been affected by AIDS in any way", and to write short stories about their drawings. Thematic analysis of stories and drawings revealed frequent references to stigmatisation of AIDS-affected children--with other children refusing to play with them, generally keeping their distance and bullying them. However children also frequently showed a degree of empathy and respect for AIDS-affected children's caring roles and for their love and concern for their AIDS-infected parents. We argue that a key strategy for stigma-reduction interventions is to open up social spaces in which group members (in this case children) can identify the diverse and contradictory ways they view a stigmatised out-group, providing opportunities for them to exercise agency in collectively challenging and renegotiating negative representations. Contrary to the common view that drawings enable children to achieve greater emotional expression than written stories, our children's drawings tended to be comparatively stereotypical and normative. It was in written stories that children most

  15. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... October 15th observance calls attention to the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on the Latinx community. The ...

  16. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  17. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  18. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  19. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  20. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  1. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  2. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  3. [AIDS and society].

    PubMed

    Koupernik, C

    1988-03-01

    On the basis of information gathered from media the writer delineates the following aspects of the impact of AIDS upon social life: advertising the danger, sex education of the youth, purposeful contamination by AIDS-patients, legal repressive measures, the doctors and the right to test, Anglican Church and acceptance of homosexuality among ministers, antagonistic incentives epidemiologic research and the right to confidentiality. Finally, he endorses the recent declaration of the America Psychiatric Association determined to fight discrimination and refusal of care.

  4. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.

  5. AIDS and haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Carr, R

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 1% of all AIDS cases are haemophiliacs. LAV/HTLV-III is transmitted by blood and in factor VIII concentrates. Since 1981, increasing numbers of haemophiliacs have been infected, as indicated by detection of antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III. Up to 90% of haemophiliacs in some populations are now seropositive, but to date less than 1% have progressed to clinical AIDS. Immunological abnormalities, in particular reduced T-lymphocyte helper/suppressor ratios, are common in haemophiliacs treated with factor VIII. Such abnormalities do not necessarily indicate past infection by the AIDS virus, but they may predispose to infection following exposure to the virus. Blood Transfusion agencies are introducing screening tests for antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III to help prevent the spread of AIDS by blood products. Heat treated factor VIII concentrate is now available and appears not to transmit AIDS. Factor IX concentrate may also transmit LAV/HTLV-III, but less frequently. A few cases of AIDS have occurred in Haemophilia B (Christmas Disease) patients.

  6. 30 CFR 77.1705 - First aid training program; retraining of supervisory employees; availability to all miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid training program; retraining of..., SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1705 First aid..., 1972, each operator of a surface coal mine shall conduct refresher first aid training programs...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1705 - First aid training program; retraining of supervisory employees; availability to all miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid training program; retraining of..., SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1705 First aid..., 1972, each operator of a surface coal mine shall conduct refresher first aid training programs...

  8. Representation of orientation distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Wenk, H.R.; Kocks, U.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper illustrates the principles presented with a particular experimental texture: from the surface layer of a copper polycrystal cold-rolled to 60% reduction in thickness. Four incomplete pole figures (200, 220, 222, and 113) were determined by x-ray diffraction in reflection geometry. The measured pole figures nearly exhibited orthorhombic symmetry (as expected), which was then strictly enforced by averaging the four quadrants of the pole figure. The orientation distribution function was obtained using the expansion in spherical harmonics (with only even-order coefficients up to l = 18).

  9. Acquisition, representation and rule generation for procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Chris; Saito, Tim; Mithal, Sachin; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1991-01-01

    Current research into the design and continuing development of a system for the acquisition of procedural knowledge, its representation in useful forms, and proposed methods for automated C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rule generation is discussed. The Task Analysis and Rule Generation Tool (TARGET) is intended to permit experts, individually or collectively, to visually describe and refine procedural tasks. The system is designed to represent the acquired knowledge in the form of graphical objects with the capacity for generating production rules in CLIPS. The generated rules can then be integrated into applications such as NASA's Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) architecture. Also described are proposed methods for use in translating the graphical and intermediate knowledge representations into CLIPS rules.

  10. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  11. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15001 First-aid materials. Adequate...

  12. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personal Protection § 56.15001 First-aid materials. Adequate...

  13. Promoting understanding of chemical representations: Students' use of a visualization tool in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Soloway, Elliot

    2001-09-01

    Many students have difficulty learning symbolic and molecular representations of chemistry. This study investigated how students developed an understanding of chemical representations with the aid of a computer-based visualizing tool, eChem, that allowed them to build molecular models and view multiple representations simultaneously. Multiple sources of data were collected with the participation of 71 eleventh graders at a small public high school over a 6-week period. The results of pre- and posttests showed that students' understanding of chemical representations improved substantially (p < .001, effect size = 2.68-. The analysis of video recordings revealed that several features in eChem helped students construct models and translate representations. Students who were highly engaged in discussions while using eChem made referential linkages between visual and conceptual aspects of representations. This in turn may have deepened their understanding of chemical representations and concepts. The findings also suggest that computerized models can serve as a vehicle for students to generate mental images. Finally, students demonstrated their preferences of certain types of representations and did not use all types of three-dimensional models interchangeably.

  14. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1992-02-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services.

