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Sample records for aided system engineering

  1. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  2. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  3. A computer aided engineering tool for ECLS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, Michal E.; Reuter, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis tool used by NASA for environmental control and life support system design studies is capable of simulating atmospheric revitalization systems, water recovery and management systems, and single-phase active thermal control systems. The designer/analysis interface used is graphics-based, and allows the designer to build a model by constructing a schematic of the system under consideration. Data management functions are performed, and the program is translated into a format that is compatible with the solution routines.

  4. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  5. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  6. Computer-aided-engineering system for modeling and analysis of ECLSS integration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepahban, Sonbol

    1987-01-01

    The accurate modeling and analysis of two-phase fluid networks found in environmental control and life support systems is presently undertaken by computer-aided engineering (CAE) techniques whose generalized fluid dynamics package can solve arbitrary flow networks. The CAE system for integrated test bed modeling and analysis will also furnish interfaces and subsystem/test-article mathematical models. Three-dimensional diagrams of the test bed are generated by the system after performing the requisite simulation and analysis.

  7. Computer Aided Engineering Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Anupam; Sahay, Birendra

    This book amalgamates geometric modelling, analysis and optimization, the three important aspects in Computer Aided Engineering Design. While the three subjects are well developed by themselves, a detailed discussion on engineering visualization (transformations and projections) and mathematical background of free form, parametric and piecewise design of curves and surfaces is provided. A topological basis is given when discussing wireframe, boundary representation and constructive solid geometry as solid modelling techniques. http://www.springeronline.com/alert/article?a=3D1_1fva7w_9hjul_18j_6

  8. Using a computer-aided drafting system to aid in engineering and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millaud, J.; Goulding, F.; Salz, P.

    1985-05-01

    The generation of schematics and artwork on CAD workstations yields a large amount of numeric data that can be used in many ways. Standard by-products are connection lists, photoplot files and drill files. Using open-ended software allows for more information to be retrieved and used for various purposes in engineering and fabrication.

  9. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  10. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  11. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  12. Computer-Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Programmer's Manual, Version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Version 5.0 Programmer's Manual provides the programmer and user with information regarding the internal structure of the CASE/A 5.0 software system. CASE/A 5.0 is a trade study tool that provides modeling/simulation capabilities for analyzing environmental control and life support systems and active thermal control systems. CASE/A has been successfully used in studies such as the evaluation of carbon dioxide removal in the space station. CASE/A modeling provides a graphical and command-driven interface for the user. This interface allows the user to construct a model by placing equipment components in a graphical layout of the system hardware, then connect the components via flow streams and define their operating parameters. Once the equipment is placed, the simulation time and other control parameters can be set to run the simulation based on the model constructed. After completion of the simulation, graphical plots or text files can be obtained for evaluation of the simulation results over time. Additionally, users have the capability to control the simulation and extract information at various times in the simulation (e.g., control equipment operating parameters over the simulation time or extract plot data) by using "User Operations (OPS) Code." This OPS code is written in FORTRAN with a canned set of utility subroutines for performing common tasks. CASE/A version 5.0 software runs under the VAX VMS(Trademark) environment. It utilizes the Tektronics 4014(Trademark) graphics display system and the VTIOO(Trademark) text manipulation/display system.

  13. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  14. Computer aided photographic engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixson, Jeffrey A.; Rieckhoff, Tom

    1988-01-01

    High speed photography is an excellent source of engineering data but only provides a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional event. Multiple cameras can be used to provide data for the third dimension but camera locations are not always available. A solution to this problem is to overlay three-dimensional CAD/CAM models of the hardware being tested onto a film or photographic image, allowing the engineer to measure surface distances, relative motions between components, and surface variations.

  15. Construction computer-aided engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Atkins, D.; Astleford, R.

    1987-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. and Bechtel Power Corporation are presently designing nuclear power plants for Japanese utilities exclusively on three-dimensional computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems. To make these three-dimensional CADD models more effective for construction activities, Hitachi and Bechtel are jointly developing a software package that allows construction engineers and planners to effectively empty an area of the three-dimensional CADD model and rebuild it electronically to simulate, animate, and optimize the construction sequence and methodology. The components in the three-dimensional CADD model are placed as they would be for actual construction (i.e., piping spool pieces, skid-mounted systems, piping, and equipment modules, etc.). The construction engineer and planners can then select the components along with appropriate handling equipment and simulate/animate the actual construction sequence. After the construction sequence has been optimized, it is captured on videotape for use in the field. The results of the simulated activities are then passed on to computer program module (CPM) scheduling and work breakdown structure programs for accurate bottom-up construction activity planning and commodity tracking. This entire process can be iterated to an optimum solution before the actual construction begins. Once construction is in progress, the program can compare the actual status and allow resimulations for workarounds.

  16. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  17. Computer aided system engineering and analysis (CASE/A) modeling package for ECLS systems - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalee, Robert C.; Bacskay, Allen S.; Knox, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the CASE/A-ECLSS series modeling package is presented. CASE/A is an analytical tool that has supplied engineering productivity accomplishments during ECLSS design activities. A components verification program was performed to assure component modeling validity based on test data from the Phase II comparative test program completed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An integrated plotting feature has been added to the program which allows the operator to analyze on-screen data trends or get hard copy plots from within the CASE/A operating environment. New command features in the areas of schematic, output, and model management, and component data editing have been incorporated to enhance the engineer's productivity during a modeling program.

  18. Development of the engineering design integration (EDIN) system: A computer aided design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The EDIN (Engineering Design Integration) System which provides a collection of hardware and software, enabling the engineer to perform man-in-the-loop interactive evaluation of aerospace vehicle concepts, was considered. Study efforts were concentrated in the following areas: (1) integration of hardware with the Univac Exec 8 System; (2) development of interactive software for the EDIN System; (3) upgrading of the EDIN technology module library to an interactive status; (4) verification of the soundness of the developing EDIN System; (5) support of NASA in design analysis studies using the EDIN System; (6) provide training and documentation in the use of the EDIN System; and (7) provide an implementation plan for the next phase of development and recommendations for meeting long range objectives.

  19. Engineering Aid 1 & C. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual is written primarily to aid in the training of personnel to meet the professional qualifications of the engineering aid, first class and chief. In chapter one, the trainee becomes familiar with the rewards and responsibilities of an engineering aid. Chapter two deals with principles of SEABEE administration, the organization and…

  20. Computer-Aided Systems Engineering for Flight Research Projects Using a Workgroup Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masahi

    2004-01-01

    An online systems engineering tool for flight research projects has been developed through the use of a workgroup database. Capabilities are implemented for typical flight research systems engineering needs in document library, configuration control, hazard analysis, hardware database, requirements management, action item tracking, project team information, and technical performance metrics. Repetitive tasks are automated to reduce workload and errors. Current data and documents are instantly available online and can be worked on collaboratively. Existing forms and conventional processes are used, rather than inventing or changing processes to fit the tool. An integrated tool set offers advantages by automatically cross-referencing data, minimizing redundant data entry, and reducing the number of programs that must be learned. With a simplified approach, significant improvements are attained over existing capabilities for minimal cost. By using a workgroup-level database platform, personnel most directly involved in the project can develop, modify, and maintain the system, thereby saving time and money. As a pilot project, the system has been used to support an in-house flight experiment. Options are proposed for developing and deploying this type of tool on a more extensive basis.

  1. Computer-aided operations engineering with integrated models of systems and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    CONFIG 3 is a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operation of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. Integration is supported among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. Support is provided for integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems. CONFIG supports abstracted qualitative and symbolic modeling, for early conceptual design. System models are component structure models with operating modes, with embedded time-related behavior models. CONFIG supports failure modeling and modeling of state or configuration changes that result in dynamic changes in dependencies among components. Operations and procedure models are activity structure models that interact with system models. CONFIG is designed to support evaluation of system operability, diagnosability and fault tolerance, and analysis of the development of system effects of problems over time, including faults, failures, and procedural or environmental difficulties.

  2. Engineering constraints and computer-aided optimization of electrostatic lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Steen, H. W. G.; Barth, J. E.; Adriaanse, J. P.

    1990-12-01

    An optimization tool for the design of electrostatic lens systems with axial symmetry is presented. This tool is based on the second-order electrode method combined with a multivariable numerical optimization procedure. The second-order electrode method makes a cubic spline approximation to the axial potential for a given electrode shape. With the help of this approximation, a numerical optimization can be done. To demonstrate this optimization tool, a lens system for Auger analyses is optimized. It is shown that variations in the practical constraints imposed on the design, like maximum electrode potential or maximum lens diameter, have strong effects on the obtainable lens quality. It is concluded that a numerical optimization does not take over the lens designer's job, but allows him to thoroughly examine the optical consequences of engineering choices by finding the optimum design for each set of constraints.

  3. CASE/A - COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS, ECLSS/ATCS SERIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, A.

    1994-01-01

    Design and analysis of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) for spacecraft missions requires powerful software that is flexible and responsive to the demands of particular projects. CASE/A is an interactive trade study and analysis tool designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. The graphics-based command-driven package provides a user-friendly environment in which the engineer can analyze the performance and interface characteristics of an ECLS/ATC system. The package is useful during all phases of a spacecraft design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to the actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight anomaly analysis. The CASE/A program consists of three fundamental parts: 1) the schematic management system, 2) the database management system, and 3) the simulation control and execution system. The schematic management system allows the user to graphically construct a system model by arranging icons representing system components and connecting the components with physical fluid streams. Version 4.1 contains 51 fully coded and documented default component routines. New components can be added by the user through the "blackbox" component option. The database management system supports the storage and manipulation of component data, output data, and solution control data through interactive edit screens. The simulation control and execution system initiates and controls the iterative solution process, displaying time status and any necessary diagnostic messages. In addition to these primary functions, the program provides three other important functional areas: 1) model output management, 2) system utility commands, and 3) user operations logic capacity. The model output management system provides tabular and graphical output capability. Complete fluid constituent mass fraction and properties data (mass flow, pressure, temperature

  4. Engineered Adjustment Classroom: The Instructional Assistant Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilker, George

    Described is the role of the teacher aide in the Papillion (Nebraska) Title III elementary level "engineered classroom" program which stresses accomplishment of academic goals by emotionally disturbed students. Noted is the aides' goal of carrying out students' prescriptions provided by the teacher and psychologist. Described are the aides' duties…

  5. Applied, theoretical modeling of space-based assembly, using expert system architecture for computer-aided engineering tool development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Steven Douglas

    1992-01-01

    The challenges associated with constructing interplanetary spacecraft and space platforms in low earth orbit are such that it is imperative that comprehensive, preliminary process planning analyses be completed before committing funds for Phase B design (detail design, development). Phase A and 'pre-Phase A' design activities will commonly address engineering questions such as mission-design structural integrity, attitude control, thermal control, etc. But the questions of constructability, maintainability and reliability during the assembly phase usually go unaddressed until the more mature stages of design (or very often production) are reached. This is an unacceptable strategy for future space missions whether they be government or commercial ventures. After interviews with expert Aerospace and Construction industry planners a new methodology was formulated and a Blackboard Metaphor Knowledge-based Expert System synthesis model has been successfully developed which can decompose interplanetary vehicles into deliverable orbital subassemblies. Constraint propagation, including launch vehicle payload shroud envelope, is accomplished with heuristic and numerical algorithms including a unique adaptation of a reasoning technique used by Stanford researchers in terrestrial automated process planning. The model is a hybrid combination of rule and frame-based representations, designed to integrate into a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) environment. Emphasis is placed on the actual joining, rendezvous, and refueling of the orbiting, dynamic spacecraft. Significant results of this new methodology upon a large Mars interplanetary spacecraft (736,000 kg) designed by Boeing, show high correlation to manual decomposition and planning analysis studies, but at a fraction of the time, and with little user interaction. Such Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools would greatly leverage the designers ability to assess constructability.

  6. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Morris, Macdonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks.

  7. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1996-11-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  8. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Lipshutz, R.J.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  9. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  10. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  11. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1996-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  12. Review of AIDS development. [airborne computers for reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermeulen, H. C.; Danielsson, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The operation and implementation of the aircraft integrated data system AIDS are described. The system is described as an engineering tool with strong emphasis on analysis of recorded information. The AIDS is primarily directed to the monitoring of parameters related to: the safety of the flight; the performance of the aircraft; the performance of the flight guidance system; and the performance and condition of the engines. The system provide short term trend analysis on a trend chart that is updated by the flight engineer on every flight that lasts more than 4 flight hours. Engine data prints are automatically presented during take-off and in the case of limit excedance, e.g., the print shows an automatically reported impending hotstarts on engine nr. 1. Other significant features are reported.

  13. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  14. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  15. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  16. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes. PMID:24704607

  17. PCACE-Personal-Computer-Aided Cabling Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    PCACE computer program developed to provide inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. Directly emulates typical manual engineering methods of handling data, thus making interface between user and program very natural. Apple version written in P-Code Pascal and IBM PC version of PCACE written in TURBO Pascal 3.0

  18. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  19. DOE workshop on computer-aided engineering. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The aims and objectives in organizing this workshop were to discuss the needs, activities, and plans for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) within the DOE Laboratories and major DOE contractors. The intent was to provide a forum for exchange of information and ideas, and to foster CAE communications among DOE Laboratories and contractors. This report abstracts each of the workshop subject areas. These areas were, CAE Overviews, Networking and Data Transfer, Integrated Circuits, Engineering Systems, Mechanical CAE and Systems, CAE Workstations and Tools, and Drafting and PCB Layouts.

  20. Computer Aids For Scientists And Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Maine, P. A. D.; de Maine, M. M.

    1989-03-01

    A General Expert Systems Package for Science and Engineering that is now being deve-loped consists of two Automatic Deductive, two Learning and eight Service Systems, each of which is an Expert System that can function independently. Operational prototypes exist for nine of the twelve systems. The Service Expert Systems perform operations that are common to many problems In science and engineering, such as high-speed information management, data compression, transporting high-level language code to different machine environments, curve-fitting and data description. The high-speed information management system, SOLID, which uses minimal storage, is both data (or information) and logically independent. SOLID executes all operations (retrieve, store, delete and update) at very high-speeds in bounded time. The data compression system, INTEGRAL, compresses and decompresses bit-strings at rates often in excess of 8 MBaud without loss of even a single significant binary-bit, to yield savings as high as 99.98%.

  1. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized. PMID:22692621

  2. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  3. PCACE- PERSONAL COMPUTER AIDED CABLING ENGINEERING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    A computerized interactive harness engineering program has been developed to provide an inexpensive, interactive system which is designed for learning and using an engineering approach to interconnection systems. PCACE is basically a database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. This directly emulates the typical manual engineering methods of data handling, thus making the user interface to the program very natural. Data files can be created, viewed, manipulated, or printed in real time. The printed ouput is in a form ready for use by fabrication and engineering personnel. PCACE also contains a wide variety of error-checking routines including connector contact checks during hardcopy generation. The user may edit existing harness data files or create new files. In creating a new file, the user is given the opportunity to insert all the connector and harness boiler plate data which would be part of a normal connector wiring diagram. This data includes the following: 1) connector reference designator, 2) connector part number, 3) backshell part number, 4) cable reference designator, 5) cable part number, 6) drawing revision, 7) relevant notes, 8) standard wire gauge, and 9) maximum circuit count. Any item except the maximum circuit count may be left blank, and any item may be changed at a later time. Once a file is created and organized, the user is directed to the main menu and has access to the file boiler plate, the circuit wiring records, and the wiring records index list. The organization of a file is such that record zero contains the connector/cable boiler plate, and all other records contain circuit wiring data. Each wiring record will handle a circuit with as many as nine wires in the interface. The record stores the circuit name and wire count and the following data for each wire: 1) wire identifier, 2) contact, 3) splice, 4) wire gauge if different from standard

  4. Computer-Aided Engineering Of Cabling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    Program generates data sheets, drawings, and other information on electrical connections. DFACS program, centered around single data base, has built-in menus providing easy input of, and access to, data for all personnel involved in system, subsystem, and cabling. Enables parallel design of circuit-data sheets and drawings of harnesses. Also recombines raw information to generate automatically various project documents and drawings, including index of circuit-data sheets, list of electrical-interface circuits, lists of assemblies and equipment, cabling trees, and drawings of cabling electrical interfaces and harnesses. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in, and gaining access to, functional definition of system as specified in terms of details of pin connections of end circuits of subsystems and instruments and data on harnessing. Primary objective to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding

  5. Financial Aid Unscrambled: A Guide for Minority Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Inc., New York, NY.

    Created to assist minority engineering students in locating adequate funding to finance a college education, this publication contains information students need to file for federal and state financial aid, to obtain and submit applications to college financial aid offices, to become aware of specific opportunities that exist for minorities and…

  6. Aided targeting system simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demaio, Joe; Becker, Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Simulation research was conducted at the Crew Station Research and Development Facility on the effectiveness and ease of use of three targeting systems. A manual system required the aviator to scan a target array area with a simulated second generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, locate and categorize targets, and construct a target hand-off list. The interface between the aviator and the system was like that of an advanced scout helicopter (manual mode). Two aided systems detected and categorized targets automatically. One system used only the FLIR sensor and the second used FLIR fused with Longbow radar. The interface for both was like that of an advanced scout helicopter aided mode. Exposure time while performing the task was reduced substantially with the aided systems, with no loss of target hand-off list accuracy. The fused sensor system showed lower time to construct the target hand-off list and a slightly lower false alarm rate than the other systems. A number of issues regarding system sensitivity and criterion, and operator interface design are discussed.

  7. Computer-aided engineering annual report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brockelsby, H.C. Jr.

    1990-03-01

    During calendar year 1989, EG G Idaho completed the initial procurement and implementation of a major new Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) system. Seventy new workstations and associated engineering applications were installed over 100 personal computers (PCs) were integrated into the environment, and communications links to the IBM mainframes and the Cray supercomputer were established. The system achieves integration through sophisticated data communications and application interfaces that allow data sharing across the entire environment. Applications available on the system facilitate engineering relate to full three-dimensional (3-D) piping, heating/ventilating/air conditioning (HAVC), structural and steel design, solids modeling and analysis, desktop publishing, design and drafting, and include automated links to various analysis codes on the Cray supercomputer. The system also provides commonly used engineering tools such as spreadsheets, language compilers, terminal emulation, and file transfer facilities. Although difficult to quantify, recent information has shown that projected annual productivity improvement to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) will be in excess of $2,000,000. This improvement will be generated in a variety of areas including improvement in the efficiency of individual users, checkplot production, data management, file transfers, plotting. design-analysis interfaces, and the benefit of full 3-D design. Current plans call for a significant expansion of the CAE system in 1990 with continued expansion through 1993. Additional workstations, system software and utilities, networking facilities and applications software will be procured and implemented. More than one hundred people will receive training on the various application packages during 1990. Efforts to extend networking throughout the INEL will be continued. 2 refs.

  8. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  9. Computer aided coordinate measuring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastri, J. W.

    Sikorsky's computer-aided inspection system and equipment utilized to assure that manufactured parts meet drawing tolerance specifications are discussed. An overview of the system is given, and the software is described, including the monitor console routine and commands and the language commands. The system's three coordinate measuring machines are discussed, and the part inspection methods are described in stepwise fashion. System benefits and time savings items are detailed, including quick and accurate measurement of parts difficult to inspect by conventional methods, significant reduction in inspection time, a consistent baseline that highlights variances, and the use of personnel with lower skill levels to effectively inspect critical parts.

  10. Engineering Review Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  11. HIGHWAY ENGINEERING AIDE, A SUGGESTED TRAINING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARNOLD, WALTER M.; AND OTHERS

    TO AID ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, TEACHER TRAINEES, AND TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF A POSTSECONDARY COURSE, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED PURSUANT TO A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION (USOE) CONTRACT BY THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. THE CONTENT COVERS -- (1) ORIENTATION AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS, (2) TECHNICAL MATHEMATICS, (3)…

  12. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  13. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  14. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  15. Integrated computer aided planning and manufacture of advanced technology jet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhas, B. K.; George, Chacko; Arul Raj, A.

    1987-10-01

    This paper highlights an attempt at evolving a computer aided manufacturing system on a personal computer. A case study of an advanced technology jet engine component is included to illustrate various outputs from the system. The proposed system could be an alternate solution to sophisticated and expensive CAD/CAM workstations.

  16. Engineering Aid 3 & 2, Vol. 2. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Benito C., Jr.

    Designed for individual study and not formal classroom instruction, this rate training manual provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational qualifications of the Engineering Aid (EA) rating. This volume contains 10 chapters which deal with: (1) wood and light frame structures (examining the uses, kinds, sizes, and grades of…

  17. Financial Aid for Minorities in Engineering and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett Park Press, MD.

    This directory of financial aid sources for minority students majoring in engineering or scientific fields includes the following types of information: (1) summary and description of the field, including college enrollment statistics, degrees awarded, demand for graduates (including salary ranges), and definitions of major fields; (2) directory of…

  18. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  19. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  20. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, F.F.; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T.

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  1. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  2. Program Aids Design Of Fluid-Circulating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, Allen; Dalee, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Computer Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) program is interactive software tool for trade study and analysis, designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. Graphics-based command-driven software package provides user-friendly computing environment in which engineer analyzes performance and interface characteristics of ECLS/ATC system. Useful during all phases of spacecraft-design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight analysis of anomalies. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  3. The development of a spreadsheet-aided-engineering design tool for parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Whinery, L.D.

    1997-04-01

    A spreadsheet-aided engineering design tool has been developed to assist in the parachute design process. The new tool was developed during FY96 and utilized in the design of the flight termination parachute system for a 1900 lb. payload. Many modifications were made during the initial utilization of this tool. Work on the tool continues as the authors attempt to create an application tool for the parachute engineer.

  4. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  5. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. As part of the NASA Technical Standards Program activities, engineering lessons learned datasets have been identified from a number of sources. These are being searched and screened for those having a relation to Technical Standards. This paper will address some of these Systems Engineering Lessons Learned and how they are being related to Technical Standards within the NASA Technical Standards Program, including linking to the Agency's Interactive Engineering Discipline Training Courses and the life cycle for a flight vehicle development program.

  6. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  7. Information and computer-aided system for structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrashevitch, Ju. G.; Nizametdinov, Sh. U.; Polkovnikov, A. V.; Rumjantzev, V. P.; Surina, O. N.; Kalinin, G. M.; Sidorenkov, A. V.; Strebkov, Ju. S.

    1992-09-01

    An information and computer-aided system for structural materials data has been developed to provide data for the fusion and fission reactor system design. It is designed for designers, industrial engineers, and material science specialists and provides a friendly interface in an interactive mode. The database for structural materials contains the master files: chemical composition, physical, mechanical, corrosion, technological properties, regulatory and technical documentation. The system is implemented on a PC/AT running the PS/2 operating system.

  8. Expert system prototype of food aid distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve efficiency of the food aid distribution process of international food relief organizations. An overall objective of this study was to develop a prototype expert system for monitoring and evaluating food aid by international disaster relief organizations. The research identifies data related to monitoring and evaluation processes of various international food-aid organizations. It then applies an artificial intelligence-based expert system to develop a prototype for those processes. Existing data related to monitoring and evaluation program cycles were obtained. An expert system shell called CLIPS(c) (National Aeronautics Space Administration) was used to develop a prototype system named Food Aid Monitor, a rule-based expert system, which uses facts and heuristic rules to provide an adaptive feedback regarding monitoring and evaluating processes at various stages of food aid operation. The Food Aid Monitor was evaluated and validated by three expert panels checking the prototype system for completeness, relevancy, consistency, correctness, precision, and use-ability. Finally, the panels indicated a belief that the system could have an overall positive impact on the stages of monitoring and evaluating food aid processes of the food relief organizations. PMID:17392088

  9. Enhancing Engineering Computer-Aided Design Education Using Lectures Recorded on the PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, Roy T. R.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) is a course that is required during the third year in the mechanical engineering curriculum at Binghamton University. The primary objective of the course is to educate students in the procedures of computer-aided engineering design. The solid modeling and analysis program Pro/Engineer[TM] (PTC[R]) is used as the…

  10. Computer-Aided Software Engineering - An approach to real-time software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1989-01-01

    A new software engineering discipline is Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE), a technology aimed at automating the software development process. This paper explores the development of CASE technology, particularly in the area of real-time/scientific/engineering software, and a history of CASE is given. The proposed software development environment for the Advanced Launch System (ALS CASE) is described as an example of an advanced software development system for real-time/scientific/engineering (RT/SE) software. The Automated Programming Subsystem of ALS CASE automatically generates executable code and corresponding documentation from a suitably formatted specification of the software requirements. Software requirements are interactively specified in the form of engineering block diagrams. Several demonstrations of the Automated Programming Subsystem are discussed.

  11. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  12. Caesy: A software tool for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matt

    1993-01-01

    A new software tool, Caesy, is described. This tool provides a strongly typed programming environment for research in the development of algorithms and software for computer-aided control system design. A description of the user language and its implementation as they currently stand are presented along with a description of work in progress and areas of future work.

  13. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  14. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  15. Systems engineering management plans.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Tamara S.

    2009-10-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is a comprehensive and effective tool used to assist in the management of systems engineering efforts. It is intended to guide the work of all those involved in the project. The SEMP is comprised of three main sections: technical project planning and control, systems engineering process, and engineering specialty integration. The contents of each section must be tailored to the specific effort. A model outline and example SEMP are provided. The target audience is those who are familiar with the systems engineering approach and who have an interest in employing the SEMP as a tool for systems management. The goal of this document is to provide the reader with an appreciation for the use and importance of the SEMP, as well as provide a framework that can be used to create the management plan.