  15. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  16. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  17. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  18. Functional and structural mapping of human cerebral cortex: solutions are in the surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.; Joshi, S.; Miller, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex is notorious for the depth and irregularity of its convolutions and for its variability from one individual to the next. These complexities of cortical geography have been a chronic impediment to studies of functional specialization in the cortex. In this report, we discuss ways to compensate for the convolutions by using a combination of strategies whose common denominator involves explicit reconstructions of the cortical surface. Surface-based visualization involves reconstructing cortical surfaces and displaying them, along with associated experimental data, in various complementary formats (including three-dimensional native configurations, two-dimensional slices, extensively smoothed surfaces, ellipsoidal representations, and cortical flat maps). Generating these representations for the cortex of the Visible Man leads to a surface-based atlas that has important advantages over conventional stereotaxic atlases as a substrate for displaying and analyzing large amounts of experimental data. We illustrate this by showing the relationship between functionally specialized regions and topographically organized areas in human visual cortex. Surface-based warping allows data to be mapped from individual hemispheres to a surface-based atlas while respecting surface topology, improving registration of identifiable landmarks, and minimizing unwanted distortions. Surface-based warping also can aid in comparisons between species, which we illustrate by warping a macaque flat map to match the shape of a human flat map. Collectively, these approaches will allow more refined analyses of commonalities as well as individual differences in the functional organization of primate cerebral cortex.

  19. Functional and structural mapping of human cerebral cortex: Solutions are in the surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Van Essen, David C.; Drury, Heather A.; Joshi, Sarang; Miller, Michael I.

    1998-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex is notorious for the depth and irregularity of its convolutions and for its variability from one individual to the next. These complexities of cortical geography have been a chronic impediment to studies of functional specialization in the cortex. In this report, we discuss ways to compensate for the convolutions by using a combination of strategies whose common denominator involves explicit reconstructions of the cortical surface. Surface-based visualization involves reconstructing cortical surfaces and displaying them, along with associated experimental data, in various complementary formats (including three-dimensional native configurations, two-dimensional slices, extensively smoothed surfaces, ellipsoidal representations, and cortical flat maps). Generating these representations for the cortex of the Visible Man leads to a surface-based atlas that has important advantages over conventional stereotaxic atlases as a substrate for displaying and analyzing large amounts of experimental data. We illustrate this by showing the relationship between functionally specialized regions and topographically organized areas in human visual cortex. Surface-based warping allows data to be mapped from individual hemispheres to a surface-based atlas while respecting surface topology, improving registration of identifiable landmarks, and minimizing unwanted distortions. Surface-based warping also can aid in comparisons between species, which we illustrate by warping a macaque flat map to match the shape of a human flat map. Collectively, these approaches will allow more refined analyses of commonalities as well as individual differences in the functional organization of primate cerebral cortex. PMID:9448242

  20. Maps as Representations: Expert Novice Comparison of Projection Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen C.; Leinhardt, Gaea

    2002-01-01

    Examined how varying levels of geographic expertise facilitated reasoning with maps as representations of the earth's surface. Found that geography experts performed significantly better than novices and preservice teachers, and experts' performance was differentiated by the reasoning in which they engaged. Explored implications for understanding…

  1. A Unified Graphical Representation of Chemical Thermodynamics and Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    During the years 1873-1879, J. Willard Gibbs published his now-famous set of articles that form the basis of the current perspective on chemical thermodynamics. The second article of this series, "A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Means of Surfaces," published in 1873, is particularly notable…

  2. Towards an improved and more flexible representation of water stress in coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance models; implications for simulated land surface fluxes and variables at various spatiotemporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egea, G.; Verhoef, A.; Vidale, P. L.; Black, E.; Van den Hoof, C.

    2012-04-01

    Coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance (A-gs) models are commonly used in ecosystem models to represent the exchange rate of CO2 and H2O between vegetation and the atmosphere. The ways these models account for water stress differ greatly among modelling schemes. This study provides insight into the impact of contrasting model configurations of water stress on the simulated leaf-level values of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), the functional relationship among them and their ratio, the intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs), as soil dries. A simple, yet versatile, normalized soil moisture dependent function was used to account for the effects of water stress on gs, on mesophyll conductance (gm ) and on the biochemical capacity (Egea et al., 2011). Model output was compared to leaf-level values obtained from the literature. The sensitivity analyses emphasized the necessity to combine both stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of A in coupled A-gs models to accurately capture the observed functional relationships A vs. gs and A/gs vs. gs in response to drought. Accounting for water stress in coupled A-gs models by imposing either stomatal or biochemical limitations of A, as commonly practiced in most ecosystem models, failed to reproduce the observed functional relationship between key leaf gas exchange attributes. A quantitative limitation analysis revealed that the general pattern of C3 photosynthetic response to water stress can be represented in coupled A-gs models by imposing the highest limitation strength to mesophyll conductance, then to stomatal conductance and finally to the biochemical capacity. This more realistic representation of soil water stress on the simulated leaf-level values of A and gs was embedded in the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator; Best et al., 2011), model and tested for a number of vegetation types, for which driving and flux verification data were available. These simulations provide an insight into the

  3. On the representation of many-body interactions in water

    DOE PAGES

    Medders, Gregory; Gotz, Andreas; Morales, Miguel A.; Bajaj, Pushp; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-09-09

    Recent work has shown that the many-body expansion of the interaction energy can be used to develop analytical representations of global potential energy surfaces (PESs) for water. In this study, the role of short- and long-range interactions at different orders is investigated by analyzing water potentials that treat the leading terms of the many-body expansion through implicit (i.e., TTM3-F and TTM4-F PESs) and explicit (i.e., WHBB and MB-pol PESs) representations. It is found that explicit short-range representations of 2-body and 3-body interactions along with a physically correct incorporation of short- and long-range contributions are necessary for an accurate representation ofmore » the water interactions from the gas to the condensed phase. Similarly, a complete many-body representation of the dipole moment surface is found to be crucial to reproducing the correct intensities of the infrared spectrum of liquid water.« less

  4. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions. PMID:25092260

  5. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions.

  6. Social representations of female orgasm.

    PubMed

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health.

  7. The Statistics of Visual Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2002-01-01

    The experience of retinex image processing has prompted us to reconsider fundamental aspects of imaging and image processing. Foremost is the idea that a good visual representation requires a non-linear transformation of the recorded (approximately linear) image data. Further, this transformation appears to converge on a specific distribution. Here we investigate the connection between numerical and visual phenomena. Specifically the questions explored are: (1) Is there a well-defined consistent statistical character associated with good visual representations? (2) Does there exist an ideal visual image? And (3) what are its statistical properties?

  8. Orthographically Influenced Abstract Phonological Representation: Evidence from Non-Rhotic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…

  9. Gay youth and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gay male teenagers face considerable adversity during their "coming out" process due to the AIDS epidemic. They must decide whether to be tested for HIV-1 infection, whether to postpone sexual activity, how to select a partner, and which kinds of sexual practices to engage in. Gay youth often make such decisions based upon misinformation and faulty premises. This paper reviews what is known about gay youth and AIDS, and assesses their possible risk for HIV-1 infection. It is recommended that school and community-based health education programs be developed to teach gay and bisexual youth about safe sex. Moreover, research is needed into sociocultural variations among gay youth in order to develop appropriate and effective intervention strategies for AIDS risk reduction in this diverse population.

  10. Recapture training aid.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, James Edward

    2004-08-01

    The breacher's training aid described in this report was designed to simulate features of magazine and steel-plate doors. The training aid enables breachers to practice using their breaching tools on components that they may encounter when attempting to enter a facility. Two types of fixtures were designed and built: (1) a large fixture incorporates simulated hinges, hasps, lock shrouds, and pins, and (2) a small fixture simulates the cross section of magazine and steel-plate doors. The small fixture consists of steel plates on either side of a structural member, such as an I-beam. The report contains detailed descriptions and photographs of the training aids, assembly instructions, and drawings.

  11. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  12. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs.

  13. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  14. On electronic representations in molecular reaction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killian, Benjamin J.

    For many decades, the field of chemical reaction dynamics has utilized computational methods that rely on potential energy surfaces that are constructed using stationary-state calculations. These methods are typically devoid of dynamical couplings between the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom, a fact that can result in incorrect descriptions of dynamical processes. Often, non-adiabatic coupling expressions are included in these methodologies. The Electron-Nuclear Dynamics (END) formalism, in contrast, circumvents these deficiencies by calculating all intermolecular forces directly at each time step in the dynamics and by explicitly maintaining all electronic-nuclear couplings. The purpose of this work is to offer two new frameworks for implementing electronic representations in dynamical calculations. Firstly, a new schema is proposed for developing atomic basis sets that are consistent with dynamical calculations. Traditionally, basis sets have been designed for use in stationary-state calculations of the structures and properties of molecules in their ground states. As a consequence of common construction techniques that utilize energy optimization methods, the unoccupied orbitals bear little resemblance to physical virtual atomic orbitals. We develop and implement a method for basis set construction that relies upon physical properties of atomic orbitals and that results in meaningful virtual orbitals. These basis sets are shown to provide a significant improvement in the accuracy of calculated dynamical properties such as charge transfer probabilities. Secondly, the theoretical framework of END is expanded to incorporate a multi-configurational representation for electrons. This formalism, named Vector Hartree-Fock, is based in the theory of vector coherent states and utilizes a complete active space electronic representation. The Vector Hartree-Fock method is fully disclosed, with derivation of the equations of motion. The expressions for the equation

  15. Representational Momentum in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Andrea S.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion--a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of…

  16. Biome representational in silico karyotyping

    PubMed Central

    Muthappan, Valliammai; Lee, Aaron Y.; Lamprecht, Tamara L.; Akileswaran, Lakshmi; Dintzis, Suzanne M.; Lee, Choli; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R.; Shendure, Jay; Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2011-01-01

    Metagenomic characterization of complex biomes remains challenging. Here we describe a modification of digital karyotyping—biome representational in silico karyotyping (BRISK)—as a general technique for analyzing a defined representation of all DNA present in a sample. BRISK utilizes a Type IIB DNA restriction enzyme to create a defined representation of 27-mer DNAs in a sample. Massively parallel sequencing of this representation allows for construction of high-resolution karyotypes and identification of multiple species within a biome. Application to normal human tissue demonstrated linear recovery of tags by chromosome. We apply this technique to the biome of the oral mucosa and find that greater than 25% of recovered DNA is nonhuman. DNA from 41 microbial species could be identified from oral mucosa of two subjects. Of recovered nonhuman sequences, fewer than 30% are currently annotated. We characterized seven prevalent unknown sequences by chromosome walking and find these represent novel microbial sequences including two likely derived from novel phage genomes. Application of BRISK to archival tissue from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma resulted in identification of Epstein-Barr virus infection. These results suggest that BRISK is a powerful technique for the analysis of complex microbiomes and potentially for pathogen discovery. PMID:21324882

  17. A qualia representation of cyberspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Timothy H.; Mills, Robert F.; Raines, Richard A.; Oxley, Mark E.; Bauer, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Steven K.