  16. Developing Data System Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, J.; Byrnes, J. B.; Kobler, B.

    2011-12-01

    In the early days of general computer systems for science data processing, staff members working on NASA's data systems would most often be hired as mathematicians. Computer engineering was very often filled by those with electrical engineering degrees. Today, the Goddard Space Flight Center has special position descriptions for data scientists or as they are more commonly called: data systems engineers. These staff members are required to have very diverse skills, hence the need for a generalized position description. There is always a need for data systems engineers to develop, maintain and operate the complex data systems for Earth and space science missions. Today's data systems engineers however are not just mathematicians, they are computer programmers, GIS experts, software engineers, visualization experts, etc... They represent many different degree fields. To put together distributed systems like the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System (EOSDIS), staff are required from many different fields. Sometimes, the skilled professional is not available and must be developed in-house. This paper will address the various skills and jobs for data systems engineers at NASA. Further it explores how to develop staff to become data scientists.

  17. What is systems engineering?

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary process that ensures that the customers` needs are satisfied throughout a system`s entire life cycle. This process includes: understanding customer needs; stating the problem; specifying requirements; defining performance and cost measures, prescribing tests, validating requirements, conducting design reviews, exploring alternative concepts, sensitivity analyses, functional decomposition, system design, designing and managing interfaces, system integration, total system test, configuration management, risk management, reliability analysis; total quality management; project management; and documentation. Material for this paper was gathered from senior Systems Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Rotary engine cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  19. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  20. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  1. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  2. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  3. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned and technical standards. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. Systems Engineering has been defined (EINIS-632) as "an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and life-cycle balanced set of system people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs". Designing reliable space-based systems has always been a goal for NASA, and many painful lessons have been learned along the way. One of the continuing functions of a system engineer is to compile development and operations "lessons learned" documents and ensure their integration into future systems development activities. They can produce insights and information for risk identification identification and characterization. on a new project. Lessons learned files from previous projects are especially valuable in risk

  4. Precision analysis of passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years BD (BeiDou positioning system), an active satellite navigation system, has been widely applied in geodetic survey, precise engineering survey and GNC (guide, navigation and control system) of weapons because of its reliability and availability. However, it has several problems on the accuracy, anti-interference and active-positioning. A passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system is introduced in details in this paper. The configuration and the operating principle of system are presented. In analyzing the precision of location, one of the crucial aspects to be studied is how to determine the arrangement of the pseudolites to get the good GDOP, which is discussed in the different arrangements of the pseudolites in this paper. The simulation results show that the VDOP (vertical dilution of precision) of BD is improved due to introducing the pseudolites. The experiments indicate the validity of the methods and the improvement of the positioning precision in the BD aided pseudolite system.

  5. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  6. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF DIFFUSED AERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CADDAS (Computer Aided Design of Diffused Aeration Systems) is a microcomputer-based program that analyzes the cost and performance of diffused aeration used in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. The program can analyze both coarse bubble and fine pore diffusers as we...

  7. Computer-Aided Engineering Education at the K.U. Leuven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoeys, R.; Gobin, R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some recent initiatives and developments in the computer-aided design program in the engineering faculty of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). Provides a survey of the engineering curriculum, the computer facilities, and the main software packages available. (TW)

  8. AUV-aided Seafloor Geodetic Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Ura, T.; Fujita, M.; Colombo, O. L.; Sato, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Zheng, H.; Nagahashi, K.

    2007-12-01

    We launched a project supported by the Japan Society for the Science Promotion as the Grants in Aid for Scientific Research. In this project, we are aiming at developing new-generation seafloor geodetic observation system that conquers difficulties inherent with the current system. Central idea of this project is to utilize techniques of underwater robot (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and seafloor platform to make measurements in place of using the research vessels. Combination of underwater robot and seafloor platform make it possible to conduct the observation with selecting favorable condition of sea and GPS satellite distributions, to make much more frequent observations and to enable flexible planning of observation in response to sudden geodetic events. Trial model of the on-board and the seafloor units were finished. Space-saving design for the on-board unit, which controls both acoustic ranging system and GPS, was one of big issues to be overcome. We reviewed the current system configuration and made it simple. It was miniaturized, and then it was put into two cylinders. The cylinder No.1 contains the PHINS (IXSEA), an inertial navigation system based on fiber optic gyroscope technology. Another one, the cylinder No.2, contains the SF-2050M (NAVCOM Technology) GPS receiver and the acoustic ranging units. The original chassis of the SF-2050M was removed to minimize the volume of the unit and then only the electrical boards of the GPS receiver was installed into the cylinder No.2. There is no commercialized GPS antenna that can receive both L1 and L2 signals and has pressure capability of 2,000 m depth in the sea. Then we developed the pressure housing for the GPS antenna. The small size antenna corresponding to the L1 and L2 signals was installed in it. The transducer, for underwater acoustic ranging, employed on both the on-board and the seafloor units has been newly developed by Dr. Tom Ensign, Engineering acoustic Inc.. This transducer has a spherical

  9. Developing an SDK of usability-engineered handheld evaluation aid.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Polun

    2007-01-01

    Handheld devices are useful tools to collect date at practice settings. However, it takes time and is very challenging for healthcare professionals to design a usability-engineered system. This study is to upgrade our practically-proven easy to use and effective handheld systems to an SDK. The SDK are composed of Excel-based form designer and Palm-based template. We have successfully tested the prototype in developing a 407-question homecare evaluation support system. PMID:18694082

  10. Direction discriminating hearing aid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.; Ward, G.

    1991-01-01

    A visual display was developed for people with substantial hearing loss in either one or both ears. The system consists of three discreet units; an eyeglass assembly for the visual display of the origin or direction of sounds; a stationary general purpose noise alarm; and a noise seeker wand.

  11. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  12. Systems engineering and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, B.S.; Fabrycky, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    An introduction to systems is provided and tools for systems analysis are considered, taking into account system definitions and concepts, approaches for bringing systems into being, models in systems analysis, economic analysis techniques, mathematical modeling and optimization, probability and statistics, queuing theory and analysis, and control concepts and techniques. The system design process is discussed along with the design for operational feasibility, systems engineering management, and system design case studies. Attention is given to conceptual design, preliminary system design, detail design and development, system test and evaluation, design for reliability, design for maintainability, design for supportability, design for economic feasibility, communication system design, finite population system design, energy storage system design, and procurement-inventory system design.

  13. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  14. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  15. Data management for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. A.; Smith, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data flow through the design and manufacturing processes has established specific information management requirements and identified unique problems. The application of data management technology to the engineering/manufacturing environment addresses these problems. An overview of the IPAD prototype data base management system, representing a partial solution to these problems, is presented here.

  16. Engineering scalable biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast and mammalian systems. However, significant challenges in the construction, probing, modulation and debugging of synthetic biological systems must be addressed in order to achieve scalable higher-complexity biological circuits. Furthermore, concomitant efforts to evaluate the safety and biocontainment of engineered organisms and address public and regulatory concerns will be necessary to ensure that technological advances are translated into real-world solutions. PMID:21468204

  17. Integrated Intelligent training and job aiding for combustion turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeithan, Clifford M., Jr.; Quentin, George H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to augment such an expert system gas turbine startup advisor, known as the EPRI SA VANT System, by including an intelligent training package. It will give a brief background on the SA VANT development and an overview of its evolution into a full-blown Gas Turbine Information System (GTIS) for rapid access of on-line documentation, diagnostics, and training. In particular, the paper will address: (1) the conversion of the knowledge base used by the SA VANT startup advisor so that it can be used for both training and job aiding; and (2) the hypertext-oriented user manuals being incorporated into the system for rapidly accessing on-line documentation at the job site.

  18. Readings in Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This present collection was inspired by seven papers prepared by the NASA Alumni League, illustrating the members' systems engineering experience. These papers make up the heart of this collection. We have supplemented them with papers describing industry processes and other governmental practices to illustrate the diversity of systems engineering as it is formulated and practiced. This is one discipline that clearly benefits from cross-fertilization and infusion of new ideas. There is also a wide variety of tools and techniques described herein, some standard and some unique.

  19. Expert system aid for military finance

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.D.; Emrich, M.L.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Meador, M.

    1987-09-14

    Historically, budget preparation processes have been difficult to accomplish. Errors and inconsistencies cause problems for the analyst during budget review. This paper discusses the development and testing of an expert system to aid budget preparation. The prototyping tool, its capabilities, and their application are discussed. Shown are the pilot testing procedures and their role in system development. Current status and enhancements (including software updates and future testing) are also presented. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  1. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide general guidance and information on systems engineering that will be useful to the NASA community. It provides a generic description of Systems Engineering (SE) as it should be applied throughout NASA. A goal of the handbook is to increase awareness and consistency across the Agency and advance the practice of SE. This handbook provides perspectives relevant to NASA and data particular to NASA. The coverage in this handbook is limited to general concepts and generic descriptions of processes, tools, and techniques. It provides information on systems engineering best practices and pitfalls to avoid. There are many Center-specific handbooks and directives as well as textbooks that can be consulted for in-depth tutorials. This handbook describes systems engineering as it should be applied to the development and implementation of large and small NASA programs and projects. NASA has defined different life cycles that specifically address the major project categories, or product lines, which are: Flight Systems and Ground Support (FS&GS), Research and Technology (R&T), Construction of Facilities (CoF), and Environmental Compliance and Restoration (ECR). The technical content of the handbook provides systems engineering best practices that should be incorporated into all NASA product lines. (Check the NASA On-Line Directives Information System (NODIS) electronic document library for applicable NASA directives on topics such as product lines.) For simplicity this handbook uses the FS&GS product line as an example. The specifics of FS&GS can be seen in the description of the life cycle and the details of the milestone reviews. Each product line will vary in these two areas; therefore, the reader should refer to the applicable NASA procedural requirements for the specific requirements for their life cycle and reviews. The engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and

  2. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  3. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  4. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  5. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  6. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  7. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  8. Rocket engine condition monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagar, S.K.; Alcock, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected that the Rocket Engine Condition Monitoring System (RECMS) program will define engine monitoring technologies and an integration approach which can be applied to engine development in support of advanced launch system objectives. The RECMS program approaches engine monitoring as a system which is fully integrated with the engine controller, vehicle monitoring system, and ground processing systems to ensure mission success in addition to engine reliability. The system components are monitored through health and performance sensors; they are analyzed with the diagnostic and prognostic algorithms and demonstrated by system testing with hardware from other advanced development programs.

  9. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  10. Connectivity among computer-aided engineering methods, procedures, and tools used in developing the SSC collider magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kallas, N.; Jalloh, A.R.

    1992-03-01

    The accomplishment of functional productivity for the computer aided engineering (CAE) environment at the magnet engineering department (ME) of the magnet systems divisions (MSD) at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) involves most of the basic aspects of information engineering. It is highly desirable to arrive at a software and hardware topology that offers total, two-way (back and forth), automatic and direct software and hardware connectivity among computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), analysis codes, and office automation tools applicable to the disciplines involved. This paper describes the components, data flow, and practices employed in the development of the CAE environment from a systems engineering aspect rather than from the analytical angle. When appropriate, references to case studies are made in order to demonstrate the connectivity of the techniques used.

  11. Rapid Geometry Creation for Computer-Aided Engineering Parametric Analyses: A Case Study Using ComGeom2 for Launch Abort System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, Veronica; Gage, Peter; Manning, Ted

    2007-01-01

    ComGeom2, a tool developed to generate Common Geometry representation for multidisciplinary analysis, has been used to create a large set of geometries for use in a design study requiring analysis by two computational codes. This paper describes the process used to generate the large number of configurations and suggests ways to further automate the process and make it more efficient for future studies. The design geometry for this study is the launch abort system of the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle.

  12. Data engineering systems: Computerized modeling and data bank capabilities for engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopp, H.; Trettau, R.; Zolotar, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Data Engineering System (DES) is a computer-based system that organizes technical data and provides automated mechanisms for storage, retrieval, and engineering analysis. The DES combines the benefits of a structured data base system with automated links to large-scale analysis codes. While the DES provides the user with many of the capabilities of a computer-aided design (CAD) system, the systems are actually quite different in several respects. A typical CAD system emphasizes interactive graphics capabilities and organizes data in a manner that optimizes these graphics. On the other hand, the DES is a computer-aided engineering system intended for the engineer who must operationally understand an existing or planned design or who desires to carry out additional technical analysis based on a particular design. The DES emphasizes data retrieval in a form that not only provides the engineer access to search and display the data but also links the data automatically with the computer analysis codes.

  13. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  14. Adaptive environment classification system for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Luc; Giguère, Christian; Gueaieb, Wail; Aboulnasr, Tyseer; Othman, Hisham

    2010-05-01

    An adaptive sound classification framework is proposed for hearing aid applications. The long-term goal is to develop fully trainable instruments in which both the acoustical environments encountered in daily life and the hearing aid settings preferred by the user in each environmental class could be learned. Two adaptive classifiers are described, one based on minimum distance clustering and one on Bayesian classification. Through unsupervised learning, the adaptive systems allow classes to split or merge based on changes in the ongoing acoustical environments. Performance was evaluated using real-world sounds from a wide range of acoustical environments. The systems were first initialized using two classes, speech and noise, followed by a testing period when a third class, music, was introduced. Both systems were successful in detecting the presence of an additional class and estimating its underlying parameters, reaching a testing accuracy close to the target rates obtained from best-case scenarios derived from non-adaptive supervised versions of the classifiers (about 3% lower performance). The adaptive Bayesian classifier resulted in a 4% higher overall accuracy upon splitting adaptation than the minimum distance classifier. Merging accuracy was found to be the same in the two systems and within 1%-2% of the best-case supervised versions. PMID:21117761

  15. Improving radiation survey data using CADD/CAE (computer-aided design and drafting computer-aided engineering)

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, G.L.; Tarpinian, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new application of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup is improving the quality of radiation survey data taken in the plant. The use of CADD/CAE-generated survey maps has increased both the accuracy of survey data and the capability to perform analyses with these data. In addition, health physics technician manhours and radiation exposure can be reduced in situations where the CADD/CAE-generated drawings are used for survey mapping.

  16. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  17. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  18. Looking ahead in systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Donald S.

    1966-01-01

    Five areas that are discussed in this paper are: (1) the technological characteristics of systems engineering; (2) the analytical techniques that are giving modern systems work its capability and power; (3) the management, economics, and effectiveness dimensions that now frame the modern systems field; (4) systems engineering's future impact upon automation, computerization and managerial decision-making in industry - and upon aerospace and weapons systems in government and the military; and (5) modern systems engineering's partnership with modern quality control and reliability.

  19. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  20. Systems Engineering and Integration (SE and I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevers, ED; Haley, Sam

    1990-01-01

    The issue of technology advancement and future space transportation vehicles is addressed. The challenge is to develop systems which can be evolved and improved in small incremental steps where each increment reduces present cost, improves, reliability, or does neither but sets the stage for a second incremental upgrade that does. Future requirements are interface standards for commercial off the shelf products to aid in the development of integrated facilities; enhanced automated code generation system slightly coupled to specification and design documentation; modeling tools that support data flow analysis; and shared project data bases consisting of technical characteristics cast information, measurement parameters, and reusable software programs. Topics addressed include: advanced avionics development strategy; risk analysis and management; tool quality management; low cost avionics; cost estimation and benefits; computer aided software engineering; computer systems and software safety; system testability; and advanced avionics laboratories - and rapid prototyping. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  1. The state of PC-based CADD (computer-aided design and drafting) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, G.L.; Bowers, J.M.; Gorman, T.S.; Taylor, L.E.

    1988-07-11

    This report provides an overview of the state of the art of personal computer (PC)-based computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems for mechanical engineering applications. It presents the results of an evaluation performed on seven systems during October 1987 to March 1988 and summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the systems.

  2. Engineer's Refractive Effects Prediction System (EREPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitney, Herbert V.

    1989-09-01

    In recent years, electromagnetic tactical decision aids were developed to assess environmental effects on the performance of operational systems such as shipboard radars. In general, these systems have performed well and are now routinely used by operational forces to optimize their use of sensors and deployment of forces. In many cases, the existing tactical decision aid software was taken and used to assess the performance of proposed new sensors. Since the original software was not designed for this purpose, many deficiencies in such a use were soon identified. For example, most engineers prefer to graphically compare performance results as a single design parameter, such as radar pulse length, is varied over a range of possible values. Also, in designing a new system, one is usually more interested in the long-term statistical performance than in single-event performance that the tactical decision aids are normally designed to assess. The Engineer's Refractive Effects Prediction System (EREPS) is a recent development effort tailored to engineering uses and based on the propagation models of the Integrated Refractive Effects Prediction System (IREPS). EREPS is hosted on IBM PC computers for maximum availability to the engineering community, and was developed using interactive graphics displays for optimum comparison studies. The models are designed in such a way as to give results within a few seconds to allow multiple design trade-off studies to be easily performed. EREPS Revision 1.00 was distributed to interested users in the summer of 1988 and is currently being revised for a summer 1989 distribution. Existing and planned capabilities will be presented along with some examples of applications.

  3. Engineering the LISA Project: Systems Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Jordan P.

    2006-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint NASA/ESA mission to detect and measure gravitational waves with periods from 1 s to 10000 s. The systems engineering challenges of developing a giant interferometer, 5 million kilometers on a side, an: numerous. Some of the key challenges are presented in this paper. The organizational challenges imposed by sharing the engineering function between three centers (ESA ESTEC, NASA GSFC, and JPL) across nine time zones are addressed. The issues and approaches to allocation of the acceleration noise and measurement sensitivity budget terms across a traditionally decomposed system are discussed. Additionally, using LISA to detect gravitational waves for the first time presents significant data analysis challenges, many of which drive the project system design. The approach to understanding the implications of science data analysis on the system is also addressed.

  4. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. 121.333 Section 121.333... for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. (a... passenger cabin occupants. (3) For first-aid treatment of occupants who for physiological reasons...

  5. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. 121.333 Section 121.333... for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. (a... passenger cabin occupants. (3) For first-aid treatment of occupants who for physiological reasons...

  6. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. 121.333 Section 121.333... for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. (a... passenger cabin occupants. (3) For first-aid treatment of occupants who for physiological reasons...

  7. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. 121.333 Section 121.333... for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. (a... passenger cabin occupants. (3) For first-aid treatment of occupants who for physiological reasons...

  8. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. 121.333 Section 121.333... for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. (a... passenger cabin occupants. (3) For first-aid treatment of occupants who for physiological reasons...

  9. Computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H.; Jerath, Maya R.; Lewis, R. Stephen; Dillard, Bryan C.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Biomedical Engineering Laser Laboratory and the U.S. Air Force Academy's Department of Electrical Engineering are developing a computer-assisted prototype retinal photocoagulation system. The project goal is to rapidly and precisely automatically place laser lesions in the retina for the treatment of disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears while dynamically controlling the extent of the lesion. Separate prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion parameters (diameter or depth) using lesion reflectance feedback and lesion placement using retinal vessels as tracking landmarks. Successful subsystem testing results in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser are presented. A prototype integrated system design to simultaneously control lesion parameters and placement at clinically significant speeds is provided.

  10. The CSS Guide to Implementing Financial Aid Data Processing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, William D.; And Others

    The College Scholarship Service guide to implementing financial aid data processing systems is presented, based on conferences that promoted information exchange between data processing and financial aid administrators. The following topics are addressed: long-range planning, the rationale and organizational basis for financial aid, specific…

  11. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  12. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  13. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  14. Mammographic computer-aided detection systems.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    While mammography is regarded as the best means available to screen for breast cancer, reading mammograms is a tedious, error-prone task. Given the repetitiveness of the process and the fact that less than 1% of mammograms in the average screening population contain cancer, it's no wonder that a significant number of breast cancers--about 28%--are missed by radiologists. The fact that human error is such a significant obstacle makes mammography screening an ideal application for computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. CAD systems serve as a "second pair of eyes" to ensure that radiologists don't miss a suspect area on an image. They analyze patterns on a digitized mammographic image, identify regions that may contain an abnormality indicating cancer, and mark these regions. The marks are then inspected and classified by a radiologist. But CAD systems provide no diagnosis of any kind--it's up to the radiologist to analyze the marked area and decide if it shows cancer. In this Evaluation, we describe the challenges posed by screening mammography, the operating principles and overall efficacy of CAD systems, and the characteristics to consider when purchasing a system. We also compare the performance of two commercially available systems, iCAD's MammoReader and R2's ImageChecker. Because the two systems offer comparable sensitivity, our judgments are based on other performance characteristics, including their ease of use, the number of false marks they produce, the degree to which they can integrate with hospital information systems, and their processing speed. PMID:12760158

  15. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  16. Stirling engine heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

    1988-06-28

    A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

  17. Automatic engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, W.C.; Mirsaiidi, M.V.; Redfern, T.; Wolfe, D.W.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes an automatic control circuit for an internal combustion engine and clutch assembly. One component of this circuit is a timer for determining the time the engine is allowed to run and the clutch is engaged and a second period of time when the clutch is automatically disengaged. Associated with the timer is a starter means to start the engine during the first time period and a clutch actuating mechanism for engaging the clutch near the first time period initiation after the starter starts the engine. An engine shut down and clutch disengagement mechanism is also responsive to the first timer. The patent then goes on to describe a supplemental timer mechanism for determining a third and fourth period of time within the second time period such that the third period being when the engine is shut off and the fourth period being when the engine runs with clutch disengaged. The starter mechanism is responsive to the supplemental timer to start the engine at the beginning of the fourth period. A shut down means stops the engine at the beginning of the third period in response to the timer.

  18. Holographic aids for internal combustion engine flow studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Worldwide interest in improving the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (I.C.) engines has sparked research efforts designed to learn more about the flow processes of these engines. The flow fields must be understood prior to fuel injection in order to design efficient valves, piston geometries, and fuel injectors. Knowledge of the flow field is also necessary to determine the heat transfer to combustion chamber surfaces. Computational codes can predict velocity and turbulence patterns, but experimental verification is mandatory to justify their basic assumptions. Due to their nonintrusive nature, optical methods are ideally suited to provide the necessary velocity verification data. Optical sytems such as Schlieren photography, laser velocimetry, and illuminated particle visualization are used in I.C. engines, and now their versatility is improved by employing holography. These holographically enhanced optical techniques are described with emphasis on their applications in I.C. engines.

  19. ENGINEERING BULLETINS: AIDS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF REMEDIAL ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides the background for and an introduction to the new series of EPA documents called "Engineering Bulletins." ngineering Bulletins summarize the latest information available on selected waste treatment and contaminated site remediation technologies and related iss...

  20. Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Arnant P.

    2008-01-01

    The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

  1. An EHF telecommunication system engineering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Kenneth C.

    1987-11-01

    An extremely high frequency telecommunication system engineering model (ETSEM) was developed as an aid in the design of line-of-sight (LOS) communication systems from 10 to 100 GHz. ETSEM provides tabulation of path geometry parameters and analyzes ray path and Fresnel zone clearances to help the engineer design the path. ETSEM also predicts the performance (availability) of both digital and analog systems based on state-of-the-art EHF propagation models and equipment specifications. Attenuation by rain, clear air absorption and multipath are modeled. These are expected essentially to determine the statistics of link availability as limited by propagation impairments. Performance may be predicted by any interval of months of the year. A climatological data base for North America and Europe provides parameters for the propagation models. ETSEM has been implemented on a desk top computer. Weaknesses and limitations of the model are discussed.

  2. Design Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szulewski, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    Design-Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS) is a tool that assists in defining embedded computer systems through tree structured graphics, military standard documentation support, and various analyses including automated Software Science parameter counting and metrics calculation. These analyses provide both static and dynamic design quality feedback which can potentially aid in producing efficient, high quality software systems.

  3. System identification of jet engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, N.

    2000-01-01

    System identification plays an important role in advanced control systems for jet engines, in which controls are performed adaptively using data from the actual engine and the identified engine. An identification technique for jet engine using the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) is described. The filter is constructed for a two-spool turbofan engine. The CGEKF filter developed here can recognize parameter change in engine components and estimate unmeasurable variables over whole flight conditions. These capabilities are useful for an advanced Full Authority Digital Electric Control (FADEC). Effects of measurement noise and bias, effects of operating point and unpredicted performance change are discussed. Some experimental results using the actual engine are shown to evaluate the effectiveness of CGEKF filter.

  4. Systems engineering technology for networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The report summarizes research pursued within the Systems Engineering Design Laboratory at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University between May 16, 1993 and January 31, 1994. The project was proposed in cooperation with the Computational Science and Engineering Research Center at Howard University. Its purpose was to investigate emerging systems engineering tools and their applicability in analyzing the NASA Network Control Center (NCC) on the basis of metrics and measures.

  5. NASA systems engineering handbook. Draft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Aster, Robert; Bilardo, Vincent; Forsberg, Kevin; Hammond, Walter E.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou; Wade, Ron; Cassingham, Randy (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide information on systems engineering that will be useful to NASA system engineers, especially new ones. Its primary objective is to provide a generic description of systems engineering as it should be applied throughout NASA. Field Center Handbooks are encouraged to provide center-specific details of implementation. For NASA system engineers to choose to keep a copy of this handbook at their elbows, it must provide answers that cannot be easily found elsewhere. Consequently, it provides NASA-relevant perspectives and NASA-particular data. NASA management instructions (NMI's) are referenced when applicable. This handbook's secondary objective is to serve as a useful companion to all of the various courses in systems engineering that are being offered under NASA's auspices. The coverage of systems engineering is general to techniques, concepts, and generic descriptions of processes, tools, and techniques. It provides good systems engineering practices, and pitfalls to avoid. This handbook describes systems engineering as it should be applied to the development of major NASA product and producing systems.

  6. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  7. Automotive Stirling engine systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program is to develop a Stirling engine for automotive use that provides a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy relative to a comparable internal-combustion engine while meeting emissions goals. This paper traces the engine systems' development efforts focusing on: (1) a summary of engine system performance for all Mod I engines; (2) the development, program conducted for the upgraded Mod I; and (3) vehicle systems work conducted to enhance vehicle fuel economy. Problems encountered during the upgraded Mod I test program are discussed. The importance of the EPA driving cycle cold-start penalty and the measures taken to minimize that penalty with the Mod II are also addressed.

  8. Assembly design system based on engineering connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-05-01

    An assembly design system is an important part of computer-aided design systems, which are important tools for realizing product concept design. The traditional assembly design system does not record the connection information of production on the engineering layer; consequently, the upstream design idea cannot be fully used in the downstream design. An assembly design model based on the relationship of engineering connection is presented. In this model, all nodes are divided into two categories: The component and the connection. Moreover, the product is constructed on the basis of the connection relationship of the components. The model is an And/Or graph and has the ability to record all assembly schemes. This model records only the connection information that has engineering application value in the product design. In addition, this model can significantly reduce the number of combinations, and is very favorable for the assembly sequence planning in the downstream. The system contains a connection knowledge system that can be mapped to the connection node, and the connection knowledge obtained in practice can be returned to the knowledge system. Finally, VC++ 6.0 is used to develop a prototype system called Connect-based Assembly Planning (CAP). The relationship between the CAP system and the commercial assembly design system is also established.

  9. Inert gas spraying device aids in repair of hazardous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teleha, S.

    1965-01-01

    Inert gas spraying device aids in safely making mechanical repairs to a cryogenic fluid system without prior emptying of the system. This method can be applied to any natural or bottled gas system and with modifications to gasoline transports.

  10. IT Project Management and Systems Engineering Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardamone, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2009 I had the privilege of participating in the NASA INSPIRE program and during the summer of 2010 I was hired by ASRC Aerospace, a NASA contractor on the USTDC contract, as an Engineering Aide. These experiences combined inspired me to pursue a career in engineering and a goal to work as a NASA engineer and astronaut.

  11. Computer-aided designing of automatic process control systems for thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, A. V.

    2009-10-01

    The structure of modern microprocessor systems for automated control of technological processes at cogeneration stations is considered. Methods for computer-aided designing of the lower (sensors and actuators) and upper (cabinets of computerized automation equipment) levels of an automated process control system are proposed. The composition of project documents, the structures of a project database and database of a computer-aided design system, and the way they interact with one another in the course of developing the project of an automated process control system are described. Elements of the interface between a design engineer and computer program are shown.

  12. Intelligent tutoring systems for systems engineering methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Richard J.; Toland, Joel; Decker, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The general goal is to provide the technology required to build systems that can provide intelligent tutoring in IDEF (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing Definition Method) modeling. The following subject areas are covered: intelligent tutoring systems for systems analysis methodologies; IDEF tutor architecture and components; developing cognitive skills for IDEF modeling; experimental software; and PC based prototype.

  13. Accelerating Design of Batteries Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-11-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  14. Operation of a computer aided drafting system: improvements, results and hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Millaud, J.; Goulding, F.; Salz, P.; Shimada, K.

    1983-10-01

    A two workstation Computer Aided Drafting system has been in operation since September 1982 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Department of Instrument Science and Engineering. Improvements made to the original hardware and software configuration are described. Benefits from this installation are reported and future developments are outlined.

  15. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  16. Intelligent Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Ming

    2008-01-01

    A high bypass jet engine fan case represents one of the largest, heaviest single components in an engine. In addition to supporting the inlet and providing the fan flowpath, the most critical function is the containment of a failed fan blade. In this development program, a lightweight, low-cost composite containment case with diagnostic capabilities was developed, fabricated, and tested. The fan case design, containment methods, and diagnostic concepts evaluated in the initial Propulsion 21 program were improved and scaled up to a full case design.

  17. Engine Data Interpretation System (EDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cost, Thomas L.; Hofmann, Martin O.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype of an expert system was developed which applies qualitative or model-based reasoning to the task of post-test analysis and diagnosis of data resulting from a rocket engine firing. A combined component-based and process theory approach is adopted as the basis for system modeling. Such an approach provides a framework for explaining both normal and deviant system behavior in terms of individual component functionality. The diagnosis function is applied to digitized sensor time-histories generated during engine firings. The generic system is applicable to any liquid rocket engine but was adapted specifically in this work to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The system is applied to idealized data resulting from turbomachinery malfunction in the SSME.

  18. Incorporating Computer-Aided Software in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Core Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnaizy, Raafat; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Ibrahim, Taleb H.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.

    2014-01-01

    Introductions of computer-aided software and simulators are implemented during the sophomore-year of the chemical engineering (ChE) curriculum at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Our faculty concurs that software integration within the curriculum is beneficial to our students, as evidenced by the positive feedback received from industry…

  19. USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOL IN POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Process Engineering has become established in industry as a design tool. With the establishment of the CAPE-OPEN software specifications for process simulation environments. CAPE-OPEN provides a set of "middleware" standards that enable software developers to acces...

  20. National Science Foundation 1989 Engineering Senior Design Projects To Aid the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enderle, John D., Ed.

    Through the Bioengineering and Research to Aid the Disabled program of the National Science Foundation, design projects were awarded competitively to 16 universities. Senior engineering students at each of the universities constructed custom devices and software for disabled individuals. This compendium contains a description of each project in…

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) and process simulation tools has become established industry practice to predict simulation software, new opportunities are available for the creation of a wide range of ancillary tools that can be used from within multiple sim...

  2. Systems engineering for very large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  3. Systems Engineering, Quality and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2015-01-01

    AS9100 has little to say about how to apply a Quality Management System (QMS) to aerospace test programs. There is little in the quality engineering Body of Knowledge that applies to testing, unless it is nondestructive examination or some type of lab or bench testing. If one examines how the systems engineering processes are implemented throughout a test program; and how these processes can be mapped to AS9100, a number of areas for involvement of the quality professional are revealed.

  4. Automatic choke and starting aid for small two-cycle internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.A.; Hutchinson, M.A.; Baumbarger, G.L.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a starting aid for a small internal combustion engine having a carburetor, a carburetor bore operatively associated with the carburetor and defining a longitudinal axis, the bore having one end in communication with a source of combustion air and another end of the bore in communication with a piston cylinder of the internal combustion engine. It comprises: shaft means for selectively restricting flow of intake air into the engine, means for retaining the shaft means ins aid secondary bore, where the shaft means is prohibited from obstructing air intake into the carburetor bore, and the shaft means rotatable to a second position, where the shaft means obstructs air into the carburetor bore.

  5. System Engineering Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heise, James; Hull, Bethanne J.; Bauer, Jonathan; Beougher, Nathan G.; Boe, Caleb; Canahui, Ricardo; Charles, John P.; Cooper, Zachary Davis Job; DeShaw, Mark A.; Fontanella, Luan Gasparetto; Friel, Mark; Goebel, Katie; Grant, Alex Martinsdacosta; Graves, Matt; Harms, Ryan Andrew; Hill, Aren; Lsely, Kevin Lee; Jose, Sonia; Klein, Andrew; Kolstad, Lauren Wickham; Lamp, Daniel A.; Lindquist, Mariangela Martin; Lopes, Daniel da Paula; Lourens, Rob; Matthews, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa State University team, Team LunaCY, is composed of the following sub-teams: the main student organization, the Lunabotics Club; a senior mechanical engineering design course, ME 415; a senior multidisciplinary design course, ENGR 466; and a senior design course from Wartburg College in Waverly, Iowa. Team LunaCY designed and fabricated ART-E III, Astra Robotic Tractor- Excavator the Third, for the team's third appearance in the NASA Lunabotic Mining competition. While designing ART-E III, the team had four main goals for this year's competition:to reduce the total weight of the robot, to increase the amount of regolith simulant mined, to reduce dust, and to make ART-E III autonomous. After many designs and research, a final robot design was chosen that obtained all four goals of Team LunaCY. A few changes Team LunaCY made this year was to go to the electrical, computer, and software engineering club fest at Iowa State University to recruit engineering students to accomplish the task of making ART-E III autonomous. Team LunaCY chose to use LabView to program the robot and various sensors were installed to measure the distance between the robot and the surroundings to allow ART-E III to maneuver autonomously. Team LunaCY also built a testing arena to test prototypes and ART-E III in. To best replicate the competition arena at the Kennedy Space Center, a regolith simulant was made from sand, QuickCrete, and fly ash to cover the floor of the arena. Team LunaCY also installed fans to allow ventilation in the arena and used proper safety attire when working in the arena . With the additional practice in the testing arena and innovative robot design, Team LunaCY expects to make a strong appearance at the 2012 NASA Lunabotic Mining Competition. .

  6. New mechanization equations for aided inertial navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. F.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    Inertial navigation equations are developed which use area navigation (RNAV) waypoints and runway references as coodinate centers. The formulation is designed for aided inertial navigation systems and gives a high numerical accuracy through all phases of flight. A new formulation of the error equations for inertial navigation systems is also presented. This new formulation reduces numerical calculations in the use of Kalman filters for aided inertial navigation systems.

  7. Issues in microwave power systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    The key issues in microwave power system engineering are beam safety, frequency allocation, and affordability. These major issues are presented, discussed, and suggestions for resolving them are offered. The issue of beam safety can be captured in the phrase ``Fear of Frying.`` Can a properly engineered beamed power safety system allay the public perception of microwave radiation dangers? Openness, visibility, and education may be keys to resolving this issue satisfactorily. ``Not in my Spectrum`` is a phrase that is frequently encountered in connection with the issue of where can the microwave power beam frequency be located. International cooperation may provide a part of the solution to this issue. ``Wow, that much?`` is a phrase encountered when dealing with the issue of economic affordability of large beamed power systems. A phased engineering approach for multiple uses even during construction is presented to aid in garnering revenue during the system build phase. Also, dual mode dc-RF converters are encouraged for bi-directional power flow utility and economies of scale in production.

  8. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  9. Qualitative models for space system engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to investigate the implications of qualitative modeling techniques for problems arising in the monitoring, diagnosis, and design of Space Station subsystems and procedures; (2) to identify the issues involved in using qualitative models to enhance and automate engineering functions. These issues include representing operational criteria, fault models, alternate ontologies, and modeling continuous signals at a functional level of description; and (3) to develop a prototype collection of qualitative models for fluid and thermal systems commonly found in Space Station subsystems. Potential applications of qualitative modeling to space-systems engineering, including the notion of intelligent computer-aided engineering are summarized. Emphasis is given to determining which systems of the proposed Space Station provide the most leverage for study, given the current state of the art. Progress on using qualitative models, including development of the molecular collection ontology for reasoning about fluids, the interaction of qualitative and quantitative knowledge in analyzing thermodynamic cycles, and an experiment on building a natural language interface to qualitative reasoning is reported. Finally, some recommendations are made for future research.

  10. Fumaric Acid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by In Silico Aided Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoqiang; Zou, Wei; Chen, Xiulai; Xu, Nan; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Fumaric acid (FA) is a promising biomass-derived building-block chemical. Bio-based FA production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here we report on FA production by direct fermentation using metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aid of in silico analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model. First, FUM1 was selected as the target gene on the basis of extensive literature mining. Flux balance analysis (FBA) revealed that FUM1 deletion can lead to FA production and slightly lower growth of S. cerevisiae. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain obtained by deleting FUM1 can produce FA up to a concentration of 610±31 mg L–1 without any apparent change in growth in fed-batch culture. FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectra confirmed that FA was synthesized by the engineered S. cerevisiae strain. FBA identified pyruvate carboxylase as one of the factors limiting higher FA production. When the RoPYC gene was introduced, S. cerevisiae produced 1134±48 mg L–1 FA. Furthermore, the final engineered S. cerevisiae strain was able to produce 1675±52 mg L–1 FA in batch culture when the SFC1 gene encoding a succinate–fumarate transporter was introduced. These results demonstrate that the model shows great predictive capability for metabolic engineering. Moreover, FA production in S. cerevisiae can be efficiently developed with the aid of in silico metabolic engineering. PMID:23300594

  11. Intelligent Engine Systems: Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojno, John; Martens, Steve; Simpson, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive study of new fan exhaust nozzle technologies was performed. Three new uniform chevron nozzles were designed, based on extensive CFD analysis. Two new azimuthally varying variants were defined. All five were tested, along with two existing nozzles, on a representative model-scale, medium BPR exhaust nozzle. Substantial acoustic benefits were obtained from the uniform chevron nozzle designs, the best benefit being provided by an existing design. However, one of the azimuthally varying nozzle designs exhibited even better performance than any of the uniform chevron nozzles. In addition to the fan chevron nozzles, a new technology was demonstrated, using devices that enhance mixing when applied to an exhaust nozzle. The acoustic benefits from these devices applied to medium BPR nozzles were similar, and in some cases superior to, those obtained from conventional uniform chevron nozzles. However, none of the low noise technologies provided equivalent acoustic benefits on a model-scale high BPR exhaust nozzle, similar to current large commercial applications. New technologies must be identified to improve the acoustics of state-of-the-art high BPR jet engines.

  12. Engine NOx reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Berriman, L.P.; Zabsky, J.M.; Davis, J.W.; Hylton, W.H.

    1993-07-06

    Apparatus for use with an engine having a power-generating portion that burns a hydrocarbon fuel and air and produces hot exhaust gases is described, having a catalytic converter device that includes a catalyst for enhancing reactions of components of said exhaust gases, and having a conduit that couples said power-generating portion to said catalytic converter device, for reducing pollution in the exhaust, wherein said power-generating portion comprises a plurality of cylinders in which said fuel and air are burned, a mechanism for applying fuel and air to said cylinders, and a plurality of exhaust valves through which burned fuel and air is exhausted and which are connected to said upstream end of said conduit, said conduit including a manifold which is connected to a plurality of said exhaust valves and a downstream conduit portion which connects said manifold to said catalytic converter device, comprising: a device coupled to said conduit, which stores ammonia and injects it into said conduit at a location where the exhaust gases have a substantially maximum temperature, but which is devoid of open flames, to mix with said hot exhaust gases and pass with them along said conduit and then through said catalyst, said location being closer to said power-generating portion than to said catalytic converter and lying in said manifold.

  13. System integration of pattern recognition, adaptive aided, upper limb prostheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, J.; Freedy, A.; Solomonow, M.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for successful integration of a computer aided control system for multi degree of freedom artificial arms are discussed. Specifications are established for a system which shares control between a human amputee and an automatic control subsystem. The approach integrates the following subsystems: (1) myoelectric pattern recognition, (2) adaptive computer aiding; (3) local reflex control; (4) prosthetic sensory feedback; and (5) externally energized arm with the functions of prehension, wrist rotation, elbow extension and flexion and humeral rotation.

  14. An intelligent robotic aid system for human services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Bagchi, S.; Iskarous, M.; Pack, R. T.; Saad, A.

    1994-01-01

    The long term goal of our research at the Intelligent Robotic Laboratory at Vanderbilt University is to develop advanced intelligent robotic aid systems for human services. As a first step toward our goal, the current thrusts of our R&D are centered on the development of an intelligent robotic aid called the ISAC (Intelligent Soft Arm Control). In this paper, we describe the overall system architecture and current activities in intelligent control, adaptive/interactive control and task learning.

  15. Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

  16. Computer systems and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Charles W.

    1988-01-01

    The High Technologies Laboratory (HTL) was established in the fall of 1982 at the University of Houston Clear Lake. Research conducted at the High Tech Lab is focused upon computer systems and software engineering. There is a strong emphasis on the interrelationship of these areas of technology and the United States' space program. In Jan. of 1987, NASA Headquarters announced the formation of its first research center dedicated to software engineering. Operated by the High Tech Lab, the Software Engineering Research Center (SERC) was formed at the University of Houston Clear Lake. The High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center promotes cooperative research among government, industry, and academia to advance the edge-of-knowledge and the state-of-the-practice in key topics of computer systems and software engineering which are critical to NASA. The center also recommends appropriate actions, guidelines, standards, and policies to NASA in matters pertinent to the center's research. Results of the research conducted at the High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center have given direction to many decisions made by NASA concerning the Space Station Program.

  17. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computationmore » of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  18. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  19. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  20. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  1. Assess/Mitigate Risk through the Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to perform an independent assessment of the mitigation of the Constellation Program (CxP) Risk 4421 through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools. With the cancellation of the CxP, the assessment goals were modified to capture lessons learned and best practices in the use of CASE tools. The assessment goal was to prepare the next program for the use of these CASE tools. The outcome of the assessment is contained in this document.

  2. Security systems engineering overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

  3. Security systems engineering overview

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.).

  4. Hubble Space Telescope systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtalik, F. S.

    1988-01-01

    The role of systems engineering in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) development program at NASA Marshall is reviewed. The scientific objectives and overall characteristics of the HST are recalled, and particular attention is given to the early identification and correction of problems in the optical system, the pointing-control system (maneuvering and fine guidance), the rate-gyro assembly, reaction-wheel isolation, the battery reconditioning circuit, and optical cleanliness.

  5. Engineering intelligent tutoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Kimberly C.; Goodman, Bradley A.

    1993-01-01

    We have defined an object-oriented software architecture for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS's) to facilitate the rapid development, testing, and fielding of ITS's. This software architecture partitions the functionality of the ITS into a collection of software components with well-defined interfaces and execution concept. The architecture was designed to isolate advanced technology components, partition domain dependencies, take advantage of the increased availability of commercial software packages, and reduce the risks involved in acquiring ITS's. A key component of the architecture, the Executive, is a publish and subscribe message handling component that coordinates all communication between ITS components.

  6. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  7. Jet engine air intake system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

  8. Computer Jet-Engine-Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disbrow, James D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1992-01-01

    "Intelligent Computer Assistant for Engine Monitoring" (ICAEM), computer-based monitoring system intended to distill and display data on conditions of operation of two turbofan engines of F-18, is in preliminary state of development. System reduces burden on propulsion engineer by providing single display of summary information on statuses of engines and alerting engineer to anomalous conditions. Effective use of prior engine-monitoring system requires continuous attention to multiple displays.

  9. AIDS and international security in the United Nations System.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Two assumptions underpin much of the literature that has examined the links between HIV/AIDS and security: (1) that HIV/AIDS is now firmly established as an international security issue; and (2) that Resolution 1308, adopted by the UN Security Council in July 2000, was the decisive moment in the securitization process. This article questions both of those assumptions. It argues that even within the Security Council, HIV/AIDS' status as a bona fide threat to international peace and security is not entirely secure. Despite the fact that the Resolution was adopted unanimously, there is considerable doubt over the extent to which the Council members were persuaded that HIV/AIDS is genuinely a threat to international peace and security. Furthermore, the Council's subsequent actions suggest a retreat from the issue. The article moves on to examine statements made in and by some of the other key UN System bodies grappling with HIV/AIDS. Focusing in particular on the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and UNAIDS, it is argued that the international security framing of HIV/AIDS has not generally achieved a great deal of traction within these bodies. Alternative framings, in particular international development and human rights, occur far more frequently. This raises issues for our understanding of both securitization theory and the global governance of HIV/AIDS. PMID:20961950

  10. 2.0 AEDL Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Some engineering topics: Some Initial Thoughts. Capability Description. Capability State-of-the-Art. Capability Requirements. Systems Engineering. Capability Roadmap. Capability Maturity. Candidate Technologies. Metrics.

  11. Building America Systems Engineering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building America Research Teams use a systems engineering approach to achieve higher quality and energy savings in homes. Using these techniques, the energy consumption of new houses can be reduced by 40% or more with little or no impact on the cost of ownership.

  12. Fluid thrust control system. [for liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, W. L.; Jansen, H. B.; Lehmann, E. N. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A pure fluid thrust control system is described for a pump-fed, regeneratively cooled liquid propellant rocket engine. A proportional fluid amplifier and a bistable fluid amplifier control overshoot in the starting of the engine and take it to a predetermined thrust. An ejector type pump is provided in the line between the liquid hydrogen rocket nozzle heat exchanger and the turbine driving the fuel pump to aid in bringing the fluid at this point back into the regular system when it is not bypassed. The thrust control system is intended to function in environments too severe for mechanical controls.

  13. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  14. Management issues in systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Aster, Robert; Bilardo, Vincent; Forsberg, Kevin; Mooz, Hal; Polaski, Lou; Wade, Ron

    1993-01-01

    When applied to a system, the doctrine of successive refinement is a divide-and-conquer strategy. Complex systems are sucessively divided into pieces that are less complex, until they are simple enough to be conquered. This decomposition results in several structures for describing the product system and the producing system. These structures play important roles in systems engineering and project management. Many of the remaining sections in this chapter are devoted to describing some of these key structures. Structures that describe the product system include, but are not limited to, the requirements tree, system architecture and certain symbolic information such as system drawings, schematics, and data bases. The structures that describe the producing system include the project's work breakdown, schedules, cost accounts and organization.

  15. Management System for Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, Tomonari

    In the context of independent profession based societies, ethics charter/codes of professional bodies have significant influence on the conduct of engineers. Contrarily in Japan, most of active engineers are in-house and feel immediate identity as the member of firm or institution, rather than professional bodies. Therefore, establishment and operation of engineering ethics management system (E2ms) is essential for incentive to make innovative and ethical decision with confidence. The paper introduces the outline of the educational kit for E2ms developed by the author. The kit aims to enhance ability of management relevant to E2ms. The kit also involves ten cases for case method teaching. The test use of the kit indicates the potential to create satisfactory educational achievement.

  16. Gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  17. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  18. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Boland, Thomas; Trusk, Thomas; Forgacs, Gabor; Markwald, Roger R

    2003-04-01

    Tissue engineering technology promises to solve the organ transplantation crisis. However, assembly of vascularized 3D soft organs remains a big challenge. Organ printing, which we define as computer-aided, jet-based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, offers a possible solution. Organ printing involves three sequential steps: pre-processing or development of "blueprints" for organs; processing or actual organ printing; and postprocessing or organ conditioning and accelerated organ maturation. A cell printer that can print gels, single cells and cell aggregates has been developed. Layer-by-layer sequentially placed and solidified thin layers of a thermo-reversible gel could serve as "printing paper". Combination of an engineering approach with the developmental biology concept of embryonic tissue fluidity enables the creation of a new rapid prototyping 3D organ printing technology, which will dramatically accelerate and optimize tissue and organ assembly. PMID:12679063

  19. Computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisition/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined.

  20. Aerothermodynamic systems engineering and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A reference source for various aspects of aerothermodynamic systems engineering and design is presented. Air conditioning load analysis is addressed, including physiological requirements, heat and cooling load equations, skin temperature computational methods, cooling loads due to radiation through transparent areas, heating and cooling loads due to internal sources, and practical considerations in the determination of overall heating and cooling loads. Refrigeration system design is considered, including air cycle systems, vapor cycle systems, combined vapor cycle and air cycle systems, and thermoelectric cooling. Heating methods is heating system design and low pressure and high pressure systems in air distribution system design are addressed. Procedures and equations commonly used for aerospace applications of these technologies are included.

  1. The engineering of cybernetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2002-05-01

    This tutorial develops a logical basis for the engineering of systems that operate cybernetically. The term cybernetic system has a clear quantitative definition. It is a system that dynamically matches acquired information to selected actions relative to a computational issue that defines the essential purpose of the system or machine. This notion requires that information and control be further quantified. The logic of questions and assertions as developed by Cox provides one means of doing this. The design and operation of cybernetic systems can be understood by contrasting these kinds of systems with communication systems and information theory as developed by Shannon. The joint logic of questions and assertions can be seen to underlie and be common to both information theory as applied to the design of discrete communication systems and to a theory of discrete general systems. The joint logic captures a natural complementarity between systems that transmit and receive information and those that acquire and act on it. Specific comparisons and contrasts are made between the source rate and channel capacity of a communication system and the acquisition rate and control capacity of a general system. An overview is provided of the joint logic of questions and assertions and the ties that this logic has to both conventional information theory and to a general theory of systems. I-diagrams, the interrogative complement of Venn diagrams, are described as providing valuable reasoning tools. An initial framework is suggested for the design of cybernetic systems. Two examples are given to illustrate this framework as applied to discrete cybernetic systems. These examples include a predator-prey problem as illustrated through "The Dog Chrysippus Pursuing its Prey," and the derivation of a single-neuron system that operates cybernetically and is biologically plausible. Future areas of research are highlighted which require development for a mature engineering framework.

  2. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  3. A Complete Interactive Graphical Computer-Aided Instruction System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Steven Selby

    The use of interactive graphics in computer-aided instruction systems is discussed with emphasis placed on two requirements of such a system. The first is the need to provide the teacher with a useful tool with which to design and modify teaching sessions tailored to the individual needs and capabilities of the students. The second is the…

  4. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  5. User interface for integrated computer aided design systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was the development of a user interface and other appropriate tools to be used in Computer Aided Design systems which can integrate a wide variety of independently developed design and analysis tools. The interface was intended for the integration of programs to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace systems. A user's manual is included.

  6. A Model for Intelligent Computer-Aided Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Johan P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a model for intelligent computer-aided education systems that is based on cooperative learning, constructive problem-solving, object-oriented programming, interactive user interfaces, and expert system techniques. Future research is discussed, and a prototype for teaching mathematics to 10- to 12-year-old students is appended. (LRW)

  7. Information technology security system engineering methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

  8. Aid For Simulating Digital Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    DIVERS translator is computer program to convert descriptions of digital flight-control systems (DFCS) into computer program. Language developed to represent design charts of DFCS. Translator converts DIVERS source code into easily transportable language, while minimizing probability that results are affected by interpretation of programmer. Final translated program used as standard of comparison to verify operation of actual flight-control systems. Applicable to simulation of other control systems; for example, electrical circuits and logic processes. Written in C.

  9. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  10. Expert System Approach For Generating And Evaluating Engine Design Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Issa, Ghassan F.

    1989-03-01

    Artificial intelligence is becoming an increasingly important subject of study for computer scientists, engineering designers, as well as professionals in other fields. Even though AI technology is a relatively new discipline, many of its concepts have already found practical applications. Expert systems, in particular, have made significant contributions to technologies in such fields as business, medicine, engineering design, chemistry, and particle physics. This paper describes an expert system developed to aid the mechanical designer with the preliminary design of variable-stroke internal-combustion engines. The expert system accomplished its task by generating and evaluating a large number of design alternatives represented in the form of graphs. Through the application of structural and design rules directly to the graphs, optimal and near optimal preliminary design configurations of engines are deduced.

  11. Interactive graphical computer-aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    System is used for design, layout, and modification of large-scale-integrated (LSI) metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) arrays. System is structured around small computer which provides real-time support for graphics storage display unit with keyboard, slave display unit, hard copy unit, and graphics tablet for designer/computer interface.