    2008-04-01

    E.C Adam defined Situational Awareness (SA) as "the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. Stated in lay terms, SA is simply knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do." We propose a novel idea to assist the human in gaining SA. Our hypothesis is that nature uses qualia as a compression scheme to represent the many concepts encountered in everyday life. Qualia enable humans to quickly come up with SA based on many complex measurements from their sensors, (eyes, ears, taste, touch, memory, etc.), expectations, and experiences. Our ultimate objective is to develop a computer that uses qualia concepts to transform sensor data to assist the human in gaining and maintaining improved SA. However, before any computer can use qualia, we must first define a representation for qualia that can be implemented computationally. This paper will present our representation for qualia. The representation is not simply a hierarchical aggregation of input data. Instead, it is a prediction of what will happen next, derived from computations resulting from sensory inputs and the computational engine of a qualia generator and qualia processor.

  18. Mental Representations of Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni

    2004-01-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  19. Develop Reasoning through Pictorial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchti, Wendy P.; Bennett, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes some of the benefits derived from encouraging math drawing in a class of seventh-and eighth-grade students in line with promoting mathematical proficiency. The authors report teaching pictorial representations as part of the solution process, where both students and teachers gained insight into various areas of…

  20. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  1. Digital Image Representation and Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostafa, Javed

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the literature relating to the development and application of modern imaging technology between 1987 and 1993. Highlights include image representation, including image data, compression, and image formats; and image access, including indexing and modeling, user interface design, and distributed access. (143 references) (LRW)

  2. Lie antialgebras: cohomology and representations

    SciTech Connect

    Ovsienko, V.

    2008-11-18

    We describe the main algebraic and geometric properties of the class of algebras introduced in [1]. We discuss their origins in symplectic geometry and associative algebra, and the notions of cohomology and representations. We formulate classification theorems and give a number of examples.

  3. Grobner Basis Representations of Sudoku

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taalman, Laura; Arnold, Elizabeth; Lucas, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Grobner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Grobner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the…

  4. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  5. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  6. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  7. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  8. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  9. First Aid Instruction Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Mines (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the Department of the Interior, this teaching guide is for the instructors' use in teaching a first aid course. Six fundamental areas include: (1) Artificial Respiration, (2) Control of Bleeding, (3) Physical Shock, (4) Open Wounds, Closed Wounds, and Burns, (5) Fractures and Dislocations, and (6) Transportation. A complete…

  10. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  11. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  12. Child Care Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the child care aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with child care center personnel, the course was prepared by teacher and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested, and…

  13. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  14. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  15. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  16. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  17. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  18. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)

  19. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  20. Instructional Aide Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Henry

    The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to…

  1. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  2. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  3. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  4. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  5. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny E.

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler “to speak,” [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter “to repeat,” [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer “to adore,” [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire “to drink,” [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French

  6. A numerical study of thin flame representations

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.A.; Pindera, M.Z.

    1989-08-11

    In studies of reacting flows, the flame may be viewed as a moving discontinuity endowed with certain properties; notably, it acts as a source of velocity and vorticity. Asymptotic analysis shows this to be justified provided that the flame curvature is small compared to the flame thickness. Such an approach is useful when one is interested in the hydrodynamic effects of the flame on the surrounding flowfield. In numerical models of this kind it is customary to treat the discontinuity as a collection of discrete velocity blobs. In this study, we show that the velocities associated with such a representation can be very non-smooth, particularly very near to the flame surface. As an alternative, we propose the use of a finite line source as the basic flame element. Comparisons of the two flame representations are made for several simple test cases as well as for a flame propagating through an enclosure forming the tulip shape. The results show that the use of line sources eliminates spurious fluctuations in nearfield velocities thus allowing for a more accurate calculation of flame propagation and flame-flowfield interactions. 7 refs., 15 figs.

  7. Screening for AIDS.

    PubMed

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  8. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.

  9. 30 CFR 77.1707 - First aid equipment; location; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid equipment; location; minimum... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1707 First aid equipment; location; minimum requirements. (a) Each operator of a surface coal mine shall maintain a supply of the first aid equipment set...

  10. What can errors tell us about body representations?

    PubMed

    Medina, Jared; Coslett, H Branch

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we examine how tactile misperceptions provide evidence regarding body representations. First, we propose that tactile detection and localization are serial processes, in contrast to parallel processing hypotheses based on patients with numbsense. Second, we discuss how information in primary somatosensory maps projects to body size and shape representations to localize touch on the skin surface, and how responses after use-dependent plasticity reflect changes in this mapping. Third, we review situations in which our body representations are inconsistent with our actual body shape, specifically discussing phantom limb phenomena and anesthetization. We discuss problems with the traditional remapping hypothesis in amputees, factors that modulate perceived body size and shape, and how changes in perceived body form influence tactile localization. Finally, we review studies in which brain-damaged individuals perceive touch on the opposite side of the body, and demonstrate how interhemispheric mechanisms can give rise to these anomalous percepts. PMID:27386744

  11. System for maritime surveillance aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yamada, Kimio; Kiriya, Nobuo

    1997-02-01

    A system to aid maritime surveillance is being studied to search for small floating objects like a life raft or to detect oil spill more reliably and efficiently. The system consists of sensors, an image processor and a display so as to reject unnecessary noise in the sea surface images, and then to detect and identify the objects to be searched. This paper describes the optical sensor system with an infrared camera and a TV camera. The infrared camera detects 3-5 micrometers waveband by 512 by 512 solid state sensing elements. The systems was used to gather images on different sea areas in summer and winter by aircraft and on the ground. Typical images are presented to demonstrate the validity of the sensor system to search for small flowing objects. The influences of air and water temperature, weather and observation altitude upon the images are discussed. Image processing techniques like filtering or image superposition are also described to suppress noise.