  12. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, K.; Gorti, B.V.; McMullen, S.R.; Raibert, R.J.

    1998-05-12

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power. 8 figs.

  13. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, Kaushik; Gorti, Bhanuprasad Venkata; McMullen, Steven Robert; Raibert, Robert Joseph

    1998-01-01

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power.

  14. Solar dish/engine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar dish/engine systems convert the energy from the sun into electricity at a very high efficiency. Using a mirror array formed into the shape of a dish, the solar dish focuses the sun`s rays onto a receiver. The receiver transmits the energy to an engine that generates electric power. Because of the high concentration ratios achievable with parabolic dishes and the small size of the receiver, solar dishes are efficient at collecting solar energy at very high temperatures. Tests of prototype systems and components at locations throughout the US have demonstrated net solar to electric conversion efficiencies as high as 30%. This is significantly higher than any other solar technology.

  15. Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roat, S. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a single input/single output feedback control system design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Uses a heat exchanger temperature control loop to illustrate the various applications of the program. (ML)

  16. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  17. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1998-09-14

    PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes and has been ported to run on a PC. PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations.more » It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  18. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  19. Using the Computer in Systems Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, W.

    1970-01-01

    With the aid of the programmed computer, the systems designer can analyze systems for which certain components have not yet been manufactured or even invented, and the power of solution-technique is greatly increased. (IR)

  20. Integrated computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-05-01

    Successful retinal tracking subsystem testing results in vivo on rhesus monkeys using an argon continuous wave laser and an ultra-short pulse laser are presented. Progress on developing an integrated robotic retinal laser surgery system is also presented. Several interesting areas of study have developed: (1) 'doughnut' shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, (2) the optimal retinal field of view to achieve simultaneous tracking and lesion parameter control, and (3) a fully digital versus a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry integrated system implementation. These areas are investigated in detail in this paper. The hybrid system warrants a separate presentation and appears in another paper at this conference.

  1. Systems engineering: A problem of perception

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, M.

    1995-08-01

    The characterization of systems engineering as a discipline, process, procedure or a set of heuristics will have an impact on the implementation strategy, the training methodology, and operational environment. The systems engineering upgrade activities in the New Mexico Weapons Development Center and a search of systems engineering related information provides evidence of a degree of ambiguity in this characterization of systems engineering. A case is made in this article for systems engineering being the engineering discipline applied to the science of complexity. Implications of this characterization and some generic issues are delineated with the goal of providing an enterprise with a starting point for developing its business environment.

  2. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

  3. EXTENSION OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential of computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) tools to enable process engineers to improve the environmental performance of both their processes and across the life cycle (from cradle-to-grave) has long been proffered. However, this use of CAPE has not been fully ach...

  4. Multimedia Feedback Systems for Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwell, S.; Gottlieb, E.J.; McDonald, M.J.; Slutter, C.L.

    1998-12-15

    The World Wide Web has become a key tool for information sharing. Engineers and scientists are finding that the web is especially suited to publishing the graphical, multi-layered information that is typical of their work. Web pages are easier to distribute than hardcopy. Web movies have become more accessible, in many offices, than videos. Good VRML viewing software, bundled with most new PCs, has sufficient power to support many engineering needs. In addition to publishing information science and engineering has an important tradition of peer and customer review. Reports, drawings and graphs are typically printed, distributed, reviewed, marked up, and returned to the author. Adding review comments to paper is easy. When, however, the information is in electronic form, this ease of review goes away. It's hard to write on videos. It's even harder to write comments on animated 3D models. These feedback limitations reduce the value of the information overall. Fortunately, the web can also be a useful tool for collecting peer and customer review information. When properly formed, web reports, movies, and 3D animations can be readily linked to review notes. This paper describes three multimedia feed-back systems that Sandia National Laboratories has developed to tap that potential. Each system allows people to make context-sensitive comments about specific web content and electronically ties the comments back to the web content being referenced. The fuel system ties comments to specific web pages, the second system ties the comments to specific frames of digital movies, and the third ties the comments to specific times and viewpoints within 3D animations. In addition to the technologies, this paper describes how they are being used to support intelligent machine systems design at Sandia.

  5. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Novak, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of a computer-aided personalized system of instruction program in two undergraduate psychology courses. The computer presented short essay tests and arranged for students who had completed various assignments satisfactorily to help evaluate other students' mastery of those assignments. Student response generally was…

  6. Extended precision data types for the development of the original computer aided engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescaru, A.; Oanta, E.; Axinte, T.; Dascalescu, A.-D.

    2015-11-01

    Computer aided engineering is based on models of the phenomena which are expressed as algorithms. The implementations of the algorithms are usually software applications which are processing a large volume of numerical data, regardless the size of the input data. In this way, the finite element method applications used to have an input data generator which was creating the entire volume of geometrical data, starting from the initial geometrical information and the parameters stored in the input data file. Moreover, there were several data processing stages, such as: renumbering of the nodes meant to minimize the size of the band length of the system of equations to be solved, computation of the equivalent nodal forces, computation of the element stiffness matrix, assemblation of system of equations, solving the system of equations, computation of the secondary variables. The modern software application use pre-processing and post-processing programs to easily handle the information. Beside this example, CAE applications use various stages of complex computation, being very interesting the accuracy of the final results. Along time, the development of CAE applications was a constant concern of the authors and the accuracy of the results was a very important target. The paper presents the various computing techniques which were imagined and implemented in the resulting applications: finite element method programs, finite difference element method programs, applied general numerical methods applications, data generators, graphical applications, experimental data reduction programs. In this context, the use of the extended precision data types was one of the solutions, the limitations being imposed by the size of the memory which may be allocated. To avoid the memory-related problems the data was stored in files. To minimize the execution time, part of the file was accessed using the dynamic memory allocation facilities. One of the most important consequences of the

  7. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  8. Professional Issues in System Safety Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, John; Thomas, Martyn; Redmill, Felix

    For many years the profession of system safety engineering has been emerging. This paper argues that the time has now come when it requires recognition, a voice, proper governance and leadership. System safety engineering is an amalgam of many disciplines, in particular, software engineering, safety engineering and management, and systems engineering, and this paper shows that system safety engineering must address the most difficult aspects of all of these. But professional matters extend beyond merely technical considerations, and the paper concludes by showing why there is the need for a new professional body.

  9. Aid effectiveness in rebuilding the Afghan health system: a reflection.

    PubMed

    Dalil, Suraya; Newbrander, William; Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Naeem, Ahmad Jan; Griffin, James; Salama, Peter; Momand, Faiz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The Paris Declaration defined five components of aid effectiveness: ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and mutual accountability. Afghanistan, which has received a high level of donor aid for health since 2002, has seen significant improvements in health indicators, expanded access to health services and an increased range of services. Do the impressive health outcomes in this fragile state mean that aid has been effectively utilised? The factors that contributed to the success of the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH)-donor partnership include as follows: Ownership: a realistic role for the MOPH as the steward of the health sector that was clearly articulated to all stakeholders; Donor alignment: donor coordination and collaboration initiated by the MOPH; Joint decisions: participatory decision-making by the MOPH and donors, such as the major decision to use contracts with nongovernmental organisations for health service delivery; Managing for results: basing programmes on available evidence, supplementing that evidence where possible and performance monitoring of health-sector activities using multiple data sources; Reliable aid flows: the availability of sufficient donor funding for more than 10 years for MOPH priorities, such as the Basic Package of Health Services, and other programmes that boosted system development and capacity building; Human factors: these include a critical mass of individuals with the right experience and expertise being deployed at the right time and able to look beyond agency mandates and priorities to support sector reform and results. These factors, which made aid to Afghanistan effective, can be applied in other countries. PMID:24922192

  10. Aid effectiveness in rebuilding the Afghan health system: A reflection

    PubMed Central

    Dalil, Suraya; Newbrander, William; Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Naeem, Ahmad Jan; Griffin, James; Salama, Peter; Momand, Faiz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The Paris Declaration defined five components of aid effectiveness: ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and mutual accountability. Afghanistan, which has received a high level of donor aid for health since 2002, has seen significant improvements in health indicators, expanded access to health services and an increased range of services. Do the impressive health outcomes in this fragile state mean that aid has been effectively utilised? The factors that contributed to the success of the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH)-donor partnership include as follows: Ownership: a realistic role for the MOPH as the steward of the health sector that was clearly articulated to all stakeholders; Donor alignment: donor coordination and collaboration initiated by the MOPH; Joint decisions: participatory decision-making by the MOPH and donors, such as the major decision to use contracts with nongovernmental organisations for health service delivery; Managing for results: basing programmes on available evidence, supplementing that evidence where possible and performance monitoring of health-sector activities using multiple data sources; Reliable aid flows: the availability of sufficient donor funding for more than 10 years for MOPH priorities, such as the Basic Package of Health Services, and other programmes that boosted system development and capacity building; Human factors: these include a critical mass of individuals with the right experience and expertise being deployed at the right time and able to look beyond agency mandates and priorities to support sector reform and results. These factors, which made aid to Afghanistan effective, can be applied in other countries. PMID:24922192

  11. [Diseases of digestive system in patients with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Brbmolić, B; Jevtović, Dj; Ranin, J; Salemović, D; Zerjav, S

    1992-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are common and may relate to opportunistic inections and tumors, diseases which are usual in the anti-HIV negative population also, and disease of unknown aethiology, such as wasting syndrome and recurrent diarrhoeal illness. Diarrhoea and weight loss are found in more than 50% of patients with AIDS. Gastrointestinal manifestations range in severity from the discomfort of oral and perianal infections, through life threatening diarrhoea due to intestinal cryptosporidiosis. The approach to the patient with AIDS and gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary disorders is oriented toward diagnosing treatable aethiologies and avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures. Although the final prognosis of full developed AIDS is poor, management of gastrointestinal disease may be improved by accurate diagnosis. PMID:18170973

  12. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  13. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  14. Systems Engineering and Reusable Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, James M.; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    One concept for future space flights is to construct building blocks for a wide variety of avionics systems. Once a unit has served its original purpose, it can be removed from the original vehicle and reused in a similar or dissimilar function, depending on the function blocks the unit contains. For example: Once a lunar lander has reached the moon's surface, an engine controller for the Lunar Decent Module would be removed and used for a lunar rover motor control unit or for a Environmental Control Unit for a Lunar Habitat. This senior design project included the investigation of a wide range of functions of space vehicles and possible uses. Specifically, this includes: (1) Determining and specifying the basic functioning blocks of space vehicles. (2) Building and demonstrating a concept model. (3) Showing high reliability is maintained. The specific implementation of this senior design project included a large project team made up of Systems, Electrical, Computer, and Mechanical Engineers/Technologists. The efforts were made up of several sub-groups that each worked on a part of the entire project. The large size and complexity made this project one of the more difficult to manage and advise. Typical projects only have 3-4 students, but this project had 10 students from five different disciplines. This paper describes the difference of this large project compared to typical projects, and the challenges encountered. It also describes how the systems engineering approach was successfully implemented so that the students were able to meet nearly all of the project requirements.

  15. Engine systems analysis results of the Space Shuttle Main Engine redesigned powerhead initial engine level testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Erik J.; Gosdin, Dennis R.

    1992-07-01

    Engineers regularly analyze SSME ground test and flight data with respect to engine systems performance. Recently, a redesigned SSME powerhead was introduced to engine-level testing in part to increase engine operational margins through optimization of the engine internal environment. This paper presents an overview of the MSFC personnel engine systems analysis results and conclusions reached from initial engine level testing of the redesigned powerhead, and further redesigns incorporated to eliminate accelerated main injector baffle and main combustion chamber hot gas wall degradation. The conclusions are drawn from instrumented engine ground test data and hardware integrity analysis reports and address initial engine test results with respect to the apparent design change effects on engine system and component operation.

  16. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-04-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  17. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  18. Cold starting system for alcohol fueled engine

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, T.M.

    1983-04-26

    To restart an alcohol fueled engine at low temperatures, a quantity of liquid ethanol is supplied to a vaporizing chamber before the engine is stopped. When restarting the engine, some of the alcohol in the vaporizing chamber is delivered to an igniter, and the hot gases resulting from the burning alcohol are conducted past the vaporizing chamber to evaporate the liquid alcohol remaining in the vaporizing chamber. The alcohol vapor thus generated is conducted to the engine induction system to start the engine.

  19. Systems Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Shin, Jae Ho; Cho, Jae Sung; Yang, Dongsoo; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-05-01

    Systems metabolic engineering, which recently emerged as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering, allows engineering of microorganisms on a systemic level for the production of valuable chemicals far beyond its native capabilities. Here, we review the strategies for systems metabolic engineering and particularly its applications in Escherichia coli. First, we cover the various tools developed for genetic manipulation in E. coli to increase the production titers of desired chemicals. Next, we detail the strategies for systems metabolic engineering in E. coli, covering the engineering of the native metabolism, the expansion of metabolism with synthetic pathways, and the process engineering aspects undertaken to achieve higher production titers of desired chemicals. Finally, we examine a couple of notable products as case studies produced in E. coli strains developed by systems metabolic engineering. The large portfolio of chemical products successfully produced by engineered E. coli listed here demonstrates the sheer capacity of what can be envisioned and achieved with respect to microbial production of chemicals. Systems metabolic engineering is no longer in its infancy; it is now widely employed and is also positioned to further embrace next-generation interdisciplinary principles and innovation for its upgrade. Systems metabolic engineering will play increasingly important roles in developing industrial strains including E. coli that are capable of efficiently producing natural and nonnatural chemicals and materials from renewable nonfood biomass. PMID:27223822

  20. A review of HIV/AIDS system-level interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Tross, Susan; Ehrhardt, Anke A.

    2010-01-01

    The escalating HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide demands that on-going prevention efforts be strengthened, disseminated, and scaled-up. System-level interventions refer to programs aiming to improve the functioning of an agency as well as the delivery of its services to the community. System-level interventions are a promising approach to HIV/AIDS prevention because they focus on (a) improving the agency’s ability to adopt evidence-based HIV prevention and care programs; (b) develop and establish policies and procedures that maximize the sustainability of on-going prevention and care efforts; and (c) improve decision-making processes such as incorporating the needs of communities into their tailored services. We reviewed studies focusing on system-level interventions by searching multiple electronic abstracting indices, including PsycInfo, PubMed, and ProQuest. Twenty-three studies out of 624 peer-reviewed studies (published from January 1985 to February 2007) met study criteria. Most of the studies focused on strengthening agency infrastructure, while other studies included collaborative partnerships and technical assistance programs. Our findings suggest that system-level interventions are promising in strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment efforts. Based on our findings, we propose recommendations for future work in developing and evaluating system-level interventions. PMID:18369722

  1. The Use of a Parametric Feature Based CAD System to Teach Introductory Engineering Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Steven K.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of a parametric-feature-based computer-aided design (CAD) System, AutoCAD Designer, in teaching concepts of three dimensional geometrical modeling and design. Allows engineering graphics to go beyond the role of documentation and communication and allows an engineer to actually build a virtual prototype of a design idea and…

  2. Biodehalogenation: Natural and engineered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wackett, L.P.; Lange, C.C.; Ornstein, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Many halogenated organic compounds are environmentally persistent pollutants. Environmental persistence results from the failure of most microorganisms to metabolize organohalides. The authors are studying some of the microbial successes, natural isolates that catalyze carbon-halogen bond cleavage reactions, and subsequent recycling of the compounds into the carbon cycle. Knowledge derived from studies of naturally evolved genes and enzymes provides a basis for directed laboratory evolution of new biological systems that are active with the most environmentally persistent polyhalogenated compounds. The complete metabolism of polyhalogenated compounds typically requires sequential reductive and oxidative dehalogenation reactions. The authors genetically constructed a Pseudomonas putida strain containing seven genes encoding two multicomponent enzyme systems, i.e., cytochrome P450{sub CAM} and toluene dioxygenase. This laboratory-designed metabolic pathway catalyzed sequential reductive and oxidative dehalogenation reactions with fluorinated, chlorinated, and brominated compounds. Current efforts are focused on directed evolution experiments to improve the efficacy of the engineered pathway.

  3. Engine valve operating system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S.; Matsumoto, Y.; Matayoshi, Y.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an engine valve operating system for an internal combustion engine. The system consists of: a driving cam rotatable in timed relation to engine revolution; a rocker arm having a first end section drivingly connected to an engine valve and a second end section drivably connected to the driving cam; an elongated lever pivoted at a first end section and disposed in fulcrum contact with the rocker arm; an apparatus for biasing the rocker arm and the lever away from each other; and a hydraulic actuator having a movable end section which is in contact with a second end section of the lever and movable to control the pivotal location of the lever in accordance with an engine operating condition.

  4. Systems engineering in the global environment : a wicked future.

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Regina M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses the following questions: (1) What are the Global Problems that require Systems Engineering; (2) Where is Systems Engineering going; (3) What are the boundaries of Systems Engineering; (4) What is the distinction between Systems Thinking and Systems Engineering; (5) Can we use Systems Engineering on Complex Systems; and (6) Can we use Systems Engineering on Wicked Problems?

  5. Enhancement of acetoin production in Candida glabrata by in silico-aided metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetoin is a promising chemical compound that can potentially serve as a high value-added platform for a broad range of applications. Many industrial biotechnological processes are moving towards the use of yeast as a platform. The multi-auxotrophic yeast, Candida glabrata, can accumulate a large amount of pyruvate, but produces only trace amounts of acetoin. Here, we attempted to engineer C. glabrata to redirect the carbon flux of pyruvate to increase acetoin production. Results Based on an in silico strategy, a synthetic, composite metabolic pathway involving two distinct enzymes, acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC), was constructed, leading to the accumulation of acetoin in C. glabrata. Further genetic modifications were introduced to increase the carbon flux of the heterologous pathway, increasing the production of acetoin to 2.08 g/L. Additionally, nicotinic acid was employed to regulate the intracellular NADH level, and a higher production of acetoin (3.67 g/L) was obtained at the expense of 2,3-butanediol production under conditions of a lower NADH/NAD+ ratio. Conclusion With the aid of in silico metabolic engineering and cofactor engineering, C. glabrata was designed and constructed to improve acetoin production. PMID:24725668

  6. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  7. RDD-100 and the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averill, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    An effective systems engineering approach applied through the project life cycle can help Langley produce a better product. This paper demonstrates how an enhanced systems engineering process for in-house flight projects assures that each system will achieve its goals with quality performance and within planned budgets and schedules. This paper also describes how the systems engineering process can be used in combination with available software tools.

  8. Engine sealing and lubrication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1975-01-01

    Engine sealing programs are discussed which are directed toward the two major classes of engine seals: engine shaft seals and primary gas path seals. In addition, some concepts and results from fundamental lubrication research, as it pertains to the lubrication of bearings, are presented.

  9. Cognitive engineering models in space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA space systems, including mission operations on the ground and in space, are complex, dynamic, predominantly automated systems in which the human operator is a supervisory controller. Models of cognitive functions in complex systems are needed to describe human performance and form the theoretical basis of operator workstation design, including displays, controls, and decision aids. Currently, there several candidate modeling methodologies. They include the Rasmussen abstraction/aggregation hierarchy and decision ladder, the goal-means network, the problem behavior graph, and the operator function model. The research conducted under the sponsorship of this grant focuses on the extension of the theoretical structure of the operator function model and its application to NASA Johnson mission operations and space station applications. The initial portion of this research consists of two parts. The first is a series of technical exchanges between NASA Johnson and Georgia Tech researchers. The purpose is to identify candidate applications for the current operator function model; prospects include mission operations and the Data Management System Testbed. The second portion will address extensions of the operator function model to tailor it to the specific needs of Johnson applications. At this point, we have accomplished two things. During a series of conversations with JSC researchers, we have defined the technical goal of the research supported by this grant to be the structural definition of the operator function model and its computer implementation, OFMspert. Both the OFM and OFMspert have matured to the point that they require infrastructure to facilitate use by researchers not involved in the evolution of the tools. The second accomplishment this year was the identification of the Payload Deployment and Retrieval System (PDRS) as a candidate system for the case study. In conjunction with government and contractor personnel in the Human-Computer Interaction Lab

  10. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  11. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  12. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  13. Automotive Stirling engine system component review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindes, Chip; Stotts, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The design and testing of the power and combustion control system for the basic Stirling engine, Mod II, are examined. The power control system is concerned with transparent operation, and the Mod II uses engine working gas pressure variation to control the power output of the engine. The main components of the power control system, the power control valve, the pump-down system, and the hydrogen stable system, are described. The combustion control system consists of a combustion air supply system and an air/fuel ratio control system, and the system is to maintain constant heater head temperature, and to maximize combustion efficiency and to minimize exhaust emissions.

  14. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  15. Expert systems to aid in wind farm operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schluter, L. L.; Nateghian, F.; Luger, G. F.

    1991-12-01

    An expert system is a knowledge-based program that provides solutions to problems in a specific domain by mimicking the behavior of a human expert. Expert systems can have several advantages over traditional programming methods; however, developing an expert system generally involves a considerable amount of time and money. Therefore, careful investigation must be done to ensure that a problem is suited for an expert system application. This paper examines several areas where an expert system may help wind farm operators lower their operational costs. Justifications for using expert systems rather than traditional programming methods are given. This paper also discusses some of the design decisions that were made in developing an expert system for US Windpower that will aid in diagnosing wind turbine failures.

  16. Relations between information system engineering and software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. D.; Hartsough, C.; Morris, R. V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines some of the relations between information system engineering and software engineering. A model for the development process of an information system is presented that focuses on problems common to both disciplines. The concepts of complexity, multiplicity of view, distortion in communication, and concurrency and iteration in implementation are treated. A set of design constructs for the description of an information system is presented. The role of project management is treated. The issue of how to characterize requirements analysis is answered by making it a design activity from the point of view of a user of the product system.

  17. New Structural-Dynamics Module for Offshore Multimember Substructures within the Wind Turbine Computer-Aided Engineering Tool FAST: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-08-01

    FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is a computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool for aero-hydro-servo-elastic analysis of land-based and offshore wind turbines. This paper discusses recent upgrades made to FAST to enable loads simulations of offshore wind turbines with fixed-bottom, multimember support structures (e.g., jackets and tripods, which are commonly used in transitional-depth waters). The main theory and strategies for the implementation of the multimember substructure dynamics module (SubDyn) within the new FAST modularization framework are introduced. SubDyn relies on two main engineering schematizations: 1) a linear frame finite-element beam (LFEB) model and 2) a dynamics system reduction via Craig-Bampton's method. A jacket support structure and an offshore system consisting of a turbine atop a jacket substructure were simulated to test the SubDyn module and to preliminarily assess results against results from a commercial finite-element code.

  18. CAMRAD - COMPUTER AIDED MATERIAL REVIEW AUTOMATED DISPOSITION SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The basic function of a manufacturer's production support engineering unit is to identify, document, and dispose of hardware that does not conform to drawing requirements. CAMRAD, a program designed for rapid input and retrieval of all data used in engineering-to-manufacturing support operations, aids the engineer by automating the material review disposition process. Before CAMRAD, material review record searches were manual. The time spent searching through old documents precluded the timely disposition of new material reviews. CAMRAD facilitates the research of material review histories and provides for the efficient processing of material review documents. Three SmartWare project files control the operation of CAMRAD. The project file CAMRAD initializes variables for the other project files and specifies the pathing of the CAMRAD program, database files, and document files. The project file DATARAD controls all data management functions. The database consists of individual files containing all records of specific hardware discrepancies for a given part number. There are four basic avenues for records searches: part serial number, feature, Material Review (MR) number, and non-conformance. WORDRAD is the project file which controls the management of document files created when processing a material review disposition. Given a material review report identifying a defective hardware item, the production support engineer can use CAMRAD to quickly search the database for any history of the same problem, find out how well the problem has been documented, and create appropriate documentation for this latest occurrence. CAMRAD is written in the Smart Programming Language and is designed to run on IBM PC compatibles with the SmartWare v. 3.1 software package available from Informix Software. CAMRAD was developed in 1987. SmartWare is a registered trademark of Informix Software, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

  19. Earth Systems Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D A

    2006-02-21

    Providing the essential energy and water systems to support human needs while understanding and addressing their environmental consequences is a watershed problem for the 21st century. The LLNL Earth System Science and Engineering Program seeks to provide the scientific understanding and technological expertise to help provide solutions at both global and regional scales. Our work is highly collaborative with universities, laboratories and industrial partners across the world and involves observational data, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years have resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially abrupt, even catastrophic global climate change. The climate and energy problem is perhaps the greatest challenge ever faced by mankind. Fossil fuel remains the least expensive and most available source of energy and the basis of our economy. The use of fossil fuels, especially over the last 100 years has led to a 30% increase in CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The problem is growing. The population of the Earth will increase by several billion people in the next 50 years. If economic growth is to continue, the demand for energy is estimated to approximately double in the next 50 years so that we will need approximately 10 TW more energy than the 15 TW we use now. Much of this demand will come from the developing world where most of the population growth will occur and where advanced energy technology is not generally used. The problem affects and is affected by a complex system of systems. The climate and energy problem will affect resources, social structure and the probability of increased conflict. No one person, no one nation, no one technology can solve the problem. There is no

  20. Engine Structures Modeling Software System (ESMOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Engine Structures Modeling Software System (ESMOSS) is the development of a specialized software system for the construction of geometric descriptive and discrete analytical models of engine parts, components, and substructures which can be transferred to finite element analysis programs such as NASTRAN. The NASA Lewis Engine Structures Program is concerned with the development of technology for the rational structural design and analysis of advanced gas turbine engines with emphasis on advanced structural analysis, structural dynamics, structural aspects of aeroelasticity, and life prediction. Fundamental and common to all of these developments is the need for geometric and analytical model descriptions at various engine assembly levels which are generated using ESMOSS.

  1. ATK Launch Systems Engineering NASA Programs Engineering Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, David

    2007-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work done at ATK Launch Systems with and indication of how engineering knowledge can be applied to several real world problems. All material in the presentation has been screened to meet ITAR restrictions. The information provided is a compilation of general engineering knowledge and material available in the public domain. The presentation provides an overview of ATK Launch Systems and NASA programs. Some discussion is provided about the types of engineering conducted at the Promontory plant with added detail about RSRM nozzle engineering. Some brief examples of examples of nozzle technical issues with regard to adhesives and phenolics are shared. These technical issue discussions are based on material available in the public domain.

  2. Effect of image variation on computer-aided detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, S. P.; Maduskar, P.; Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Hogeweg, L.; van Ginneken, B.

    2014-03-01

    As the importance of Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems application is rising in medical imaging field due to the advantages they generate; it is essential to know their weaknesses and try to find a proper solution for them. A common possible practical problem that affects CAD systems performance is: dissimilar training and testing datasets declines the efficiency of CAD systems. In this paper normalizing images is proposed, three different normalization methods are applied on chest radiographs namely (1) Simple normalization (2) Local Normalization (3) Multi Band Local Normalization. The supervised lung segmentation CAD system performance is evaluated on normalized chest radiographs with these three different normalization methods in terms of Jaccard index. As a conclusion the normalization enhances the performance of CAD system and among these three normalization methods Local Normalization and Multi band Local normalization improve performance of CAD system more significantly than the simple normalization.

  3. Model-Based Systems Engineering in Concurrent Engineering Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Curtis; Infeld, Samantha; Bracken, Jennifer Medlin; McGuire; McQuirk, Christina; Kisdi, Aron; Murphy, Jonathan; Cole, Bjorn; Zarifian, Pezhman

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering Centers (CECs) are specialized facilities with a goal of generating and maturing engineering designs by enabling rapid design iterations. This is accomplished by co-locating a team of experts (either physically or virtually) in a room with a focused design goal and a limited timeline of a week or less. The systems engineer uses a model of the system to capture the relevant interfaces and manage the overall architecture. A single model that integrates other design information and modeling allows the entire team to visualize the concurrent activity and identify conflicts more efficiently, potentially resulting in a systems model that will continue to be used throughout the project lifecycle. Performing systems engineering using such a system model is the definition of model-based systems engineering (MBSE); therefore, CECs evolving their approach to incorporate advances in MBSE are more successful in reducing time and cost needed to meet study goals. This paper surveys space mission CECs that are in the middle of this evolution, and the authors share their experiences in order to promote discussion within the community.

  4. Model-Based Systems Engineering in Concurrent Engineering Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Curtis; Infeld, Samatha; Bracken, Jennifer Medlin; McGuire, Melissa; McQuirk, Christina; Kisdi, Aron; Murphy, Jonathan; Cole, Bjorn; Zarifian, Pezhman

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering Centers (CECs) are specialized facilities with a goal of generating and maturing engineering designs by enabling rapid design iterations. This is accomplished by co-locating a team of experts (either physically or virtually) in a room with a narrow design goal and a limited timeline of a week or less. The systems engineer uses a model of the system to capture the relevant interfaces and manage the overall architecture. A single model that integrates other design information and modeling allows the entire team to visualize the concurrent activity and identify conflicts more efficiently, potentially resulting in a systems model that will continue to be used throughout the project lifecycle. Performing systems engineering using such a system model is the definition of model-based systems engineering (MBSE); therefore, CECs evolving their approach to incorporate advances in MBSE are more successful in reducing time and cost needed to meet study goals. This paper surveys space mission CECs that are in the middle of this evolution, and the authors share their experiences in order to promote discussion within the community.

  5. Tank waste remediation system engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rifaey, S.H.

    1998-01-09

    This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline. Further, this plan describes the approach for moving from the ``as is`` condition of engineering practice, systems, and facilities to the desired ``to be`` configuration. To make this transition, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering will become a center of excellence for TWRS which,will perform engineering in the most effective manner to meet the mission. TWRS engineering will process deviations from sitewide systems if necessary to meet the mission most effectively.

  6. A systematic framework for computer-aided design of engineering rubber formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Prasenjeet

    This thesis considers the design of engineering rubber formulations, whose unique properties of elasticity and resilience enable diverse applications. Engineering rubber formulations are a complex mixture of different materials called curatives that includes elastomers, fillers, crosslinking agents, accelerators, activators, retarders, anti-oxidants and processing aids, where the amount of curatives must be adjusted for each application. The characterization of the final properties of the rubber in application is complex and depends on the chemical interplay between the different curatives in formulation via vulcanization chemistry. The details of the processing conditions and the thermal, deformational, and chemical environment encountered in application also have a pronounced effect on the performance of the rubber. Consequently, for much of the history of rubber as an engineering material, its recipe formulations have been developed largely by trial-and-error, rather than by a fundamental understanding. A computer-aided, systematic and automated framework for the design of such materials is proposed in this thesis. The framework requires the solution to two sub-problems: (a) the forward problem, which involves prediction of the desired properties when the formulation is known and (b) the inverse problem that requires identification of the appropriate formulation, given the desired target properties. As part of the forward model, the chemistry of accelerated sulfur vulcanization is reviewed that permits integration of the knowledge of the past five decades in the literature to answer some old questions, reconcile some of the contradicting mechanisms and present a holistic description of the governing chemistry. Based on this mechanistic chemistry, a fundamental kinetic model is derived using population balance equations. The model quantitatively describes, for the first time, the different aspects of vulcanization chemistry. Subsequently, a novel three

  7. System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

  8. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In…

  9. Implementing an integrated engineering data base system: A developer's experience and the application to IPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The software developed by the IPAD project, a new and very powerful tool for the implementation of integrated Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems in the aerospace engineering community, is discussed. The IPAD software is a tool and, as such, can be well applied or misapplied in any particular environment. The many benefits of an integrated CAD system are well documented, but there are few such systems in existence, especially in the mechanical engineering disciplines, and therefore little available experience to guide the implementor.

  10. Computer simulation of engine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The use of computerized simulations of the steady state and transient performance of jet engines throughout the flight regime is discussed. In addition, installation effects on thrust and specific fuel consumption is accounted for as well as engine weight, dimensions and cost. The availability throughout the government and industry of analytical methods for calculating these quantities are pointed out.

  11. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John

    1992-01-01

    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  12. Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence: The Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As NASA undertakes increasingly complex projects, the need for expert systems engineers and leaders in systems engineering is becoming more pronounced. As a result of this issue, the Agency has undertaken an initiative to develop more systems engineering leaders through its Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program; however, the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer has also called on the field Centers to develop mechanisms to strengthen their expertise in systems engineering locally. In response to this call, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a comprehensive development program for aspiring systems engineers and systems engineering leaders. This presentation will summarize the two-level program, which consists of a combination of training courses and on-the-job, developmental training assignments at the Center to help develop stronger expertise in systems engineering and technical leadership. In addition, it will focus on the success the program has had in its pilot year. The program hosted a formal kickoff event for Level I on October 13, 2009. The first class includes 42 participants from across MSFC and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). A formal call for Level II is forthcoming. With the new Agency focus on research and development of new technologies, having a strong pool of well-trained systems engineers is becoming increasingly more critical. Programs such as the Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, as well as those developed at other Centers, help ensure that there is an upcoming generation of trained systems engineers and systems engineering leaders to meet future design challenges.

  13. EHF (Extremely High Frequency) telecommunications system engineering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, K. C.

    1986-04-01

    An EHF Telecommunication System Engineering Model (ETSEM) has been developed as an aid in the design of line-of-sight (LOS) communication systems from 10 to 100 GHz. ETSEM provides tabulation of path geometry parameters and analyzes ray-path and Fresnel zone clearances to help the engineer design the path. ETSEM also predicts the performance (availability) of both digital and analog systems based on state-of-the-art EHF propagation models and equipment specifications. Attenuation by rain, clear-air absorption, and multipath are modeled. These are expected to essentially determine the statistics of link availability as limited by propagation impairments. Performance may be predicted for any interval of months of the year. A climatological data base for North America and Europe provides parameters for the propagation models. ETSEM has been implemented on a desk-top computer. Weaknesses and limitations of the model are discussed and improvements are suggested.

  14. System Study for Axial Vane Engine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badley, Patrick R.; Smith, Michael R.; Gould, Cedric O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this engine feasibility study was to determine the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating positive displacement axial vane compression and expansion stages into high bypass turbofan engines. These positive-displacement stages would replace some or all of the conventional compressor and turbine stages in the turbine engine, but not the fan. The study considered combustion occurring internal to an axial vane component (i.e., Diesel engine replacing the standard turbine engine combustor, burner, and turbine); and external continuous flow combustion with an axial vane compressor and an axial vane turbine replacing conventional compressor and turbine systems.

  15. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold-rolling material and Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 were selected as typical hot-rolling and cold-rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape-rolling process were developed. These models utilize the upper-bound and the slab methods of analysis, and are capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll-separating force, roll torque and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design (CAD) system is also capable of simulating the actual rolling process and thereby designing roll-pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or similar shape. The predictions from the CAD system were verified with respect to cold rolling of mild steel plates. The system is being applied to cold and hot isothermal rolling of an airfoil shape, and will be verified with respect to laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.

  16. Computer-aided reliability estimation. [for fault-tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiffler, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-aided reliability estimation (CARE) programs are developed to improve the tools available for estimating the reliability of fault-tolerant systems. A description is presented of a program, called CARE II, which was developed after the first program reported by Mathur (1971). Attention is given to the CARE II reliability model, the CARE II coverage model, and CARE II limitations which are to be rectified in CARE III. It is pointed out that the present coverage model in CARE II is extremely versatile. The major limitation is related to the burden placed on the user to determine the basic parameters from which the coverage calculations are made.

  17. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Sarfaty, R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility`s physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables.

  18. Dynamic systems-engineering process - The application of concurrent engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, Michael J.; Pittman, R. Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A system engineering methodology is described which enables users, particulary NASA and DOD, to accommodate changing needs; incorporate emerging technologies; identify, quantify, and manage system risks; manage evolving functional requirements; track the changing environment; and reduce system life-cycle costs. The approach is a concurrent, dynamic one which starts by constructing a performance model defining the required system functions and the interrelationships. A detailed probabilistic risk assessment of the system elements and their interrelationships is performed, and quantitative analysis of the reliability and maintainability of an engineering system allows its different technical and process failure modes to be identified and their probabilities to be computed. Decision makers can choose technical solutions that maximize an objective function and minimize the probability of failure under resource constraints.

  19. Towards Requirements in Systems Engineering for Aerospace IVHM Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Health management (HM) technologies have been employed for safety critical system for decades, but a coherent systematic process to integrate HM into the system design is not yet clear. Consequently, in most cases, health management resorts to be an after-thought or 'band-aid' solution. Moreover, limited guidance exists for carrying out systems engineering (SE) on the subject of writing requirements for designs with integrated vehicle health management (IVHM). It is well accepted that requirements are key to developing a successful IVHM system right from the concept stage to development, verification, utilization, and support. However, writing requirements for systems with IVHM capability have unique challenges that require the designers to look beyond their own domains and consider the constraints and specifications of other interlinked systems. In this paper we look at various stages in the SE process and identify activities specific to IVHM design and development. More importantly, several relevant questions are posed that system engineers must address at various design and development stages. Addressing these questions should provide some guidance to systems engineers towards writing IVHM related requirements to ensure that appropriate IVHM functions are built into the system design.

  20. Engine health monitoring: An advanced system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, R. J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.

  1. Computer graphics application in the engineering design integration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Abel, R. W.; Hirsch, G. N.; Alford, G. E.; Colquitt, W. N.; Stewart, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The computer graphics aspect of the Engineering Design Integration (EDIN) system and its application to design problems were discussed. Three basic types of computer graphics may be used with the EDIN system for the evaluation of aerospace vehicles preliminary designs: offline graphics systems using vellum-inking or photographic processes, online graphics systems characterized by direct coupled low cost storage tube terminals with limited interactive capabilities, and a minicomputer based refresh terminal offering highly interactive capabilities. The offline line systems are characterized by high quality (resolution better than 0.254 mm) and slow turnaround (one to four days). The online systems are characterized by low cost, instant visualization of the computer results, slow line speed (300 BAUD), poor hard copy, and the early limitations on vector graphic input capabilities. The recent acquisition of the Adage 330 Graphic Display system has greatly enhanced the potential for interactive computer aided design.

  2. Modern Medical Engineering and Health Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the impact of medical engineering and system design on hospital design and construction, health care in the home and hospital, equipment design, information systems, and health resources utilization. (GS)

  3. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  4. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  5. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

  6. The Brain in AIDS: Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection and AIDS Dementia Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the complicated infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in its late stages of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. Explains the syndrome's development of abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. (TW)

  7. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  8. Engine Data Interpretation System (EDIS), phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cost, Thomas L.; Hofmann, Martin O.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype of an expert system was developed which applies qualitative constraint-based reasoning to the task of post-test analysis of data resulting from a rocket engine firing. Data anomalies are detected and corresponding faults are diagnosed. Engine behavior is reconstructed using measured data and knowledge about engine behavior. Knowledge about common faults guides but does not restrict the search for the best explanation in terms of hypothesized faults. The system contains domain knowledge about the behavior of common rocket engine components and was configured for use with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). A graphical user interface allows an expert user to intimately interact with the system during diagnosis. The system was applied to data taken during actual SSME tests where data anomalies were observed.

  9. Visualizing systems engineering data with Java

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, Robert H.; Vinzant, Aleta

    1998-11-10

    Systems Engineers are required to deal with complex sets of data. To be useful, the data must be managed effectively, and presented in meaningful terms to a wide variety of information consumers. Two software patterns are presented as the basis for exploring the visualization of systems engineering data. The Model, View, Controller pattern defines an information management system architecture. The Entity, Relation, Attribute pattern defines the information model. MVC "Views" then form the basis for the user interface between the information consumer and the MVC "Controller"/"Model" combination. A Java tool set is described for exploring alternative views into the underlying complex data structures encountered in systems engineering.

  10. An evaluation of expert systems for software engineering management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Connie Loggia; Basili, Victor R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of four separate prototype expert systems to aid in software engineering management is described. Given the values for certain metrics, these systems provide interpretations which explain any abnormal patterns of these values during the development of a software project. The four expert systems, which solve the same problem, were built using two different approaches to knowledge acquisition, a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach, and two different expert system methods, rule-based deduction and frame-based abduction. In a comparison to see which methods might better suit the needs of this field, it was found that the bottom-up approach led to better results than did the top-down approach, and the rule-based deduction systems using simple rules provided more complete and correct solutions than did the frame-based abduction systems.

  11. Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) Simulator Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarlane, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The simulation process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the SES. The Simulator Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their engineering personnel in simulation planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the simulation process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, facility interfaces, and inputs necessary to define scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  12. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units. PMID:22900432

  13. Comparative study of auxetic geometries by means of computer-aided design and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez Elipe, Juan Carlos; Díaz Lantada, Andrés

    2012-10-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several auxetic and potentially auxetic geometries have been summarized in previous reviews and research, precise information regarding relevant properties for design tasks is not always provided. In this study we present a comparative study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional auxetic geometries carried out by means of computer-aided design and engineering tools (from now on CAD-CAE). The first part of the study is focused on the development of a CAD library of auxetics. Once the library is developed we simulate the behavior of the different auxetic geometries and elaborate a systematic comparison, considering relevant properties of these geometries, such as Poisson ratio(s), maximum volume or area reductions attainable and equivalent Young’s modulus, hoping it may provide useful information for future designs of devices based on these interesting structures.

  14. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  15. Systems Engineering and Integration for Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kruss J.

    2006-01-01

    The Architecture, Habitability & Integration group (AH&I) is a system engineering and integration test team within the NASA Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) at Johnson Space Center. AH&I identifies and resolves system-level integration issues within the research and technology development community. The timely resolution of these integration issues is fundamental to the development of human system requirements and exploration capability. The integration of the many individual components necessary to construct an artificial environment is difficult. The necessary interactions between individual components and systems must be approached in a piece-wise fashion to achieve repeatable results. A formal systems engineering (SE) approach to define, develop, and integrate quality systems within the life support community has been developed. This approach will allow a Research & Technology Program to systematically approach the development, management, and quality of technology deliverables to the various exploration missions. A tiered system engineering structure has been proposed to implement best systems engineering practices across all development levels from basic research to working assemblies. These practices will be implemented through a management plan across all applicable programs, projects, elements and teams. While many of the engineering practices are common to other industries, the implementation is specific to technology development. An accounting of the systems engineering management philosophy will be discussed and the associated programmatic processes will be presented.

  16. An engineering code to analyze hypersonic thermal management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vangriethuysen, Valerie J.; Wallace, Clark E.

    1993-11-01

    This paper will describe an effort that is underway within the Advanced Propulsion Division of the Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate at Wright Patterson AFB to develop an engineering computer code to aid in the development of hypersonic thermal management systems. The goal of the Vehicle Integrated Thermal Management Code (VITMAC), is to thermally model the entire thermal management system on an integrated basis for an entire vehicle. A further goal is for it to be a stand-alone code. In other words, to predict the aerodynamic heating on the vehicle surface during the trajectory, to the heat loads from the propulsion system, subsystems and avionics, and to the heat transfer through the structure and insulation. In addition, VITMAC will be able to model the flow of the coolant through the network. All this is to determine if the vehicle is thermally balanced and if there are any areas in risk of melting or thermal degradation. The code also has the option to accept user data for aerodynamic heating, heat loads and user-specific components. To aid the user while inputting the vehicle configuration, geometry, components, and 'plumbing' data, a graphical user interface is being incorporated within te code. This will enable the user, even those with little experience in the area, with the aid of a mouse, to literally see the network on the screen as it is being inputted. This capability will speed up the input process, particularly for complex systems, as well as aid in error detection. This paper will further discuss the architecture of VITMAC. Also discussed will be its developmental status and capabilities, computer system that supports the code, its relevancy to other types of vehicles and applications, expansion capability and future plans.

  17. Congeneration system with a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.; Meijer, E.J.; Godett, T.M.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a cogeneration system for producing process heat for useful purposes and electric energy. It comprises an electric generator; a Stirling cycle engine having an output shaft operatively coupled to the generator for driving the generator, the engine including at least one internal fuel combustor; means for circulating a cooling liquid about the generator and engine to extract heat therefrom; an exhaust system coupled with the engine for exhausting combustion gases from the engine, the exhaust system including a condensing heat exchanger for cooling the combustion gases below the condensing, temperature of the water vapor in the exhaust gases; means for directing the cooling liquid around the condensing heat exchanger to extract heat therefrom and heat the liquid; and means for directing the cooling liquid for useful purposes.

  18. Systems engineering: A formal approach. Part 1: System concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhee, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    Engineering is the scientific discipline focused on the creation of new artifacts that are supposed to be of some use to our society. Different types of artifacts require different engineering approaches. However, in all these disciplines the development of a new artifact is divided into stages. Three stages can always be recognized: Analysis, Design, and Realization. The book considers only the first two stages of the development process. It focuses on a specific type of artifacts, called discrete dynamic systems. These systems consist of active components of actors that consume and produce passive components or tokens. Three subtypes are studied in more detail: business systems (like a factory or restaurant), information systems (whether automated or not), and automated systems (systems that are controlled by an automated information system). The first subtype is studied by industrial engineers, the last by software engineers and electrical engineers, whereas the second is a battlefield for all three disciplines. The union of these disciplines is called systems engineering.

  19. Performance Engineering as an Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Considers three powerful techniques--heuristics, context trees, and search via backward chaining--that a knowledge engineer might employ to develop an expert system to automate performance engineering, i.e., the branch of instructional technology that focuses on the problems of business and industry. (MBR)

  20. Process Systems Engineering Education: Learning by Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, A.; Alhammadi, H. Y.; Romagnoli, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our approach in teaching the final-year course Process Systems Engineering. Students are given ownership of the course by transferring to them the responsibility of learning. A project-based group environment stimulates learning while solving a real engineering problem. We discuss postgraduate student involvement and how…

  1. System safety in Stirling engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Stirling Engine Project Office has required that contractors make safety considerations an integral part of all phases of the Stirling engine development program. As an integral part of each engine design subtask, analyses are evolved to determine possible modes of failure. The accepted system safety analysis techniques (Fault Tree, FMEA, Hazards Analysis, etc.) are applied in various degrees of extent at the system, subsystem and component levels. The primary objectives are to identify critical failure areas, to enable removal of susceptibility to such failures or their effects from the system and to minimize risk.

  2. Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.

  3. System engineering toolbox for design-oriented engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Everhart, K.; Stevens, R.; Babbitt, N., III; Clemens, P.; Stout, L.

    1994-01-01

    This system engineering toolbox is designed to provide tools and methodologies to the design-oriented systems engineer. A tool is defined as a set of procedures to accomplish a specific function. A methodology is defined as a collection of tools, rules, and postulates to accomplish a purpose. For each concept addressed in the toolbox, the following information is provided: (1) description, (2) application, (3) procedures, (4) examples, if practical, (5) advantages, (6) limitations, and (7) bibliography and/or references. The scope of the document includes concept development tools, system safety and reliability tools, design-related analytical tools, graphical data interpretation tools, a brief description of common statistical tools and methodologies, so-called total quality management tools, and trend analysis tools. Both relationship to project phase and primary functional usage of the tools are also delineated. The toolbox also includes a case study for illustrative purposes. Fifty-five tools are delineated in the text.

  4. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  5. A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, William R.

    2001-12-10

    The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools.

  6. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F

    2015-12-15

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3' UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. PMID:26552885

  7. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D.; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3′ UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. PMID:26552885

  8. Intelligent Engine Systems: Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the application of the baseline Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm to the control of main fuel flow rate (WF36), variable bleed valve (AE24) and variable stator vane (STP25) control of a simulated high-bypass turbofan engine. Using reference trajectories for thrust and turbine inlet temperature (T41) generated by a simulated new engine, we have examined MPC for tracking these two reference outputs while controlling a deteriorated engine. We have examined the results of MPC control for six different transients: two idle-to-takeoff transients at sea level static (SLS) conditions, one takeoff-to-idle transient at SLS, a Bode power command and reverse Bode power command at 20,000 ft/Mach 0.5, and a reverse Bode transient at 35,000 ft/Mach 0.84. For all cases, our primary focus was on the computational effort required by MPC for varying MPC update rates, control horizons, and prediction horizons. We have also considered the effects of these MPC parameters on the performance of the control, with special emphasis on the thrust tracking error, the peak T41, and the sizes of violations of the constraints on the problem, primarily the booster stall margin limit, which for most cases is the lone constraint that is violated with any frequency.

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis system for lung tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Inaoka, Noriko; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a computerized system of tumor detection for lung cancer diagnosis. Through the ten years study, we developed some key algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis. The most important algorithm is a filter to detect suspicious shadows of tumor on a plain chest x-ray image. The filter is named directional contrast filter for nodule (DCF-N). The DCF-N is highly sensitive to ambiguous shadows such as malignant tumors. And we developed a rule- based system to eliminate false-positive shadows. In our study, the system was effective to eliminate shadows of blood vessels and ribs which were primary groups of false-positives. Our current research is focusing on the development of the automatic tumor detection system for lung cancer examination by using CT images. In this paper, we discuss whether the system for plain chest x-ray images can apply to spiral CT images within a malignant tumor, which are reconstructed at 2 mm or 5 mm slice thickness. About a trial case, although the DCF-N can detect the malignant tumor, some false-positives are also detected. As to the analysis of the shadows, which are detected by the DCF-N, the major false-positives are blood vessels shadows. Therefore, the rule to eliminate blood vessels shadows in the rule-base for plain x- ray images is also effective for the CT images.

  10. A Computer-Aided Detection System for Digital Chest Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; García-Mateos, Ginés; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Hernández-Hernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided detection systems aim at the automatic detection of diseases using different medical imaging modalities. In this paper, a novel approach to detecting normality/pathology in digital chest radiographs is proposed. The problem tackled is complicated since it is not focused on particular diseases but anything that differs from what is considered as normality. First, the areas of interest of the chest are found using template matching on the images. Then, a texture descriptor called local binary patterns (LBP) is computed for those areas. After that, LBP histograms are applied in a classifier algorithm, which produces the final normality/pathology decision. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal, with success rates above 87% in the best cases. Moreover, our technique is able to locate the possible areas of pathology in nonnormal radiographs. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are described in the Conclusions. PMID:27372536

  11. Quicklist: The basis for a computer aided logic design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lushbaugh, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Quicklist, a preprocessor for an existing wire list program that cuts the description of the wire list by about 67 percent over previous methods, is described. Quicklist uses two different methods to shorten the input data. The first of these is the use of parentheses to allow a compact way of describing signal names which increment (or decrement) by one, i.e., typical signal names in a bus. The other method used is the equal sign. Using this symbol in a signal list says that the rest of the signals on that chip are the same as those on the previous chip described. Quicklist is intended to be the basis of a computer aided logic design system.

  12. AAHM 2012: Systems Engineer Leading the Way

    NASA Video Gallery

    Marco Midon, who is visually impaired, is highlighted for NASA's Black History Month. He is the Lead Systems Engineer who oversees the design and implementation of NASA ground stations in the area ...

  13. An Analysis of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Packages Used at MSFC for the Recent Initiative to Integrate Engineering Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leigh M.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It examines the effectiveness of recent efforts to standardize CAD practices across MSFC engineering activities. An assessment of the roles played by management, designers, analysts, and manufacturers in this initiative will be explored. Finally, solutions are presented for better integration of CAD across MSFC in the future.

  14. Selection and implementation of a computer aided design and drafting (CAD/D) system

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Faced with very heavy workloads and limited engineering and graphics personnel, Transco opted for a computer-aided design and drafting system that can produce intelligent drawings, which have associated data bases that can be integrated with other graphical and nongraphical data bases to form comprehensive sets of data for construction projects. Because so much time was being spent in all phases of materials and inventory control, Transco decided to integrate materials-management capabilities into the CAD/D system. When a specific item of material is requested on the graphics equipment, the request triggers production of both the drawing and a materials list. Transco plans to extend its computer applications into mapping tasks as well.