  12. Development of a Computer-Aided-Design-Based Geometry and Mesh Movement Algorithm for Three-Dimensional Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Anh Hoang

    This thesis focuses on the development of a Computer-Aided-Design (CAD)-based geometry parameterization method and a corresponding surface mesh movement algorithm suitable for three-dimensional aerodynamic shape optimization. The geometry parameterization method includes a geometry control tool to aid in the construction and manipulation of a CAD geometry through a vendor-neutral application interface, CAPRI. It automates the tedious part of the construction phase involving data entry and provides intuitive and effective design variables that allow for both the flexibility and the precision required to control the movement of the geometry. The surface mesh movement algorithm, on the other hand, transforms an initial structured surface mesh to fit the new geometry using a discrete representation of the new CAD surface provided by CAPRI. Using a unique mapping procedure, the algorithm not only preserves the characteristics of the original surface mesh, but also guarantees that the new mesh points are on the CAD geometry. The new surface mesh is then smoothed in the parametric space before it is transformed back into three-dimensional space. The procedure is efficient in that all the processing is done in the parametric space, incurring minimal computational cost. The geometry parameterization and mesh movement tools are integrated into a three-dimensional shape optimization framework, with a linear-elasticity volume-mesh movement algorithm, a Newton-Krylov flow solver for the Euler equations, and a gradient-based optimizer. The validity and accuracy of the CAD-based optimization algorithm are demonstrated through a number of verification and optimization cases.

  13. Multimedia and Understanding: Expert and Novice Responses To Different Representations of Chemical Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Robert B.; Russell, Joel

    1997-01-01

    Examines how professional chemists and undergraduate chemistry students respond to chemistry-related video segments, graphs, animations, and equations. Discusses the role that surface features of representations play in the understanding of chemistry. Contains 36 references. (DDR)

  14. HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates…

  15. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  16. Importance of perceptual representation in the visual control of action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Jack M.; Beall, Andrew C.; Kelly, Jonathan W.; Macuga, Kristen L.

    2005-03-01

    In recent years, many experiments have demonstrated that optic flow is sufficient for visually controlled action, with the suggestion that perceptual representations of 3-D space are superfluous. In contrast, recent research in our lab indicates that some visually controlled actions, including some thought to be based on optic flow, are indeed mediated by perceptual representations. For example, we have demonstrated that people are able to perform complex spatial behaviors, like walking, driving, and object interception, in virtual environments which are rendered visible solely by cyclopean stimulation (random-dot cinematograms). In such situations, the absence of any retinal optic flow that is correlated with the objects and surfaces within the virtual environment means that people are using stereo-based perceptual representations to perform the behavior. The fact that people can perform such behaviors without training suggests that the perceptual representations are likely the same as those used when retinal optic flow is present. Other research indicates that optic flow, whether retinal or a more abstract property of the perceptual representation, is not the basis for postural control, because postural instability is related to perceived relative motion between self and the visual surroundings rather than to optic flow, even in the abstract sense.

  17. A hierarachical data structure representation for fusing multisensor information

    SciTech Connect

    Maren, A.J. . Space Inst.); Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T. )

    1989-01-01

    A major problem with MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the data element, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Data-element fusion has problems with coregistration. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented data relies on a Presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing (including object identification) to be useful. MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Data Structure (HDS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The HDS is an intermediate representation between the raw or smoothed data stream and symbolic interpretation of the data. it represents the structural organization of the data. Fused HDSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based region interpretation.

  18. A hierarachical data structure representation for fusing multisensor information

    SciTech Connect

    Maren, A.J.; Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T.

    1989-12-31

    A major problem with MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the data element, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Data-element fusion has problems with coregistration. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented data relies on a Presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing (including object identification) to be useful. MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Data Structure (HDS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The HDS is an intermediate representation between the raw or smoothed data stream and symbolic interpretation of the data. it represents the structural organization of the data. Fused HDSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based region interpretation.

  19. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  20. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  1. Effect of Aerosol and Ocean Representation on Simulated Climate Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, Tanja; Folini, Doris; Knutti, Reto; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    It is still debated to what extent anthropogenic aerosols shaped 20th century surface temperatures, especially sea surface temperatures (SSTs), through alteration of surface solar radiation (SSR). SSTs, in turn, are crucial in the context of atmospheric circulation and ocean heat uptake. Uncertainty considering anthropogenic aerosol forcing thus translates into uncertainty regarding ocean heat uptake and, ultimately, climate responses towards anthropogenic influences. We use the global climate model ECHAM to analyse the 20th century climate response towards either anthropogenic aerosols or well-mixed greenhouse gases or both with different representations of ocean and aerosols: atmosphere-only with prescribed SSTs and interactive aerosols; mixed-layer ocean and interactive or prescribed aerosols; fully coupled with prescribed aerosols. For interactive aerosols we use the Hamburg Aerosol Module (HAM). Our results suggest that up to 15% of global ocean surfaces undergo an SSR reduction of at least -4W/m² in the year 2000, due to anthropogenic aerosols. The area affected depends on how aerosols are represented and whether clear sky or all sky SSR is considered. In MLO equilibria with interactive aerosols, anthropogenic aerosols clearly shape surface temperature response patterns. This is to a lesser degree the case for the transient fully coupled case. Additivity of global mean temperature responses towards single forcings - an assumption often made in the literature - is not fulfilled for the MLO experiments, but for the fully coupled experiments. While some of these differences can be attributed to the differing ocean representation, it is implied that differing aerosol representation may play an even more relevant role. Thus, our results corroborate not only the relevance of anthropogenic aerosols for surface temperature responses, but also highlight the relevance of choice of aerosol representation.