  15. Computer-aided design system with artificial intelligence for automatic dimensioning

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.; Juricic, D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the methodology applicable to automating computer drafting tasks of a Computer-Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) system. One of the main characteristics of these tasks is the need for interaction with geometric models and their features. The specific drafting task considered in this paper was dimensioning of a multiview drawing. The paper illustrates the approach used and describes the introduction of relevant knowledge base as well as implementation of an inference engine internal to the drafting system. A simple class of objects was used to illustrate in more details the methods involved. It is noted that developing this methodology may be of vital importance for further automation of the drafting and design process.

  16. Evaluation of a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system. Part 2: Image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, S. F.; Cocking, S. J.

    1981-12-01

    The TV imagery from a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system has been digitally processed with an I2S model 70E image processor, controlled by a PDP 11/60 minicomputer. The image processor allowed valuable processing for detection of defects in cast components to be carried out at television frame rates. Summation of TV frames was used to reduce noise, and hence improve the thickness sensitivity of the system. A displaced differencing technique and interactive contrast enhancement were then used to improve the reliability of inspection by removing spurious blemishes and interferences lines, while simultaneously enhancing the visibility of real defects. The times required for these operations are given, and the benefits provided for X-ray fluorography are illustrated by the results from inspection of aero engine castings.

  17. Engines-only flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W. (Inventor); Gilyard, Glenn B (Inventor); Conley, Joseph L. (Inventor); Stewart, James F. (Inventor); Fullerton, Charles G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A backup flight control system for controlling the flightpath of a multi-engine airplane using the main drive engines is introduced. The backup flight control system comprises an input device for generating a control command indicative of a desired flightpath, a feedback sensor for generating a feedback signal indicative of at least one of pitch rate, pitch attitude, roll rate and roll attitude, and a control device for changing the output power of at least one of the main drive engines on each side of the airplane in response to the control command and the feedback signal.

  18. Implementing Systems Engineering on a CERCLA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, George Alois

    1999-06-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), enacted in 1980, provides a regulatory and legal mechanism to reduce risks from prior disposal of hazardous and toxic chemicals. Regulations, Standards, and Guidelines have been published to further define the CERCLA Process. The OU 7-10 Staged Interim Action Project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is a CERCLA project working to remediate the pre-1970 disposal pit in which transuranic materials have been disposed. This paper analyzes the CERCLA process from a systems engineering perspective and describes how systems engineering is implemented on this project.

  19. Stirling cycle engine and refrigeration systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higa, W. H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A Stirling cycle heat engine is disclosed in which displacer motion is controlled as a function of the working fluid pressure P sub 1 and a substantially constant pressure P sub 0. The heat engine includes an auxiliary chamber at the constant pressure P sub 0. An end surface of a displacer piston is disposed in the auxiliary chamber. During the compression portion of the engine cycle when P sub 1 rises above P sub 0 the displacer forces the working fluid to pass from the cold chamber to the hot chamber of the engine. During the expansion portion of the engine cycle the heated working fluid in the hot chamber does work by pushing down on the engine's drive piston. As the working fluid pressure P sub 1 drops below P sub 0 the displacer forces most of the working fluid in the hot chamber to pass through the regenerator to the cold chamber. The engine is easily combinable with a refrigeration section to provide a refrigeration system in which the engine's single drive piston serves both the engine and the refrigeration section.

  20. CAE (computer-aided engineering) tools' limitations case study: An SSI (small scale integrated) design to an ASIC (application specific integrated circuit)

    SciTech Connect

    Everts, J.

    1989-01-01

    Every computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool has its limitations and shortcomings. Knowing where the pitfalls lie and how to get around them is extremely valuable. This paper takes a look at the problems and limitations encountered using the Daisy Systems suite of digital design tools (on a Logician 386 and a PKK386 MegaLogician, running DNIX 5.02A) to redesign a 169 small scale integrated (SSI) component design into an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) gate array. Deficiencies were found in the libraries, ACE, MDLS, DTA, MCFS, and the Hotline support. Some solutions and workarounds to these deficiencies are presented.

  1. A Systems-Level Perspective on Engine Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan David; Guo, Ten-Huei; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Talk covers: (1) Problem of Engine Power Loss;(2) Modeling Engine Icing Effects; (3) Simulation of Engine Rollback; (4) Icing/Engine Control System Interaction; (5) Detection of Ice Accretion; (6) Potential Mitigation Strategies.

  2. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  3. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    plate aperture produces diffraction patterns that change the shape of the focal blur pattern. When used as an aperture, the Fresnel zone plate produces multiple focal planes in the scene. The interference between the multiple focal planes produce changes in the aperture that can be observed both between the focal planes and beyond the most distant focal plane. The Fresnel zone plate aperture and lens may be designed to change in the focal blur pattern at greater depths, thereby improving measurement performance of the coded aperture system. This research provides an in-depth study of the Fresnel zone plate used as a coded aperture, and the performance improvement obtained by augmenting a single camera vision aided inertial navigation system with a Fresnel zone plate coded aperture. Design and analysis of a generalized coded aperture is presented and demonstrated, and special considerations for the Fresnel zone plate are given. Also techniques to determine a continuous depth measurement from a coded image are presented and evaluated through measurement. Finally the measurement results from different aperture configurations are statistically modeled and compared with a simulated vision aided navigation environment to predict the change in performance of a vision aided inertial navigation system when augmented with a coded aperture.

  4. Engineering management of large scale systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Serita; Gill, Tepper L.; Paul, Arthur S.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of high technology and engineering problem solving, has given rise to an emerging concept. Reasoning principles for integrating traditional engineering problem solving with system theory, management sciences, behavioral decision theory, and planning and design approaches can be incorporated into a methodological approach to solving problems with a long range perspective. Long range planning has a great potential to improve productivity by using a systematic and organized approach. Thus, efficiency and cost effectiveness are the driving forces in promoting the organization of engineering problems. Aspects of systems engineering that provide an understanding of management of large scale systems are broadly covered here. Due to the focus and application of research, other significant factors (e.g., human behavior, decision making, etc.) are not emphasized but are considered.

  5. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  6. Big system: Interactive graphics for the engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quenneville, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The BCS Interactive Graphics System (BIG System) approach to graphics was presented, along with several significant engineering applications. The BIG System precompiler, the graphics support library, and the function requirements of graphics applications are discussed. It was concluded that graphics standardization and a device independent code can be developed to assure maximum graphic terminal transferability.

  7. Turbopump systems for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The turbopump system, from preliminary design through rocket engine testing is examined. Selection of proper system type for each application and integration of the components into a working system are dealt with. Details are also given on the design of various components including inducers, pumps, turbines, gears, and bearings.

  8. Teaching an Introductory CAD Course with the System-Engineering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Y. C.

    1985-01-01

    Advocates that introductory computer aided design (CAD) courses be incorporated into engineering curricula in close conjunction with the system dynamics course. Block diagram manipulation/Bode analysis and finite elementary analysis are used as examples to illustrate the interdisciplinary nature of CAD teaching. (JN)

  9. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  10. New engineering systems for mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, T. L.; Kelvin, A.

    1974-01-01

    Aerospace technology transfer and a systems integration approach are considered in the development of a transportation system for the handicapped. The basic vehicle design includes a slide-out boarding ramp and wheelchair accommodations.

  11. Deep Space Telecommunications Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, J. H. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical information useful for the optimal design, specification, and performance evaluation of deep space telecommunications systems is presented. Telemetry, tracking, and command systems, receiver design, spacecraft antennas, frequency selection, interference, and modulation techniques are addressed.

  12. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, Meg . E-mail: meg.keen@anu.edu.au; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-08-15

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience.

  13. Tank waste remediation system systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, L.G.

    1998-01-08

    This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) implementation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) systems engineering policy provided in 97-IMSD-193. The SEMP defines the products, process, organization, and procedures used by the TWRS Project to implement the policy. The SEMP will be used as the basis for tailoring the systems engineering applications to the development of the physical systems and processes necessary to achieve the desired end states of the program. It is a living document that will be revised as necessary to reflect changes in systems engineering guidance as the program evolves. The US Department of Energy-Headquarters has issued program management guidance, DOE Order 430. 1, Life Cycle Asset Management, and associated Good Practice Guides that include substantial systems engineering guidance.

  14. Improving Aid Effectiveness or Transforming the Global Capitalist System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the introduction to his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Klees (2010) poses the question, has the "hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid... loaned to [or otherwise targeted to "assist"] developing countries through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms... helped?" He then posits the question to be "too complicated to…

  15. Assessment of Alternative Student Aid Delivery Systems: Preliminary Specification of the Current System with Program Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Specifications of the current delivery systems of the Pell Grant program, the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program, and campus-based aid programs are provided. The relationship between features of the programs and delivery systems is also examined. The campus-based programs include the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (SEOG) Program,…

  16. Thermoelectric system for an engine

    DOEpatents

    Mcgilvray, Andrew N.; Vachon, John T.; Moser, William E.

    2010-06-22

    An internal combustion engine that includes a block, a cylinder head having an intake valve port and exhaust valve port formed therein, a piston, and a combustion chamber defined by the block, the piston, and the head. At least one thermoelectric device is positioned within either or both the intake valve port and the exhaust valve port. Each of the valves is configured to move within a respective intake and exhaust valve port thereby causing said valves to engage the thermoelectric devices resulting in heat transfer from the valves to the thermoelectric devices. The intake valve port and exhaust valve port are configured to fluidly direct intake air and exhaust gas, respectively, into the combustion chamber and the thermoelectric device is positioned within the intake valve port, and exhaust valve port, such that the thermoelectric device is in contact with the intake air and exhaust gas.

  17. The Holistic Application of High Technology for Conversation, Writing, and Computer Access Aid Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Barry L.

    The principal thesis of this paper is that successful use of high technology for conversation, writing, and computer access aid systems requires a holistic perspective. A holistic approach is one in which all the components of the support system needed to use high technology effectively are in place. Recognizing that aid systems are tools helps…

  18. Reusable rocket engine turbopump health management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surko, Pamela

    1994-10-01

    A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

  19. Reusable Rocket Engine Turbopump Health Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surko, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

  20. Upgrades to the NESS (Nuclear Engine System Simulation) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittje, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the President's Vision for Space Exploration, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concept is being evaluated as a potential propulsion technology for human expeditions to the moon and Mars. The need for exceptional propulsion system performance in these missions has been documented in numerous studies, and was the primary focus of a considerable effort undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's. The NASA Glenn Research Center is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies with the aid of the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code. This paper presents the additional capabilities and upgrades made to this code in order to perform higher fidelity NTR propulsion system analysis and design.

  1. Generative engineering databases - Toward expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasdorf, W. J.; Salley, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Engineering data management, incorporating concepts of optimization with data representation, is receiving increasing attention as the amount and complexity of information necessary for performing engineering operations increases and the need to coordinate its representation and use increases. Research in this area promises advantages for a wide variety of engineering applications, particularly those which seek to use data in innovative ways in the engineering process. This paper presents a framework for a comprehensive, relational database management system that combines a knowledge base of design constraints with a database of engineering data items in order to achieve a 'generative database' - one which automatically generates new engineering design data according to the design constraints stored in the knowledge base. The representation requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design and to accurately represent the interactions between constraints and the stored data while guaranteeing its integrity. The representation also requires a knowledge base that is able to store all the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process.

  2. Basic plan and assessment of an information system designed to aid patient transfer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Sano, M

    1987-01-01

    One of the important assignments in the planning of community medical care is to find an effective way of implementing the sharing of facilities together with their coordination. In particular, the establishment of a smooth and effective system co-ordinating facilities and functions of medical organizations, comprising clinics and hospitals of various levels, and the installation of an information system, designed to provide positive assistance in information control as well as in its operation, should be undertaken urgently. In this paper, we discuss the patient-transfer system, which is one of the facility-co-ordination-system for medical organizations, from the point of view of total community medical care. Specifically we describe the purpose, features and total structure of the patient-transfer system, and discuss the basic plan for an information system designed to aid patient transfer, from information control together with an advance assessment from the system-engineering point of view. This research has been promoted by the Aichi Medical Association committee for medical care system. The proposed system is planned to be operational in the near future. PMID:3441155

  3. Vision-aided inertial navigation system for robotic mobile mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-04-01

    A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.

  4. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  5. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  6. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  7. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  8. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  9. SSME Automated Engine Calibration System (AECS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, William D.

    1992-07-01

    An algorithm is derived for the real-time calibration of the engine fuel flowmeter and the engine mixture ratio during Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) ground testing. Because currently used calibration methods are post-test operations, there exists no fail-safe way of predicting at what mixture ratio a planned test will run. It is proposed that the algorithm developed here be used as part of an Automated Engine Calibration System (AECS) which could ensure that nearly all SSME tests are run at the proper mixture ratio. In this way, AECS has the potential of increasing the efficiency of the SSME ground test program. In addition to the derivation of the algorithm, an overview of this calibration system is presented along with the list of test stand facility instrumentation necessary for AECS implementation.

  10. Spark ignition systems for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Gol, G.; Hill, W.F.

    1980-08-26

    An internal combustion engine spark ignition system is provided which ensures that sparks are inhibited if the engine temperature exceeds a maximum safe level. The ignition circuit includes an input transistor which is switched on and off by an engine shaft transducer. The input transistor controls charging and discharging of a capacitor the voltage on which determines whether switching of the input transistor causes a spark to be produced via an output amplifier and ignition coil. A temperature sensing element determines both the rate at which the capacitor can charge and the final voltage to which it can be charged.

  11. Development of HIDEC adaptive engine control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landy, R. J.; Yonke, W. A.; Stewart, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) flight research program is the development of integrated flight propulsion control modes, and the evaluation of their benefits aboard an F-15 test aircraft. HIDEC program phases are discussed, with attention to the Adaptive Engine Control System (ADECS I); this involves the upgrading of PW1128 engines for operation at higher engine pressure ratios and the production of greater thrust. ADECS II will involve the development of a constant thrust mode which will significantly reduce turbine operating temperatures.

  12. Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark A; Burda, Joshua E; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O'Shea, Timothy M; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S; Deming, Timothy J; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2016-04-14

    Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system. Astrocytic scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or ablating chronic astrocytic scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. By contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocytic scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  13. Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Lee, K. J.

    2012-05-01

    This 2012 Annual Merit Review presentation gives an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) project and introduces the Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional model for modeling lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  14. Engineered containment and control systems: nurturing nature.

    PubMed

    Clarke, James H; MacDonell, Margaret M; Smith, Ellen D; Dunn, R Jeffrey; Waugh, W Jody

    2004-06-01

    The development of engineered containment and control systems for contaminated sites must consider the environmental setting of each site. The behaviors of both contaminated materials and engineered systems are affected by environmental conditions that will continue to evolve over time as a result of such natural processes as climate change, ecological succession, pedogenesis, and landform changes. Understanding these processes is crucial to designing, implementing, and maintaining effective systems for sustained health and environmental protection. Traditional engineered systems such as landfill liners and caps are designed to resist natural processes rather than working with them. These systems cannot be expected to provide long-term isolation without continued maintenance. In some cases, full-scale replacement and remediation may be required within 50 years, at an effort and cost much higher than for the original cleanup. Approaches are being developed to define smarter containment and control systems for stewardship sites, considering lessons learned from implementing prescriptive waste disposal regulations enacted since the 1970s. These approaches more effectively involve integrating natural and engineered systems; enhancing sensors and predictive tools for evaluating performance; and incorporating information on failure events, including precursors and consequences, into system design and maintenance. An important feature is using natural analogs to predict environmental conditions and system responses over the long term, to accommodate environmental change in the design process, and, as possible, to engineer containment systems that mimic favorable natural systems. The key emphasis is harmony with the environment, so systems will work with and rely on natural processes rather than resisting them. Implementing these new integrated systems will reduce current requirements for active management, which are resource-intensive and expensive. PMID:15209944

  15. Engineered containment and control systems : nurturing nature.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Clarke, J.; Smith, E.; Dunn, J.; Waugh, J.; Environmental Assessment; Vanderbilt Univ.; ORNL; Kleinfelder; U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office

    2004-06-01

    The development of engineered containment and control systems for contaminated sites must consider the environmental setting of each site. The behaviors of both contaminated materials and engineered systems are affected by environmental conditions that will continue to evolve over time as a result of such natural processes as climate change, ecological succession, pedogenesis, and landform changes. Understanding these processes is crucial to designing, implementing, and maintaining effective systems for sustained health and environmental protection. Traditional engineered systems such as landfill liners and caps are designed to resist natural processes rather than working with them. These systems cannot be expected to provide long-term isolation without continued maintenance. In some cases, full-scale replacement and remediation may be required within 50 years, at an effort and cost much higher than for the original cleanup. Approaches are being developed to define smarter containment and control systems for stewardship sites, considering lessons learned from implementing prescriptive waste disposal regulations enacted since the 1970s. These approaches more effectively involve integrating natural and engineered systems; enhancing sensors and predictive tools for evaluating performance; and incorporating information on failure events, including precursors and consequences, into system design and maintenance. An important feature is using natural analogs to predict environmental conditions and system responses over the long term, to accommodate environmental change in the design process, and, as possible, to engineer containment systems that mimic favorable natural systems. The key emphasis is harmony with the environment, so systems will work with and rely on natural processes rather than resisting them. Implementing these new integrated systems will reduce current requirements for active management, which are resource-intensive and expensive.

  16. CFD aided optimization of an innovative SCR catalyst design for heavy-duty marine diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, V. K.; Russo, S.; Verdemare, D.; Recine, G.; Biferale, L.; Falcucci, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the design of a new system for reducing NOx from exhaust gases from marine engines is shown. The core of the system is represented by the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) reactor, in which the catalyst is made of titanium dioxide nano-fibers functionalized with metal oxides and deposited by electrospinning on a corrugated metal support. Compared to the current monolithic reactor designs, the high specific surface offered by the fibers allows in principle to satisfy the TIER III emission standards, with a consistent saving in the reactor volume. To optimize the reactor design process, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed, alongside experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Results of different configurations are reported and critically assessed.

  17. User engineering: A new look at system engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Larry L.

    1987-10-01

    User Engineering is a new System Engineering perspective responsible for defining and maintaining the user view of the system. Its elements are a process to guide the project and customer, a multidisciplinary team including hard and soft sciences, rapid prototyping tools to build user interfaces quickly and modify them frequently at low cost, and a prototyping center for involving users and designers in an iterative way. The main consideration is reducing the risk that the end user will not or cannot effectively use the system. The process begins with user analysis to produce cognitive and work style models, and task analysis to produce user work functions and scenarios. These become major drivers of the human computer interface design which is presented and reviewed as an interactive prototype by users. Feedback is rapid and productive, and user effectiveness can be measured and observed before the system is built and fielded. Requirements are derived via the prototype and baselined early to serve as an input to the architecture and software design.

  18. User engineering: A new look at system engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    User Engineering is a new System Engineering perspective responsible for defining and maintaining the user view of the system. Its elements are a process to guide the project and customer, a multidisciplinary team including hard and soft sciences, rapid prototyping tools to build user interfaces quickly and modify them frequently at low cost, and a prototyping center for involving users and designers in an iterative way. The main consideration is reducing the risk that the end user will not or cannot effectively use the system. The process begins with user analysis to produce cognitive and work style models, and task analysis to produce user work functions and scenarios. These become major drivers of the human computer interface design which is presented and reviewed as an interactive prototype by users. Feedback is rapid and productive, and user effectiveness can be measured and observed before the system is built and fielded. Requirements are derived via the prototype and baselined early to serve as an input to the architecture and software design.

  19. CAD systems simplify engineering drawings

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J.

    1986-10-01

    Computer assisted drafting systems, with today's technology, provide high-quality, timely drawings that can be justified by the lower costs for the final product. The author describes Exxon Pipeline Co.'s experience in deciding on hardware and software for a CAD system installation and the benefits effected by this procedure and equipment.

  20. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  1. Helping System Engineers Bridge the Peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha; Tkachuk, Oksana; Person, Suzette; Biatek, Jason; Whalen, Michael W.; Castle, Joseph; Castle, JosephGundy-Burlet, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In our experience at NASA, system engineers generally follow the Twin Peaks approach when developing safety-critical systems. However, iterations between the peaks require considerable manual, and in some cases duplicate, effort. A significant part of the manual effort stems from the fact that requirements are written in English natural language rather than a formal notation. In this work, we propose an approach that enables system engineers to leverage formal requirements and automated test generation to streamline iterations, effectively "bridging the peaks". The key to the approach is a formal language notation that a) system engineers are comfortable with, b) is supported by a family of automated V&V tools, and c) is semantically rich enough to describe the requirements of interest. We believe the combination of formalizing requirements and providing tool support to automate the iterations will lead to a more efficient Twin Peaks implementation at NASA.

  2. Titanium in Engine Valve Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, J. E.; Sherman, A. M.; Bapna, M. R.

    1987-03-01

    Titanium alloys offer a unique combination of high strength-to-weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and favorable high temperature mechanical properties. Still, their relatively high cost has discouraged consideration for widespread use in automotive components. Recent demands for increased fuel economy have led to the consideration of these alloys for use as valve train materials where higher costs might be offset by improvements in performance and fuel economy. Lighter weight valve train components permit the use of lower spring loads, thus reducing friction and increasing fuel economy. Camshaft friction measurements made on a typical small displacement engine indicate that a twoto-four percent increase in fuel economy can be achieved. Valve train components are, however, subject to a severe operating environment, including elevated temperatures, sliding wear and high mechanical loads. This paper discusses the details of alloy and heat treatment selection for optimizing valve performance. When properly manufactured, titanium valves have been shown to withstand very stringent durability testing, indicating the technical feasibility of this approach to fuel economy improvement.

  3. Intelligent Work Process Engineering System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Kent E.

    2003-01-01

    Optimizing performance on work activities and processes requires metrics of performance for management to monitor and analyze in order to support further improvements in efficiency, effectiveness, safety, reliability and cost. Information systems are therefore required to assist management in making timely, informed decisions regarding these work processes and activities. Currently information systems regarding Space Shuttle maintenance and servicing do not exist to make such timely decisions. The work to be presented details a system which incorporates various automated and intelligent processes and analysis tools to capture organize and analyze work process related data, to make the necessary decisions to meet KSC organizational goals. The advantages and disadvantages of design alternatives to the development of such a system will be discussed including technologies, which would need to bedesigned, prototyped and evaluated.

  4. System Would Detect Foreign-Object Damage in Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed data-fusion system, to be implemented mostly in software, would further process the digitized and preprocessed outputs of sensors in a turbofan engine to detect foreign-object damage (FOD) [more precisely, damage caused by impingement of such foreign objects as birds, pieces of ice, and runway debris]. The proposed system could help a flight crew to decide what, if any, response is necessary to complete a flight safely, and could aid mechanics in deciding what post-flight maintenance action might be needed. The sensory information to be utilized by the proposed system would consist of (1) the output of an accelerometer in an engine-vibration-monitoring subsystem and (2) features extracted from a gas path analysis. ["Gas path analysis" (GPA) is a term of art that denotes comprehensive analysis of engine performance derived from readings of fuel-flow meters, shaft-speed sensors, temperature sensors, and the like.] The acceleration signal would first be processed by a wavelet-transform-based algorithm, using a wavelet created for the specific purpose of finding abrupt FOD-induced changes in noisy accelerometer signals. Two additional features extracted would be the amplitude of vibration (determined via a single- frequency Fourier transform calculated at the rotational speed of the engine), and the rate of change in amplitude due to an FOD-induced rotor imbalance. This system would utilize two GPA features: the fan efficiency and the rate of change of fan efficiency with time. The selected GPA and vibrational features would be assessed by two fuzzy-logic inference engines, denoted the "Gas Path Expert" and the "Vibration Expert," respectively (see Figure 1). Each of these inference engines would generate a "possibility" distribution for occurrence of an FOD event: Each inference engine would assign, to its input information, degrees of membership, which would subsequently be transformed into basic probability assignments for the gas path and vibration

  5. Systems Engineering of Coast Guard Aviator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eugene R.; Caro, Paul W.

    This paper describes a total-program application of the systems engineering concept of the U.S. Coast Guard aviation training programs. The systems approach used treats all aspects of the training to produce the most cost-effective integration of academic, synthetic, and flight training for the production of graduate Coast Guard aviators. The…

  6. Engineering the System and Technical Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the problems encountered in aerospace systems have been due to a breakdown in technical integration and/or systems engineering. One of the major challenges we face in designing, building, and operating space systems is: how is adequate integration achieved for the systems various functions, parts, and infrastructure? This Contractor Report (CR) deals with part of the problem of how we engineer the total system in order to achieve the best balanced design. We will discuss a key aspect of this question - the principle of Technical Integration and its components, along with management and decision making. The CR will first provide an introduction with a discussion of the Challenges in Space System Design and meeting the challenges. Next is an overview of Engineering the System including Technical Integration. Engineering the System is expanded to include key aspects of the Design Process, Lifecycle Considerations, etc. The basic information and figures used in this CR were presented in a NASA training program for Program and Project Managers Development (PPMD) in classes at Georgia Tech and at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Many of the principles and illustrations are extracted from the courses we teach for MSFC.

  7. Cognitive engineering models in space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1992-01-01

    NASA space systems, including mission operations on the ground and in space, are complex, dynamic, predominantly automated systems in which the human operator is a supervisory controller. The human operator monitors and fine-tunes computer-based control systems and is responsible for ensuring safe and efficient system operation. In such systems, the potential consequences of human mistakes and errors may be very large, and low probability of such events is likely. Thus, models of cognitive functions in complex systems are needed to describe human performance and form the theoretical basis of operator workstation design, including displays, controls, and decision support aids. The operator function model represents normative operator behavior-expected operator activities given current system state. The extension of the theoretical structure of the operator function model and its application to NASA Johnson mission operations and space station applications is discussed.

  8. Selegiline Transdermal System (STS) as an Aid for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Gorgon, Liza; Jones, Karen; McSherry, Frances; Glover, Elbert D.; Anthenelli, Robert M.; Jackson, Thomas; Williams, Jill; Murtaugh, Cristin; Montoya, Ivan; Yu, Elmer; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the efficacy and safety of selegiline transdermal system (STS) and brief repeated behavioral intervention (BRBI) for smoking cessation in heavy smokers. We hypothesized that the quit rate of subjects who received STS and BRBI would be significantly greater than that of those who received placebo patch and BRBI. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study in which 246 men and women were randomized to receive either STS (n = 121) or placebo patch (n =125) for 9 weeks. Recruitment targeted heavy smokers, defined as individuals with self-reported use of ≥15 cigarettes/day in the 30 days prior to enrollment, who had smoked cigarettes for the past 5 years, and had an expired CO level ≥9 ppm during screening. Results: Although STS was well tolerated, the overall results indicated that STS with BRBI was not more effective than placebo plus BRBI for smoking cessation (p = .58). Conclusions: The results are discussed in relation to interventions for heavy smokers. Although 2 trials using oral selegiline both showed trends toward improved abstinence, these results indicate that STS with BRBI was not an effective aid for smoking cessation at the end of treatment (10 weeks), 14, or 26 weeks. PMID:21846661

  9. Simulator Investigation of Pilot Aids for Helicopter Terminal Area Operations with One Engine Inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    simulation (in progress - July - August) is being conducted to investigate the use of advanced displays to perform vertical and short takeoffs and landings. One Engine Inoperative trajectories, which were optimized based on safety of flight restrictions, are utilized. Based on comments from the first experiment and further analytic development, appropriate fly out and approach guidance was added. Displays include conventional instruments with raw data, and the following integrated displays: multi-view and side-view hover displays based on the Apache Pilot Night Vision System, and variations of the pathway-in-the-sky displays with a flight-path-vector, a leader and flight director modifications. Panel mounted and head-up displays are being evaluated. Engine modifications have been incorporated to simulate 30 second and 2 minute contingency power ratings. Evaluations are based on task performance and pilot workload. NASA, Army, FAA, and industry test pilots participated. Details concerning the design, conduct, and the results of the experiment will be reported in the proposed paper.

  10. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  11. An Author Management System and Other Computer-Based Aids to ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, A. F.

    A brief review of some of the more important needs imposed by current and projected Department of Defense training problems is followed by descriptions of such automated aids as the LAMPS MARK III Weapons System and the Air Force's F-16 Instructional System Development (ISD) effort. These aids have been designed and developed in response to the…

  12. An inference engine for embedded diagnostic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Barry R.; Brewster, Larry T.

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of an inference engine for embedded diagnostic systems is described. The system consists of two distinct parts. The first is an off-line compiler which accepts a propositional logical statement of the relationship between facts and conclusions and produces data structures required by the on-line inference engine. The second part consists of the inference engine and interface routines which accept assertions of fact and return the conclusions which necessarily follow. Given a set of assertions, it will generate exactly the conclusions which logically follow. At the same time, it will detect any inconsistencies which may propagate from an inconsistent set of assertions or a poorly formulated set of rules. The memory requirements are fixed and the worst case execution times are bounded at compile time. The data structures and inference algorithms are very simple and well understood. The data structures and algorithms are described in detail. The system has been implemented on Lisp, Pascal, and Modula-2.

  13. Optimization in the systems engineering process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemmerman, Loren A.

    1993-01-01

    The essential elements of the design process consist of the mission definition phase that provides the system requirements, the conceptual design, the preliminary design and finally the detailed design. Mission definition is performed largely by operations analysts in conjunction with the customer. The result of their study is handed off to the systems engineers for documentation as the systems requirements. The document that provides these requirements is the basis for the further design work of the design engineers at the Lockheed-Georgia Company. The design phase actually begins with conceptual design, which is generally conducted by a small group of engineers using multidisciplinary design programs. Because of the complexity of the design problem, the analyses are relatively simple and generally dependent on parametric analyses of the configuration. The result of this phase is a baseline configuration from which preliminary design may be initiated.

  14. Cognitive Systems Engineering: The Next 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Cognitive Systems Engineering. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the challenges and future directions of Cognitive Systems Engineering for the next 30 years. I intended to present the work we have been doing with the Aviation Safety program and Space Human Factors Engineering project on Work Domain Analysis and some areas of Research Focus. Specifically, I intend to focus on the shift on the need to understand and model attention in mixed-initiative systems, the need for methods which can generate results to be used in trade-off decisions, and the need to account for a range of human behavior in the design.

  15. Engineering education as a complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattie, David K.; Kellam, Nadia N.; Schramski, John R.; Walther, Joachim

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical basis for cultivating engineering education as a complex system that will prepare students to think critically and make decisions with regard to poorly understood, ill-structured issues. Integral to this theoretical basis is a solution space construct developed and presented as a benchmark for evaluating problem-solving orientations that emerge within students' thinking as they progress through an engineering curriculum. It is proposed that the traditional engineering education model, while analytically rigorous, is characterised by properties that, although necessary, are insufficient for preparing students to address complex issues of the twenty-first century. A Synthesis and Design Studio model for engineering education is proposed, which maintains the necessary rigor of analysis within a uniquely complex yet sufficiently structured learning environment.

  16. Traditional Engineering Graphics versus Computer-Aided Drafting: A View from Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Argues for a legitimate role of manually expressed engineering graphics within engineering education as a needed support for computer-assisted drafting work. Discusses what and how students should learn as well as trends in engineering graphics education. Compares and contrasts manual and computer drafting methods. (CW)

  17. Cabin fuselage structural design with engine installation and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Tanapaal; Bishop, Mike; Gumus, Ilker; Gussy, Joel; Triggs, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements for the cabin, cabin system, flight controls, engine installation, and wing-fuselage interface that provide adequate interior volume for occupant seating, cabin ingress and egress, and safety are presented. The fuselage structure must be sufficient to meet the loadings specified in the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23. The critical structure must provide a safe life of 10(exp 6) load cycles and 10,000 operational mission cycles. The cabin seating and controls must provide adjustment to account for various pilot physiques and to aid in maintenance and operation of the aircraft. Seats and doors shall not bind or lockup under normal operation. Cabin systems such as heating and ventilation, electrical, lighting, intercom, and avionics must be included in the design. The control system will consist of ailerons, elevator, and rudders. The system must provide required deflections with a combination of push rods, bell cranks, pulleys, and linkages. The system will be free from slack and provide smooth operation without binding. Environmental considerations include variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure, protection against sand, dust, rain, humidity, ice, snow, salt/fog atmosphere, wind and gusts, and shock and vibration. The following design goals were set to meet the requirements of the statement of work: safety, performance, manufacturing and cost. To prevent the engine from penetrating the passenger area in the event of a crash was the primary safety concern. Weight and the fuselage aerodynamics were the primary performance concerns. Commonality and ease of manufacturing were major considerations to reduce cost.

  18. Selecting and implementing an interactive Computer Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Success with Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) depends upon management, users, and the system itself. If you are in a design and drafting environment, the thought of acquiring a CADD/M system will probably occur to you sometime in the very near future - if it hasn't already. Convincing yourself and your management of the benefits of such systems is but the first step. Evaluating and selecting one particular type of CADD/M system can turn out to be a complicated undertaking - not to mention somewhat frustrating. Procedures for selecting and successfully implementing a CADD/M system are outlined. INITIAL PREPARATION examines the techniques used to evaluate CADD/M systems including formation of an evaluation team, and application analysis. GRAPHICS EVALUATION describes the methods that can be used to test a CADD/M system, including benchmark drawings and specifications, human engineering considerations, and other evaluation criteria and general system configurations are also discussed. COMPUTER SYSTEM EVALUATION examines other factors in systems selection: programming, communications, documentation, and service. SYSTEM STARTUP addresses site preparation, people preparation, system acceptance, and operator, designer/drafter selection. Finally, operator, designer/drafter TRAINING and SYSTEM MANAGEMENT are discussed. This systematic approach wil help those contemplating the acquisition of CADD/M systems for their activities and will help minimize unplanned events and problem areas.Advanced planning in these areas is needed to ensure successful implementation of a CADD/M system. This in turn will lead to considerable cost savings and schedule improvements for an entire project, from initial design to final production. These are ambitious goals but easily realized if a logical and rational plan is adopted in the same manner as that used in a typical development program.

  19. 14 CFR 33.95 - Engine-propeller systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine-propeller systems tests. 33.95... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.95 Engine-propeller systems tests. If the engine is designed to operate with a propeller, the following tests must be made with...

  20. A Scalable Architecture for Rule Engine Based Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Soumi; Banerjee, Ansuman; Banerjee, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support systems (CDSS) have reached a fair level of sophistication and have emerged as the popular system of choice for their aid in clinical decision making. These decision support systems are based on rule engines navigate through a repertoire of clinical rules and multitudes of facts to assist a clinical expert to decide on the set of actuations in response to a medical situation. In this paper, we present the design of a scalable architecture for a rule engine based clinical decision system. PMID:26262249

  1. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  2. Targeting engineering synchronization in chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-07-01

    A method of targeting engineering synchronization states in two identical and mismatch chaotic systems is explained in detail. The method is proposed using linear feedback controller coupling for engineering synchronization such as mixed synchronization, linear and nonlinear generalized synchronization and targeting fixed point. The general form of coupling design to target any desire synchronization state under unidirectional coupling with the help of Lyapunov function stability theory is derived analytically. A scaling factor is introduced in the coupling definition to smooth control without any loss of synchrony. Numerical results are done on two mismatch Lorenz systems and two identical Sprott oscillators.

  3. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman

    2008-05-15

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  4. System verification and validation: a fundamental systems engineering task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.

    2004-09-01

    Systems Engineering (SE) is the discipline in a project management team, which transfers the user's operational needs and justifications for an Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) -or any other telescope-- into a set of validated required system performance characteristics. Subsequently transferring these validated required system performance characteris-tics into a validated system configuration, and eventually into the assembled, integrated telescope system with verified performance characteristics and provided it with "objective evidence that the particular requirements for the specified intended use are fulfilled". The latter is the ISO Standard 8402 definition for "Validation". This presentation describes the verification and validation processes of an ELT Project and outlines the key role System Engineering plays in these processes throughout all project phases. If these processes are implemented correctly into the project execution and are started at the proper time, namely at the very beginning of the project, and if all capabilities of experienced system engineers are used, the project costs and the life-cycle costs of the telescope system can be reduced between 25 and 50 %. The intention of this article is, to motivate and encourage project managers of astronomical telescopes and scientific instruments to involve the entire spectrum of Systems Engineering capabilities performed by trained and experienced SYSTEM engineers for the benefit of the project by explaining them the importance of Systems Engineering in the AIV and validation processes.

  5. A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, F.; Dykes, K.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.

  6. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  7. Engineering of complex systems: The impact of systems engineering at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kludze, Ave-Klutse Kodzo Paaku

    The "true" impact or value of systems engineering to an organization unfortunately appears not to have been well-studied and understood. The principles of systems engineering are highly encouraged by NASA at all levels, and most practitioners, both internal and external to NASA, intuitively "believe" it adds some value to the development of complex systems by producing them faster, better and cheaper. This research, in trying to fill a gap that exists in the systems engineering literature, analyzes data collected within NASA and other sources external to NASA (INCOSE) for comparisons. Analyses involving a number of case studies performed on selected NASA projects are presented to draw attention to the impact systems engineering had or could have had on these projects. This research clearly shows that systems engineering does add value to projects within and outside NASA. The research results further demonstrate that systems engineering has been beneficial not only to NASA but also to organizations within which INCOSE members work. It was determined, however, that systems engineering does not operate in a vacuum and may not always guarantee success through mere application. During this research, it was discovered that the lack of or inadequate application of systems engineering in the development of complex systems may result in cost overruns, poor technical performance, project delays, and in some cases unmitigated risk with disastrous consequences including the loss of life and property. How much is saved (in terms of cost, schedule) or improved (in terms of technical performance) as a result of its implementation may never be known precisely, but by indirectly measuring its value or impact on a project, percentages of project budget spent on systems engineering activities and any schedule reductions or performance enhancements realized could be determined. According to this research, systems engineering is not a waste of time and resources; in most cases, it is

  8. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1996-11-18

    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical

  9. A novel AIDS/HIV intelligent medical consulting system based on expert systems

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stages include: Business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation and deployment. C5.0 Tree classification algorithm is used for modelling. Also, rational unified process (RUP) is used to develop the web-based medical consulting software. Stages of RUP are as follows: Inception, elaboration, construction and transition. The intelligent developed model has been used in the infrastructure of the software and based on client's inquiry and keywords related FAQs are displayed to the client, according to the rank. FAQs’ ranks are gradually determined considering clients reading it. Based on displayed FAQs, test and entertainment links are also displayed. Result: The accuracy of the AIDS/HIV intelligent web-based medical consulting system is estimated to be 78.76%. Conclusion: AIDS/HIV medical consulting systems have been developed using intelligent infrastructure. Being equipped with an intelligent model, providing consulting services on systematic textual data and providing side services based on client's activities causes the implemented system to be unique. The research has been approved by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for being practical. PMID:24251290

  10. Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems. The workshop was held at the Peninsula Higher Education Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 23 and 24, 2004. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to a) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to innovative design of high-tech engineering systems; and b) identify training needs for future aerospace work force development in the design area. The format of the workshop included fifteen, half-hour overview-type presentations, a panel discussion on how to teach and train engineers in innovative design, and three exhibits by commercial vendors.

  11. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    DOEpatents

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  12. Railplug Ignition System for Enhanced Engine Performance and Reduced Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    DK Ezekoye; Matt Hall; Ron Matthews

    2005-08-01

    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress that was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project. The primary objectives of the project were to (1) develop an improved understanding of the spark ignition process, and (2) develop the railplug as an improved ignitor for large bore stationary natural gas engines. We performed fundamental experiments on the physical processes occurring during spark ignition and used the results from these experiments to aid our development of the most complete model of the spark ignition process ever devised. The elements in this model include (1) the dynamic response of the ignition circuit, (2) a chemical kinetics mechanism that is suitable for the reactions that occur in the plasma, (3) conventional flame propagation kinetics, and (4) a multi-dimensional formulation so that bulk flow through the spark gap can be incorporated. This model (i.e., a Fortran code that can be used as a subroutine within an engine modeling code such as KIVA) can be obtained from Prof. Ron Matthews at rdmatt{at}mail.utexas.edu or Prof. DK Ezekoye at dezekoye{at}mail.utexas.edu. Fundamental experiments, engine experiments, and modeling tasks were used to help develop the railplug as a new ignitor for large bore natural gas engines. As the result of these studies, we developed a railplug that could extend the Lean Stability Limit (LSL) of an engine operating at full load on natural gas from {phi} = 0.59 for operation on spark plugs down to {phi} = 0.53 using railplugs with the same delivered energy (0.7 J). However, this delivered energy would rapidly wear out the spark plug. For a conventional delivered energy (<0.05 J), the LSL is {phi} = 0.63 for a spark plug. Further, using a permanent magnet to aid the plasma movement, the LSL was extended to {phi} = 0.54 for a railplug with a delivered energy of only 0.15 J/shot, a typical discharge energy for commercial capacitive discharge ignition systems. Here, it should be

  13. System Engineering of Photonic Systems for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Pryor, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The application of photonics in space systems requires tight integration with the spacecraft systems to ensure accurate operation. This requires some detailed and specific system engineering to properly incorporate the photonics into the spacecraft architecture and to guide the spacecraft architecture in supporting the photonics devices. Recent research in product focused, elegant system engineering has led to a system approach which provides a robust approach to this integration. Focusing on the mission application and the integration of the spacecraft system physics incorporation of the photonics can be efficiently and effectively accomplished. This requires a clear understanding of the driving physics properties of the photonics device to ensure proper integration with no unintended consequences. The driving physics considerations in terms of optical performance will be identified for their use in system integration. Keywords: System Engineering, Optical Transfer Function, Optical Physics, Photonics, Image Jitter, Launch Vehicle, System Integration, Organizational Interaction

  14. Investigation of Exoskeletal Engine Propulsion System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Palac, Donald T.; Hunter, James E.; Myers, David E.; Snyder, Christopher A.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; McCurdy, David R.; Dougherty, Kevin T.

    2005-01-01

    An innovative approach to gas turbine design involves mounting compressor and turbine blades to an outer rotating shell. Designated the exoskeletal engine, compression (preferable to tension for high-temperature ceramic materials, generally) becomes the dominant blade force. Exoskeletal engine feasibility lies in the structural and mechanical design (as opposed to cycle or aerothermodynamic design), so this study focused on the development and assessment of a structural-mechanical exoskeletal concept using the Rolls-Royce AE3007 regional airliner all-axial turbofan as a baseline. The effort was further limited to the definition of an exoskeletal high-pressure spool concept, where the major structural and thermal challenges are represented. The mass of the high-pressure spool was calculated and compared with the mass of AE3007 engine components. It was found that the exoskeletal engine rotating components can be significantly lighter than the rotating components of a conventional engine. However, bearing technology development is required, since the mass of existing bearing systems would exceed rotating machinery mass savings. It is recommended that once bearing technology is sufficiently advanced, a "clean sheet" preliminary design of an exoskeletal system be accomplished to better quantify the potential for the exoskeletal concept to deliver benefits in mass, structural efficiency, and cycle design flexibility.

  15. SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS STATISTICAL DATA SYSTEM (SESTAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SESTAT is a comprehensive and integrated system of information about the employment, educational, and demographic characteristics of scientists and engineers (S&E) in the United States. In concept it covers those with a bachelor's degree or higher who either work in or are educat...

  16. Engineering Education as a Complex System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattie, David K.; Kellam, Nadia N.; Schramski, John R.; Walther, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical basis for cultivating engineering education as a complex system that will prepare students to think critically and make decisions with regard to poorly understood, ill-structured issues. Integral to this theoretical basis is a solution space construct developed and presented as a benchmark for evaluating…

  17. The Systems and Global Engineering Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Henry; Janosz, David A., Jr.; Maietta, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Systems and Global Engineering (SAGE) Project in which students collaborate with others from around the world to model solutions to some of today's most significant global problems. Stevens Institute of Technology and the New Jersey Technology Education Association (NJTEA) have teamed up to develop innovative…

  18. The engineered barrier system: Performance issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pigford, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    The engineered barrier system (EBS) for geologic disposal of high-level waste may typically consist of the waste solid, a container, and a porous backfill. Whether the surrounding rock is part of the EBS is arguable, but the properties of the surrounding rock strongly affect the EBS performance. The EBS functions and performance issue are addressed.

  19. Method and system for controlled combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    A system for controlling combustion in internal combustion engines of both the Diesel or Otto type, which relies on establishing fluid dynamic conditions and structures wherein fuel and air are entrained, mixed and caused to be ignited in the interior of a multiplicity of eddies, and where these structures are caused to sequentially fill the headspace of the cylinders.

  20. Lecturers' Perspectives on the Use of a Mathematics-Based Computer-Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Stephen J.; Robinson, Carol L.; Hernandez-Martinez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided assessment (CAA) has been used at a university with one of the largest mathematics and engineering undergraduate cohorts in the UK for more than ten years. Lecturers teaching mathematics to first year students were asked about their current use of CAA in a questionnaire and in interviews. This article presents the issues that these…

  1. Software systems development in petroleum engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, D. J.; Cain, G. M.; Carmichael, N. P.; Gouldstone, F. G.; Wadsley, A. W.; Webb, S. J.; Winder, P.

    1985-10-01

    Many approaches to designing software systems have been developed for use in commercial or business environments. These development methods and procedures have improved dramatically over the last ten years although it is only recently that these have been employed in scientific and technological applications. Many of these implementations have been unsuccessful because the design methodology has been divorced from the practical requirements of the industry in which the software system is to operate. This paper discusses a modern approach to software development which directly relates to an engineering environment and which is designed to satisfy practical criteria of acceptability of the software when delivered to the petroleum engineer. Since all field developments nowadays rely heavily on associated software systems, the approach presented here can lead to improved mechanical systems reliability and shorter development/design cycles.

  2. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction...

  3. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  4. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction...

  5. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  6. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  7. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  8. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction...

  9. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  10. 14 CFR 33.28 - Engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine control systems. 33.28 Section 33.28... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.28 Engine control systems. (a) Applicability. These requirements are applicable to any system or device that is part of engine type...

  11. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction...

  12. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  13. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  14. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  15. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  16. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  17. The application of manufacturing systems engineering for aero engine gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pewsey, Stephen M. S.

    1991-10-01

    The adoption of manufacturing systems engineering principles in order to improve cost effectiveness of manufacturing operations is considered. The introduction of cells where families of parts are made from raw material to finished product using a team approach has been initiated. The benefits to date are significant in terms of lead time reductions, inventory, and nonconformance savings as well as improvements in work force motivation and morale. The overall corporate manufacturing strategy of gears is explained. Some of the problems encountered with the transfer of gear production from one site to another with minimum disruption are described. Some of the radical changes being made in the manufacture of gears in line with the strategy of making Rolls-Royce a total quality organization are also described.

  18. Don't Fix the Student-Aid System. Kill It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronstadt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The American student-aid system has long been based on a tacit promise to provide students with the means to complete their college education and ensure that money is not a barrier to getting a degree. Unfortunately, says the writer, student aid has become little more than a marketing mechanism that permits colleges to maximize tuition dollars…

  19. The systems engineering overview and process (from the Systems Engineering Management Guide, 1990)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The past several decades have seen the rise of large, highly interactive systems that are on the forward edge of technology. As a result of this growth and the increased usage of digital systems (computers and software), the concept of systems engineering has gained increasing attention. Some of this attention is no doubt due to large program failures which possibly could have been avoided, or at least mitigated, through the use of systems engineering principles. The complexity of modern day weapon systems requires conscious application of systems engineering concepts to ensure producible, operable and supportable systems that satisfy mission requirements. Although many authors have traced the roots of systems engineering to earlier dates, the initial formalization of the systems engineering process for military development began to surface in the mid-1950s on the ballistic missile programs. These early ballistic missile development programs marked the emergence of engineering discipline 'specialists' which has since continued to grow. Each of these specialties not only has a need to take data from the overall development process, but also to supply data, in the form of requirements and analysis results, to the process. A number of technical instructions, military standards and specifications, and manuals were developed as a result of these development programs. In particular, MILSTD-499 was issued in 1969 to assist both government and contractor personnel in defining the systems engineering effort in support of defense acquisition programs. This standard was updated to MIL-STD499A in 1974, and formed the foundation for current application of systems engineering principles to military development programs.

  20. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  1. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  2. System engineering approach to GPM retrieval algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C. R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2004-01-01

    System engineering principles and methods are very useful in large-scale complex systems for developing the engineering requirements from end-user needs. Integrating research into system engineering is a challenging task. The proposed Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellite will use a dual-wavelength precipitation radar to measure and map global precipitation with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and areal coverage. The satellite vehicle, precipitation radars, retrieval algorithms, and ground validation (GV) functions are all critical subsystems of the overall GPM system and each contributes to the success of the mission. Errors in the radar measurements and models can adversely affect the retrieved output values. Ground validation (GV) systems are intended to provide timely feedback to the satellite and retrieval algorithms based on measured data. These GV sites will consist of radars and DSD measurement systems and also have intrinsic constraints. One of the retrieval algorithms being studied for use with GPM is the dual-wavelength DSD algorithm that does not use the surface reference technique (SRT). The underlying microphysics of precipitation structures and drop-size distributions (DSDs) dictate the types of models and retrieval algorithms that can be used to estimate precipitation. Many types of dual-wavelength algorithms have been studied. Meneghini (2002) analyzed the performance of single-pass dual-wavelength surface-reference-technique (SRT) based algorithms. Mardiana (2003) demonstrated that a dual-wavelength retrieval algorithm could be successfully used without the use of the SRT. It uses an iterative approach based on measured reflectivities at both wavelengths and complex microphysical models to estimate both No and Do at each range bin. More recently, Liao (2004) proposed a solution to the Do ambiguity problem in rain within the dual-wavelength algorithm and showed a possible melting layer model based on stratified spheres. With the No and Do

  3. Low-Income Engineering Students: Considering Financial Aid and Differential Tuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George-Jackson, Casey E.; Rincon, Blanca; Martinez, Mariana G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between tuition differentials and low-income students in Engineering fields at two public, research-intensive universities. Although current reports indicate the need for increased participation within the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, rising tuition prices at the university…

  4. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  5. eWorkbook: A Computer Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costagliola, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Filomena; Fuccella, Vittorio; Oliveto, Rocco

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment (CAA) tools are more and more widely adopted in academic environments mixed to other assessment means. In this article, we present a CAA Web application, named eWorkbook, which can be used for evaluating learner's knowledge by creating (the tutor) and taking (the learner) on-line tests based on multiple choice, multiple…

  6. Engineering plastics can cut fuel system cost

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    Examines the use of small nylon, acetal, and polyester resin parts in carbureted and continuous (throttle body) fuel injection (CFI) systems as well as port fuel injected (PFI) systems. Points out that conversions of larger castings offer car manufacturers more substantial cost savings. Reveals that heat-stabilized glass- and mineral-reinforced nylons can replace sand-cast and die-cast aluminium in injection systems. Concludes that 40% of the cost of a fuel system may be saved via maximum use of the capabilities of engineering plastic materials.

  7. Rocket engine control and monitoring expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Crawford, Roger

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of expert systems technology to the automatic detection, verification and correction of anomalous rocket engine operations through interfacing with an intelligent adaptive control system. The design of a reliable and intelligent propulsion control and monitoring system is outlined which includes the architecture of an Integrated Expert System (IES) serving as the core component. The IES functions include automatic knowledge acquisition, integrated knowledge base, and fault diagnosis and prediction methodology. The results of fault analysis and diagnostic techniques are presented for an example fault in the SSME main combustion chamber injectors.

  8. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  9. Supercharger control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, H.; Hirayama, T.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a supercharger control system for an internal combustion engine. The system has a throttle valve with a throttle operating lever, an engine air inlet passage, and a venturi-type carburetor. It consists of: a supercharger located in the engine air inlet passage upstream of the throttle valve, the supercharger being driven by the engine, a bypass within the engine inlet passage around the supercharger, a control valve with a control lever located within the bypass to control air flow, a diaphragm device, a first side of the diaphragm device being in communication with the engine inlet passage at the exit of the supercharger, a second side of the diaphragm being in communication with the venturi carburetor, a valve control linkage being constructed and arranged to open the control valve with increased vacuum in the first side of the diaphragm, spring means biasing the diaphragm to open the control valve, an activation lever with a stopper protrustion, the activation lever being pivotally mounted about the throttle valve, a first stop pin in the intake passage wall, a second stop pin on the throttle operating lever to selectively engage the activation lever, a regulation lever pivotally mounted about the control valve, a third stop pin on the control lever to selectively engage the regulating lever, an activation linkage connecting the activation lever and the regulating lever so as to create reciprocating motion, and spring means biasing both the regulating lever against the third stop pin when the control valve is in the fully open position and the stopper protrusion is against the first stop pin.

  10. Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) user' manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.

    1991-11-01

    This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS). The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3084 unclassified computer. EDIS is in the second phase of implementation, which provides an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy (DOE). The second phase also provides additional hard copy request functionality. Section 2.0 of this manual presents an overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. Section 3.0 describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), Soft Master viewing, and FT/Express file transfer features employed by this system. Appendix A lists the special hardware and software requirements that must be met to run the View function. Appendix B contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix C contains a list of special hardware and software requirements for the Store and Download functions of EDIS. Appendix D provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix E contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

  11. Model based systems engineering for astronomical projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karban, R.; Andolfato, L.; Bristow, P.; Chiozzi, G.; Esselborn, M.; Schilling, M.; Schmid, C.; Sommer, H.; Zamparelli, M.

    2014-08-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging field of systems engineering for which the System Modeling Language (SysML) is a key enabler for descriptive, prescriptive and predictive models. This paper surveys some of the capabilities, expectations and peculiarities of tools-assisted MBSE experienced in real-life astronomical projects. The examples range in depth and scope across a wide spectrum of applications (for example documentation, requirements, analysis, trade studies) and purposes (addressing a particular development need, or accompanying a project throughout many - if not all - its lifecycle phases, fostering reuse and minimizing ambiguity). From the beginnings of the Active Phasing Experiment, through VLT instrumentation, VLTI infrastructure, Telescope Control System for the E-ELT, until Wavefront Control for the E-ELT, we show how stepwise refinements of tools, processes and methods have provided tangible benefits to customary system engineering activities like requirement flow-down, design trade studies, interfaces definition, and validation, by means of a variety of approaches (like Model Checking, Simulation, Model Transformation) and methodologies (like OOSEM, State Analysis)

  12. Systems Approach to targeted and long-acting HIV/AIDS therapy.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rodney J Y; Yu, Jesse; Li, Bowen; Kraft, John C; Freeling, Jennifer P; Koehn, Josefin; Shao, Jingwei

    2015-12-01

    Medication adherence and insufficient drug levels are central to HIV/AIDS disease progression. Recently, Fletcher et al. confirmed that HIV patients on oral antiretroviral therapy had lower intracellular drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. For instance, in the same patient, multiple lymph node drug concentrations were as much as 99 % lower than in blood. This study built upon our previous finding that HIV patients taking oral indinavir had 3-fold lower mononuclear cell drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. As a result, an association between insufficient lymph node drug concentrations in cells and persistent viral replication has now been validated. Lymph node cells, particularly CD4 T lymphocytes, host HIV infection and persistence; CD4 T cell depletion in blood correlates with AIDS progression. With established drug targets to overcome drug insufficiency in lymphoid cells and tissues, we have developed and employed a "Systems Approach" to engineer multi-drug-incorporated particles for HIV treatment. The goal is to improve lymphatic HIV drug exposure to eliminate HIV drug insufficiency and disease progression. We found that nano-particulate drugs that absorb, transit, and retain in the lymphatic system after subcutaneous dosing improve intracellular lymphatic drug exposure and overcome HIV lymphatic drug insufficiency. The composition, physical properties, and stability of the drug nanoparticles contribute to the prolonged and enhanced drug exposure in lymphoid cells and tissues. In addition to overcoming lymphatic drug insufficiency and potentially reversing HIV infection, targeted drug nanoparticle properties may extend drug concentrations and enable the development of long-acting HIV drug therapy for enhanced patient compliance. PMID:26315144

  13. Systems engineering considerations for operational support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    Operations support as considered here is the infrastructure of people, procedures, facilities and systems that provide NASA with the capability to conduct space missions. This infrastructure involves most of the Centers but is concentrated principally at the Johnson Space Center, the Kennedy Space Center, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It includes mission training and planning, launch and recovery, mission control, tracking, communications, data retrieval and data processing.

  14. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  15. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  16. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  17. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  18. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  19. Engineering index : a metric for assessing margin in engineered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, Ronald M.

    2002-01-01

    Inherent in most engineered products is some measure of margin or over design. Engineers often do not retain design and performance knowledge so they can quantify uncertainties and estimate how much margin their product possesses. When knowledge-capture and quantification is neither possible, nor permissible, engineers rely on cultural lore and institutionalised practices to assign nominal conditions and tolerances. Often what gets lost along the way is design intent, product requirements, and their relationship with the product's intended application. The Engineering Index was developed to assess the goodness or quality of a product.

  20. Liquid booster engine reuse - A recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Eckroth, Wulf; Rohrkaste, Gary R.; Delurgio, Phillip R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the design of a recovery system for a suborbital payload of an Atlas E rocket. This program utilizes off-the-shelf and previously qualified avionics, flotation, and decelerator systems. A brief history of liquid-engine recoveries is presented first, then the system design utilizing two self-contained structurally-identical pods diametrically mounted to the thrust section is outlined. A mortar-deployed drogue and the main parachute are described, and experimental procedures are considered. Data obtained from one tricluster drop employing a cylindrical test vehicle and helicopter is analyzed, and a satisfactory load balance between the parachutes is observed.

  1. 40 CFR 86.1318-84 - Engine dynamometer system calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine dynamometer system calibrations... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1318-84 Engine dynamometer system calibrations. (a) The engine...

  2. 14 CFR 33.53 - Engine system and component tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine system and component tests. 33.53 Section 33.53 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.53 Engine system...

  3. 40 CFR 91.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine inlet and exhaust systems. 91... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.407 Engine inlet and exhaust systems. (a) The marine engine manufacturer is liable for emission...

  4. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section 121... Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of shaft rotation, and...

  5. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section 121... Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of shaft rotation, and...

  6. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section 121... Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of shaft rotation, and...

  7. 14 CFR 33.91 - Engine system and component tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine system and component tests. 33.91 Section 33.91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.91 Engine system...

  8. 14 CFR 33.91 - Engine system and component tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine system and component tests. 33.91 Section 33.91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.91 Engine system...

  9. 14 CFR 33.91 - Engine system and component tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine system and component tests. 33.91 Section 33.91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.91 Engine system...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1318-84 - Engine dynamometer system calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine dynamometer system calibrations... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1318-84 Engine dynamometer system calibrations. (a) The engine...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1318-84 - Engine dynamometer system calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer system calibrations... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1318-84 Engine dynamometer system calibrations. (a) The engine...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1318-84 - Engine dynamometer system calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine dynamometer system calibrations... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1318-84 Engine dynamometer system calibrations. (a) The engine...

  13. 14 CFR 33.53 - Engine system and component tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine system and component tests. 33.53 Section 33.53 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.53 Engine system...

  14. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    PubMed Central

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  15. Systems Engineering Building Advances Power Grid Research

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, Jud; Huang, Henry; Skare, Paul; Dagle, Jeff; Imhoff, Carl; Stoustrup, Jakob; Melton, Ron; Stiles, Dennis; Pratt, Rob

    2015-08-19

    Researchers and industry are now better equipped to tackle the nation’s most pressing energy challenges through PNNL’s new Systems Engineering Building – including challenges in grid modernization, buildings efficiency and renewable energy integration. This lab links real-time grid data, software platforms, specialized laboratories and advanced computing resources for the design and demonstration of new tools to modernize the grid and increase buildings energy efficiency.

  16. Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

  17. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Otani, J.

    1982-10-19

    An exhaust system for an engine of a motorcycle is disclosed having catalytic and silencing mufflers arranged in adjacent side -by-side series flow relationship, the catalytic muffler extending rearwardly of the motorcycle, and, adjacent its rear end, being interconnected with the silencing muffler, the silencing muffler including plural expansion chambers which are interconnected in flow reversal relationship for gases to be exhausted rearwardly of the motorcycle.

  18. Systems engineering process and organization assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results of an eight week assessment of NASA/MSFC Phase A and Phase B systems engineering processes, methodologies, and activities. Specifically, fourteen inconsistencies or weaknesses were identified and recommendations for corrective action were generated. A 1.5 hour briefing on these results was given in EL51 on 8-11-92; that documentation is available from the author or either NASA Colleague.

  19. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  20. Charter for Systems Engineer Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suffredini, Michael T.; Grissom, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This charter establishes the International Space Station Program (ISSP) Mobile Servicing System (MSS) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG). The MSS SEWG is established to provide a mechanism for Systems Engineering for the end-to-end MSS function. The MSS end-to-end function includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Remote Servicer (MRS) Base System (MBS), Robotic Work Station (RWS), Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Video Signal Converters (VSC), and Operations Control Software (OCS), the Mobile Transporter (MT), and by interfaces between and among these elements, and United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) distributed systems, and other International Space Station Elements and Payloads, (including the Power Data Grapple Fixtures (PDGFs), MSS Capture Attach System (MCAS) and the Mobile Transporter Capture Latch (MTCL)). This end-to-end function will be supported by the ISS and MSS ground segment facilities. This charter defines the scope and limits of the program authority and document control that is delegated to the SEWG and it also identifies the panel core membership and specific operating policies.

  1. Drug releasing systems in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Genovese, Jorge A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Heart disease and atherosclerosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of suitable autologous grafts has produced a need for artificial grafts; however, current artificial grafts carry significant limitations, including thrombosis, infection, limited durability and the inability to grow. Tissue engineering of blood vessels, cardiovascular structures and whole organs is a promising approach for creating replacement tissues to repair congenital defects and/or diseased tissues. In an attempt to surmount the shortcomings of artificial grafts, tissue-engineered cardiovascular graft (TECVG), constructs obtained using cultured autologous vascular cells seeded onto a synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffold, have been developed. Autologous TECVGs have the potential advantages of growth, durability, resistance to infection, and freedom from problems of rejection, thrombogenicity and donor scarcity. Moreover polymers engrafted with growth factors, cytokines, drugs have been developed allowing drug-releasing systems capable of focused and localized delivery of molecules depending on the environmental requirements and the milieu in which the scaffold is placed. A broad range of applications for compound-releasing, tissue-engineered grafts have been suggested ranging from drug delivery to gene therapy. This review will describe advances in the development of drug-delivery systems for cardiovascular applications focusing on the manufacturing techniques and on the compounds delivered by these systems to date. PMID:19379142

  2. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  7. The Art and Science of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established in 1958, and its Marshall Space Flight Center was founded in 1960, as space-related work was transferred from the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, where Marshall is located. With this heritage, Marshall contributes almost 50 years of systems engineering experience with human-rated launch vehicles and scientific spacecraft to fulfill NASA's mission exploration and discovery. These complex, highly specialized systems have provided vital platforms for expanding the knowledge base about Earth, the solar system, and cosmos; developing new technologies that also benefit life on Earth; and opening new frontiers for America's strategic space goals. From Mercury and Gemini, to Apollo and the Space Shuttle, Marshall's systems engineering expertise is an unsurpassed foundational competency for NASA and the nation. Current assignments comprise managing Space Shuttle Propulsion systems; developing environmental control and life support systems and coordinating science operations on the International Space Station; and a number of exploration-related responsibilities. These include managing and performing science missions, such as the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter slated to launch for the Moon in April 2009, to developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle upper stage and integrating the vehicle stack in house, as well as designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle and contributing to the development of the Altair Lunar Lander and an International Lunar Network with communications nodes and other infrastructure.

  8. Engineering Challenges for Closed Ecological System facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, William; Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Engineering challenges for closed ecological systems include methods of achieving closure for structures of different materials, and developing methods of allowing energy (for heating and cooling) and information transfer through the materially closed structure. Methods of calculating degree of closure include measuring degradation rates of inert trace gases introduced into the system. An allied problem is developing means of locating where leaks are located so that they may be repaired and degree of closure maintained. Once closure is achieved, methods of dealing with the pressure differentials between inside and outside are needed: from inflatable structures which might adjust to the pressure difference to variable volume chambers attached to the life systems component. These issues are illustrated through the engineering employed at Biosphere 2, the Biosphere 2 Test Module and the Laboratory Biosphere and a discussion of methods used by other closed ecological system facility engineers. Ecological challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogue to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils.

  9. Control methods for aiding a pilot during STOL engine failure transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. R.; Debra, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate autopilot control laws that control the engine failure transient sink rates by demonstrating the engineering application of modern state variable control theory were defined. The results of approximate modal analysis were compared to those derived from full state analyses provided from computer design solutions. The aircraft was described, and a state variable model of its longitudinal dynamic motion due to engine and control variations was defined. The classical fast and slow modes were assumed to be sufficiently different to define reduced order approximations of the aircraft motion amendable to hand analysis control definition methods. The original state equations of motion were also applied to a large scale state variable control design program, in particular OPTSYS. The resulting control laws were compared with respect to their relative responses, ease of application, and meeting the desired performance objectives.

  10. Engineering Floquet Hamiltonians in Cold Atom Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2016-05-01

    In this talk I will first give a brief overview of the Floquet theory, describing periodically driven systems. Then I will introduce the concept of the high-frequency expansion and will show how it generalizes the celebrated Schrieffer-Wolff transformation to driven systems. Using these tools I will illustrate how one can engineer non-trivial interacting Hamiltonians mostly in the context of cold atom systems and discuss some experimental examples. In the end I will talk about issues of heating and adiabaticity and show that there are very strong parallels between Floquet systems and disordered systems. In particular, I will argue that the heating transition is closely analogous to the many-body localization transition. AFOSR, ARO, NSF.

  11. Software Engineering and Swarm-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Pena, Joaquin; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss two software engineering aspects in the development of complex swarm-based systems. NASA researchers have been investigating various possible concept missions that would greatly advance future space exploration capabilities. The concept mission that we have focused on exploits the principles of autonomic computing as well as being based on the use of intelligent swarms, whereby a (potentially large) number of similar spacecraft collaborate to achieve mission goals. The intent is that such systems not only can be sent to explore remote and harsh environments but also are endowed with greater degrees of protection and longevity to achieve mission goals.

  12. The Early Days of Computer Aided Newspaper Production Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enlund, Nils; Andersin, Hans E.

    During the years 1970-1973, the Laboratory of Information Processing Science at the Helsinki Uni versity of Technology carried out the Computer Graph ics Pro ject (CGP). The activities foc us ed on the problems of producing news paper text, ad vert isements, and com plete pages using inter act ive computer graphics. The project and its commercial spin-off, Typlan, as well as the BUNPAPS continuation project 1973-1975, cre ated a num ber of innovative, pioneering solutions for computer aided news pap er production, laying the found at ion for the digitalization of media production.

  13. Distributed control system for turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A distributed control system (DCS) for a turbine engine has been demonstrated and tested, consisting of prototype electronic interface units (EIUs) connected to data and power busses. In the DCS, a central control computer communicated with smart sensors and smart actuators via a 2.5 megabit/sec digital data bus, using the Fieldbus protocol. Power was distributed to the smart devices as 100 kHz 100V peak AC, allowing light, simple power converters at each smart device. All smart sensors, smart actuators, and cables were dual redundant. The smart actuators received position demand from the central control computer, exchanged data between channels to provide local redundancy management, closed the position loop locally, and reported actuator position to the central controller. Smart sensors converted sensed signals to digital values in engineering units, and performed local built-in tests. Testing of the DCS was done in a closed-loop simulation with an engine model. Frequency response of the DCS was almost identical with the conventional system.

  14. Systems-level engineering of nonfermentative metabolism in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Caleb J; Boyle, Patrick M; Waks, Zeev; Silver, Pamela A

    2009-09-01

    We designed and experimentally validated an in silico gene deletion strategy for engineering endogenous one-carbon (C1) metabolism in yeast. We used constraint-based metabolic modeling and computer-aided gene knockout simulations to identify five genes (ALT2, FDH1, FDH2, FUM1, and ZWF1), which, when deleted in combination, predicted formic acid secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic growth conditions. Once constructed, the quintuple mutant strain showed the predicted increase in formic acid secretion relative to a formate dehydrogenase mutant (fdh1 fdh2), while formic acid secretion in wild-type yeast was undetectable. Gene expression and physiological data generated post hoc identified a retrograde response to mitochondrial deficiency, which was confirmed by showing Rtg1-dependent NADH accumulation in the engineered yeast strain. Formal pathway analysis combined with gene expression data suggested specific modes of regulation that govern C1 metabolic flux in yeast. Specifically, we identified coordinated transcriptional regulation of C1 pathway enzymes and a positive flux control coefficient for the branch point enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH). Together, these results demonstrate that constraint-based models can identify seemingly unrelated mutations, which interact at a systems level across subcellular compartments to modulate flux through nonfermentative metabolic pathways. PMID:19564482

  15. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development

  16. Automatic choke system for an automotive engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtaki, K.; Hara, K.

    1988-03-15

    In an automatic choke system for an automotive engine having a choke valve, a thermostatic spring operatively connected to the choke valve, a heater operated by current for heating the thermostatic spring so as to open the choke valve, and a circuit for controlling the current passing through the heater, the improvement is described comprising: first means for detecting cooling water temperature lower than a predetermined temperature and for producing a low temperature signal; second means for detecting cooling water temperature higher than a predetermined temperature and for producing a high temperature signal; third means responsive to the high temperature signal for supplying the current to the heater; and fourth means responsive to the low temperature signal for decreasing the current so as to retard the opening speed of the choke valve, the fourth means decreases the current responsive to the high temperature signal at starting of the engine.

  17. Low emission turbo compound engine system

    DOEpatents

    Vuk; Carl T.

    2011-05-31

    A diesel or HHCI engine has an air intake and an exhaust for products of combustion. A pair of turbochargers receive the products of combustion in a series relationship and an exhaust aftertreatment device receive the products of combustion from the downstream turbine. A power turbine receives the output from the exhaust aftertreatment device and an EGR system of the power turbine passes a selected portion of the output to a point upstream of the upstream turbocharger compressor. A device adds fuel to the aftertreatment device to regenerate the particulate filter and the power turbine recoups the additional energy. The power turbine may be used to drive accessories or the prime output of the engine.

  18. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rideout, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.

  19. Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, I. S.

    2008-01-01

    The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…

  20. ICT-Aided Engineering Courses: A Multi-Campus Course Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Kidron, Ivy; Komar, Meir; Steiner, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Jerusalem College of Technology (JCT) is a multi-campus institution with identical syllabi for courses in every campus. Moreover, learning at JCT requires at the same time synchronous and asynchronous learning and teaching. For some introductory courses in Mathematics for Engineering students, websites have been built and now upgraded in order to…

  1. Inverse problems in the design, modeling and testing of engineering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alifanov, Oleg M.

    1991-01-01

    Formulations, classification, areas of application, and approaches to solving different inverse problems are considered for the design of structures, modeling, and experimental data processing. Problems in the practical implementation of theoretical-experimental methods based on solving inverse problems are analyzed in order to identify mathematical models of physical processes, aid in input data preparation for design parameter optimization, help in design parameter optimization itself, and to model experiments, large-scale tests, and real tests of engineering systems.

  2. Expert Systems in Education and Training: Automated Job Aids or Sophisticated Instructional Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romiszowski, Alexander J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status and limitations of expert systems, and explores the possible applications of such systems in education and training. The use of expert systems as tutors, as job aids, and as a vehicle for students to develop their own expert systems on specific topics are discussed. (40 references) (CLB)

  3. GPS aiding of ocean current determination. [Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The navigational accuracy of an oceangoing vessel using conventional GPS p-code data is examined. The GPS signal is transmitted over two carrier frequencies in the L-band at 1575.42 and 1227.6 MHz. Achievable navigational uncertainties of differenced positional estimates are presented as a function of the parameters of the problem, with particular attention given to the effect of sea-state, user equivalent range error, uncompensated antenna motion, varying delay intervals, and reduced data rate examined in the unaided mode. The unmodeled errors resulting from satellite ephemeris uncertainties are shown to be negligible for the GPS-NDS (Navigation Development) satellites. Requirements are met in relatively calm seas, but accuracy degradation by a factor of at least 2 must be anticipated in heavier sea states. The aided mode of operation is examined, and it is shown that requirements can be met by using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to aid the GPS receiver operation. Since the use of an IMU would mean higher costs, direct Doppler from the GPS satellites is presented as a viable alternative.

  4. An engineering code to analyze hypersonic thermal management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangriethuysen, Valerie J.; Wallace, Clark E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loads on current and future aircraft are increasing and as a result are stressing the energy collection, control, and dissipation capabilities of current thermal management systems and technology. The thermal loads for hypersonic vehicles will be no exception. In fact, with their projected high heat loads and fluxes, hypersonic vehicles are a prime example of systems that will require thermal management systems (TMS) that have been optimized and integrated with the entire vehicle to the maximum extent possible during the initial design stages. This will not only be to meet operational requirements, but also to fulfill weight and performance constraints in order for the vehicle to takeoff and complete its mission successfully. To meet this challenge, the TMS can no longer be two or more entirely independent systems, nor can thermal management be an after thought in the design process, the typical pervasive approach in the past. Instead, a TMS that was integrated throughout the entire vehicle and subsequently optimized will be required. To accomplish this, a method that iteratively optimizes the TMS throughout the vehicle will not only be highly desirable, but advantageous in order to reduce the manhours normally required to conduct the necessary tradeoff studies and comparisons. A thermal management engineering computer code that is under development and being managed at Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, is discussed. The primary goal of the code is to aid in the development of a hypersonic vehicle TMS that has been optimized and integrated on a total vehicle basis.

  5. Engine control system having speed-based timing

    DOEpatents

    Willi, Martin L.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Montgomery, David T.; Gong, Weidong

    2012-02-14

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the cylinder and an actuator associated with the engine valve. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator. The controller is configured to receive a signal indicative of engine speed and compare the engine speed signal with a desired engine speed. The controller is also configured to selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve to control an amount of air/fuel mixture delivered to the cylinder based on the comparison.

  6. Spacecraft systems engineering: An introduction to the process at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, Tony; Ryschkewitsch, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective in systems engineering is to devise a coherent total system design capable of achieving the stated requirements. Requirements should be rigid. However, they should be continuously challenged, rechallenged and/or validated. The systems engineer must specify every requirement in order to design, document, implement and conduct the mission. Each and every requirement must be logically considered, traceable and evaluated through various analysis and trade studies in a total systems design. Margins must be determined to be realistic as well as adequate. The systems engineer must also continuously close the loop and verify system performance against the requirements. The fundamental role of the systems engineer, however, is to engineer, not manage. Yet, in large, complex missions, where more than one systems engineer is required, someone needs to manage the systems engineers, and we call them 'systems managers.' Systems engineering management is an overview function which plans, guides, monitors and controls the technical execution of a project as implemented by the systems engineers. As the project moves on through Phases A and B into Phase C/D, the systems engineering tasks become a small portion of the total effort. The systems management role increases since discipline subsystem engineers are conducting analyses and reviewing test data for final review and acceptance by the systems managers.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Systems-engineered metal buildings. 1926.758 Section 1926... Systems-engineered metal buildings. (a) All of the requirements of this subpart apply to the erection of systems-engineered metal buildings except §§ 1926.755 (column anchorage) and 1926.757 (open web...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Systems-engineered metal buildings. 1926.758 Section 1926... Systems-engineered metal buildings. (a) All of the requirements of this subpart apply to the erection of systems-engineered metal buildings except §§ 1926.755 (column anchorage) and 1926.757 (open web...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Systems-engineered metal buildings. 1926.758 Section 1926... Systems-engineered metal buildings. (a) All of the requirements of this subpart apply to the erection of systems-engineered metal buildings except §§ 1926.755 (column anchorage) and 1926.757 (open web...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Systems-engineered metal buildings. 1926.758 Section 1926... Systems-engineered metal buildings. (a) All of the requirements of this subpart apply to the erection of systems-engineered metal buildings except §§ 1926.755 (column anchorage) and 1926.757 (open web...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.758 - Systems-engineered metal buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systems-engineered metal buildings. 1926.758 Section 1926... Systems-engineered metal buildings. (a) All of the requirements of this subpart apply to the erection of systems-engineered metal buildings except §§ 1926.755 (column anchorage) and 1926.757 (open web...

  12. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems contained in subchapter F of this chapter apply....

  13. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems contained in subchapter F of this chapter apply....

  14. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems...

  15. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems contained in subchapter F of this chapter apply....

  16. 46 CFR 126.470 - Marine-engineering systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine-engineering systems. 126.470 Section 126.470... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 126.470 Marine-engineering systems. The inspection procedures for marine-engineering systems contained in subchapter F of this chapter apply....

  17. 14 CFR 25.1165 - Engine ignition systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine ignition systems. 25.1165 Section 25... Engine ignition systems. (a) Each battery ignition system must be supplemented by a generator that is automatically available as an alternate source of electrical energy to allow continued engine operation if...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1165 - Engine ignition systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine ignition systems. 23.1165 Section 23... Controls and Accessories § 23.1165 Engine ignition systems. (a) Each battery ignition system must be... allow continued engine operation if any battery becomes depleted. (b) The capacity of batteries...

  19. 46 CFR 169.693 - Engine order telegraph systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine order telegraph systems. 169.693 Section 169.693... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.693 Engine order telegraph systems. An engine order telegraph system is not required....

  20. 14 CFR 29.1165 - Engine ignition systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine ignition systems. 29.1165 Section 29... Engine ignition systems. (a) Each battery ignition system must be supplemented with a generator that is automatically available as an alternate source of electrical energy to allow continued engine operation if...