  2. Time representations in social science

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged “acceleration” of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them. PMID:23393420

  3. Time representations in social science.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

  4. [The nose: representation and symbolism].

    PubMed

    Lebeau, J; Antoine, P

    1994-06-01

    The nose is a primordial element in the facial recognition among the human species. This privileged place, confirmed by experimental psychology, finds a professional application in the creation of the photofit. The physiognomonist drift, that flourished during the last century, lacked a scientific basis and gradually gave way. On the other hand, it is interesting to observe the artist's representations of the nose: except for the realistis school the nose is upsetting. It is therefore either stereotyped or deleted. As for the caricaturist, he illustrates the nose shamelessly. This representation is certainly related to the symbolic force of the nasal appendage, not only a vector of diverse and variable odours but also a passage for the spirit and to the heart. The nose is therefore a significative element of relation, of contact and of expression.

  5. Representations of mad cow disease.

    PubMed

    Washer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of the story of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and its human derivative variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (vCJD) in the British newspapers. Three 'snapshots' of newspaper coverage are sampled and analysed between the period 1986 and 1996 focusing on how representations of the disease evolved over the 10-year period. Social representations theory is used to elucidate how this new disease threat was conceptualised in the newspaper reporting and how it was explained to the UK public. This paper examines who or what was said to be at risk from the new disease, and whether some individuals or groups held to blame for the diseases' putative origins, the appearance of vCJD in human beings, and its spread. PMID:16046039

  6. Finite representations of continuum environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Understanding dissipative and decohering processes is fundamental to the study of quantum systems. An accurate and generic method for investigating these processes is to simulate both the system and environment, which, however, is computationally very demanding. We develop a novel approach to constructing finite representations of the environment based on the influence of different frequency scales on the system's dynamics. As an illustration, we analyze a solvable model of an optical mode decaying into a reservoir. The influence of the environment modes is constant for small frequencies, but drops off rapidly for large frequencies, allowing for a very sparse representation at high frequencies that gives a significant computational speedup in simulating the environment. This approach provides a general framework for simulating open quantum systems.

  7. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  8. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  9. Computational representation of biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, Zach; McDermott, Jason E.; Guerquin, Michal; Samudrala, Ram

    2009-04-20

    Integration of large and diverse biological data sets is a daunting problem facing systems biology researchers. Exploring the complex issues of data validation, integration, and representation, we present a systematic approach for the management and analysis of large biological data sets based on data warehouses. Our system has been implemented in the Bioverse, a framework combining diverse protein information from a variety of knowledge areas such as molecular interactions, pathway localization, protein structure, and protein function.

  10. SAR Image Complex Pixel Representations

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-03-01

    Complex pixel values for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of uniform distributed clutter can be represented as either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values. Generally, these component values are integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  11. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  12. Country living with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kletecka, C

    1998-12-01

    The number of people with HIV in rural areas is small, but it is growing. In rural areas, AIDS organizations must deal with a fragmented client base that is spread out over a large geographic area. The logistics and costs of maintaining these services are higher per person than in urban areas. A description of what it is like to live with HIV in rural Vermont is provided. Although most people in rural Vermont seem to accept the concept of AIDS, few have known someone with the disease. Specialized medical care is difficult to obtain because only one specialty clinic and three part-time sites exist in the state of Vermont. Many who require more complex care, with better treatment options, go out of state to receive it.

  13. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  14. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  15. Manual for Student Financial Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…

  16. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  17. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  18. College Costs and Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The growing campus role in providing student financial aid is discussed based on data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, Peterson's Guide, and other sources. The campus contribution to student aid programs has grown far more than recent tuition increases. A significant portion of the financial aid burden has passed from federal…

  19. Religious Representations for Christian Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to explore the key concept of religious representations that reflect an individual's relational world and indicates the individual's religious maturity. While the term "representations" is originally used in psychodynamic studies, the article discusses the idea that religious representations provide important indications of an…

  20. 12 CFR 704.14 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representation. 704.14 Section 704.14 Banks and... § 704.14 Representation. (a) Board representation. The board will be determined as stipulated in its... association. (2) The provisions of § 701.14 of this chapter apply to corporate credit unions, except...

  1. STORM: A STatistical Object Representation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Rafanelli, M. ); Shoshani, A. )

    1989-11-01

    In this paper we explore the structure and semantic properties of the entities stored in statistical databases. We call such entities statistical objects'' (SOs) and propose a new statistical object representation model,'' based on a graph representation. We identify a number of SO representational problems in current models and propose a methodology for their solution. 11 refs.

  2. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.15 Representation area. Representation area means...

  3. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.15 Representation area. Representation area means...

  4. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.15 Representation area. Representation area means...

  5. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.15 Representation area. Representation area means...

  6. 7 CFR 917.15 - Representation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representation area. 917.15 Section 917.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.15 Representation area. Representation area means...

  7. Methods and Strategies: The Science Representation Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that people more easily understand abstractions when they are preceded by concrete representations (Lawson 2002). This article describes how educators can use science representations to help students form lasting understandings of abstract concepts. A spectrum illustrating some commonly used representation types and their level…

  8. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  9. Imitation and the Dialectic of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelazo, Philip David; Lourenco, Stella Felix

    2003-01-01

    Describes a theory of the understanding and use of representations, drawing heavily on Paul Ricoeur's and James Mark Baldwin's theories. Presents this theory as construing representation as intrinsically mimetic, characterizing the development of representational understanding as internalization, and emphasizing the importance of self-reflection…

  10. Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-06-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems. PMID:27113732

  11. Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-06-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems.

  12. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  13. On Performance Skill Representation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Saori

    In this paper, we propose a framework for representing performance skill. Firstly, we notice the importance of performance skill representation. We introduce five different representation targets: performance tasks, performance rules, pre-shaping actions, dynamic integrity constraints, and performance states. Performance task description consists of a sequence of performance tasks and expressions. It acts as a goal description in planning. Performance rules describe model performance methods for given tasks including how to shape body parts and how to use various muscles. Pre-shaping action rules are similar to performance rules. Its role is to pre-shape in between consecutive tasks to prepare for the next task. Dynamic integrity constraints specify constraints to be satisfied during performance. They provide such general rules as prohibiting simultaneous strong activations of agonist and antagonist. Performance states are for describing real performance done by players including professionals and amateurs. The aim of the framework is to provide a uniform scheme for representing model performance methods given performance score such as music score. The representation framework will define targets of inducing formal skill rules as well as describing performance states automatically from biomechanical performance data. It also is related to a fundamental research issue of attributes finding/selection in discovering useful rules for skillful performance. We conclude our paper by stating future research direction.

  14. Double groups and projective representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, S. L.; Herzig, P.

    Some problems are discussed in relation to the usual treatment of improper groups through their double groups, in particular the identification (rather than the mere isomorphism) of such groups as C3v and D3. The enhancement of SU(2) by the addition of the inversion is analysed for this purpose. This requires a careful discussion of the behaviour of spinors under inversion and two types of spinors are defined, Cartan and Pauli spinors, that behave differently with respect to inversion, although it is shown that this difference merely entails a choice of gauge in the language of projective representations. A distinction is proposed between the inversion operation and the parity operator: when the former is realized as a binary rotation in 4-space, the latter can be identified with its infinitesimal generator. The passage from SO(3) to O(3) (group of all proper and improper rotations) is studied and a hitherto unknown faithful projective representations of O(3) is given. It is shown how spinor representations can be constructed for improper point groups in either the Cartan or Pauli gauges. A choice of gauge is proposed to ensure agreement with current practice in angular momentum theory and with that in single point groups. As an example, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are constructed for C3v.

  15. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  16. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  17. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  18. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Seghal, P N

    1991-04-01

    In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.

  19. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes.

  20. Domain specific software design for decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Kirby; Stanley, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) is involved in many large multi-discipline design and development efforts of tactical aircraft. These involve a number of design disciplines that must be coordinated to produce an integrated design and a successful product. Our interpretation of a domain specific software design (DSSD) is that of a representation or framework that is specialized to support a limited problem domain. A DSSD is an abstract software design that is shaped by the problem characteristics. This parallels the theme of object-oriented analysis and design of letting the problem model directly drive the design. The DSSD concept extends the notion of software reusability to include representations or frameworks. It supports the entire software life cycle and specifically leads to improved prototyping capability, supports system integration, and promotes reuse of software designs and supporting frameworks. The example presented in this paper is the task network architecture or design which was developed for the MCAIR Pilot's Associate program. The task network concept supported both module development and system integration within the domain of operator decision aiding. It is presented as an instance where a software design exhibited many of the attributes associated with DSSD concept.

  1. Redirecting British foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Dean, M

    1994-01-01

    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  2. AIDS in women: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, A

    1989-09-01

    Several facts concerning the distribution of AIDS in U.S. female populations are clear. This disease has made significant inroads, in a quantitative sense, into the female segment of our society as documented by AIDS surveillance data, information on pregnant women and parturients, and by screening data from the military. The impact on women in the reproductive years, on the reproductive health of these women, and on the reproductive outcome of their pregnancies is of substantial concern. Monitoring epidemiologic trends in certain groups will require clever and creative strategies like those of Hoff and colleagues. Additional data may be derived from the CDC's Family of Surveys that will examine HIV prevalence in five groups (in addition to the newborn infant survey described above): intravenous drug users, patients admitted to hospitals, sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, women's health and reproductive health clinics, and tuberculosis clinics. It is hoped that the data obtained from these studies, as well as data gathered on college students and Job Corps applicants, will contribute additional information on HIV infection in women. Monitoring the progress of the AIDS epidemic in women will be difficult. Even more difficult will be the effort to respond to the epidemic in the women it most frequently affects: the poor, minority, disenfranchised women who may be involved in illegal activities (drug use, prostitution, illegal immigration) who are not well networked into the medical and social services of our society. PMID:2776374

  3. On the representation of many-body interactions in water

    DOE PAGES

    Medders, Gregory R.; Gotz, Andreas W.; Morales, Miguel A.; Bajaj, Pushp; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-09-09

    Our recent work has shown that the many-body expansion of the interactionenergy can be used to develop analytical representations of global potential energy surfaces (PESs) for water. In this study, the role of short- and long-range interactions at different orders is investigated by analyzing water potentials that treat the leading terms of the many-body expansion through implicit (i.e., TTM3-F and TTM4-F PESs) and explicit (i.e., WHBB and MB-pol PESs) representations. Moreover, it is found that explicit short-range representations of 2-body and 3-body interactions along with a physically correct incorporation of short- and long-range contributions are necessary for an accurate representationmore » of the waterinteractions from the gas to the condensed phase. Likewise, a complete many-body representation of the dipole moment surface is found to be crucial to reproducing the correct intensities of the infrared spectrum of liquid water.« less

  4. Negotiated Representational Mediators: How Young Children Decide What to Include in Their Science Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Joshua A.; Enyedy, Noel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesize two bodies of work related to students' representational activities: the notions of meta-representational competence and representation as a form of practice. We report on video analyses of kindergarten and first-grade students as they create representations of pollination in a science classroom, as well as summarize…

  5. Drawing Connections Across Conceptually Related Visual Representations in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Janice

    with support for structure mapping led to a lessened reliance on surface features, and a better understanding of the science concepts presented. These findings suggest that presenting diagrams serially in an effort to reduce cognitive load may not be preferable for learning if making connections across representations, and by extension across science concepts, is desired. Instead, providing simultaneous diagrams with structure mapping support may result in greater attention to the salient relationships between related visual representations as well as between the representations and the science concepts they depict.

  6. Managing AIDS in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M D; Myers, J E

    1993-01-01

    Because of the AIDS epidemic and the protections afforded individuals with AIDS under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employers are well advised to ensure compliance under applicable law to reduce exposure to employee claims of discrimination and to efficiently manage workplace issues associated with AIDS. Employers should implement AIDS policies and programs designed to educate their workforce to reduce the spread of AIDS and to clear up any misunderstandings about the disease which could wreak havoc in the workplace. This article summarizes suggested action steps for employers and outside resources to consult for guidance.

  7. Reality Check: Hispanic-Serving Institutions on the Texas Border Strategizing Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing college degree completion is an important goal. As Latino representation in U.S. higher education grows, a reality check of institutional practices that support Latino students' access, persistence, and graduation is needed. This brief examines financial aid strategies aimed at increasing enrollment, academic success and degree…

  8. Reality Check: Hispanic-Serving Institutions on the Texas Border Strategizing Financial Aid. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    As Latino representation in U.S. higher education grows, a reality check of institutional practices that support Latino students' access, persistence, and graduation is needed. This brief examines financial aid strategies aimed at increasing enrollment, academic success and degree completion at eight Texas Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs)…

  9. Knowledge-Based Indexing of the Medical Literature: The Indexing Aid Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Miller, Nancy E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval, whose goal is to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. Appendices include background information on NLM…

  10. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  11. Alternative Approach to Nuclear Data Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Brown, D; Beck, B; McNabb, D P

    2005-07-27

    This paper considers an approach for representing nuclear data that is qualitatively different from the approach currently adopted by the nuclear science community. Specifically, they examine a representation in which complicated data is described through collections of distinct and self contained simple data structures. This structure-based representation is compared with the ENDF and ENDL formats, which can be roughly characterized as dictionary-based representations. A pilot data representation for replacing the format currently used at LLNL is presented. Examples are given as is a discussion of promises and shortcomings associated with moving from traditional dictionary-based formats to a structure-rich or class-like representation.

  12. Scaffolding scientific discussion using socially relevant representations in networked multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1999-11-01

    How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.

  13. Representation learning: a review and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bengio, Yoshua; Courville, Aaron; Vincent, Pascal

    2013-08-01

    The success of machine learning algorithms generally depends on data representation, and we hypothesize that this is because different representations can entangle and hide more or less the different explanatory factors of variation behind the data. Although specific domain knowledge can be used to help design representations, learning with generic priors can also be used, and the quest for AI is motivating the design of more powerful representation-learning algorithms implementing such priors. This paper reviews recent work in the area of unsupervised feature learning and deep learning, covering advances in probabilistic models, autoencoders, manifold learning, and deep networks. This motivates longer term unanswered questions about the appropriate objectives for learning good representations, for computing representations (i.e., inference), and the geometrical connections between representation learning, density estimation, and manifold learning.

  14. Supporting Learning and Promoting Conceptual Change with Box and AVOW Diagrams. Part 1: Representational Design and Instructional Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Peter C-H.; Shipstone, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an approach to the teaching of electricity that uses box and AVOW diagrams, novel representations of the properties of the electric circuit that portray current, voltage, resistance, and power. The diagrams were developed as aids in learning, understanding, and problem solving and to promote conceptual change by challenging a number of…

  15. The Indian Fashion Show: Manipulating Representations of Native Attire in Museum Exhibits to Fight Stereotypes in 1942 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parezo, Nancy J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author writes about the power of representation in the staging of a unique and highly successful series of fashion shows held in 1942. These showcases, presented more than 120 times between 1942 and 1956, aided in the appreciation of American Indian clothing and dress as a messenger of style, purpose, and identity, all…

  16. Relational representation for improved decisions with an information-theoretic CADe system: initial experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2009-02-01

    Our previously presented information-theoretic computer-aided detection (IT-CADe) system for distinguishing masses and normal parenchyma in mammograms is an example of a case-based system. IT-CAD makes decisions by evaluating the querys average similarity with known mass and normal examples stored in the systems case base. Pairwise case similarity is measured in terms of their normalized mutual information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether incorporating a new machine learning concept of relational representation to IT-CAD is a more effective strategy than the decision algorithm that is currently in place. A trainable relational representation classifier builds a decision rule using the relational representation of cases. Instead of describing a case by a vector of intrinsic features, the case is described by its NMI-based similarity to a set of known examples. For this study, we first applied random mutation hill climbing algorithm to select the concise set of knowledge cases and then we applied a support vector machine to derive a decision rule using the relational representation of cases. We performed the study with a database of 600 mammographic regions of interest (300 with masses and 300 with normal parenchyma). Our experiments indicate that incorporating the concept of relational representation with a trainable classifier to IT-CAD provides an improvement in performance as compared with the original decision rule. Therefore, relational representation is a promising strategy for IT-CADe.

  17. Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, Ruth Stella

    I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.

  18. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  19. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  20. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex