Science.gov

Sample records for aided tracking sarsat

  1. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.; Garrett, James

    1984-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the LUTs. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite. Additionally, a table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  2. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor, Vol 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.; Garrett, James, Major

    1984-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the LUTs. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite. Additionally, a table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  3. COSPAS/SARSAT Implementation Plan /CSIP/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    It is pointed out that the Department of Communications of Canada (DOC), the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales of France (CNES), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the U.S. (NASA) are participating in an experimental satellite-aided search and rescue project called SARSAT. The Ministry of Merchant Marine of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (MORFLOT) is conducting an experimental satellite-aided search and rescue project called COSPAS. The objective of the COSPAS/SARSAT project is to achieve international cooperation in search and rescue by demonstrating that equipment carried on satellites which are in low altitude, high inclination orbits can greatly facilitate the detection and location of distress signals. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, distress information from aircraft and ships to ground facilities which will complete the information processing and transmit position location to rescue services.

  4. Low cost high efficiency GaAs monolithic RF module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. C.; Siu, D. P.; Cook, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Low cost high performance (5 Watts output) 406 MHz beacons are urgently needed to realize the maximum utilization of the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system spearheaded in the U.S. by NASA. Although current technology can produce beacons meeting the output power requirement, power consumption is high due to the low efficiency of available transmitters. Field performance is currently unsatisfactory due to the lack of safe and reliable high density batteries capable of operation at -40 C. Low cost production is also a crucial but elusive requirement for the ultimate wide scale utilization of this system. Microwave Monolithics Incorporated (MMInc.) has proposed to make both the technical and cost goals for the SARSAT beacon attainable by developing a monolithic GaAs chip set for the RF module. This chip set consists of a high efficiency power amplifier and a bi-phase modulator. In addition to implementing the RF module in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) form to minimize ultimate production costs, the power amplifier has a power-added efficiency nearly twice that attained with current commercial technology. A distress beacon built using this RF module chip set will be significantly smaller in size and lighter in weight due to a smaller battery requirement, since the 406 MHz signal source and the digital controller have far lower power consumption compared to the 5 watt power amplifier. All the program tasks have been successfully completed. The GaAs MMIC RF module chip set has been designed to be compatible with the present 406 MHz signal source and digital controller. A complete high performance low cost SARSAT beacon can be realized with only additional minor iteration and systems integration.

  5. COSPAS/SARSAT: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgunigal, T. E.; Mckinnon, D. J.; Brachet, G.; Zurabov, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The SARSAT/COSPAS satellite network uses 121.5 and 406 MHz buoys to locate ships and aircraft in distress. The 121.5 MHz system, obligatory on many aircraft, gives localization to within 10 km, and, despite being subject to considerable radio interference and a poor signal to noise ratio, is responsible for saving nearly 200 lives. The 406 MHz location error is 2 km in 75% of cases, and less than or equal to 2 hr for 95% of cases in the worst conditions. It suffers however from interference from illegal broadcasts in the frequency band.

  6. The COSPAS-SARSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werstiuk, H. L.; Ludwig, D.; Trudell, B. J.; Selivanov, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    The SARSAT/COSPAS satellite network uses 121.5 and 406 MHz buoys to locale ships and aircraft in distress. The 121.5 MHz system, obligatory on many aircraft, gives localization to within 10 km, and, despite being subject to considerable radio interference and a poor signal to noise ratio, is responsible for saving 200 lives. The 406 MHz location error is 2 km in 75% of cases, and 2 hr for 95% of cases in the worst conditions. It suffers however from interference from illegal broadcasts in the frequency band.

  7. Initial Aid is Puzzle to Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    States and federal agencies are off to a slow and uneven start in allowing the public to track the first allotments from up to $100 billion in new education funding under the federal economic-stimulus package, despite strong pledges of transparency for the program from the Obama administration. Although about $145 million in aid has been sent from…

  8. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  9. Antarctic field tests of SARSAT personal locater beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Field tests of SARSAT personal locater beacons were conducted in the Antarctic to assess the viability of using these beacons to increase the safety of Antarctic field parties. Data were collected on the extent to which dry or wet snow, melting conditions, crevasse walls and snow bridges affected the ability of the SARSAT satellite to calculate an accurate position of the beacon. Average response time between beacon turn on and alert reception in McMurdo was between 4 and 5 hours for these tests. It is concluded that the SARSAT system is viable for Antarctic operations and it is recommended that it be implemented for future field operations. Because of obstruction of line-of-sight between beacon and satellite degrades the accuracy of the location calculation (particularly in wet snow), it is further recommended that field parties have sufficient numbers of beacons to insure that in an emergency, one will be able to operate from the surface.

  10. High efficiency low cost monolithic module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Wendell C.; Siu, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    The program objectives were to develop a highly efficient, low cost RF module for SARSAT beacons; achieve significantly lower battery current drain, amount of heat generated, and size of battery required; utilize MMIC technology to improve efficiency, reliability, packaging, and cost; and provide a technology database for GaAs based UHF RF circuit architectures. Presented in viewgraph form are functional block diagrams of the SARSAT distress beacon and beacon RF module as well as performance goals, schematic diagrams, predicted performances, and measured performances for the phase modulator and power amplifier.

  11. COSPAS/SARSAT 406-MHz emergency beacon digital controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The digital control portion of a low-cost 406-MHz COSPAS/SARSAT emergency beacon has been designed and breadboarded at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This report discusses the requirements and design tradeoffs of the digital controller and describes the hardware and software design, which is available only to United States citizens and companies.

  12. COSPAS-SARSAT system: Present operation and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurabov, Y. G.; Terekhin, V. N.

    The COSPAS-SARSAT international satellite system is intended for the search and the determination of the location of vessels and aircraft in distress. It was created through the cooperation of four countries--USSR, USA, Canada, and France. The international cooperation that led to the system's creation began at a bilateral meeting of Soviet and American experts, held in Washington in Mar. 1977. At the meeting, a Protocol between the Ministry of the Merchant Marine of the USSR and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the USA was signed. This protocol reflected the hopes of both countries of performing a joint international experiment that would examine the possibility of using American and Soviet artificial satellites in search and rescue roles. The paper presents and overview of the COSPAS-SARSAT system's development.

  13. Computer-aided tracking of MS lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Deborah; Gurwitz Kletenik, Devorah; Koshy, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions are known to change over time. The location, size and shape characteristics of lesions are often used to diagnose and to track disease progression. We have improved our lesion-browsing tool that allows users to automatically locate successive significant lesions in a MRI stack. In addition, an automatic alignment feature was implemented to facilitate comparisons across stacks. A lesion stack is formed that can be browsed independently or in tandem with the image windows. Lesions of interest can then be measured, rendered and rotated. Multiple windows allow the viewer to compare the size and shape of lesions from the MRI images of the same patient taken at different time intervals.

  14. GaAs monolithic R.F. modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  15. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician.

  16. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J.; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user friendly display for the physician. PMID:16829506

  17. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician. PMID:16829506

  18. Feature-aided multiple target tracking in the image plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew P.; Sullivan, Kevin J.; Miller, David J.

    2006-05-01

    Vast quantities of EO and IR data are collected on airborne platforms (manned and unmanned) and terrestrial platforms (including fixed installations, e.g., at street intersections), and can be exploited to aid in the global war on terrorism. However, intelligent preprocessing is required to enable operator efficiency and to provide commanders with actionable target information. To this end, we have developed an image plane tracker which automatically detects and tracks multiple targets in image sequences using both motion and feature information. The effects of platform and camera motion are compensated via image registration, and a novel change detection algorithm is applied for accurate moving target detection. The contiguous pixel blob on each moving target is segmented for use in target feature extraction and model learning. Feature-based target location measurements are used for tracking through move-stop-move maneuvers, close target spacing, and occlusion. Effective clutter suppression is achieved using joint probabilistic data association (JPDA), and confirmed target tracks are indicated for further processing or operator review. In this paper we describe the algorithms implemented in the image plane tracker and present performance results obtained with video clips from the DARPA VIVID program data collection and from a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight.

  19. A New Inertial Aid Method for High Dynamic Compass Signal Tracking Based on a Nonlinear Tracking Differentiator

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yao; Wu, Wenqi; Tang, Kanghua

    2012-01-01

    In Compass/INS integrated navigation systems, feedback inertial navigation solutions to baseband tracking loops may eliminate receiver dynamic effects, and effectively improve the tracking accuracy and sensitivity. In the conventional inertially-aided tracking loop, the satellite-receiver line-of-sight velocity is used directly to adjust local carrier frequency. However, if the inertial solution drifts, the phase tracking error will be enlarged. By using Kalman filter based carrier phase tracking loop, this paper introduces a new inertial aid method, in which the line-of-sight jerk obtained from inertial acceleration by a nonlinear tracking differentiator is used to adjust relevant parameters of the Kalman filter's process noise matrix. Validation is achieved through high dynamic Compass B3 signal with line-of-sight jerk of 10 g/s collected by a GNSS simulator. Experimental results indicate that the new inertial aid method proposed in this paper is free of the impact of the receiver dynamic and inertial errors. Therefore, when the integrated navigation system is starting or re-tracking after losing lock, the inertial error is absent from the navigation solution correction that induces large drift, and the new aid method proposed in this paper can track highly dynamic signals. PMID:22969365

  20. An Adaptive INS-Aided PLL Tracking Method for GNSS Receivers in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Cong, Li; Li, Xin; Jin, Tian; Yue, Song; Xue, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the weak link in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal processing, the phase-locked loop (PLL) is easily influenced with frequent cycle slips and loss of lock as a result of higher vehicle dynamics and lower signal-to-noise ratios. With inertial navigation system (INS) aid, PLLs' tracking performance can be improved. However, for harsh environments with high dynamics and signal attenuation, the traditional INS-aided PLL with fixed loop parameters has some limitations to improve the tracking adaptability. In this paper, an adaptive INS-aided PLL capable of adjusting its noise bandwidth and coherent integration time has been proposed. Through theoretical analysis, the relation between INS-aided PLL phase tracking error and carrier to noise density ratio (C/N₀), vehicle dynamics, aiding information update time, noise bandwidth, and coherent integration time has been built. The relation formulae are used to choose the optimal integration time and bandwidth for a given application under the minimum tracking error criterion. Software and hardware simulation results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the adaptive tracking method can effectively improve the PLL tracking ability and integrated GNSS/INS navigation performance. For harsh environments, the tracking sensitivity is increased by 3 to 5 dB, velocity errors are decreased by 36% to 50% and position errors are decreased by 6% to 24% when compared with other INS-aided PLL methods. PMID:26805853

  1. An Adaptive INS-Aided PLL Tracking Method for GNSS Receivers in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Cong, Li; Li, Xin; Jin, Tian; Yue, Song; Xue, Rui

    2016-01-23

    As the weak link in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal processing, the phase-locked loop (PLL) is easily influenced with frequent cycle slips and loss of lock as a result of higher vehicle dynamics and lower signal-to-noise ratios. With inertial navigation system (INS) aid, PLLs' tracking performance can be improved. However, for harsh environments with high dynamics and signal attenuation, the traditional INS-aided PLL with fixed loop parameters has some limitations to improve the tracking adaptability. In this paper, an adaptive INS-aided PLL capable of adjusting its noise bandwidth and coherent integration time has been proposed. Through theoretical analysis, the relation between INS-aided PLL phase tracking error and carrier to noise density ratio (C/N₀), vehicle dynamics, aiding information update time, noise bandwidth, and coherent integration time has been built. The relation formulae are used to choose the optimal integration time and bandwidth for a given application under the minimum tracking error criterion. Software and hardware simulation results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the adaptive tracking method can effectively improve the PLL tracking ability and integrated GNSS/INS navigation performance. For harsh environments, the tracking sensitivity is increased by 3 to 5 dB, velocity errors are decreased by 36% to 50% and position errors are decreased by 6% to 24% when compared with other INS-aided PLL methods.

  2. An Adaptive INS-Aided PLL Tracking Method for GNSS Receivers in Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Li; Li, Xin; Jin, Tian; Yue, Song; Xue, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the weak link in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal processing, the phase-locked loop (PLL) is easily influenced with frequent cycle slips and loss of lock as a result of higher vehicle dynamics and lower signal-to-noise ratios. With inertial navigation system (INS) aid, PLLs’ tracking performance can be improved. However, for harsh environments with high dynamics and signal attenuation, the traditional INS-aided PLL with fixed loop parameters has some limitations to improve the tracking adaptability. In this paper, an adaptive INS-aided PLL capable of adjusting its noise bandwidth and coherent integration time has been proposed. Through theoretical analysis, the relation between INS-aided PLL phase tracking error and carrier to noise density ratio (C/N0), vehicle dynamics, aiding information update time, noise bandwidth, and coherent integration time has been built. The relation formulae are used to choose the optimal integration time and bandwidth for a given application under the minimum tracking error criterion. Software and hardware simulation results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the adaptive tracking method can effectively improve the PLL tracking ability and integrated GNSS/INS navigation performance. For harsh environments, the tracking sensitivity is increased by 3 to 5 dB, velocity errors are decreased by 36% to 50% and position errors are decreased by 6% to 24% when compared with other INS-aided PLL methods. PMID:26805853

  3. Use of a geosynchronous satellite within the SARSAT/COSPAS system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudy, P.; Ludwig, D.; Trudell, B.

    1982-01-01

    Operational characteristics of combined LEO SARSAT/COSPAS and GEO spacecraft for localization of aircraft and seacraft emitting distress signals are described. Although 121.5 MHz capability is now included in all SARSAT/COSPAS satellites, limitations on the number of simultaneous signals which can be processed at that frequency due to atmospheric noise indicates the employment of the 406 MHz band. Additionally, the necessity for on-board storage for later transmission when the satellites are in a favorable position is leading to the implementation of GEO stationed relays for real-time transmission and processing of distress signals. Six NOAA spacecraft and two Soviet satellites are planned, with a completed system offering high detection probability, position location, worldwide coverage, coded messages, and high capacity (406 MHz). A significant factor in use of a GEO relay system is noted to be the signal to noise temperature of the repeater.

  4. Long-duration fused feature learning-aided tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Richard; Horn, Joel; Merkert, Raimund

    2010-04-01

    Multiple-hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithms solve the report-to-track association problem1-5 by accumulating kinematic evidence provided by one or more sensors over time to find likely correlations in the data. MHT technologies have long been applied to such problems as machine vision; automatic target tracking using radar moving target indicator (MTI) for ground, air, sea, and space vehicles; and video-based object tracking. However, relying on kinematic information alone to maintain reliable track in a multi-target scenario is problematic due to a plethora of issues such as sensor limitations, obscuration of the targets, or target/confuser proximity.6-7 We present our track fusion algorithm, the Long-term Hypothesis Tree (LTHT) that solves the tracklet-to-tracklet association problem by using signature information to repair errors in kinematic tracks. LTHT provides a framework for using arbitrary target signatures such as spectral or shape characteristics to correct errors made by an MHT tracker. The LTHT represents high-level interactions among complex tracks by condensing kinematic track trajectories into a compact representation that can be efficiently maintained over much longer temporal scales than typical MHT trees.

  5. SARSAT emergency locator transmitter - Practical experiences during the Paris-Dakar car rally and a North-Canadian expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, P.; Gal, C.; Salmon, C.

    1984-10-01

    The results of operational and ambient environmental tests of mobile emergency locator transmitter (ELT) interfacing with the SARSAT system are reported. A total of 11 beacons were deployed on a Paris-Dakar car rally and two for a north Canadian dog-sledge expedition. The beacons emitted 121.5 and 243 MHz signals which can be pinpointed through the Doppler effect after satellite reception. The SARSAT system comprises the COSPOS 1383 and 1447 spacecraft and the NOAA E satellite. The satellites broadcast 406 MHz signals and perform four location measurements during each pass. The constellation covers the whole earth with no more than a 2 hr delay at any point. Very high accuracies were obtained whenever the ELTs were operated a sufficient number of hours per day in locations with good line of sight contact with a satellite. Plans to expand the SARSAT system with two additional satellites are indicated.

  6. Development of INS-Aided GPS Tracking Loop and Flight Test Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Suganuma, Yoshimitsu; Tomita, Hiroshi; Petrovski, Ivan

    Robust tracking of a GNSS signal in a harsh environment such as a severe ionospheric scintillation is a challenge for the civil aviation. The use of an inertial sensor would improve the tracking performance since the Doppler frequency caused by aircraft dynamics could be compensated by the inertial measurements. In order to evaluate such an aiding, an INS aided GPS tracking loop is developed by using a software receiver, and a preliminary flight test is conducted. A navigation grade INS tightly-coupled with GPS as well as a low-cost MEMS INS loosely-coupled with GPS are installed to provide aiding information. In addition, two GPS front end units with different clock (TCXO and OCXO) are installed to collect digitized IF data. Off-line analyses during aircraft take-off show that the noise band width in tracking loop can be reduced to three hertz by the aiding. Also, the Doppler aiding by a low-cost MEMS INS shows a similar performance with the aiding by a navigation grade INS.

  7. Tracking development assistance for HIV/AIDS: the international response to a global epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Matthew T.; Birger, Maxwell; Haakenstad, Annie; Singh, Lavanya; Hamavid, Hannah; Chapin, Abigail; Murray, Christopher J.L.; Dieleman, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the global response to HIV/AIDS, this study tracked development assistance for HIV/AIDS at a granular, program level. Methods: We extracted data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation's Financing Global Health 2015 report that captured development assistance for HIV/AIDS from 1990 to 2015 for all major bilateral and multilateral aid agencies. To build on these data, we extracted additional budget data, and disaggregated development assistance for HIV/AIDS into nine program areas, including prevention, treatment, and health system support. Results: Since 2000, $109.8 billion of development assistance has been provided for HIV/AIDS. Between 2000 and 2010, development assistance for HIV/AIDS increased at an annualized rate of 22.8%. Since 2010, the annualized rate of growth has dropped to 1.3%. Had development assistance for HIV/AIDS continued to climb after 2010 as it had in the previous decade, $44.8 billion more in development assistance would have been available for HIV/AIDS. Since 1990, treatment and prevention were the most funded HIV/AIDS program areas receiving $24.6 billion and $22.7 billion, respectively. Since 2010, these two program areas and HIV/AIDS health system strengthening have continued to grow, marginally, with majority support from the US government and the Global Fund. An average of $252.9 of HIV/AIDS development assistance per HIV/AIDS prevalent case was disbursed between 2011 and 2013. Conclusion: The scale-up of development assistance for HIV/AIDS from 2000 to 2010 was unprecedented. During this period, international donors prioritized HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and health system support. Since 2010, funding for HIV/AIDS has plateaued. PMID:26950317

  8. The theory, design, and operation of the suppressed carrier data-aided tracking receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Springett, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A viable, efficient, and easily mechanized carrier regenerating receiver for use in suppressed carrier-tracking system is described. The receiver referred to as a data-aided receiver (DAR) incorporates a data-aided loop (DAL) which provides the required carrier reference signal. The DAL employs the principle of decision feedback and as such is more efficient than other forms of suppressed carrier-tracking loops. The analysis, design, and implementation of the DAR are covered in detail. Performance comparisons and mechanization tradeoffs are made, wherever possible, with discrete carrier systems and other suppressed carrier systems presently in use. Experimental performance verification is given throughout in support of the theory presented.

  9. Measuring and tracking the flow of climate change adaptation aid to the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Simon D.; Kandlikar, Milind; Webber, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The developed world has pledged to mobilize at least US 100 billion per year of ‘new’ and ‘additional’ funds by 2020 to help the developing world respond to climate change. Tracking this finance is particularly problematic for climate change adaptation, as there is no clear definition of what separates adaptation aid from standard development aid. Here we use a historical database of overseas development assistance projects to test the effect of different accounting assumptions on the delivery of adaptation finance to the developing countries of Oceania, using machine algorithms developed from a manual pilot study. The results show that explicit adaptation finance grew to 3%–4% of all development aid to Oceania by the 2008–2012 period, but that total adaptation finance could be as high as 37% of all aid, depending on potentially politically motivated assumptions about what counts as adaptation. There was also an uneven distribution of adaptation aid between countries facing similar challenges like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The analysis indicates that data allowing individual projects to be weighted by their climate change relevance is needed. A robust and mandatory metadata system for all aid projects would allow multilateral aid agencies and independent third parties to perform their own analyses using different assumptions and definitions, and serve as a key check on international climate aid promises.

  10. Measuring and tracking the flow of climate change adaptation aid to the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Simon D.; Kandlikar, Milind; Webber, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The developed world has pledged to mobilize at least US 100 billion per year of ‘new’ and ‘additional’ funds by 2020 to help the developing world respond to climate change. Tracking this finance is particularly problematic for climate change adaptation, as there is no clear definition of what separates adaptation aid from standard development aid. Here we use a historical database of overseas development assistance projects to test the effect of different accounting assumptions on the delivery of adaptation finance to the developing countries of Oceania, using machine algorithms developed from a manual pilot study. The results show that explicit adaptation finance grew to 3%-4% of all development aid to Oceania by the 2008-2012 period, but that total adaptation finance could be as high as 37% of all aid, depending on potentially politically motivated assumptions about what counts as adaptation. There was also an uneven distribution of adaptation aid between countries facing similar challenges like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The analysis indicates that data allowing individual projects to be weighted by their climate change relevance is needed. A robust and mandatory metadata system for all aid projects would allow multilateral aid agencies and independent third parties to perform their own analyses using different assumptions and definitions, and serve as a key check on international climate aid promises.

  11. Feature-aided multiple hypothesis tracking using topological and statistical behavior classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, David; Watkins, Adam; Porter, David; Harer, John; Bendich, Paul; Strawn, Nate; Munch, Elizabeth; DeSena, Jonathan; Clarke, Jesse; Gilbert, Jeff; Chin, Sang; Newman, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces a method to integrate target behavior into the multiple hypothesis tracker (MHT) likelihood ratio. In particular, a periodic track appraisal based on behavior is introduced that uses elementary topological data analysis coupled with basic machine learning techniques. The track appraisal adjusts the traditional kinematic data association likelihood (i.e., track score) using an established formulation for classification-aided data association. The proposed method is tested and demonstrated on synthetic vehicular data representing an urban traffic scene generated by the Simulation of Urban Mobility package. The vehicles in the scene exhibit different driving behaviors. The proposed method distinguishes those behaviors and shows improved data association decisions relative to a conventional, kinematic MHT.

  12. Sample-Wise Aiding in GPS/INS Ultra-Tight Integration for High-Dynamic, High-Precision Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Yanhong; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    By aiding GPS receiver tracking loops with INS estimates of signal dynamics, GPS/INS ultra-tight coupling can improve the navigation performance in challenging environments. Traditionally the INS data are injected into the loops once every loop update interval, which limits the levels of dynamics accommodated. This paper presents a sample-wise aiding method, which interpolates the aiding Doppler into each digital sample of the local signal to further eliminate the dynamic errors. The relationship between the tracking error and the aiding rate is derived analytically. Moreover, the effects of sample-wise aiding using linear and spline interpolations are simulated and compared with traditional aiding under different INS data update rates. Finally, extensive tests based on a digital IF (intermediate frequency) signal simulator and a software receiver validate the theoretical equations and demonstrate that the dynamic stress error can be significantly reduced by sample-wise aiding. PMID:27077858

  13. Soft tissue navigation using needle-shaped markers: Evaluation of navigation aid tracking accuracy and CT registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier-Hein, L.; Maleike, D.; Neuhaus, J.; Franz, A.; Wolf, I.; Meinzer, H.-P.

    2007-03-01

    We evaluate two core modules of a novel soft tissue navigation system. The system estimates the position of a hidden target (e.g. a tumor) during a minimally invasive intervention from the location of a set of optically tracked needle-shaped navigation aids which are placed in the vicinity of the target. The initial position of the target relative to the navigation aids is obtained from a CT scan. The accuracy of the entire system depends on (a) the accuracy for locating a set of navigation aids in a CT image, (b) the accuracy for determining the positions of the navigation aids during the intervention by means of optical tracking, (c) the accuracy for tracking the applicator (e.g. the biopsy needle), and (d) the accuracy of the real-time deformation model which continuously computes the location of the initially determined target point from the current positions of the navigation aids. In this paper, we focus on the first two aspects. We introduce the navigation aids we constructed for our system and show that the needle tips can be tracked with submillimeter accuracy. Furthermore, we present and evaluate three methods for registering a set of navigation aid models with a given CT image. The fully-automatic algorithm outperforms both the manual method and the semi-automatic algorithm, yielding an average distance of 0.27 +/- 0.08 mm between the estimated needle tip position and the reference position.

  14. Measurements of Integration Gain for the Cospas-Sarsat System from Geosynchronous Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein-Lebbink, Elizabeth; Christo, James; Peters, Robert; Nguyen, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The GOES-R satellite is the first satellite to use a standard straight bent pipe transponder with no on-board re-modulation to support Search and Rescue (SAR) operations. Here, we report on the link measurements with a high fidelity satellite transponder simulator made up of satellite EDU (Engineering Design Units) components using an uplink from a beacon simulator and received by a GEOLUT (GEOsynchronous satellite Local User Terminal). We also report on the first ever measurements showing the performance gain obtained by the signal integration performed by the GEOLUT. In addition, a simulator made of commercially available off-the-shelf components assembled to develop the test plan was found to perform very close to the high fidelity simulator. In this paper, we describe what message integration is, how it is implemented in the particular satellite receiving station model used for this tests, and show the measured improvement in message decoding due to this integration process. These are the first tests to quantify the integration gain and are the first tests on the new SARSAT standard for the bent pipe (no onboard re-modulation) repeater used in GOES-R. An inexpensive satellite simulator to run test scripts built from off the shelf components was also found to have the same performance as a high fidelity simulator using actual satellite EDUs.

  15. Trajectory-based ball detection and tracking with aid of homography in broadcast tennis video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinguo; Jiang, Nianjuan; Ang, Ee Luang

    2007-01-01

    Ball-detection-and-tracking in broadcast tennis video (BTV) is a crucial but challenging task in tennis video semantics analysis. Informally, the challenges are due to camera motion and the other causes such as the presence of many ball-like objects and the small size of the tennis ball. The trajectory-based approach proposed by us in our previous papers mainly counteracted the challenges imposed by causes other than camera motion and achieves a good performance. This paper proposes an improved trajectory-based ball detection and tracking algorithm in BTV with the aid of homography, which counteracts the challenges caused by camera motion and bring us multiple new merits. Firstly, it acquires an accurate homography, which transforms each frame into the "standard" frame. Secondly, it achieved higher accuracy of ball identification. Thirdly, it obtains the ball projection position in the real world, instead of ball location in the image. Lastly, it also identifies landing frames and positions of the ball. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm can obtain not only higher accuracy in ball identification and in ball position alike, but also ball landing frames and positions. With the intent of using homography to improve the video-based event detection for smart home we also do some experiments on acquiring the homography for home surveillance video.

  16. Catalyzing Country Ownership and Aid Effectiveness: Role of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Sajitha

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the contribution of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) global partnership in strengthening aid effectiveness in the education sector, and specifically how the implementation modalities of the EFA-FTI Catalytic Fund (CF) have contributed to this strengthening. The empirical findings are based on a review…

  17. A multiple model SNR/RCS likelihood ratio score for radar-based feature-aided tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slocumb, Benjamin J.; Klusman, Michael E., III

    2005-09-01

    Most approaches to data association in target tracking use a likelihood-ratio based score for measurement-to-track and track-to-track matching. The classical approach uses a likelihood ratio based on kinematic data. Feature-aided tracking uses non-kinematic data to produce an "auxiliary score" that augments the kinematic score. This paper develops a nonkinematic likelihood ratio score based on statistical models for the signal-to-noise (SNR) and radar cross section (RCS) for use in narrowband radar tracking. The formulation requires an estimate of the target mean RCS, and a key challenge is the tracking of the mean RCS through significant "jumps" due to aspect dependencies. A novel multiple model approach is used track through the RCS jumps. Three solution are developed: one based on an α-filter, a second based on the median filter, and the third based on an IMM filter with a median pre-filter. Simulation results are presented that show the effectiveness of the multiple model approach for tracking through RCS transitions due to aspect-angle changes.

  18. Computer-aided tracking and characterization of homicides and sexual assaults (CATCH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Keppel, Robert D.; La Moria, Robert D.

    1999-03-01

    When a serial offender strikes, it usually means that the investigation is unprecedented for that police agency. The volume of incoming leads and pieces of information in the case(s) can be overwhelming as evidenced by the thousands of leads gathered in the Ted Bundy Murders, Atlanta Child Murders, and the Green River Murders. Serial cases can be long term investigations in which the suspect remains unknown and continues to perpetrate crimes. With state and local murder investigative systems beginning to crop up, it will become important to manage that information in a timely and efficient way by developing computer programs to assist in that task. One vital function will be to compare violent crime cases from different jurisdictions so investigators can approach the investigation knowing that similar cases exist. CATCH (Computer Aided Tracking and Characterization of Homicides) is being developed to assist crime investigations by assessing likely characteristics of unknown offenders, by relating a specific crime case to other cases, and by providing a tool for clustering similar cases that may be attributed to the same offenders. CATCH is a collection of tools that assist the crime analyst in the investigation process by providing advanced data mining and visualization capabilities.These tools include clustering maps, query tools, geographic maps, timelines, etc. Each tool is designed to give the crime analyst a different view of the case data. The clustering tools in CATCH are based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANNs learn to cluster similar cases from approximately 5000 murders and 3000 sexual assaults residing in a database. The clustering algorithm is applied to parameters describing modus operandi (MO), signature characteristics of the offenders, and other parameters describing the victim and offender. The proximity of cases within a two-dimensional representation of the clusters allows the analyst to identify similar or serial murders and sexual

  19. Summary and highlights of the scientific tracks at the STI & AIDS World Congress 2013, Vienna.

    PubMed

    Whale, J; Banks, J; Foley, E; Patel, R

    2014-05-01

    The joint meeting of International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research (ISSTDR) and International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) was held in July 2013 in Vienna, Austria. The conference had attracted over 1300 submissions and was divided into six tracks. The track chairs reviewed all presentations and identified key themes and data that delegates should be aware of. In a conference summary session, each track chair presented these highlights. This conference report details and expands on this summary.

  20. 6-DOF Pose Estimation of a Robotic Navigation Aid by Tracking Visual and Geometric Features

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Cang; Hong, Soonhac; Tamjidi, Amirhossein

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a 6-DOF Pose Estimation (PE) method for a Robotic Navigation Aid (RNA) for the visually impaired. The RNA uses a single 3D camera for PE and object detection. The proposed method processes the camera’s intensity and range data to estimates the camera’s egomotion that is then used by an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) as the motion model to track a set of visual features for PE. A RANSAC process is employed in the EKF to identify inliers from the visual feature correspondences between two image frames. Only the inliers are used to update the EKF’s state. The EKF integrates the egomotion into the camera’s pose in the world coordinate system. To retain the EKF’s consistency, the distance between the camera and the floor plane (extracted from the range data) is used by the EKF as the observation of the camera’s z coordinate. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method results in accurate pose estimates for positioning the RNA in indoor environments. Based on the PE method, a wayfinding system is developed for localization of the RNA in a home environment. The system uses the estimated pose and the floorplan to locate the RNA user in the home environment and announces the points of interest and navigational commands to the user through a speech interface. Note to Practitioners This work was motivated by the limitations of the existing navigation technology for the visually impaired. Most of the existing methods use a point/line measurement sensor for indoor object detection. Therefore, they lack capability in detecting 3D objects and positioning a blind traveler. Stereovision has been used in recent research. However, it cannot provide reliable depth data for object detection. Also, it tends to produce a lower localization accuracy because its depth measurement error quadratically increases with the true distance. This paper suggests a new approach for navigating a blind traveler. The method uses a single 3D time

  1. Emergency Systems Save Tens of Thousands of Lives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    To improve distress signal communications, NASA pioneered the Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system. Since its inception, the international system known as Cospas-Sarsat has resulted in the rescue of more than 30,000 people. Techno-Sciences Inc., of Beltsville, Maryland, has been involved with the ground station component of the system from its earliest days.

  2. Tracking the Evolution of HIV/AIDS in China from 1989–2009 to Inform Future Prevention and Control Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ray Y.; Li, Dongmin; Wang, Lan; Qin, Qianqian; Ding, Zhengwei; Ding, Guowei; Zang, Chunpeng; Wang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. Methods and Principal Findings A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989–2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44%) and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women) as well as among permanent (36%) and urban residents (33%). Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. Conclusions/Significance Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants. PMID:21998679

  3. Computer-aided evaluation of the railway track geometry on the basis of satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, Cezary; Koc, Władysław; Chrostowski, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, all over the world there has been a period of intensive development of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) measurement techniques and their extension for the purpose of their applications in the field of surveying and navigation. Moreover, in many countries a rising trend in the development of rail transportation systems has been noticed. In this paper, a method of railway track geometry assessment based on mobile satellite measurements is presented. The paper shows the implementation effects of satellite surveying railway geometry. The investigation process described in the paper is divided on two phases. The first phase is the GNSS mobile surveying and the analysis obtained data. The second phase is the analysis of the track geometry using the flat coordinates from the surveying. The visualization of the measured route, separation and quality assessment of the uniform geometric elements (straight sections, arcs), identification of the track polygon (main directions and intersection angles) are discussed and illustrated by the calculation example within the article.

  4. Police must join the fast track to end AIDS by 2030.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Nick; Patterson, David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders have committed to ending AIDS by 2030, but stigma and discrimination remain significant obstacles. In particular, police are critical, front-line determinants of risk for many people living with HIV (PLHIV) and members of other key affected populations (KAPs). The negative impact of adverse police behaviours and practices on HIV risk is well documented, and these risks undermine global efforts to end AIDS. Far less well documented, and less common, are attempts to ameliorate this impact by working to change police behaviours. This Special Issue seeks to help redress this imbalance by presenting a selection of original, provocative and important interventions from academics, police officers and other stakeholders concerned with documenting the potential for constructive, progressive and evidence-based approaches to the reduction of HIV risk. We recommend urgent boosting of efforts and funding to engage police in the HIV response. Among other strategies, this needs sustainable funding of programmes and their evaluation, and increased and continuing advocacy and education at all levels to match policy and law reform. PMID:27435719

  5. Police must join the fast track to end AIDS by 2030

    PubMed Central

    Crofts, Nick; Patterson, David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders have committed to ending AIDS by 2030, but stigma and discrimination remain significant obstacles. In particular, police are critical, front-line determinants of risk for many people living with HIV (PLHIV) and members of other key affected populations (KAPs). The negative impact of adverse police behaviours and practices on HIV risk is well documented, and these risks undermine global efforts to end AIDS. Far less well documented, and less common, are attempts to ameliorate this impact by working to change police behaviours. This Special Issue seeks to help redress this imbalance by presenting a selection of original, provocative and important interventions from academics, police officers and other stakeholders concerned with documenting the potential for constructive, progressive and evidence-based approaches to the reduction of HIV risk. We recommend urgent boosting of efforts and funding to engage police in the HIV response. Among other strategies, this needs sustainable funding of programmes and their evaluation, and increased and continuing advocacy and education at all levels to match policy and law reform. PMID:27435719

  6. Collaborative research on fluidization employing computer-aided particle tracking. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.M.

    1993-04-01

    Discussions presented in this report highlight all the important considerations for making particle dynamics measurements using the radioactive active particle tracking methodology. It is seen that the technique makes it possible to obtain data which are not accessible by any other means. Among the advantages of the methods are: (1) It is completely uninvasive, and hence cannot disturb the flow. (2) It can penetrate opaque suspensions. (3) It yields detailed, spatially resolved (subject to resolution limitations) data on mean velocity and density distributions as well as other statistical quantities. Its disadvantages are: (1) It can only provide time averaged data. It cannot provide instantaneous ``snap shots`` of the flow field. (2) It cannot yield information of flows around bubbles, which are of great interest in fluidization theories. (3) It has only modest resolution -- of the order of a two to four percent of the flow field. However, the resolution can be improved by almost an order of magnitude, if long test runs can be used to acquire data of high statistical quality. 4. For data of adequate resolution, long test runs -- several hours and up - are needed. Clearly if used with a clear understanding of its capabilities as well as limitations, the radioactive particle tracking technique can make possible measurements which are not possible by any other method, and contribute significantly to the study of suspension flows.

  7. Automatic lesion tracking for a PET/CT based computer aided cancer therapy monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfer, Roland; Brenner, Winfried; Carlsen, Ingwer; Renisch, Steffen; Sabczynski, Jörg; Wiemker, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    Response assessment of cancer therapy is a crucial component towards a more effective and patient individualized cancer therapy. Integrated PET/CT systems provide the opportunity to combine morphologic with functional information. However, dealing simultaneously with several PET/CT scans poses a serious workflow problem. It can be a difficult and tedious task to extract response criteria based upon an integrated analysis of PET and CT images and to track these criteria over time. In order to improve the workflow for serial analysis of PET/CT scans we introduce in this paper a fast lesion tracking algorithm. We combine a global multi-resolution rigid registration algorithm with a local block matching and a local region growing algorithm. Whenever the user clicks on a lesion in the base-line PET scan the course of standardized uptake values (SUV) is automatically identified and shown to the user as a graph plot. We have validated our method by a data collection from 7 patients. Each patient underwent two or three PET/CT scans during the course of a cancer therapy. An experienced nuclear medicine physician manually measured the courses of the maximum SUVs for altogether 18 lesions. As a result we obtained that the automatic detection of the corresponding lesions resulted in SUV measurements which are nearly identical to the manually measured SUVs. Between 38 measured maximum SUVs derived from manual and automatic detected lesions we observed a correlation of 0.9994 and a average error of 0.4 SUV units.

  8. A COMPUTER-ASSIST MATERIAL TRACKING SYSTEM AS A CRITICALITY SAFETY AID TO OPERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Claybourn, R V; Huang, S T

    2007-03-30

    In today's compliant-driven environment, fissionable material handlers are inundated with work control rules and procedures in carrying out nuclear operations. Historically, human errors are one of the key contributors of various criticality accidents. Since moving and handling fissionable materials are key components of their job functions, any means that can be provided to assist operators in facilitating fissionable material moves will help improve operational efficiency and enhance criticality safety implementation. From the criticality safety perspective, operational issues have been encountered in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) plutonium operations. Those issues included lack of adequate historical record keeping for the fissionable material stored in containers, a need for a better way of accommodating operations in a research and development setting, and better means of helping material handlers in carrying out various criticality safety controls. Through the years, effective means were implemented including better work control process, standardized criticality control conditions (SCCC) and relocation of criticality safety engineers to the plutonium facility. Another important measure taken was to develop a computer data acquisition system for criticality safety assessment, which is the subject of this paper. The purpose of the Criticality Special Support System (CSSS) is to integrate many of the proven operational support protocols into a software system to assist operators with assessing compliance to procedures during the handling and movement of fissionable materials. Many nuclear facilities utilize mass cards or a computer program to track fissionable material mass data in operations. Additional item specific data such as, the presence of moderators or close fitting reflectors, could be helpful to fissionable material handlers in assessing compliance to SCCC's. Computer-assist checking of a workstation material inventory against the

  9. What Is Required to End the AIDS Epidemic as a Public Health Threat by 2030? The Cost and Impact of the Fast-Track Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stover, John; Bollinger, Lori; Izazola, Jose Antonio; Loures, Luiz; DeLay, Paul; Ghys, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 a new Investment Framework was proposed that described how the scale-up of key HIV interventions could dramatically reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low and middle income countries by 2015. This framework included ambitious coverage goals for prevention and treatment services for 2015, resulting in a reduction of new HIV infections by more than half, in line with the goals of the declaration of the UN High Level Meeting in June 2011. However, the approach suggested a leveling in the number of new infections at about 1 million annually—far from the UNAIDS goal of ending AIDS by 2030. In response, UNAIDS has developed the Fast-Track approach that is intended to provide a roadmap to the actions required to achieve this goal. The Fast-Track approach is predicated on a rapid scale-up of focused, effective prevention and treatment services over the next 5 years and then maintaining a high level of programme implementation until 2030. Fast-Track aims to reduce new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% from 2010 to 2030 and proposes a set of biomedical, behavioral and enabling intervention targets for 2020 and 2030 to achieve that goal, including the rapid scale-up initiative for antiretroviral treatment known as 90-90-90. Compared to a counterfactual scenario of constant coverage for all services at early-2015 levels, the Fast-Track approach would avert 18 million HIV infections and 11 million deaths from 2016 to 2030 globally. This paper describes the analysis that produced these targets and the estimated resources needed to achieve them in low- and middle-income countries. It indicates that it is possible to achieve these goals with a significant push to achieve rapid scale-up of key interventions between now and 2020. The annual resources required from all sources would rise to US$7.4Bn in low-income countries, US$8.2Bn in lower middle-income countries and US$10.5Bn in upper-middle-income-countries by 2020 before declining

  10. Structure tracking aided design and synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals as high-power cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Liping; Bai, Jianming; Gao, Peng; Wang, Xiaoya; Looney, J. Patrick; Wang, Feng

    2015-07-30

    In this study, preparing new electrode materials with synthetic control of phases and electrochemical properties is desirable for battery applications but hardly achievable without knowing how the synthesis reaction proceeds. Herein, we report on structure tracking-aided design and synthesis of single-crystalline Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) nanoparticles with extremely high rate capability. A comprehensive investigation was made to the local structural orderings of the involved phases and their evolution toward forming LVP phase using in situ/ex situ synchrotron X-ray and electron-beam diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging techniques. The results shed light on the thermodynamics and kinetics of synthesis reactions and enabled the design ofmore » a cost-efficient synthesis protocol to make nanocrystalline LVP, wherein solvothermal treatment is a crucial step leading to an amorphous intermediate with local structural ordering resembling that of LVP, which, upon calcination at moderate temperatures, rapidly transforms into the desired LVP phase. The obtained LVP particles are about 50 nm, coated with a thin layer of amorphous carbon and featured with excellent cycling stability and rate capability – 95% capacity retention after 200 cycles and 66% theoretical capacity even at a current rate of 10 C. The structure tracking based method we developed in this work offers a new way of designing battery electrodes with synthetic control of material phases and properties.« less

  11. Electronic search and rescue aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    There are two elements to the basic electronic search and rescue problem: a means for immediately alerting potential rescuers and an effective method to guide the rescue forces to the scene of the emergency. An Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) used by aircraft or an Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) used by maritime vessels has the capability of providing for both an immediate alert and a homing signal to assist rescue forces in locating the site of the distress. This paper describes the development of ELT/EPIRB systems. Emphasis is placed on the SARSAT project, the COSPAS/SARSAT project, and an experimental 406 MHz ELT/EPIRB system.

  12. Eye-Tracking Measures Reveal How Changes in the Design of Aided AAC Displays Influence the Efficiency of Locating Symbols by School-Age Children without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; O'Neill, Tara; McIlvane, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many individuals with communication impairments use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems involving letters, words, or line drawings that rely on the visual modality. It seems reasonable to suggest that display design should incorporate information about how users attend to and process visual information. The…

  13. Chasing the Black Smoke: Building Software for CALIPSO Satellite Data to Aid in Tracking and Identifying Sources of Aerosols and their Impact on the Earth's Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite is a NASA Earth observation that analyzes aerosol particles suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. Researchers use visualized CALIPSO data to track the global distribution, dispersion, and source of aerosols. There currently exists a tool for displaying CALIPSO data, but this tool does not support needed features for tracking aerosols such as selecting regions of data and sharing those selected regions, making tracking specific airborne objects difficult for researchers. Adding these necessary features to the current CALIPSO visualization tool is difficult, as the tool is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL), a proprietary and obscure language and writing additional features for the tool would require a specialized development team. This topic will focus on release of a new tool for visualization CALIPSO's atmospheric data, or the Visualization of CALIPSO (VOCAL) open source Python program. The talk will explain why VOCAL will serve as the successor to the current visualization tool for CALIPSO data, what new features VOCAL brings to the table for researchers, and how this new tool can further support the tracking and identification of aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

  14. Use of Acoustic Transmitter-Equipped Remote Sedation to Aid in Tracking and Capture of Entangled California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Frankfurter, Greg; DeRango, Eugene; Johnson, Shawn

    2016-07-01

    Free-ranging California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) with marine debris entanglements were darted with a combination of medetomidine, butorphanol, and midazolam by using acoustic transmitter-equipped darts. Of the 15 animals sedated, 13 (87%) reentered the water and were tracked by using a unidirectional hydrophone. Sea lions that entered the water continued to surface and breathe postsedation. There were three mortalities (20%) during the course of this study due to the following: suspected drowning caused by entrapment under a dock, overdose due to inaccurate weight estimation, and trauma caused by a dart puncturing the animal's abdomen. The drug combination, new dart design, and tracking techniques allowed for successful remote sedation and capture of California sea lions in high-risk situations and improved our ability to determine the final outcome for all cases. These methods allow targeting and capture of individual animals, while minimizing disturbance to other animals. PMID:27243155

  15. Use of Acoustic Transmitter-Equipped Remote Sedation to Aid in Tracking and Capture of Entangled California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Frankfurter, Greg; DeRango, Eugene; Johnson, Shawn

    2016-07-01

    Free-ranging California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) with marine debris entanglements were darted with a combination of medetomidine, butorphanol, and midazolam by using acoustic transmitter-equipped darts. Of the 15 animals sedated, 13 (87%) reentered the water and were tracked by using a unidirectional hydrophone. Sea lions that entered the water continued to surface and breathe postsedation. There were three mortalities (20%) during the course of this study due to the following: suspected drowning caused by entrapment under a dock, overdose due to inaccurate weight estimation, and trauma caused by a dart puncturing the animal's abdomen. The drug combination, new dart design, and tracking techniques allowed for successful remote sedation and capture of California sea lions in high-risk situations and improved our ability to determine the final outcome for all cases. These methods allow targeting and capture of individual animals, while minimizing disturbance to other animals.

  16. Structure tracking aided design and synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals as high-power cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liping; Bai, Jianming; Gao, Peng; Wang, Xiaoya; Looney, J. Patrick; Wang, Feng

    2015-07-30

    In this study, preparing new electrode materials with synthetic control of phases and electrochemical properties is desirable for battery applications but hardly achievable without knowing how the synthesis reaction proceeds. Herein, we report on structure tracking-aided design and synthesis of single-crystalline Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) nanoparticles with extremely high rate capability. A comprehensive investigation was made to the local structural orderings of the involved phases and their evolution toward forming LVP phase using in situ/ex situ synchrotron X-ray and electron-beam diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging techniques. The results shed light on the thermodynamics and kinetics of synthesis reactions and enabled the design of a cost-efficient synthesis protocol to make nanocrystalline LVP, wherein solvothermal treatment is a crucial step leading to an amorphous intermediate with local structural ordering resembling that of LVP, which, upon calcination at moderate temperatures, rapidly transforms into the desired LVP phase. The obtained LVP particles are about 50 nm, coated with a thin layer of amorphous carbon and featured with excellent cycling stability and rate capability – 95% capacity retention after 200 cycles and 66% theoretical capacity even at a current rate of 10 C. The structure tracking based method we developed in this work offers a new way of designing battery electrodes with synthetic control of material phases and properties.

  17. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  18. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  19. "Getting me back on track": the role of outreach interventions in engaging and retaining people living with HIV/AIDS in medical care.

    PubMed

    Rajabiun, Serena; Mallinson, R Kevin; McCoy, Kate; Coleman, Sharon; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Rebholz, Casey; Holbert, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the process of engagement in HIV medical care from the perspective of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In-depth interviews were conducted with 76 participants in six cities. All participants were considered underserved because of histories of substance use, mental illness, incarceration, homelessness, or cultural barriers to the traditional health care system. A semistructured interview guide elicited narratives related to health care and the role of program interventions in facilitating access to care. Data analysis revealed that participants cycled in and out of care, a process that was influenced by (1) their level of acceptance of being diagnosed with HIV, (2) their ability to cope with substance use, mental illness, and stigma, (3) their health care provider relationships, (4) the presence of external support systems, and (5) their ability to overcome practical barriers to care. Outreach interventions played a role in connecting participants to care by dispelling myths and improving knowledge about HIV, facilitating access to HIV care and treatment, providing support, and reducing the barriers to care. The findings suggest that outreach programs can interrupt this cyclical process and foster sustained, regular HIV care for underserved PLWHA by conducting client-centered risk assessments to identify and reduce sources of instability and improve the quality of provider relationships; implementing strategies that promote healthy practices; creating a network of support services in the community; and supporting adherence through frequent follow-ups for medication and appointment keeping.

  20. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Julia; Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  1. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  2. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  3. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  4. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  5. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  6. Suggested Curriculum for Distance Vision Training with Optical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William; Vopata, Alvin

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a sequential training curriculum in the use of telescopic visual aids. The curriculum covers 29 topics, including aid maintenance, holding aid properly, focusing, scanning, target location, tracking, aid use for city bus travel, in a shopping center, and in a fast food type restaurant. (Author/SBH)

  7. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  8. STS-42 Commander Grabe in single person life raft during JSC egress exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Ronald J. Grabe, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), floats in single person life raft during launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises conducted in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The Space Shuttle Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) portable locating beacon (PLB) antenna is extended through the life raft cover. SCUBA-equipped divers monitor egress exercises.

  9. High-dynamic GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Statman, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The results of comparing four different frequency estimation schemes in the presence of high dynamics and low carrier-to-noise ratios are given. The comparison is based on measured data from a hardware demonstration. The tested algorithms include a digital phase-locked loop, a cross-product automatic frequency tracking loop, and extended Kalman filter, and finally, a fast Fourier transformation-aided cross-product frequency tracking loop. The tracking algorithms are compared on their frequency error performance and their ability to maintain lock during severe maneuvers at various carrier-to-noise ratios. The measured results are shown to agree with simulation results carried out and reported previously.

  10. Trends in Student Aid, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, New York, NY.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance--grants, loans, and work-study--available to help students pay for postsecondary education. The College Board began this data series in 1983 to track the value of such aid over time from federal, state, and institutional sources. This year, information on federal education tax…

  11. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  12. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  13. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  14. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  15. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  16. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  17. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America.Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme.The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010.

  18. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  19. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  1. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  2. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  3. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  4. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  5. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  6. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  7. Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

  8. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  9. Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2010-08-02

    Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

  10. Boulder Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-408, 1 July 2003

    If a boulder rolls down a slope on an uninhabited planet, does it make a sound? While we do not know the sound made by a boulder rolling down a slope in the martian region of Gordii Dorsum, we do know that it made an impression. This full-resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of depressions made on a dust-mantled slope as a boulder rolled down it, sometime in the recent past. The boulder track is located just right of center in this picture. The boulder sits at the end of the track. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it is located near 11.2oN, 147.8oW. North is toward the lower left, sunlight illuminates the scene from the right. The picture covers an area only 810 meters (about 886 yards) across.

  11. Tires and Tracks. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on tires and tracks servicing is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The…

  12. Track and Field: Technique Through Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, Tom

    This book was designed to aid in applying the laws of dynamics to the sport of track and field, event by event. It begins by tracing the history of the discoveries of the laws of motion and the principles of dynamics, with explanations of commonly used terms derived from the vocabularies of the physical sciences. The principles and laws of…

  13. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  14. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  15. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  16. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  17. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  18. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  19. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries. PMID:6100848

  20. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  1. NOAA-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCain, Harry G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly developed a valuable series of polar-orbiting Earth environmental observation satellites since 1978. These satellites provide global data to NOAA's short- and long-range weather forecasting systems. The system consists of two polar-orbiting satellites known as the Advanced Television Infrared Observation Satellites (TIROS-N) (ATN). Operating as a pair, these satellites ensure that environmental data, for any region of the Earth, is no more than six hours old. These polar-orbiting satellites have not only provided cost-effective data for very immediate and real needs but also for extensive climate and research programs. The weather data (including images seen on television news programs) has afforded both convenience and safety to viewers throughout the world. The satellites also support the SARSAT (Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking) part of the COSPAS-SARSAT constellation. Russia provides the COSPAS (Russian for Space Systems for the Search of Vessels in Distress) satellites. The international COSPAS-SARSAT system provides for the detection and location of emergency beacons for ships, aircraft, and people in distress and has contributed to the saving of more than 10,000 lives since its inception in 1982.

  2. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  3. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  4. UWB Tracking System Design with TDOA Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Schwing, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort using a tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A two-stage weighted least square method is chosen to solve the TDOA non-linear equations. Matlab simulations in both two-dimensional space and three-dimensional space show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. The error analysis reveals various ways to improve the tracking resolution. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWBTDOA tracking capability with fine resolution. This research effort is motivated by a prototype development project Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS).

  5. Answering the AIDS denialists: is AIDS real?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-12-01

    This article looks at theories that say AIDS does not exist, or is not a new disease but only a collection of old ones--and explains some of the history behind earlier changes in the official definition of AIDS in the U.S., changes which caused some public confusion. PMID:12171004

  6. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Michael T.; Shields, Robert W.; Reed, Jack M.

    2004-10-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  7. STS-55 MS2 Precourt in life raft during egress exercises at JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Using a small single person life raft, STS-55 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt floats in the pool located in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Precourt, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), operates the Space Shuttle Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) portable locating beacon (PLC) as SCUBA-equipped diver looks on. Precourt, along with other crewmembers, practiced launch emergency egress (bailout). STS-55 with the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) payload will fly aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, in 1993.

  8. STS-56 MS1 Foale, in LES/LEH, floats during bailout exercises in JSC WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Michael Foale, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), floats in a single person life raft during launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. Foale's body is covered with the life raft tarp. His head and the space shuttle search and rescue satellite aided tracking (SARSAT) antenna protrude above the tarp. This simulation prepares the astronauts for the event of an emergency egress and subsequent water landing during launch.

  9. STS-42 Payload Specialist Bondar in single person life raft at JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Payload Specialist Roberta L. Bondar, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), floats in single person life raft during launch emergency egress exercises held in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. Bondar holds the Space Shuttle Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) portable locating beacon (PLB). The STS-42 crewmembers rehearsed procedures for launch emergency egress and a water landing. Bondar is representing Canada during the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) mission aboard OV-103.

  10. Sled tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, George A., Jr.; Fountain, Hubert W.; Riding, Thomas J.; Eggleston, James; Hopkins, Michael; Adams, Billy

    1991-08-01

    The Sled Tracking System (STS) represents the successful merger of several technologies, including IR and visual sensors, real-time image processing, and real-time data processing and control. STS was developed to solve the dynamics of tracking seat ejection and vehicle tests at the Air Force's High Speed Test Track Facility at Holloman AFB, New Mexico. The system has the ability to track vehicles at transverse speeds exceeding Mach 1, while ignoring momentary loss of track due to background clutter. STS can discriminate among up to four seats sequentially ejected from a single vehicle and track only the event of interest. The system also maintains the track point of interest in the primary sensor's field-of-view while tracking an offset aim point and transitions from a transverse trajectory to a vertical trajectory while maintaining track through seat-mannequin separation and chute deployment. This paper discusses the hardware and software architectures implemented to solve these problems.

  11. Can we track holes?

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Todd S.; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-01-01

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1–5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. PMID:21334361

  12. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  13. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  14. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  15. Students with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

  16. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

  17. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  18. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  19. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  20. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  1. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  2. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  3. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  4. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  5. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  6. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  7. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  8. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  9. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  10. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  11. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  12. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  13. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  14. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  15. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  16. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students in high…

  17. The transmission of prosodic information via an electrotactile speechreading aid.

    PubMed

    Grant, K W; Ardell, L A; Kuhl, P K; Sparks, D W

    1986-10-01

    Variations in voice fundamental frequency were extracted from naturally produced speech samples and transmitted to an electrocutaneous display consisting of 10 electrodes arranged in a linear array along the forearm. Changes in fundamental frequency were encoded as changes in stimulus location. Speechreading performance, with and without the electrocutaneous aid, was examined for both sentence and connected discourse materials with one profoundly hearing-impaired listener and one normally hearing listener whose hearing was masked. After 20 hours of speechreading training in connected discourse tracking procedure, both subjects showed higher tracking rates and faster learning rates with the aid than without the aid. Results from closed-set sentence-identification tests showed that patterns of intonation, stress, and phrase structure, which are not easily speechread, are readily available with the aid.

  18. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  19. Tracking-integrated optics: applications in solar concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelwright, Brian M.; Angel, Roger; Coughenour, Blake

    2014-12-01

    Conventional concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems track the sun with high precision dual-axis trackers. The emergent field of tracking-integrated optics has the potential to simplify the mechanics of CPV systems by loosening or eliminating the need for dual-axis tracking. In a tracking-integrated scheme, external module tracking is complemented or entirely replaced by miniature tracking within the module. This internal tracking-integration may take the form of active small-motion translation, rotation of arrayed optics, or by passive material property changes induced by the concentrated light. These methods are briefly reviewed. An insolation weighting model is presented which will aid in the design of tracking-integrated optics by quantifying the tradeoff between angular operation range and annual sunlight collection. We demonstrate that when tracking-integrated optics are used to complement external module tracking about a horizontal, North-South oriented axis, truncating the operational range may be advantageous. At Tucson AZ latitude (32.2°N), 15.6% of the angular range may be truncated while only sacrificing 3.6% of the annual insolation. We show that modules tracked about a polar-aligned axis are poorly-suited for truncation.

  20. UWB Tracking System Design for Free-Flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Phan, Chan; Ngo, Phong; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort for Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) that operates cooperatively with the UWB system is developed in this research effort. Matlab simulations show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWB tracking capability with fine resolution.

  1. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  2. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  3. Photographing Track Meets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the sport of track and field, because of the sport itself and its relatively easy access to photographers, is an obvious target for cameras. Discusses rules of the track that photographers must follow; picking a location; and equipment. Discusses shooting four specific track and field events and offers behind the scenes photos. (SR)

  4. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  5. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  6. Spectral gating in hyperspectral-augmented target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Neil A.; Mendenhall, Michael J.; Vasquez, Juan R.

    2008-04-01

    Hyperspectral images provide scientists and engineers with the capability of precise material identification in remote sensing applications. One can leverage this data for precise track identification (ID) and incorporate the high-confidence ID in the tracking process. Our previous work demonstrates that hyperspectral-aided tracking outperforms kinematic-only tracking where multiple ambiguous situations exist. We develop a novel gating concept for hyperspectral measurements, similar in concept to the gating of the Mahalanobis distance computed from the Kalman residuals. Our spectral gating definition is based on the distance between the spectral distribution of the class ID of a track and the spectral distribution of the class ID resulting from the classification of a measurement. We further incorporate the distance between each class distribution (in spectral space) in the track association portion of our hyperspectral-aided tracker. Since functional forms of the joint probability distribution function do not exist, similarity measures such as the Kullback-Leibler divergence or Bhattacharyya distance cannot be used. Instead, we compute all pair-wise distances between all samples of the two classes and then summarize these distances in a meaningful way. This article presents our novel spectral gating approach and its use in track association. It further explores different similarity measures and their effect on spectral gating and track association.

  7. Finite resolution multitarget tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mušicki, Darko; Morelande, Mark R.

    2005-09-01

    Target tracking algorithms have to operate in an environment of uncertain measurement origin, due to the presence of randomly detected target measurements as well as clutter measurements from unwanted random scatterers. A majority of Bayesian multi-target tracking algorithms suffer from computational complexity which is exponential in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. The Linear Multi-target (LM) tracking procedure is a Bayesian multi-target tracking approximation with complexity which is linear in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. It also has a much simpler structure than the "optimal" Bayesian multi-target tracking, with apparently negligible decrease in performance. A vast majority of target tracking algorithms have been developed with the assumption of infinite sensor resolution, where a measurement can have only one source. This assumption is not valid for real sensors, such as radars. This paper presents a multi-target tracking algorithm which removes this restriction. The procedure utilizes a simple structure of LM tracking procedure to obtain a LM Finite Resolution (LMfr) tracking procedure which is much simpler than the previously published efforts. Instead of calculating the probability of measurement merging for each combination of potentially merging targets, we evaluate only one merging hypotheses for each measurement and each track. A simulation study is presented which compares LMfr-IPDA with LM-IPDA and IPDA target tracking in a cluttered environment utilizing a finite resolution sensor with five crossing targets. The study concentrates on the false track discrimination performance and the track retention capabilities.

  8. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  9. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  10. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  11. Pediatric AIDS: psychosocial impact.

    PubMed

    Mangos, J A; Doran, T; Aranda-Naranjo, B; Rodriguez-Escobar, Y; Scott, A; Setzer, J R

    1990-06-01

    There is no question that the domain of the American family has been invaded by the HIV infection/AIDS epidemic. The disease, and particularly its form affecting children (pediatric AIDS), has had marked psychosocial impact on patients and families (intellectual/cognitive, emotional/behavioral, spiritual, and financial) and on our society in general (adverse or favorable). These impacts of pediatric AIDS are discussed in the present communication. PMID:2371699

  12. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  13. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  14. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  15. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation."

  16. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  17. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  18. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  19. Video-assisted segmentation of speech and audio track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Medha; Yusoff, Yusseri; Kittler, Josef; Christmas, William J.; Chilton, E. H. S.

    1999-08-01

    Video database research is commonly concerned with the storage and retrieval of visual information invovling sequence segmentation, shot representation and video clip retrieval. In multimedia applications, video sequences are usually accompanied by a sound track. The sound track contains potential cues to aid shot segmentation such as different speakers, background music, singing and distinctive sounds. These different acoustic categories can be modeled to allow for an effective database retrieval. In this paper, we address the problem of automatic segmentation of audio track of multimedia material. This audio based segmentation can be combined with video scene shot detection in order to achieve partitioning of the multimedia material into semantically significant segments.

  20. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  1. Student Aid Audio Guide, 2003-2004. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM contains a simulated conversation between a counselor at the Department of Education's Federal Student Aid Information Center and a student inquiring about financial assistance. The information pertains to the year from July 2003 through June 2004. Following an introductory track containing information about the contents of the CD,…

  2. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  3. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  4. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  5. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  6. Teachers with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

  7. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  8. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  10. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  11. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  12. AIDS: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-08-01

    Each country currently experiencing an AIDS epidemic did not believe that the epidemics would develop, but they did and more than 6 million people have since died. However, if the governments of the approximately 2.3 billion people who live in developing countries where HIV/AIDS has not yet spread to the general population, together with the international community and nongovernmental organizations, act promptly, many lives will be saved. The World Bank publication "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" brings, for the first time, an economic perspective to the problem of AIDS. The author considers how developing country governments should respond to the AIDS epidemic when they also face so many other major and pressing problems related to raising more than 1 billion people out of severe poverty. While AIDS is an important problem which must be immediately addressed, using resources to help people with AIDS will come at the expense of other objectives such as sending children to school, providing safe drinking water, and building infrastructure. The serious nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and what governments should do are considered. PMID:12294026

  13. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  14. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  15. Community responses to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1994-01-01

    Some examples of care in the community for people with HIV/AIDS are reported from Africa. Members of communities committed to fighting the AIDS epidemic cannot do so alone and should be given every possible help. Inadequate care favours the spread of HIV, as does the stigmatization of people with HIV infection and their families.

  16. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  17. AIDS -- a modern hydra.

    PubMed

    Chen, D W

    1988-10-01

    So far, AIDS has not been a major problem in Taiwan. Only 79 people have tested HIV-seropositive, and only 6 have been stricken by the disease. The government has allocated money for AIDS research; blood screening is mandatory in all hospitals; confidential AIDS testing is widely available; and doctors are advised to administer azidothymidine to anyone who tests positive. Azidothymidine is not a cure, but it can prevent the virus from destroying more cells. Nevertheless, a climate of irrational fear of and ignorance about AIDS pervades Taiwan. Many people believe that AIDS can be transmitted by casual contact, and people who are HIV-seropositive are treated as social outcasts. One student at the University of Taipei, only a few credits from graduation, has been refused readmission to the university because he tested HIV-positive. Sex education in the schools is not a good route for AIDS education because sex and especially homosexuality are simply not mentioned in public in Taiwan. Activists, including gay-rights representative, Chi Chia-Wei, have turned to the mass media, especially television as a vehicle for AIDS education, and several programs on AIDS have been shown since 1986.

  18. A study of CR-39 track response to charged particles from NOVA implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, T. W.; Cable, M. D.; Hicks, D. G.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Seguin, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    We have exposed CR-39 track recording material to a number of NOVA implosions. Radiation from the implosion passed through an array of ranging filters, which aided identification of the incident particles and their energies. The etching procedure was calibrated by including a piece of track exposed to DD protons from a small accelerator. For the same shots, we quantitatively compare the DD neutron yield with the DD proton yield determined from the track. In DT implosions, tracks produced by neutron interactions prevent observation of charged-particle tracks that are produced by the processes of knock on, secondary, or tertiary fusion.

  19. Arizona State University: Student Tracking in a University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John D.; Gebel, Melinda A.

    1995-01-01

    Arizona State University has created longitudinal student files capable of tracking each student's curricular and financial aid history from entry until graduation. The structure of the files, their creation and maintenance, and their evolution over the years are described. Uses of the files to conduct different kinds of studies to inform…

  20. National Diffusion Network's Evaluation of the Fast Track Music System 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymczuk, Michael

    This document reports on an evaluation project to determine the effectiveness of the Fast Track method of instrumental music instruction as applied to beginning band instruction. The Fast Track music system is unique because it simultaneously aids both visual and aural learning by using a book and cassette tape approach to instruction. Traditional…

  1. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  2. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  3. Explaining cloud chamber tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, A.A.

    1992-06-16

    The operation of many detection devices is usually explained in terms of the ionization tracks produced by particles despite the fact that the corresponding incident wave functions extended over the entire sensitive regions of the detectors. The mechanisms by which the wave function appears to collapse to a track is analyzed here.

  4. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  5. On the Wrong Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursky, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problems with student tracking. Although supporters consider tracking the best way for teachers to handle classroom diversity, many minorities say that it condemns their children to an inferior education. Studies show that heterogeneous classes benefit all students if the teachers adopt flexible instructional methods to handle the…

  6. Can Tracking Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  7. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  8. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways. PMID:12349153

  9. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  10. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  11. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  12. Sensor-based animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Andrew

    The advent of Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies has provided wildlife researchers with new insights into the movement and habitat utilization patterns of wildlife species by being able to provide vast quantities of detailed location data. However, current wildlife tracking techniques have numerous limitations, as GPS locations can be biased to an unknown extent because animals move through habitats that are often denied GPS signals. This can result in some habitat types being under sampled or not sampled at all. Additionally, researchers using GPS tracking systems cannot understand what behaviour an animal is exhibiting at each GPS position without either relying on extensive field data or statistical techniques that may infer behaviour. Overall these issues, and others, limit the knowledge that can be derived from the data currently being collected by GPS collars alone. To address these limitations, a dead reckoning solution (called the NavAid) has been developed to augment GPS tracking collars, which enables both the acquisition of continuous movement trajectories for animals under study, and the collection of digital images on a user-defined schedule along travel routes. Analysis of an animal's velocity allows one to identify different types of movement behaviours that can be associated with foraging, searching for food, and locomotion between patches. In addition, the ability to capture continuous paths allows researchers to identify habitat that is important to a species, and habitat that is not---something that is not possible when relying solely on GPS. This new system weighs approximately 220 g and can be deployed on most conventional collar systems for a wide range of species. This thesis presents the research and development of this new system over the past four years, along with preliminary findings from field work carried out on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Analysis of tracking data suggests

  13. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  14. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  15. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  16. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  17. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  18. Latina women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worth, D; Rodriguez, R

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS in Latina women is over 11 times that of white women. Women account for 13% of all Latino AIDS deaths since 1980. This examination of the impact of AIDS on Latino women concentrates on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The AIDS deaths among Puerto Rican women in this neighborhood are predominantly intravenous drug abuse related. Latina women accounted for more than 1/2 of all female AIDS deaths on the Lower East Side during the 1980-1985 period. The age range is parallel with that in the rest of New York City, with the exception of a higher number of deaths on the Lower East Side in the age ranges of 15-19 and over 40. Serious obstacles exist to providing AIDS risk reduction information to Puerto Rican women and their partners. Latinos account for 11% of all US AIDS cases among gay and bisexual men. The cultural proscription against these sexual practices in the Puerto Rican community makes AIDS education related to such practices extremely difficult. Many of the female sex partners of these men are unaware of their bisexuality, and, therefore not aware that they are at risk of HIV infection. The Latina women most at risk are young, poor, and have low educational levels. Latina women seriously underutilize ongoing primary health care, family planning, prenatal or pediatric care. Attempts to reach Latina women with AIDS risk reduction education must also contend with issues such as cultural gender roles. Females tend to be dependent on males and defer to male decision making related to sexual practices. In formulating policy regarding services and education, it is essential to involve the leadership of the Latino community. PMID:12268416

  19. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  20. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parametersmore » of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.« less

  1. Sparse Hashing Tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihe; Lu, Huchuan; Du, Dandan; Liu, Luning

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel tracking framework based on a sparse and discriminative hashing method. Different from the previous work, we treat object tracking as an approximate nearest neighbor searching process in a binary space. Using the hash functions, the target templates and the candidates can be projected into the Hamming space, facilitating the distance calculation and tracking efficiency. First, we integrate both the inter-class and intra-class information to train multiple hash functions for better classification, while most classifiers in previous tracking methods usually neglect the inter-class correlation, which may cause the inaccuracy. Then, we introduce sparsity into the hash coefficient vectors for dynamic feature selection, which is crucial to select the discriminative and stable features to adapt to visual variations during the tracking process. Extensive experiments on various challenging sequences show that the proposed algorithm performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  3. AIDS and public health.

    PubMed

    Moskop, J C

    1988-01-01

    After briefly stating the significance of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for public health, this paper considers programs or proposals to control the spread of AIDS in the following eight general areas: (a) education; (b) distribution of sterile needles; (c) screening and treatment of blood, blood products, and other tissues; (d) voluntary and mandatory screening of persons for evidence of infection; (e) reporting; (f) contact tracing; (g) isolation and other restrictions on freedom of movement or association; and (h) physical marking of persons with AIDS. Significant moral issues within each of these areas are discussed, and the overall justifiability of various proposals is examined.

  4. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  5. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... October 15th observance calls attention to the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on the Latinx community. The ...

  6. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  7. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  8. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  9. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  10. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  11. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  12. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  13. [AIDS and society].

    PubMed

    Koupernik, C

    1988-03-01

    On the basis of information gathered from media the writer delineates the following aspects of the impact of AIDS upon social life: advertising the danger, sex education of the youth, purposeful contamination by AIDS-patients, legal repressive measures, the doctors and the right to test, Anglican Church and acceptance of homosexuality among ministers, antagonistic incentives epidemiologic research and the right to confidentiality. Finally, he endorses the recent declaration of the America Psychiatric Association determined to fight discrimination and refusal of care.

  14. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  15. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.

  16. AIDS and haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Carr, R

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 1% of all AIDS cases are haemophiliacs. LAV/HTLV-III is transmitted by blood and in factor VIII concentrates. Since 1981, increasing numbers of haemophiliacs have been infected, as indicated by detection of antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III. Up to 90% of haemophiliacs in some populations are now seropositive, but to date less than 1% have progressed to clinical AIDS. Immunological abnormalities, in particular reduced T-lymphocyte helper/suppressor ratios, are common in haemophiliacs treated with factor VIII. Such abnormalities do not necessarily indicate past infection by the AIDS virus, but they may predispose to infection following exposure to the virus. Blood Transfusion agencies are introducing screening tests for antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III to help prevent the spread of AIDS by blood products. Heat treated factor VIII concentrate is now available and appears not to transmit AIDS. Factor IX concentrate may also transmit LAV/HTLV-III, but less frequently. A few cases of AIDS have occurred in Haemophilia B (Christmas Disease) patients.

  17. The Effect of Visual Distinctiveness on Multiple Object Tracking Performance

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Piers D. L.; Holcombe, Alex O.

    2012-01-01

    Observers often need to attentively track moving objects. In everyday life, such objects are often visually distinctive. Previous studies have shown that tracking accuracy is increased when the targets contain a visual feature (e.g., a color) not possessed by the distractors. Conversely, a gain in tracking accuracy was not observed when the targets differed from the distractors by only a conjunction of features (Makovski and Jiang, 2009a). In this study we confirm that some conjunction targets have relatively little effect on tracking accuracy, but show that other conjunction targets can significantly aid tracking. For example, tracking accuracy is relatively high when the targets are small red squares and half the distractors are large red squares while the remaining distractors are small green squares. This seems to occur because the targets have a set of features (small and red) not shared by any one distractor. Attending to these features directs attention more to the targets than the distractors, thereby making the targets easier to track. Existing theories of attentive tracking cannot explain these results. PMID:22969738

  18. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  19. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1992-02-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services.

  20. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  1. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  2. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  3. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  4. Support vector tracking.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Shai

    2004-08-01

    Support Vector Tracking (SVT) integrates the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier into an optic-flow-based tracker. Instead of minimizing an intensity difference function between successive frames, SVT maximizes the SVM classification score. To account for large motions between successive frames, we build pyramids from the support vectors and use a coarse-to-fine approach in the classification stage. We show results of using SVT for vehicle tracking in image sequences.

  5. Construction computer-aided engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Atkins, D.; Astleford, R.

    1987-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. and Bechtel Power Corporation are presently designing nuclear power plants for Japanese utilities exclusively on three-dimensional computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems. To make these three-dimensional CADD models more effective for construction activities, Hitachi and Bechtel are jointly developing a software package that allows construction engineers and planners to effectively empty an area of the three-dimensional CADD model and rebuild it electronically to simulate, animate, and optimize the construction sequence and methodology. The components in the three-dimensional CADD model are placed as they would be for actual construction (i.e., piping spool pieces, skid-mounted systems, piping, and equipment modules, etc.). The construction engineer and planners can then select the components along with appropriate handling equipment and simulate/animate the actual construction sequence. After the construction sequence has been optimized, it is captured on videotape for use in the field. The results of the simulated activities are then passed on to computer program module (CPM) scheduling and work breakdown structure programs for accurate bottom-up construction activity planning and commodity tracking. This entire process can be iterated to an optimum solution before the actual construction begins. Once construction is in progress, the program can compare the actual status and allow resimulations for workarounds.

  6. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  7. Object Tracking Benchmark.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Lim, Jongwoo; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    Object tracking has been one of the most important and active research areas in the field of computer vision. A large number of tracking algorithms have been proposed in recent years with demonstrated success. However, the set of sequences used for evaluation is often not sufficient or is sometimes biased for certain types of algorithms. Many datasets do not have common ground-truth object positions or extents, and this makes comparisons among the reported quantitative results difficult. In addition, the initial conditions or parameters of the evaluated tracking algorithms are not the same, and thus, the quantitative results reported in literature are incomparable or sometimes contradictory. To address these issues, we carry out an extensive evaluation of the state-of-the-art online object-tracking algorithms with various evaluation criteria to understand how these methods perform within the same framework. In this work, we first construct a large dataset with ground-truth object positions and extents for tracking and introduce the sequence attributes for the performance analysis. Second, we integrate most of the publicly available trackers into one code library with uniform input and output formats to facilitate large-scale performance evaluation. Third, we extensively evaluate the performance of 31 algorithms on 100 sequences with different initialization settings. By analyzing the quantitative results, we identify effective approaches for robust tracking and provide potential future research directions in this field.

  8. [Multiple myeloma and HIV/AIDS infection. Three case reports].

    PubMed

    Elira Dokekias, A; Purhuence, M F; Malanda, F; Moyikoua, A; Moutschen, M

    2004-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infection rages at the endemic state in Sub Saharan African and especially in our country. We are reporting 3 observations of patients, all of females affected by HIV/AIDS and multiple's myeloma. They are all in-patients in the department of haematology, University hospital of Brazzaville, from 2000 to 2002. In two cases out of three, multiple's myeloma is discovered after the tracking of HIV/AIDS infection. In the other case, the tracking HIV/AIDS seems to be posterior to the multiple's myeloma diagnostisis. HIV/AIDS is symptomatic in the tree cases and under antiviral treatment. Multiple's Myeloma is diagnosed at an advanced stage. It is about IgG myeloma in two cases and IgA myeloma in the other. The rate of the T4 lymphocytes is noted spontaneously to 204 and 486 by mm3, and 390 by mm3 in a patient under antiviral treatment before her hospitalisation. The measure of the viral intensity is not achieved. The poly chemotherapy of type VMCP and VAMCP is driven without major complications and under anti-infectious prophylaxis. The receding is still insufficient to affirm the medium-term evolution and to determine the prognosis of the malign blood disease. The description of these three observations confirms the implication of the human retrovirus and in particular of the VIH/SIDA in the lymphoma genesis.

  9. Gay youth and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gay male teenagers face considerable adversity during their "coming out" process due to the AIDS epidemic. They must decide whether to be tested for HIV-1 infection, whether to postpone sexual activity, how to select a partner, and which kinds of sexual practices to engage in. Gay youth often make such decisions based upon misinformation and faulty premises. This paper reviews what is known about gay youth and AIDS, and assesses their possible risk for HIV-1 infection. It is recommended that school and community-based health education programs be developed to teach gay and bisexual youth about safe sex. Moreover, research is needed into sociocultural variations among gay youth in order to develop appropriate and effective intervention strategies for AIDS risk reduction in this diverse population.

  10. Recapture training aid.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, James Edward

    2004-08-01

    The breacher's training aid described in this report was designed to simulate features of magazine and steel-plate doors. The training aid enables breachers to practice using their breaching tools on components that they may encounter when attempting to enter a facility. Two types of fixtures were designed and built: (1) a large fixture incorporates simulated hinges, hasps, lock shrouds, and pins, and (2) a small fixture simulates the cross section of magazine and steel-plate doors. The small fixture consists of steel plates on either side of a structural member, such as an I-beam. The report contains detailed descriptions and photographs of the training aids, assembly instructions, and drawings.

  11. Attentive Tracking of Sound Sources.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kevin J P; McDermott, Josh H

    2015-08-31

    Auditory scenes often contain concurrent sound sources, but listeners are typically interested in just one of these and must somehow select it for further processing. One challenge is that real-world sounds such as speech vary over time and as a consequence often cannot be separated or selected based on particular values of their features (e.g., high pitch). Here we show that human listeners can circumvent this challenge by tracking sounds with a movable focus of attention. We synthesized pairs of voices that changed in pitch and timbre over random, intertwined trajectories, lacking distinguishing features or linguistic information. Listeners were cued beforehand to attend to one of the voices. We measured their ability to extract this cued voice from the mixture by subsequently presenting the ending portion of one voice and asking whether it came from the cued voice. We found that listeners could perform this task but that performance was mediated by attention-listeners who performed best were also more sensitive to perturbations in the cued voice than in the uncued voice. Moreover, the task was impossible if the source trajectories did not maintain sufficient separation in feature space. The results suggest a locus of attention that can follow a sound's trajectory through a feature space, likely aiding selection and segregation amid similar distractors. PMID:26279234

  12. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  13. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs.

  14. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  15. Bringing the World together to fight HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    There were some significant first for nursing at the 12th World AIDS Conference in Geneva: a special nursing session, the concept of "care" in one of the four tracks and ICN as a partner in organizing the event. The major drive was "bridging the gap" between the have and have not in access to therapies and continuum of care. At a Pre-Conference Nursing Satellite Meeting nurses exchanged ideas and research and were provided another perspective of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--the continually widening gap between the North and South--to which nurses should respond in unison. PMID:9850493

  16. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  17. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  18. Joint tracking, pose estimation, and identification using HRRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald P. S.; Rago, Constantino; Zajic, Tim; Musick, Stanton; Mehra, Raman K.

    2000-08-01

    The work presented here is pat of a generalization of Bayesian filtering and estimation theory to the problem of multisource, multitarget, multi-evidence unified joint detection, tracking, and target ID developed by Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems and Scientific Systems Co., Inc. Our approach to robust joint target identification and tracking was to take the StaF algorithm and integrate it with a Bayesian nonlinear filter, where target position, velocity, pose, and type could then be determined simultaneously via maximum a posteriori estimation. The basis for the integration between the tracker and classifier is base don 'finite-set statistics' (FISST). The theoretical development of FISST is a Lockheed Martin ongoing project since 1994. The specific problem addressed in this paper is that of robust joint target identification and tracking via fusion of high range resolution radar (HRRR) - from the automatic radar target identification (ARTI) data base - signatures and radar track data. A major problem in HRRR ATR is the computational load created by having to match observations against target models for every feasible pose. If pose could be estimated efficiently by a filtering algorithm from track data, the ATR search space would be greatly reduced. On the other hand, HRRR ATR algorithms produce useful information about pose which could potentially aid the track-filtering process as well. We have successfully demonstrated the former concept of 'loose integration' integrating the tracker and classifier for three different type of targets moving on 2D tracks.

  19. Landmark detection and coupled patch registration for cardiac motion tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Shi, Wenzhe; Zhuang, Xiahai; Wu, Xianliang; Tung, Kai-Pin; Ourselin, Sebastien; Edwards, Philip; Rueckert, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on the estimation of the deformation of the endocardium to aid the diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Landmark tracking can provide sparse, anatomically relevant constraints to help establish correspondences between images being tracked or registered. However, landmarks on the endocardium are often characterized by ambiguous appearance in cardiac MR images which makes the extraction and tracking of these landmarks problematic. In this paper we propose an automatic framework to select and track a sparse set of distinctive landmarks in the presence of relatively large deformations in order to capture the endocardial motion in cardiac MR sequences. To achieve this a sparse set of the landmarks is identified using an entropy-based approach. In particular we use singular value decomposition (SVD) to reduce the search space and localize the landmarks with relatively large deformation across the cardiac cycle. The tracking of the sparse set of landmarks is performed simultaneously by optimizing a two-stage Markov Random Field (MRF) model. The tracking result is further used to initialize registration based dense motion tracking. We have applied this framework to extract a set of landmarks at the endocardial border of the left ventricle in MR image sequences from 51 subjects. Although the left ventricle undergoes a number of different deformations, we show how the radial, longitudinal motion and twisting of the endocardial surface can be captured by the proposed approach. Our experiments demonstrate that motion tracking using sparse landmarks can outperform conventional motion tracking by a substantial amount, with improvements in terms of tracking accuracy of 20:8% and 19:4% respectively.

  20. The Way the Money Goes: An Investigation of Flows of Funding and Resources for Young Children Affected by HIV/AIDS. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development. Young Children and HIV/AIDS Sub-Series, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Alison

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses routes by which HIV/AIDS money is dispersed and received. It notes that capturing accurate data on actual spending patterns of large donors can be difficult, as there is no uniform tracking or reporting system and much HIV/AIDS money is spent under the broader category of sexual and reproductive health. Most of the information…

  1. Magnetic Low-Friction Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetkau, Mark; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Gamblen, James

    2008-05-01

    The standard low-friction tracks used to test Newton's laws are the air track and the low-friction cart track. Both are commercially available and provide low-friction environments to test various physics concepts. At a recent science fair, one of the authors (JG) presented a magnetically levitated cart and track. A literature search found no previous testing of magnetically levitated carts. This paper compares a magnetically levitated cart against the two standard low-friction tracks.

  2. Automated cloud tracking using precisely aligned digital ATS pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Phillips, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the interactive man-computer system (WIMDCO) for measuring cloud motion from ATS pictures. The multipicture model of ATS navigation is used for consecutive ATS digital picture alignment to provide the required precision in cloud motion measurements by automated tracking techniques. Cloud motion is measured by tracking clouds between two digital pictures with the aid of two-dimensional cross correlation analysis. The fast Fourier transform method and other programming techniques are used for time and cost minimization. Cloud motion vectors were computed over three time intervals in July, 1969. The EW and NS components were reproducible within roughly 2 knots.

  3. Human operator tracking performance with a vibrotactile display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inbar, Gideon F.

    1991-01-01

    Vibrotactile displays have been designed and used as a sensory aid for the blind. In the present work the same 6 x 24 'Optacon' type vibrotactile display (VTD) was used to characterize human operator (HO) tracking performance in pursuit and compensatory tasks. The VTD was connected via a microprocessor to a one-dimensional joy stick manipulator. Various display schemes were tested on the VDT, and were also compared to visual tracking performance using a specially constructed photo diode matrix display comparable to the VTD.

  4. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  5. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  6. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  7. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  8. First Aid Instruction Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Mines (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the Department of the Interior, this teaching guide is for the instructors' use in teaching a first aid course. Six fundamental areas include: (1) Artificial Respiration, (2) Control of Bleeding, (3) Physical Shock, (4) Open Wounds, Closed Wounds, and Burns, (5) Fractures and Dislocations, and (6) Transportation. A complete…

  9. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  10. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  11. Child Care Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the child care aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with child care center personnel, the course was prepared by teacher and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested, and…

  12. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  13. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  14. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  15. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  16. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  17. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)

  18. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  19. Instructional Aide Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Henry

    The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to…

  20. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  1. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  2. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  3. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  4. The Effect of Types of Financial Aid on Student Persistence towards Graduation. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Tullise; And Others

    The relationship between student persistence and types of financial aid at a Jesuit comprehensive university was studied. Three freshmen cohorts (134 for 1989, 171 for 1990, and 131 for 1991) of 436 students were tracked through fall 1994. Attention was focused on nine financial aid variables, five additional noncategorical and six categorical…

  5. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  6. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for themore » return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.« less

  7. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  8. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Roswitha T.

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for the return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.

  9. A Future of Satellite-Aided Search and Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Satellite technology has been an integral part of maritime search and rescue since the Cospas-Sarsat system began operation in 1984. This system, credited with more than eighty-six hundred lives saved, has recently been augmented to provide immediate response through geostationary satellites. The other satellite-based distress alerting system, INMARSAT, launched its emergency Standard C service in 1991 and Standard E in 1997. Current plans call for a continuation of service from both of these vital systems at least through the first decade of the next century. We are currently witnessing the construction of a number of new satellite systems that will have the potential for revolutionizing mobile communications. These systems will be capable of emergency communication, and must be given due consideration in any look at the future, This paper reviews existing systems using satellites for distress alerting, describes the plans in place for them, and discusses likely developments.

  10. Tracking of deformable objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where the image features -- edges, intensity pattern, object motion and initial keyed-in contour (by the user) form the prior and likelihood model of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) is used for the minimization of the global energy for the MRF model. The motion segment for each frame is initialized using the segment information from the previous frame. For the initial frame, the motion segment is obtained by manually keying in the object contour. The motion-segments obtained using the proposed model are coherent and accurate. Experimental results on tracking using the proposed algorithm for different sequences -- Bream, Alexis and Claire are presented in this paper. The results obtained are accurate and can be used for a variety of applications including MPEG-4 Video Object Plane (VOP) extraction.

  11. Screening for AIDS.

    PubMed

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  12. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.

  13. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  14. Hazardous waste tracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, R. )

    1993-08-01

    The concept of cradle-to-grave oversight of hazardous waste was established in 1976 under RCRA. Since then, the multicopy Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest has been a key component in the federal tracking system. The manifests ensure that generators, transporters and TSDFs maintain documentation of hazardous waste shipments. To a large extent, the tracking system has served its intended purpose; nevertheless, certain shortcomings exist. Anyone involved in shipping hazardous waste should be aware of the system's weaknesses and take appropriate measures to compensate for them.

  15. CTS. Commitment Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Stucki, F.K.

    1992-06-01

    CTS is a micro based prototype of the data elements, screens, and information processing rules that apply to the Commitment and Non-compliance Tracking Program. The system is focused on the non-compliance or commitment. When some group is out of compliance they need a way of tracking that occurrence. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the non-compliance Event. Additionally, the system must provide data integrity. This is done through a set up of tables and data validation.

  16. Simple front tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.; Grove, J.W.; Li, X.; Zhao, N.

    1999-04-01

    A new and simplified front tracking algorithm has been developed as an aspect of the extension of this algorithm to three dimensions. Here the authors emphasize two main results: (1) a simplified description of the microtopology of the interface, based on interface crossings with cell block edges, and (2) an improved algorithm for the interaction of a tracked contact discontinuity with an untracked shock wave. For the latter question, they focus on the post interaction jump at the contact, which is a purely 1D issue. Comparisons to other methods, including the level set method, are included.

  17. Spin tracking in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.U.; Katayama, T.; Wu, H.

    1997-07-01

    In the acceleration of polarized protons in RHIC many spin depolarizing resonances are encountered. Helical Siberian snakes will be used to overcome depolarizing effects. The behavior of polarization can be studied by numerical tracking in a model accelerator. That allows one to check the strength of the resonances, to study the effect of snakes, to find safe lattice tune regions, and finally to study the operation of special devices like spin flippers. In this paper the authors describe numerical spin tracking. Results show that, for the design corrected distorted orbit and the design beam emittance, the polarization of the beam will be preserved in the whole range of proton energies in RHIC.

  18. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  19. HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates…

  20. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  1. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  2. General defocusing particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Barnkob, Rune; Kähler, Christian J; Rossi, Massimiliano

    2015-09-01

    A General Defocusing Particle Tracking (GDPT) method is proposed for tracking the three-dimensional motion of particles in Lab-on-a-chip systems based on a set of calibration images and the normalized cross-correlation function. In comparison with other single-camera defocusing particle-tracking techniques, GDPT possesses a series of key advantages: it is applicable to particle images of arbitrary shapes, it is intuitive and easy to use, it can be used without advanced knowledge of optics and velocimetry theory, it is robust against outliers and overlapping particle images, and it requires only equipment which is standard in microfluidic laboratories. We demonstrate the method by tracking the three-dimensional motion of 2 μm spherical particles in a microfluidic channel using three different optical arrangements. The position of the particles was measured with an estimated uncertainty of 0.1 μm in the in-plane direction and 2 μm in the depth direction for a measurement volume of 1510 × 1270 × 160 μm(3). A ready-to-use GUI implementation of the method can be acquired on . PMID:26201498

  3. Personal Tracking Charts

    MedlinePlus

    ... only on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Keep an eye out for allergic reactions. I should take Prezista with food. year keeping track of my periods month mark the Type of Flow in the boxes below L =exceptionally light N =normal h =exceptionally heavy S =spotting O =none ...

  4. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  5. Tracking Self into Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to figure out what it means to educate "ecologically," I decided to track down some of the stories that I was living, telling and making as an educator. I ended up lost in the house of environmental education, stuck within the rooms of ecological science and political advocacy. Outside on the lawn sat the story of place based…

  6. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  7. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  8. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  9. GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

  10. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  11. Country living with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kletecka, C

    1998-12-01

    The number of people with HIV in rural areas is small, but it is growing. In rural areas, AIDS organizations must deal with a fragmented client base that is spread out over a large geographic area. The logistics and costs of maintaining these services are higher per person than in urban areas. A description of what it is like to live with HIV in rural Vermont is provided. Although most people in rural Vermont seem to accept the concept of AIDS, few have known someone with the disease. Specialized medical care is difficult to obtain because only one specialty clinic and three part-time sites exist in the state of Vermont. Many who require more complex care, with better treatment options, go out of state to receive it.

  12. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  13. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  14. Manual for Student Financial Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…

  15. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  16. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  17. College Costs and Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The growing campus role in providing student financial aid is discussed based on data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, Peterson's Guide, and other sources. The campus contribution to student aid programs has grown far more than recent tuition increases. A significant portion of the financial aid burden has passed from federal…

  18. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  19. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  20. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  1. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Seghal, P N

    1991-04-01

    In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.

  2. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes.

  3. The role of major donors in health aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju; Park, Sang Min

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases. PMID:23766869

  4. Redirecting British foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Dean, M

    1994-01-01

    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  5. AIDS in women: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, A

    1989-09-01

    Several facts concerning the distribution of AIDS in U.S. female populations are clear. This disease has made significant inroads, in a quantitative sense, into the female segment of our society as documented by AIDS surveillance data, information on pregnant women and parturients, and by screening data from the military. The impact on women in the reproductive years, on the reproductive health of these women, and on the reproductive outcome of their pregnancies is of substantial concern. Monitoring epidemiologic trends in certain groups will require clever and creative strategies like those of Hoff and colleagues. Additional data may be derived from the CDC's Family of Surveys that will examine HIV prevalence in five groups (in addition to the newborn infant survey described above): intravenous drug users, patients admitted to hospitals, sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, women's health and reproductive health clinics, and tuberculosis clinics. It is hoped that the data obtained from these studies, as well as data gathered on college students and Job Corps applicants, will contribute additional information on HIV infection in women. Monitoring the progress of the AIDS epidemic in women will be difficult. Even more difficult will be the effort to respond to the epidemic in the women it most frequently affects: the poor, minority, disenfranchised women who may be involved in illegal activities (drug use, prostitution, illegal immigration) who are not well networked into the medical and social services of our society. PMID:2776374

  6. A research on SLAM aided INS/GPS navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Menglong; Cui, Pingyuan

    2007-11-01

    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) aided INS/GPS navigation system is a landmark based terrain aided autonomous integrated system that has the capability for online map building and simultaneously utilizing the generated map to bind the errors in the Inertial Navigation System (INS) when GPS is not available. If GPS information is available, the SLAM integrated system builds a landmark-based map using an INS/GPS solution. If GPS is not available, the previously newly generated map is used to constrain the INS errors. The SLAM augmented INS/GPS system shows two capabilities of landmark tracking and mapping using GPS information and more importantly, aiding the INS under GPS denied situation. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

  7. Remote sensing of water tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Water tracks are an intrinsic part of the surficial drainage network in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. They preferentially transport water off hillslopes and represent the interplay between hydrology, vegetation, geomorphology, and permafrost characteristics. This research on mapping the location of water tracks builds on previous work which demonstrated that different types of water tracks exist due to difference primarily driven by geomorphology. We used a combination method where spectral classifications, texture, and topography were fed into random forests to identify the water track classes. The most accurate distributions were obtained for the organic-rich and wide water track classes. The distinct linear shapes of the water tracks could also be visualized for many of the classes, especially in areas where the water tracks were particularly discrete. The biggest challenges to mapping the water tracks were due to class imbalances and high variability within and overlapping between classes. This research presents a significant step forward in understanding periglacial landscape dynamics.

  8. Managing AIDS in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M D; Myers, J E

    1993-01-01

    Because of the AIDS epidemic and the protections afforded individuals with AIDS under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employers are well advised to ensure compliance under applicable law to reduce exposure to employee claims of discrimination and to efficiently manage workplace issues associated with AIDS. Employers should implement AIDS policies and programs designed to educate their workforce to reduce the spread of AIDS and to clear up any misunderstandings about the disease which could wreak havoc in the workplace. This article summarizes suggested action steps for employers and outside resources to consult for guidance.

  9. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  10. Track Initiation for Electro-Optical Tracking of Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. W.; Wang, X.

    2016-03-01

    Aimed at the track initiation for the electro-optical tracking of space objects, and based on modified Hough transformation, a track initiation algorithm without prior information is proposed to realize the fully robotic identification and tracking of moving objects. The method is valid for the tracking of multi-target as well as with a non-continuous sequence. Simulation shows that the method is effective and applicable for operational usage, and is especially good for the search and discovery of new objects.

  11. Efficient sample tracking with OpenLabFramework.

    PubMed

    List, Markus; Schmidt, Steffen; Trojnar, Jakub; Thomas, Jochen; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Tan, Qihua; Baumbach, Jan; Mollenhauer, Jan

    2014-03-04

    The advance of new technologies in biomedical research has led to a dramatic growth in experimental throughput. Projects therefore steadily grow in size and involve a larger number of researchers. Spreadsheets traditionally used are thus no longer suitable for keeping track of the vast amounts of samples created and need to be replaced with state-of-the-art laboratory information management systems. Such systems have been developed in large numbers, but they are often limited to specific research domains and types of data. One domain so far neglected is the management of libraries of vector clones and genetically engineered cell lines. OpenLabFramework is a newly developed web-application for sample tracking, particularly laid out to fill this gap, but with an open architecture allowing it to be extended for other biological materials and functional data. Its sample tracking mechanism is fully customizable and aids productivity further through support for mobile devices and barcoded labels.

  12. Efficient Sample Tracking With OpenLabFramework

    PubMed Central

    List, Markus; Schmidt, Steffen; Trojnar, Jakub; Thomas, Jochen; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Tan, Qihua; Baumbach, Jan; Mollenhauer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advance of new technologies in biomedical research has led to a dramatic growth in experimental throughput. Projects therefore steadily grow in size and involve a larger number of researchers. Spreadsheets traditionally used are thus no longer suitable for keeping track of the vast amounts of samples created and need to be replaced with state-of-the-art laboratory information management systems. Such systems have been developed in large numbers, but they are often limited to specific research domains and types of data. One domain so far neglected is the management of libraries of vector clones and genetically engineered cell lines. OpenLabFramework is a newly developed web-application for sample tracking, particularly laid out to fill this gap, but with an open architecture allowing it to be extended for other biological materials and functional data. Its sample tracking mechanism is fully customizable and aids productivity further through support for mobile devices and barcoded labels. PMID:24589879

  13. Efficient sample tracking with OpenLabFramework.

    PubMed

    List, Markus; Schmidt, Steffen; Trojnar, Jakub; Thomas, Jochen; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Tan, Qihua; Baumbach, Jan; Mollenhauer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advance of new technologies in biomedical research has led to a dramatic growth in experimental throughput. Projects therefore steadily grow in size and involve a larger number of researchers. Spreadsheets traditionally used are thus no longer suitable for keeping track of the vast amounts of samples created and need to be replaced with state-of-the-art laboratory information management systems. Such systems have been developed in large numbers, but they are often limited to specific research domains and types of data. One domain so far neglected is the management of libraries of vector clones and genetically engineered cell lines. OpenLabFramework is a newly developed web-application for sample tracking, particularly laid out to fill this gap, but with an open architecture allowing it to be extended for other biological materials and functional data. Its sample tracking mechanism is fully customizable and aids productivity further through support for mobile devices and barcoded labels. PMID:24589879

  14. Synchronization using pulsed edge tracking in optical PPM communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R.

    1972-01-01

    A pulse position modulated (PPM) optical communication system using narrow pulses of light for data transmission requires accurate time synchronization between transmitter and receiver. The presence of signal energy in the form of optical pulses suggests the use of a pulse edge tracking method of maintaining the necessary timing. The edge tracking operation in a binary PPM system is examined, taking into account the quantum nature of the optical transmissions. Consideration is given first to pure synchronization using a periodic pulsed intensity, then extended to the case where position modulation is present and auxiliary bit decisioning is needed to aid the tracking operation. Performance analysis is made in terms of timing error and its associated statistics. Timing error variances are shown as a function of system signal to noise ratio.

  15. Satellite (IRLS) tracking of elk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    The practicability of tracking free roaming animals in natural environments by satellite systems is reported. Satellite systems combine continuous tracking with simultaneous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters through a combination of radio tracking and biotelemetric ground systems that lead to a better understanding of animal behavior and migration patterns.

  16. The Mystery of Animal Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communicator, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A simple animal track guide is given to help students and teachers recognize some of the common animal tracks found in many parts of the country. The tracks are divided into 3 basic categories: 1) flatfoots, 2) toe-walkers, and 3) toe-nail walkers. (NQ)

  17. On particle track detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

  18. Tracking change over time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.

  19. Longwall shearer tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, P. D. (Inventor); Stein, R. J.; Pease, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system for measuring and recording the movements of a longwall shearer vehicle includes an optical tracking assembly carried at one end of a desired vehicle path and a retroreflector assembly carried by the vehicle. Continuous horizontal and vertical light beams are alternately transmitted by means of a rotating Dove prism to the reflector assembly. A vertically reciprocating reflector interrupts the continuous light beams and converts these to discrete horizontal and vertical light beam images transmitted at spaced intervals along the path. A second rotating Dove prism rotates the vertical images to convert them to a second series of horizontal images while the first mentioned horizontal images are left unrotated and horizontal. The images are recorded on a film.

  20. Fast track evaluation methodology.

    PubMed

    Duke, J R

    1991-06-01

    Evaluating hospital information systems has taken a variety of forms since the initial development and use of automation. The process itself has moved from a hardware-based orientation controlled by data processing professionals to systems solutions and a user-driven process overseen by management. At Harbor Hospital Center in Baltimore, a fast track methodology has been introduced to shorten system evaluation time to meet the rapid changes that constantly affect the healthcare industry.

  1. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  2. Eye-Tracking Data

    PubMed Central

    Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2008-01-01

    Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures. PMID:21253437

  3. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  4. Approximate Bayesian multibody tracking.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Oswald

    2006-09-01

    Visual tracking of multiple targets is a challenging problem, especially when efficiency is an issue. Occlusions, if not properly handled, are a major source of failure. Solutions supporting principled occlusion reasoning have been proposed but are yet unpractical for online applications. This paper presents a new solution which effectively manages the trade-off between reliable modeling and computational efficiency. The Hybrid Joint-Separable (HJS) filter is derived from a joint Bayesian formulation of the problem, and shown to be efficient while optimal in terms of compact belief representation. Computational efficiency is achieved by employing a Markov random field approximation to joint dynamics and an incremental algorithm for posterior update with an appearance likelihood that implements a physically-based model of the occlusion process. A particle filter implementation is proposed which achieves accurate tracking during partial occlusions, while in cases of complete occlusion, tracking hypotheses are bound to estimated occlusion volumes. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is efficient, robust, and able to resolve long-term occlusions between targets with identical appearance. PMID:16929730

  5. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  6. Respiration tracking in radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikard, Achim; Shiomi, Hiroya; Adler, John

    2004-10-01

    Respiratory motion is difficult to compensate for with conventional radiotherapy systems. An accurate tracking method for following the motion of the tumor is of considerable clinical relevance. We investigate methods to compensate for respiratory motion using robotic radiosurgery. In this system the therapeutic beam is moved by a robotic arm, and follows the moving target through a combination of infrared tracking and synchronized x-ray imaging. Infrared emitters are used to record the motion of the patient's skin surface. The position of internal gold fiducials is computed repeatedly during treatment, via x-ray image processing. We correlate the motion between external and internal markers. From this correlation model we infer the placement of the internal target during time intervals where no x-ray images are taken. Fifteen patients with lung tumors have recently been treated with a fully integrated system implementing this new method. The clinical trials confirm our hypothesis that internal motion and external motion are indeed correlated. In a preliminar study we have extended our work to tracking without implanted fiducials, based on algorithms for computing deformation motions and digitally reconstructed radiographs.

  7. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  8. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  9. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  10. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  11. HIV/AIDS eradication

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant immune system, and activation/elimination approaches directed towards flushing out latent virus. This latter approach could involve the use of novel chemically synthesized analogs of natural activating agents. PMID:23735743

  12. Revitalizing AIDS activism.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M

    1998-12-01

    Maxine Wolf, an activist with ACT UP New York, suggests ways to motivate others in her organization and revitalize AIDS activism. Reach out to the gay and lesbian community, get them involved in grassroots efforts, and gain their input. Participate in discussions on larger issues such as research, funding, and treatment options. Wolf also suggests becoming educated, acting in a more public way, and finding more creative ways to act. Lastly, strive for goals with high expectations that can effect change instead of merely gathering and dispensing information.

  13. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  14. Refocusing disaster aid.

    PubMed

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg

    2005-08-12

    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  15. Should Aid Reward Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  16. Cell tracking 2007: a proliferation of probes and applications.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Paul K; Muirhead, Katharine A

    2007-01-01

    The articles in this thematic issue, entitled "Tracking Cell Proliferation and Function," illustrate some of the choices made by authors pushing the envelope for cell tracking applications in their areas of interest. Over the past decade there has been a proliferation in the range of commercially available probes for these studies, the capabilities of the instrumentation used to detect them, and in the biological systems being studied. This introductory to the thematic issue presents the advantages and limitations of the more commonly used probes such as CFSE and PKH26, as well as emerging probes that expand the range of fluorescence available, including quantum dots and the new CellVue dyes. Appropriate method and instrument setup controls and possible data analysis strategies are discussed with the goal of urging experienced investigators to include all critical information and controls when publishing their data and of aiding researchers new to cell tracking to make informed decisions on which cell tracking reagent(s) are best suited for their particular application. All cell tracking assays have the common goal of determining the fate of a particular cell population within a heterogeneous environment, whether in vivo or in vitro. Some of the common themes among the contributions found in this issue include how various probes are used to track (i) cell proliferation, (ii) regulatory and effector immune cell function and (iii) membrane transfer and antigen presentation. Although these represent only a small fraction of the large and growing list of applications for cell tracking, clearly illustrate the growing trend toward the use of multiple tracking reagents and multiple detection modalities to address complex biological questions.

  17. Marine Mammal Transmitter for porpoise tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, W. G.

    The Marine Mammal Transmitter (MMT) forms part of the equipment to be used in a worldwide Porpoise Tracking System. Knowledge of porpoise migration, distribution characteristics, and population estimates are needed to aid in protection of the porpoise. A major problem is suffocation of porpoises when they are caught in tuna purse seine fishing nets. Location of the porpoise can be determined to within + or - 5 kilometers. The MMT utilizes low power CMOS integrated circuits in timing and control circuits to extend battery life. The MMT with battery pack is contained in two cylinders which are two inches in diameter and 8.5 inches long. The unit is mounted to the porpoise's dorsal fin with a vertical quarter wave monopole antenna extending from one of the cylinders. A signal from the MMT is transmitted to the Nimbus satellite. From there the information is later transmitted to a ground receiver and a data processing facility.

  18. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.

  20. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  1. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    PubMed

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  2. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    PubMed

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-07-29

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  3. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  4. HIV/AIDS institutional discrimination in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Arber, F; Haour-Knipe, M

    2001-05-01

    A UNAIDS protocol designed to identify discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS was applied in Switzerland, a country where policies against such discrimination had been actively promoted since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Discrimination, in its strict legal definition, was examined in nine areas of everyday life, and at three levels: legislation, written regulations, and actual practices. Data concerning both expert opinion and subjective experience of discrimination was gathered by members of an interdisciplinary work group by means of: (1) interviews with over 200 key informants and experts, covering each of the areas investigated, and (2) actively seeking testimonies as to experiences of discrimination through local AIDS groups and through informal contacts of work group members. The study revealed little institutional discrimination in the region investigated, attesting to the efficacy of clear and actively promoted anti-discrimination policies. Individual discrimination and stigmatisation persist, however. It is in combating individual discrimination and stigmatisation that efforts must now concentrate. The UNAIDS protocol was found to be a valuable tool for tracking the sorts of discrimination that can most easily be influenced by policy measures. PMID:11314849

  5. HIV/AIDS institutional discrimination in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Arber, F; Haour-Knipe, M

    2001-05-01

    A UNAIDS protocol designed to identify discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS was applied in Switzerland, a country where policies against such discrimination had been actively promoted since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Discrimination, in its strict legal definition, was examined in nine areas of everyday life, and at three levels: legislation, written regulations, and actual practices. Data concerning both expert opinion and subjective experience of discrimination was gathered by members of an interdisciplinary work group by means of: (1) interviews with over 200 key informants and experts, covering each of the areas investigated, and (2) actively seeking testimonies as to experiences of discrimination through local AIDS groups and through informal contacts of work group members. The study revealed little institutional discrimination in the region investigated, attesting to the efficacy of clear and actively promoted anti-discrimination policies. Individual discrimination and stigmatisation persist, however. It is in combating individual discrimination and stigmatisation that efforts must now concentrate. The UNAIDS protocol was found to be a valuable tool for tracking the sorts of discrimination that can most easily be influenced by policy measures.

  6. Are informal caregivers important in AIDS care?

    PubMed

    Decarlo, P; Folkman, S

    1997-01-01

    Informal caregivers of people with AIDS provide practical help and nursing care at home. They are often the lovers, spouses, friends, or family of someone with AIDS and are not professional care providers. They provide essential care, saving society considerable expense. Caregivers provide practical support such as shopping, housekeeping, and transportation to clinics, as well as basic assistance such as help with bathing, going to the bathroom, and feeding. As symptoms worsen, caregivers are also likely to adopt the more clinical roles of keeping track of medications, giving injections, inserting catheters, and cleaning wounds. Caregivers also often assess medical and mental conditions, being the first to notice changes in health and to decide when to seek help. Caregivers, however, can suffer considerable care-related stress, leading to numbness, compassion fatigue, or burnout. Caregivers may also fear social rejection, loss of job and/or housing and may therefore hide their caregiving status from family, friends, and co-workers. For women with HIV, being responsible for children at home may make it difficult or impossible to obtain caregiving support for themselves. Helping caregivers benefits both the caregiver and the patient. Professional clinicians can include the caregiver in the triad of care comprised of the doctor, caregiver, and patient. Participating in support groups can also help caregivers.

  7. Fuel dispenser aid

    SciTech Connect

    Bobst, J.M.

    1993-08-31

    A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.

  8. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  9. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each track owner shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the following table: Track surface (inches) Class...

  10. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each track owner shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the following table: Track surface (inches) Class...

  11. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the track to which this part applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed...

  12. Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

  13. Rover wheel & tracks - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view from the Sojourner rover's rear color camera shows wheel tracks in the orange-red martian soil. One of the rover's cleated wheels is visible at left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  14. Optical correlator tracking nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Kirsch, James C.; Johnson, John L.

    1987-01-01

    A limitation observed in the tracking ability of optical correlators is reported. It is shown by calculations that an inherent nonlinearity exists in many optical correlator configurations, with the problem manifesting itself in a mismatch of the input scene with the position of the correlation signal. Results indicate that some care must be given to the selection of components and their configuration in constructing an optical correlator which exhibits true translational invariance. An input test scene is shown along with the correlation spot and cross hairs from a contrast detector; the offset is apparent.

  15. [Case report: swallowed hearing aid].

    PubMed

    Walther, E K

    1995-11-01

    An 86-year-old man presented ambulatory with acute dysphagia. Radiologic examination and endoscopy revealed a swallowed postauricular hearing aid. The earmold of the hearing aid became visible in the hypopharynx after mucus and saliva were removed. It could be extracted without effort once the connecting tube was disconnected from the coupling device lodged in the upper esophageal sphincter. The hearing aid itself was impacted in the proximal esophagus and was extracted without any problems. The postoperative phase was uneventful with normal swallowing and discharge. Technical inspection revealed that the hearing aid no longer worked. Diffusion of toxic substances (zinc, mercury) from the impacted batteries is not to be expected.

  16. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-01

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

  17. Context exploitation in intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for detection and tracking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Jonathan D.; Stanfill, S. Robert

    2015-05-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions involve complex analysis of sensor data that can benefit from the exploitation of geographically aligned context. In this paper we discuss our approach to utilizing geo-registered imagery and context for the purpose of aiding ISR detection and tracking applications. Specifically this includes rendering context masks on imagery, increasing the speed at which detection algorithms process data, providing a way to intelligently control detection density for given ground areas, identifying difficult traffic terrain, refining peak suppression for congested areas, reducing target center of mass location errors, and increasing track coverage and duration through track prediction error robustness.

  18. Putting Off-Track Youths Back on Track to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Adria; Allen, Lili

    2011-01-01

    Back on Track, developed by Jobs for the Future, is a design for schools to not only re-engage off-track and out-of-school youths to graduate from high school, but also to put them on a clear, supported path to a college education. Two schools that have combined Back on Track with the early college model, in which students can earn both a high…

  19. Modeling and development of INS-aided PLLs in a GNSS/INS deeply-coupled hardware prototype for dynamic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tisheng; Niu, Xiaoji; Ban, Yalong; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-01-05

    A GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system can improve the satellite signals tracking performance by INS aiding tracking loops under dynamics. However, there was no literature available on the complete modeling of the INS branch in the INS-aided tracking loop, which caused the lack of a theoretical tool to guide the selections of inertial sensors, parameter optimization and quantitative analysis of INS-aided PLLs. This paper makes an effort on the INS branch in modeling and parameter optimization of phase-locked loops (PLLs) based on the scalar-based GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system. It establishes the transfer function between all known error sources and the PLL tracking error, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the candidate inertial measurement unit (IMU) affecting the carrier phase tracking error. Based on that, a steady-state error model is proposed to design INS-aided PLLs and to analyze their tracking performance. Based on the modeling and error analysis, an integrated deeply-coupled hardware prototype is developed, with the optimization of the aiding information. Finally, the performance of the INS-aided PLLs designed based on the proposed steady-state error model is evaluated through the simulation and road tests of the hardware prototype.

  20. Modeling and development of INS-aided PLLs in a GNSS/INS deeply-coupled hardware prototype for dynamic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tisheng; Niu, Xiaoji; Ban, Yalong; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    A GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system can improve the satellite signals tracking performance by INS aiding tracking loops under dynamics. However, there was no literature available on the complete modeling of the INS branch in the INS-aided tracking loop, which caused the lack of a theoretical tool to guide the selections of inertial sensors, parameter optimization and quantitative analysis of INS-aided PLLs. This paper makes an effort on the INS branch in modeling and parameter optimization of phase-locked loops (PLLs) based on the scalar-based GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system. It establishes the transfer function between all known error sources and the PLL tracking error, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the candidate inertial measurement unit (IMU) affecting the carrier phase tracking error. Based on that, a steady-state error model is proposed to design INS-aided PLLs and to analyze their tracking performance. Based on the modeling and error analysis, an integrated deeply-coupled hardware prototype is developed, with the optimization of the aiding information. Finally, the performance of the INS-aided PLLs designed based on the proposed steady-state error model is evaluated through the simulation and road tests of the hardware prototype. PMID:25569751

  1. Modeling and Development of INS-Aided PLLs in a GNSS/INS Deeply-Coupled Hardware Prototype for Dynamic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tisheng; Niu, Xiaoji; Ban, Yalong; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    A GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system can improve the satellite signals tracking performance by INS aiding tracking loops under dynamics. However, there was no literature available on the complete modeling of the INS branch in the INS-aided tracking loop, which caused the lack of a theoretical tool to guide the selections of inertial sensors, parameter optimization and quantitative analysis of INS-aided PLLs. This paper makes an effort on the INS branch in modeling and parameter optimization of phase-locked loops (PLLs) based on the scalar-based GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system. It establishes the transfer function between all known error sources and the PLL tracking error, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the candidate inertial measurement unit (IMU) affecting the carrier phase tracking error. Based on that, a steady-state error model is proposed to design INS-aided PLLs and to analyze their tracking performance. Based on the modeling and error analysis, an integrated deeply-coupled hardware prototype is developed, with the optimization of the aiding information. Finally, the performance of the INS-aided PLLs designed based on the proposed steady-state error model is evaluated through the simulation and road tests of the hardware prototype. PMID:25569751

  2. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  3. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  4. Neurologic presentations of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Singer, Elyse J; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Commins, Deborah; Levine, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS, has infected an estimated 33 million individuals worldwide. HIV is associated with immunodeficiency, neoplasia, and neurologic disease. The continuing evolution of the HIV epidemic has spurred an intense interest in a hitherto neglected area of medicine, neuroinfectious diseases and their consequences. This work has broad applications for the study of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, dementias, neuropathies, and CNS disease in other immunosuppressed individuals. HIV is neuroinvasive (can enter the CNS), neurotrophic (can live in neural tissues), and neurovirulent (causes disease of the nervous system). This article reviews the HIV-associated neurologic syndromes, which can be classified as primary HIV neurologic disease (in which HIV is both necessary and sufficient to cause the illness), secondary or opportunistic neurologic disease (in which HIV interacts with other pathogens, resulting in opportunistic infections and tumors), and treatment-related neurologic disease (such as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). PMID:19932385

  5. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development. PMID:26975128

  6. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  7. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. PMID:27348226

  8. Cassini Archive Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

  9. Integrated Management Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Terrance

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronic search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.

  10. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  11. Integrated Management Tracking System

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronicmore » search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.« less

  12. AIDS and sex tourism.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  13. AIDS and sex tourism.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior. PMID

  14. [AIDS information in Zimbabwe].

    PubMed

    Meyer, L

    1993-11-20

    The difficulties of health education concerning AIDs prevention in Zimbabwe include communicating simple information about complicated processes, resistance to the information because of status or tradition, and lack of experience with translating material that was produced in the West. The beliefs in ghosts and witch doctors are still part of the tradition in Zimbabwe, providing cultural diversity and a sense of identification. Traditional medicine is characterized by Westerners as often irrational behavior that is deleterious to one's health. However, even in the allegedly educated part of the world compliance is often lacking and alternative treatment forms are actively pursued in tandem with formal medicine. When there is a short time period between harmful behavior and infection, most people realize that there is a causative connection. On the other hand, it is a more complicated mental exercise to fathom that intercourse can result in HIV infection that 5 years later may lead to death from tuberculosis. No other disease is known by these people that has a corresponding delay from the time of infection to disease or death. It is also confusing that a sexually transmitted disease does not produce symptoms such as discharge or genital sores. It is difficult to comprehend that a sole causative agent, HIV, can lead to so many different diseases and symptoms. When a young man died after having been hospitalized with protracted cough and TB as a result of HIV infection that he had contracted from a girlfriend, the father told the folks at home that his son had died of TB. These conflicting pieces of information make AIDS prevention education wrought with difficulties, which adds to the rapid spread of the disease, although the authorities and international organizations have responded with strategies, informational materials, and educational courses. PMID:8273086

  15. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  16. Visual Aids for English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Masahira

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for the use of the following visual aids are described: hand gestures, drawing diagrams on the blackboard, real objects, magnetic boards and pictures and charts. The aids help to maintain student interest and bridge the gap between drill and communication. (AG)

  17. AIDS--mémoire.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, L

    1994-08-13

    A czar was born when President Clinton named Kristine M. Gebbie to be his national AIDS policy coordinator. But a year later, under unrelenting fire from AIDS activists, Gebbie resigned. Her departure underscores the trouble that some activists have had shifting from the outsider's game to the insider's.

  18. The Underpinnings of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsley, Coral B.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the basic concepts governing student aid funding and the mechanics of delivery, including a review of the development of current federal financial aid programs, the complexities of determining student need, institutional responsibility, and suggested areas for institutional research. Notes that the challenges ahead include strengthening…

  19. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    PubMed

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms.

  20. Who Receives Federal Student Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Washington, DC.

    Information on federal student aid recipients by income, undergraduate and graduate level, and financial dependency status is presented for Pell Grants, campus-based programs, and Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL). Income data are reported for all aid recipients and for financially dependent and independent students for 1983-1984 and for 1976-1977,…

  1. Teaching Aids at Low Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Felicity Savage

    1985-01-01

    Describes the activities of Teaching Aids at Low Cost (TALC), a nonprofit component of the Institute of Child Health in London. TALC develops and distributes books, sets of slides, flannelgraphs, and other teaching aids to developing nations for use in teaching health workers--nurses, auxiliary medical workers, medical students, and doctors. (MBR)

  2. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  3. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health care ...

  4. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  5. School Teachers' Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Van; Spangler, Tracy

    A survey was conducted of 100 elementary and secondary teachers in northwestern Ohio concerning their knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results indicated a lack of basic knowledge of AIDS among the majority of respondents, with a mean score of 14 out of 21 points (67 percent). Several of the most frequently missed questions…

  6. Children's Aid and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, William M.; Duane, Edward A.

    In Ontario, Canada, the agency which has the foremost obligation for the discovery and amelioration of child abuse and neglect is Children's Aid. Elementary schools are the target of much child-abuse detection. This article develops the perceptions of a representative group of 10 workers in Children's Aid on the schools relative to child abuse.…

  7. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2014, ...

  8. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  9. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  10. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  11. Solar Array Tracking Control

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D)more » convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed at compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  12. How Young Children View Mathematical Representations: A Study Using Eye-Tracking Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, David; Barmby, Patrick; Raine, Stephanie; Gardner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that mathematical representations can aid children's understanding of mathematical concepts but that children can sometimes have difficulty in interpreting them correctly. New advances in eye-tracking technology can help in this respect because it allows data to be gathered concerning children's focus of…

  13. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  14. An introduction to hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrlund, Ole

    2003-04-01

    This presentation reviews hearing-aid development from analog to advanced digital technology. A basic hearing aid consists of a microphone, an amplification circuit that provides a gain that varies with frequency to accommodate variations in hearing loss with frequency, and a small earphone. In recent years, hearing aid technology has developed rapidly. Digital hearing aids have become commonplace and their share of the marketplace is increasing rapidly. Therefore, the main focus of this talk is signal-processing schemes in advanced digital hearing aids, including microphones with digitally controlled directional characteristics, wide-dynamic-range compression in multiple channels that allow the compression characteristics to vary with frequency, noise reduction, and feedback cancellation. Each of these signal-processing functions help address the needs of individuals with hearing losses.

  15. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Dual Antenna Joint Carrier Tracking Loop.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenfei; Lin, Tao; Niu, Xiaoji; Shi, Chuang; Zhang, Hongping

    2015-10-01

    In order to track the carrier phases of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals in signal degraded environments, a dual antenna joint carrier tracking loop is proposed and evaluated. This proposed tracking loop processes inputs from two antennas, namely the master antenna and the slave antenna. The master antenna captures signals in open-sky environments, while the slave antenna capture signals in degraded environments. In this architecture, a Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is adopted as a master loop to track the carrier phase of the open-sky signals. The Doppler frequency estimated by this master loop is utilized to assist weak carrier tracking in the slave loop. As both antennas experience similar signal dynamics due to satellite motion and clock frequency variations, a much narrower loop bandwidth and possibly a longer coherent integration can be adopted to track the weak signals in slave channels, by utilizing the Doppler aid from master channels. PLL tracking performance is affected by the satellite/user dynamics, clock instability, and thermal noise. In this paper, their impacts on the proposed phase tracking loop are analyzed and verified by both simulation and field data. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed loop structure can track degraded signals (i.e., 18 dB-Hz) with a very narrow loop bandwidth (i.e., 0.5 Hz) and a TCXO clock.

  16. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Dual Antenna Joint Carrier Tracking Loop.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenfei; Lin, Tao; Niu, Xiaoji; Shi, Chuang; Zhang, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    In order to track the carrier phases of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals in signal degraded environments, a dual antenna joint carrier tracking loop is proposed and evaluated. This proposed tracking loop processes inputs from two antennas, namely the master antenna and the slave antenna. The master antenna captures signals in open-sky environments, while the slave antenna capture signals in degraded environments. In this architecture, a Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is adopted as a master loop to track the carrier phase of the open-sky signals. The Doppler frequency estimated by this master loop is utilized to assist weak carrier tracking in the slave loop. As both antennas experience similar signal dynamics due to satellite motion and clock frequency variations, a much narrower loop bandwidth and possibly a longer coherent integration can be adopted to track the weak signals in slave channels, by utilizing the Doppler aid from master channels. PLL tracking performance is affected by the satellite/user dynamics, clock instability, and thermal noise. In this paper, their impacts on the proposed phase tracking loop are analyzed and verified by both simulation and field data. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed loop structure can track degraded signals (i.e., 18 dB-Hz) with a very narrow loop bandwidth (i.e., 0.5 Hz) and a TCXO clock. PMID:26437415

  17. Expanding Support for Education in Fragile States: What Role for the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrent, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The new international aid architecture was established to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of development aid by emphasising country ownership, alignment with national priorities and the harmonisation of donor processes. These features are evident in the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative [EFA-FTI], a global partnership between donor…

  18. Solar tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.R.; Scott, D.R.

    1981-04-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

  19. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  20. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  1. Microencapsulated cell tracking

    PubMed Central

    Arifin, Dian R.; Kedziorek, Dorota A.; Fu, Yingli; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; McMahon, Michael T.; Weiss, Clifford R.; Kraitchman, Dara L.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation of therapeutic cells has been widely pursued to achieve cellular immunoprotection following transplantation. Initial clinical studies have shown the potential of microencapsulation using semi-permeable alginate layers, but much needs to be learned about the optimal delivery route, in vivo pattern of engraftment, and microcapsule stability over time. In parallel with noninvasive imaging techniques for ‘naked’ (i.e. unencapsulated) cell tracking, microcapsules have now been endowed with contrast agents that can be visualized by 1H MRI, 19F MRI, X-ray/computed tomography and ultrasound imaging. By placing the contrast agent formulation in the extracellular space of the hydrogel, large amounts of contrast agents can be incorporated with negligible toxicity. This has led to a new generation of imaging biomaterials that can render cells visible with multiple imaging modalities. PMID:23225358

  2. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  3. Africa and the AIDS myth.

    PubMed

    Versi, A

    1990-04-01

    The recently released television documentary, "Monkey Business, AIDS: The African Story," has created controversy in Europe with its premise that AIDS did not originate in Africa. Although AIDS 1st appeared in New York in 1981 and was not recorded in Africa until 1983, researchers and the media have promoted the theory that AIDS came from Africa through human contact with the green monkey. Subsequent research forced the original champions of this "green monkey connection" theory to acknowledge that the AIDS virus and the green monkey virus are so dissimilar that they could not be historically linked. Then, the focus turned to the theory that a remote pygmy tribe had been endemically infected with the AIDS virus and carried the disease, by airplane, out of the country. This theory, too, was refuted by the failure to locate any HIV-positive pygmies in the Central African Republic. Still determined to prove that AIDS did not have an American or European origin, researchers reported that blood testing conducted in 1984 revealed 50-90% of Africans to be HIV-infected. Retesting with a more accurate procedure revealed the rate of infectivity to be only 0.02%; yet the media have continued to portray Africa as the source of the AIDS scourge. Moreover, it appears that AIDS cases are actually overreported from Africa--not underreported--due to confusion with conditions such as malnutrition and tropical diseases. To some, this relentless drive to vilify Africa reflects racism. Others believe that it represents an effort to cover up the possibility that the AIDS virus is man-made--a result of an accident in gene technology or microbiology.

  4. Geo Issue Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, Mohammad; Paulik, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Communication about remote sensing data quality between data providers and users as well as between the users is often difficult. The users have a hard time figuring out if a product has known problems over their region of interest and data providers have to spend a lot of effort to make this information available, if it exists. Scientific publications are one tool for communicating with the users base but they are static and mostly one way. As a data provider it is also often difficult to make feedback, received from users, available to the complete user base. The Geo Issue Tracking System (GeoITS) is an Open Source Web Application which has been developed to mitigate these problems. GeoITS combines a mapping interface (Google Maps) with a simple wiki platform. It allows users to give region specific feedback on a remote sensing product by drawing a polygon on the map and describing the problems they had using the remote sensing product in this area. These geolocated wiki entries are then viewable by other users as well as the data providers which can modify and extend the entries. In this way the conversations between the users and the data provider are no longer hidden in e.g. emails but open for all users of the dataset. This new kind of communication platform can enable better cooperation between users and data providers. It will also provide data providers with the ability to track problems their dataset might have in certain areas and resolve them with new product releases. The source code is available via http://github.com/TUW-GEO/geoits_dev A running instance can be tried at https://geoits.herokuapp.com/

  5. The Tracking Meteogram, an AWIPS II Tool for Time-Series Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Jason Eric; Sperow, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A new tool has been developed for the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) II through collaboration between NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) and the NWS Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL). Referred to as the "Tracking Meteogram", the tool aids NWS forecasters in assessing meteorological parameters associated with moving phenomena. The tool aids forecasters in severe weather situations by providing valuable satellite and radar derived trends such as cloud top cooling rates, radial velocity couplets, reflectivity, and information from ground-based lightning networks. The Tracking Meteogram tool also aids in synoptic and mesoscale analysis by tracking parameters such as the deepening of surface low pressure systems, changes in surface or upper air temperature, and other properties. The tool provides a valuable new functionality and demonstrates the flexibility and extensibility of the NWS AWIPS II architecture. In 2014, the operational impact of the tool was formally evaluated through participation in the NOAA/NWS Operations Proving Ground (OPG), a risk reduction activity to assess performance and operational impact of new forecasting concepts, tools, and applications. Performance of the Tracking Meteogram Tool during the OPG assessment confirmed that it will be a valuable asset to the operational forecasters. This presentation reviews development of the Tracking Meteogram tool, performance and feedback acquired during the OPG activity, and future goals for continued support and extension to other application areas.

  6. [AIDS. The trend of HIV/AIDS and the nurse's role in AIDS care].

    PubMed

    Chang, S B

    1993-01-01

    Since the first case of AIDS was found among male homosexuals, the AIDS related problem has been in the male homosexual population, but the AIDS trend is changing from homosexuals to heterosexuals, with the majority of cases in the general population. Even though currently the reported HIV/AIDS cases in Korea are only 324 in Korea, the number of people infected with HIV/AIDS is projected to increase greatly over the next few years. As the number of these cases increases, there will be a major strain on nursing care resources. Since there is no known cure, the only way of halting this epidemic is through the prevention of further infection. In various stages of HIV infection, different problems occur, calling for various specific services and nursing skills. Nurses must develop a strategy to alleviate the negative attitudes related to care of AIDS patients and anxiety and dislike for care of terminally ill patients. Also, nurses must be prepared for teaching the general population about prevention of AIDS, counseling individuals in risk of HIV infection, HIV testing, and transmission risks, and caring for AIDS patients using Hospice concepts in various settings.

  7. BEMFAM delivers AIDS alert.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar (BEMFAM) of Brazil developed a project using integrated communication strategies to alert prostitutes and their clients about the risks of contracting HIV. The project specifically promoted condom use and was conducted within the context of BEMFAM's Integrated Family Planning Program. Villa Mimoza, a prostitution zone in the Estacio neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, was the site of the intervention. This neighborhood harbors 44 houses of prostitution where an estimated 500 female prostitutes receive clients. An agreement was reached with the Association of Prostitutes of the State of Rio de Janeiro whereby it would help mobilize local women, merchants, brothel owners, and clients. Initial needs were assessed by BEMFAM and AIDSCOM through questionnaires and focus groups. It was subsequently resolved that radio programs, counter displays of educational materials in brothels, and posters in brothel rooms would be the most effective channels through which to carry integrated, effective messages to the community. Final evaluation found a change in attitude and an awareness of the importance of measures to prevent AIDS along with a prevalent increase in condom use.

  8. Peircean Decision Aid

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  9. Peircean Decision Aid

    SciTech Connect

    SENGLAUB, MICHAEL; & WHITFIELD, GREG

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decision maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.

  10. SRNL Tagging and Tracking Video

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    SRNL generates a next generation satellite base tracking system. The tagging and tracking system can work in remote wilderness areas, inside buildings, underground and other areas not well served by traditional GPS. It’s a perfect response to customer needs and market demand.

  11. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  12. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  13. Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

  14. Buyer's Guide for Track Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This buyers guide provides information on needs assessment, buying options, and decision making tips when acquiring a new school athletic track. Among the topics covered are developing a budget, choosing a site selection, choosing a track surface, developing working specifications, and selecting a contractor. Also explored is the question of…

  15. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  16. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  17. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  18. Discriminator aided phase lock acquisition for suppressed carrier signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, L. M.; Krasin, F. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A discriminator aided technique for acquisition of phase lock to a suppressed carrier signal utilizes a Costas loop which is initially operated open loop and control voltage for its VCXO is derived from a phase detector that compares the VCXO to a reference frequency thus establishing coarse frequency resolution with the received signal. Then the Costas loop is closed with the low-pass filter of the channel having a bandwidth much greater (by a factor of about 10) than in the I channel so that a frequency discriminator effect results to aid carrier resolution. Finally, after carrier acquisition, the Q-channel filter of the Costas loop is switched to a bandwidth substantially equal to that of the I-channel for carrier tracking.

  19. Discriminator aided phase lock acquisition for suppressed carrier signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, L. M.; Krasin, F. E.

    1982-06-01

    A discriminator aided technique for acquisition of phase lock to a suppressed carrier signal utilizes a Costas loop which is initially operated open loop and control voltage for its VCXO is derived from a phase detector that compares the VCXO to a reference frequency thus establishing coarse frequency resolution with the received signal. Then the Costas loop is closed with the low-pass filter of the channel having a bandwidth much greater (by a factor of about 10) than in the I channel so that a frequency discriminator effect results to aid carrier resolution. Finally, after carrier acquisition, the Q-channel filter of the Costas loop is switched to a bandwidth substantially equal to that of the I-channel for carrier tracking.

  20. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  1. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  2. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.

  3. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital. PMID:1392821

  4. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh. PMID:12285939

  5. AIDS: what should we do?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A

    1990-08-01

    There is no 1 AIDS epidemic in the US. The 1st epidemic includes gay and bisexual men. The 2nd consists of intravenous (IV) drug users and their infants, pimps, lovers, and customers. The 3rd and most recent epidemic affects individuals who are exclusively heterosexual who have never had a blood transfusion, never used IV drugs, and have not had sex with those who did any of these things. The former director of the Center for AIDS Research in Baltimore, MD put out 8 proposals that, if implemented, would reduce the transmission of HIV and provide adequate medical care for AIDS patients. Health and educational professionals must develop improved AIDS education programs directed to those at risk. Since many of them are functionally illiterate, television should carry AIDS education messages. In addition, all AIDS prevention and educational programs need to be evaluated strongly so the country can focus on those activities which are most effective. Those who determine public policy should heed the advice of those who truly understand AIDS. Government, drug companies, and university scientists should all increase research to develop antiretroviral drugs that are not dependent on refrigeration, can be transported rapidly, and are inexpensive. Scientists also need to continue working on a vaccine and determine if an HIV vaccine can indeed immunize entire populations. Moreover affordable health care must be available to all AIDS patients. The present haphazard structure of AIDS treatment services must be recognized and integrated into a system that provides patients with coordinated medical and social services. Likewise, all research, treatment and education programs at federal, state, and local levels must be coordinated so that various players do not bicker over priorities. PMID:12283707

  6. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  7. Psychological first-aid: a practical aide-memoire.

    PubMed

    Leach, J

    1995-07-01

    Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.

  8. Positioning the image of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cooter, Roger; Stein, Claudia

    2010-03-01

    AIDS posters can be treated as material objects whose production, distribution and consumption varied across time and place. It is also possible to reconstruct and analyse the public health discourse at the time these powerful images appeared. More recently, however, these conventional historical approaches have been challenged by projects in literary and art criticism. Here, images of AIDS are considered in terms of their function in and for a new discursive regime of power centred on the human body and its visualization. How images of AIDS came to be understood in Western culture in relation to wider political and economic conditions redefines the historical task.

  9. AIDS and homophobia among nurses.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Y K; Wu, Y W; Haughey, B P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study nurses' attitudes toward homosexuality and caring for homosexual patients. The results reported in this article are a component of a larger study of nurses' knowledge about and attitudes toward caring for patients with AIDS. The sample comprised 581 Registered Nurses residing in Erie County, New York. Data were gathered by mailed questionnaires. Results of the study indicate that issues concerning the care of patients with AIDS may be complicated by the fact that many of these individuals are homosexuals. The results of this research provide data for developing intervention strategies to help nurses cope with their concerns about caring for homosexual patients with AIDS.

  10. Operator vision aids for space teleoperation assembly and servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thurston L.; Ince, Ilhan; Lee, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates concepts for visual operator aids required for effective telerobotic control. Operator visual aids, as defined here, mean any operational enhancement that improves man-machine control through the visual system. These concepts were derived as part of a study of vision issues for space teleoperation. Extensive literature on teleoperation, robotics, and human factors was surveyed to definitively specify appropriate requirements. This paper presents these visual aids in three general categories of camera/lighting functions, display enhancements, and operator cues. In the area of camera/lighting functions concepts are discussed for: (1) automatic end effector or task tracking; (2) novel camera designs; (3) computer-generated virtual camera views; (4) computer assisted camera/lighting placement; and (5) voice control. In the technology area of display aids, concepts are presented for: (1) zone displays, such as imminent collision or indexing limits; (2) predictive displays for temporal and spatial location; (3) stimulus-response reconciliation displays; (4) graphical display of depth cues such as 2-D symbolic depth, virtual views, and perspective depth; and (5) view enhancements through image processing and symbolic representations. Finally, operator visual cues (e.g., targets) that help identify size, distance, shape, orientation and location are discussed.

  11. FIESTA: An operational decision aid for space network fault isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Dawn; Quillin, Bob; Matteson, Nadine; Wilkinson, Bill; Miksell, Steve

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tolerance Expert System for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Applications (FIESTA) is a fault detection and fault diagnosis expert system being developed as a decision aid to support operations in the Network Control Center (NCC) for NASA's Space Network. The operational objectives which influenced FIESTA development are presented and an overview of the architecture used to achieve these goals are provided. The approach to the knowledge engineering effort and the methodology employed are also presented and illustrated with examples drawn from the FIESTA domain.

  12. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors--I: Track Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Nand

    1991-01-01

    Heavily ionizing charged particles produce radiation damage tracks in a wide variety of insulating materials. The experimental properties of these tracks and track recorders are described. The mechanisms by which the tracks are produced are discussed. (Author/KR)

  13. AIDS knows no borders.

    PubMed

    Hulewicz, J M

    1994-09-01

    No one knows for sure how many migrants there are around the world, but the UN High Commission for Refugees estimates the existence of more than 43 million displaced people and the International Labor Organization estimates there are up to 85 million male and female temporary and permanent migrant workers. Many of these millions of migrants and refugees who leave home each year in search of work, peace, and/or survival contract HIV. The global HIV/AIDS situation of migrants is in fact growing steadily worse. Refugees who arrive at some temporary endpoint destination are justifiably preoccupied with securing the basic and immediate necessities of food, clothing, and shelter; they really aren't thinking about the potential for contracting and/or transmitting HIV and the attendant long-term consequences. Refugees otherwise sell sex, trade sex, or are raped and sexually exploited. An estimated 30-50% of the world's 100 million streetchildren prostitute themselves. Among the primarily male population of migrant workers, they frequently have sex with each other despite the existence of strong taboos against homosexuality in many of their home cultures. These norms are even documented in the case of South Africa's mines dating back to at least the turn of the century. Targeted, sensitive projects supported with money, know-how, and political will are called for to reduce the incidence of HIV infection in these populations. Such projects should be designed in culturally appropriate fashion with attention to accommodate the refugees and migrants who are illiterate. Finally, the deleterious public health effects of immigration laws which discourage aliens from partaking of public health program services should be understood with changes made accordingly.

  14. Novel lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Longbottom, C; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A

    2009-01-01

    Several non-invasive and novel aids for the detection of (and in some cases monitoring of) caries lesions have been introduced in the field of 'caries diagnostics' over the last 15 years. This chapter focusses on those available to dentists at the time of writing; continuing research is bound to lead to further developments in the coming years. Laser fluorescence is based on measurements of back-scattered fluorescence of a 655-nm light source. It enhances occlusal and (potentially) approximal lesion detection and enables semi-quantitative caries monitoring. Systematic reviews have identified false-positive results as a limitation. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence is another sensitive method to quantitatively detect and measure mineral loss both in enamel and some dentine lesions; again, the trade-offs with lower specificity when compared with clinical visual detection must be considered. Subtraction radiography is based on the principle of digitally superimposing two radiographs with exactly the same projection geometry. This method is applicable for approximal surfaces and occlusal caries involving dentine but is not yet widely available. Electrical caries measurements gather either site-specific or surface-specific information of teeth and tooth structure. Fixed-frequency devices perform best for occlusal dentine caries but the method has also shown promise for lesions in enamel and other tooth surfaces with multi-frequency approaches. All methods require further research and further validation in well-designed clinical trials. In the future, they could have useful applications in clinical practice as part of a personalized, comprehensive caries management system. PMID:19494675

  15. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  16. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1996-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: First, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  17. TRACKING ACCELERATOR SETTINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    D OTTAVIO,T.; FU, W.; OTTAVIO, D.P.

    2007-10-15

    Recording setting changes within an accelerator facility provides information that can be used to answer questions about when, why, and how changes were made to some accelerator system. This can be very useful during normal operations, but can also aid with security concerns and in detecting unusual software behavior. The Set History System (SHS) is a new client-server system developed at the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide these capabilities. The SHS has been operational for over two years and currently stores about IOOK settings per day into a commercial database management system. The SHS system consists of a server written in Java, client tools written in both Java and C++, and a web interface for querying the database of setting changes. The design of the SHS focuses on performance, portability, and a minimal impact on database resources. In this paper, we present an overview of the system design along with benchmark results showing the performance and reliability of the SHS over the last year.

  18. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  19. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  20. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... UNAIDS. Global AIDS Update 2016; 2016. ← Return to text UNAIDS. 2016 Core Epidemiology Slides ; 2016. UNAIDS. AIDSinfo ... available at: http://aidsinfo.unaids.org/ . ← Return to text WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF. Global update on HIV treatment ...

  1. AIDS activists arrested in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-05-27

    Health activists in India are outraged over the arrests of 11 AIDS activists belonging to the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Sahyog. These AIDS activists were charged with obscenity and rioting. Rioting broke out when the local print media published details of a report entitled ¿AIDS and Us¿ that was produced by Sahyog in Hindi. The report tackled prevalent sexual practices, very low level of awareness, and other risk factors related to contracting HIV infection or developing AIDS in the rural areas of the Almora district. Critics charged the activists with destroying the image of the people of the region, portraying them as promiscuous and practicing high-risk sexual behavior. Consequently, Sahyog issued a statement of apology and promised to withdraw the report, but the district administration still banned their work in the area. Several NGOs also feel that the presentation of the report should have been more cautious.

  2. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...

  3. Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace.

    PubMed

    1996-05-20

    The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the

  4. Context-aware visual tracking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Wu, Ying; Hua, Gang

    2009-07-01

    Enormous uncertainties in unconstrained environments lead to a fundamental dilemma that many tracking algorithms have to face in practice: Tracking has to be computationally efficient, but verifying whether or not the tracker is following the true target tends to be demanding, especially when the background is cluttered and/or when occlusion occurs. Due to the lack of a good solution to this problem, many existing methods tend to be either effective but computationally intensive by using sophisticated image observation models or efficient but vulnerable to false alarms. This greatly challenges long-duration robust tracking. This paper presents a novel solution to this dilemma by considering the context of the tracking scene. Specifically, we integrate into the tracking process a set of auxiliary objects that are automatically discovered in the video on the fly by data mining. Auxiliary objects have three properties, at least in a short time interval: 1) persistent co-occurrence with the target, 2) consistent motion correlation to the target, and 3) easy to track. Regarding these auxiliary objects as the context of the target, the collaborative tracking of these auxiliary objects leads to efficient computation as well as strong verification. Our extensive experiments have exhibited exciting performance in very challenging real-world testing cases.

  5. Low profile harmonic radar transponder for tracking small endangered species.

    PubMed

    Kiriazi, John; Nakakura, Jayson; Hall, Kevin; Hafner, Noah; Lubecke, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation of threatened species' habitat attributable to anthropogenic activity is a major concern. Understanding these animals' dispersal ecology and range utilization can greatly aid in designing preserves for their conservation, but this data is extremely difficult to obtain for populations of small animals. Presented here is a study miniature passive harmonic radar tags which allow the tracking of an endangered snail species without adversely affecting the tagged subjects. Whip antennas were found to be problematic through snagging and interference with snail activity. Alternative low-profile planar antennas were also tested, with bow-tie related antenna forms providing reasonable (up to 7 ft) detection range.

  6. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle/track interaction safety limits and geometry requirements of this subpart. (b) Track shall have... shall return following maximum load to a configuration in compliance with the vehicle/track...

  7. Can You Give First Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontrager, Frances M.

    This pamphlet is a guide for first aid. Areas discussed are: (1) the first-aid box; (2) how to call a doctor; (3) what to do before the doctor comes; (4) how to stop bleeding; (5) what to do for shock; (6) when breathing stops; (7) how to treat an unconscious person; (8) what to do for broken bones; (9) what to do for burns; (10) minor wounds and…

  8. Opportunity Egress Aid Contacts Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's egress aid touching the martian soil at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken after the rear lander petal hyperextended in a manuever to tilt the lander forward. The maneuver pushed the front edge lower, placing the tips of the egress aids in the soil. The rover will drive straight ahead to exit the lander.

  9. Food aid: pitfalls and potential.

    PubMed

    Stewart, F

    1986-11-01

    This article poses the question of whether it is possible to use food aid to meet short-run needs while supporting and not undermining the achievement of long-term goals of self-reliance at the household and national levels. Often either some degree of self-reliance is sacrificed or people will suffer malnutrition. Food aid may be used to generate employment for low income families (food-for-work schemes), to reduce food prices during shortages by increasing the supply, and it can be delivered to target groups as a direct entitlement. What happens to food after delivery is important: often it goes to family members not targeted. Other factors (e.g. measles) affect nutritional status. Food aid must often continue for long periods to avoid nutritional regression. The stage in distribution at which food is used is important; e.g. a measles epidemic might affect the consumption but not the supply of food, or poor targeting might benefit families who do not need it. Complementary actions may improve conditions; for example, if food is sold, increasing income improves the situation. A problem with provision of food is depression of local prices, reducing incentives to produce food locally. Most food aid does not increase demand, and in fact if the effect is to change tastes away from local products demand may be reduced. The effect on demand depends on the type of aid scheme, the timing and duration, and the locality of the project. Most objectives are better achieved by the use of cash aid, which promotes rather than weakens local food producers' incentives, reduces transport and storage, redistributes food, does not affect taste, and adds income by contributing to local decentralized transport. Food aid is a good temporary intervention, but cash aid should be used in the long term.

  10. Neural network tracking and extension of positive tracking periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Moreels, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Feature detectors have been considered for the role of supplying additional information to a neural network tracker. The feature detector focuses on areas of the image with significant information. Basically, if a picture says a thousand words, the feature detectors are looking for the key phrases (keypoints). These keypoints are rotationally invariant and may be matched across frames. Application of these advanced feature detectors to the neural network tracking system at JPL has promising potential. As part of an ongoing program, an advanced feature detector was tested for augmentation of a neural network based tracker. The advance feature detector extended tracking periods in test sequences including aircraft tracking, rover tracking, and simulated Martian landing. Future directions of research are also discussed.

  11. Personal Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  12. Facing AIDS in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mata, L

    1988-03-01

    The 1st AIDS case was diagnosed in Costa Rica in 1985. By January 1988, 47 cases were recorded. Most cases are in hemophiliacs and homosexuals; one is in the heterosexual partner of a hemophiliac. 55% of hemophiliacs in Costa Rica are infected with HIV -- one of the highest levels in the world. 10 women, including 2 prostitutes, are known to be HIV-positive. The number of new cases is expected to nearly double every year, and deaths from AIDS may come to exceed deaths from diarrhea and all other infectious diseases. Since 1985, all donated blood has been screened. A national education campaign began in 1985, using television, talks, workshops, and pamphlets, and coordinated by the National AIDS Commission. AIDS education is included in secondary and high school curricula, and condoms have been distributed in gay discotheques and other public places since 1987. Failure to recognize the problem early enough resulted in fear of and discrimination against AIDS patients by health workers as well as failure to provide enough funds for AIDS prevention and control. PMID:12315654

  13. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOEpatents

    Solares, Guido; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    A detector assembly for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns.

  14. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOEpatents

    Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1994-12-27

    A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.

  15. Abrasion resistant track shoe grouser

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Keith D; Diekevers, Mark S; Afdahl, Curt D; Steiner, Kevin L; Barnes, Christopher A

    2013-04-23

    A track shoe for a track-type vehicle. The track shoe includes a base plate and a grouser projecting away from the base plate. A capping surface structure of substantially horseshoe shaped cross-section is disposed across a distal portion of the grouser. The capping surface structure covers portions of a distal edge surface and adjacent lateral surfaces. The capping surface structure is formed from an material characterized by enhanced wear resistance relative to portions of the grouser underlying the capping surface structure.

  16. Visual object recognition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  17. Sun Tracking Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. PMID:22412341

  18. The Automatic Library Tracking Database

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Mark R; Jones, Nicholas A; Hadri, Bilel

    2010-01-01

    A library tracking database has been developed and put into production at the National Institute for Computational Sciences and the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (both located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.) The purpose of the library tracking database is to track which libraries are used at link time on Cray XT5 Supercomputers. The database stores the libraries used at link time and also records the executables run in a batch job. With this data, many operationally important questions can be answered such as which libraries are most frequently used and which users are using deprecated libraries or applications. The infrastructure design and reporting mechanisms are presented along with collected production data.

  19. Track-to-track association for object matching in an inter-vehicle communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ting; Roth, Tobias; Chen, Qi; Breu, Jakob; Bogdanovic, Miro; Weiss, Christian A.

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous driving poses unique challenges for vehicle environment perception due to the complex driving environment the autonomous vehicle finds itself in and differentiates from remote vehicles. Due to inherent uncertainty of the traffic environments and incomplete knowledge due to sensor limitation, an autonomous driving system using only local onboard sensor information is generally not sufficiently enough for conducting a reliable intelligent driving with guaranteed safety. In order to overcome limitations of the local (host) vehicle sensing system and to increase the likelihood of correct detections and classifications, collaborative information from cooperative remote vehicles could substantially facilitate effectiveness of vehicle decision making process. Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) system provides a powerful inter-vehicle wireless communication channel to enhance host vehicle environment perceiving capability with the aid of transmitted information from remote vehicles. However, there is a major challenge before one can fuse the DSRC-transmitted remote information and host vehicle Radar-observed information (in the present case): the remote DRSC data must be correctly associated with the corresponding onboard Radar data; namely, an object matching problem. Direct raw data association (i.e., measurement-to-measurement association - M2MA) is straightforward but error-prone, due to inherent uncertain nature of the observation data. The uncertainties could lead to serious difficulty in matching decision, especially, using non-stationary data. In this study, we present an object matching algorithm based on track-to-track association (T2TA) and evaluate the proposed approach with prototype vehicles in real traffic scenarios. To fully exploit potential of the DSRC system, only GPS position data from remote vehicle are used in fusion center (at host vehicle), i.e., we try to get what we need from the least amount of information; additional feature

  20. Robust track fitting in the Belle II inner tracking detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadler, Moritz; Frühwirth, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    Track fitting in the new inner tracker of the Belle II experiment uses the GENFIT package. In the latter both a standard Kalman filter and a robust extension, the deterministic annealing filter (DAF), are implemented. This contribution presents the results of a simulation experiment which examines the performance of the DAF in the inner tracker, in terms of outlier detection ability and of the impact of different kinds of background on the quality of the fitted tracks.

  1. Environmental exposure tracking sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Teresa; Everhart, Joel; McFerran, Jace

    2009-03-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymer (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, medicines or foods, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastic state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring thermal and moisture exposure over time. In a Phase I and II SBIR effort with the Navy, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of SMP-based EET sensor with two material systems. These material systems required different activation stimuli, heat or water vapor pressure. CRG developed the ability to tailor these materials to customize the dynamic response to match various degradation profiles of munitions. CRG optimized and characterized the SMP formulations and sensor design configuration to develop a suite of data from which any degradation profile can be met. CRG's EET sensors are capable of monitoring temperatures from -30 °C to 260 °C. The prototypes monitor cumulative thermal exposure and provide real-time information in a visually readable or a remotely interrogated version. CRG is currently scaling up the manufacture of the sensors for munitions reliability applications with the Navy.

  2. Predicting the course of AIDS in Australia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P J; Wilson, S R; Swanson, C E; Cooper, D A

    1990-10-01

    There have been urgent demands for knowledge about the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Australia. Accurate predictions are important for efficient allocation and planning of limited health-care resources. Ideal data for this purpose would be reliable knowledge of the past and present incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, since the incidence of the infection is unknown predictions can only be based on historical data of the incidence of AIDS. In this article, we show the limitations of such predictions by examining a broad range of mathematical models that successfully track the observed data (1187 cases diagnosed to December 31, 1988). In addition, we describe a simple method for prediction in subgroups where the numbers of cases observed so far are small. Four models representing different forms of departure from the simple exponential model provide the best fits to the Australian AIDS data. Regional variability and a possible effect resulting from the introduction of zidovudine were incorporated into the models. Significant regional variability in the course of the epidemic was observed between New South Wales, Victoria and the rest of the country. For Australia as a whole, the doubling time changed from less than one year before mid 1987 to more than two years after this time. Model fits were improved by fitting the models to just the four years of data from 1985. The models give comparable predictions for the first year (1989) of around 600 new cases. However, by 1993 the predictions vary considerably, ranging from 500 to 2300 new cases. It is predicted that between 3100 and 6700 cases are likely to be diagnosed in Australia between 1989 and 1993. The results from the subgroup prediction demonstrate that when the observed number of cases is small, then the range of predictions for a future time interval is very wide. For reliable long-term predictions that are necessary for public health planning, basic

  3. The Physics of Fast Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Toys can provide motivational contexts for learning and teaching about physics. A cheap car track provides an almost frictionless environment from which a quantitative study of conservation of energy and circular motion can be made.

  4. Tracking Down the Real Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyche, Steven E.; Stefanich, Greg

    1989-01-01

    Presents a strategy for science learning through a game activity which uses human and/or animal footprints. Provides numerous ideas for creativity in constructing a story and adapting tracks for experiential experiences. (RT)

  5. Map projections for satellite tracking.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    New map projections to be used for plotting successive satellite groundtracks show these tracks as straight lines. The map may be made conformal along any 2 parallels of latitude between the limits of latitude reached by the groundtrack, or the 'tracking limits'. If these parallels are equidistant from the Equator, they may both be made true to scale, and a cylindrical projection results. If these parallels are not equidistant from the Equator, only one may be made true to scale, and a conic projection results. The groundtracks generally have sharp breaks at either tracking limit. If the tracking limit is one of the parallels at which the map is conformal, there is no break in the groundtrack, and the conic projection may approach (but cannot become) an azimuthal projection.-Author

  6. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  7. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  8. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  9. 29 CFR 1915.98 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 1915.98 Section 1915.98 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.98 First aid...) Unless a first aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared to render first aid...

  10. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... aid training shall be made available to all interested miners....

  11. Learning Aids for the Hearing Impaired Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Learning Resource Center of Pennsylvania, King of Prussia.

    Intended for parents, the booklet provides a practical guide to the types of learning aids that are helpful to the hearing impaired child. Sections cover the following: an explanation of residual hearing; types of hearing aids and hearing aid equipment; language development aids (brief descriptions are provided for materials in beginning language,…

  12. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  13. 76 FR 76025 - World AIDS Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... States of America A Proclamation On World AIDS Day, 30 years after the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported, we stand with the individuals and communities affected by HIV and recommit to progress toward an AIDS-free generation. My Administration is taking action to turn the corner on the HIV/AIDS pandemic...

  14. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Prevention HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials (Last updated 9/15/2015; last reviewed 9/15/2015) Key Points HIV/AIDS clinical trials are ... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ...

  15. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  20. Training Aids for Online Instruction: An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Robin Frederick

    This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…

  1. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Español | Spanish नेपाली | Nepali About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is an educational project ... site visitor and her/his healthcare provider. The AIDS InfoNet provides current information on HIV/AIDS treatment ...

  2. Lateral charge transport from heavy-ion tracks in integrated circuit chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Schwartz, H. R.; Nevill, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    A 256K DRAM has been used to study the lateral transport of charge (electron-hole pairs) induced by direct ionization from heavy-ion tracks in an IC. The qualitative charge transport has been simulated using a two-dimensional numerical code in cylindrical coordinates. The experimental bit-map data clearly show the manifestation of lateral charge transport in the creation of adjacent multiple-bit errors from a single heavy-ion track. The heavy-ion data further demonstrate the occurrence of multiple-bit errors from single ion tracks with sufficient stopping power. The qualitative numerical simulation results suggest that electric-field-funnel-aided (drift) collection accounts for single error generated by an ion passing through a charge-collecting junction, while multiple errors from a single ion track are due to lateral diffusion of ion-generated charge.

  3. Some effects of Field Of View (FOV) and target size on lateral tracking at hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breul, H. T.

    1981-01-01

    An exploratory flight-simulator experiment examined the gross effects of several factors potentially important to the design of a visual display system for aiding VTOL pilots in the difficult task of landing on a small sea-control ship. Field of view (FOV) and target size were the primary variables examined for a lateral tracking task in a full motion 5 degree-of-freedom hover simulation. The mean absolute value of tracking error was used to measure tracking performance, and cross spectral transfer function analysis was performed to determine the pilot's ability to generate good open-loop transfer function characteristics as a function of the experimental variables. It was found that FOV and target size can have a large effect on the pilot's ability to generate open-loop gain, and on his tracking performance.

  4. A Target Model Construction Algorithm for Robust Real-Time Mean-Shift Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoo-Joo; Kim, Yong-Goo

    2014-01-01

    Mean-shift tracking has gained more interests, nowadays, aided by its feasibility of real-time and reliable tracker implementation. In order to reduce background clutter interference to mean-shift object tracking, this paper proposes a novel indicator function generation method. The proposed method takes advantage of two ‘a priori’ knowledge elements, which are inherent to a kernel support for initializing a target model. Based on the assured background labels, a gradient-based label propagation is performed, resulting in a number of objects differentiated from the background. Then the proposed region growing scheme picks up one largest target object near the center of the kernel support. The grown object region constitutes the proposed indicator function and this allows an exact target model construction for robust mean-shift tracking. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed exact target model could significantly enhance the robustness as well as the accuracy of mean-shift object tracking. PMID:25372619

  5. Analysis of railway track vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, K.; Yamada, M.

    1989-04-01

    Analytical formulae are developed for estimating the amplitudes of the vibrations generated in railway tracks by wheels and rail discontinuities or by unevennesses on their surfaces. Rails are assumed to be supported elastically on concrete sleepers by resilient rail-pads inserted between them. The elasticities and the masses of track materials and those of the roadbed are also taken into consideration. It is shown that after an impulse is applied to the track, not only is a vibration with a comparatively low natural frequency generated, but also traveling waves with higher frequencies, and the latter propagate lengthwise along the track or downwards into the roadbed. With the assumption that the power spectral density of the unevennesses on the rail surface is in proportion to the third power of the wavelength, or to (wavenumber) -3, the amplitudes of the vibrations in railway tracks supported by rail-pads and roadbeds with various magnitudes of elastic constants are analyzed and the values for each one-third octave band are estimated. The velocity of the vibration takes on a maximum value for the band with a center frequency of 63 Hz, which corresponds to the resonant frequency of the system composed of the wheel and the track. As the frequency increases beyond this value, the velocity of the vibration takes on a second maximum value at a frequency of about 1000 Hz. These estimates are compared with the data obtained from field measurements and reasonably good correlations are found between them.

  6. Advancing and retreating in the AIDS battle in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Shiner, C

    1992-07-01

    Unemployment and inflation stand at 70% and 5000%/year, respectively, in Zaire. Thus many women turn to prostitution to survive. About 50% are HIV positive. Yet HIV seroprevalence rates in prostitutes in other sub=Saharan African countries can be as high as 90%. 5-10% of women of reproductive age in Kinshasa are HIV positive, but the HIV infection rate as stabilized. Health workers may not learn why this has occurred, however, since the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) stopped providing personnel and funds to Zaire's AIDS Program (Project SIDA). It is the continent's largest and most reputable and significant effort to fight AIDS. Its Zairian researchers are international level scientists. Project SIDA had 8 sites which tracked HIV infection in prostitutes and treated tuberculosis in AIDS patients and sexually transmitted diseases since they foster the spread of HIV. It also carried on a successful education and condom distribution campaign. Other countries use Project SIDA as a model to control AIDS. The most obvious effect of CDC withdrawal will be the reduced services to prostitutes according to a US pathologist. The project can no longer follow about 2000 mothers and children infected with HIV. CDC's withdrawal also negates any planned clinical trials of an AIDS vaccine. CDC claims it is no longer supporting Project SIDA because the government of Zaire can no longer guarantee the safety of CDC employees after the looting spree of unpaid soldiers in September-October 1991. Tensions have grown since December 1991 when the President, who gained power in a US Central Intelligence Agency backed coup in 1960, did not relinquish power at the end of his 46th term. Some US State Department officials are happy the disorder occurred since it allows the US to cut back on diplomats in Africa and to strengthen US representation in Eastern Europe.

  7. Multidisciplinary Expert-aided Analysis and Design (MEAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Thomas C.; Taylor, James

    1989-01-01

    The MEAD Computer Program (MCP) is being developed under the Multidisciplinary Expert-Aided Analysis and Design (MEAD) Project as a CAD environment in which integrated flight, propulsion, and structural control systems can be designed and analyzed. The MCP has several embedded computer-aided control engineering (CACE) packages, a user interface (UI), a supervisor, a data-base manager (DBM), and an expert system (ES). The supervisor monitors and coordinates the operation of the CACE packages, the DBM; the ES, and the UI. The DBM tracks the control design process. Models created or installed by the MCP are tracked by date and version, and results are associated with the specific model version with which they were generated. The ES is used to relieve the control engineer from tedious and cumbersome tasks in the iterative design process. The UI provides the capability for a novice as well as an expert to utilize the MCP easily and effectively. The MCP version 2(MCP-2.0) is fully developed for flight control system design and analysis. Propulsion system modeling, analysis, and simulation is also supported; the same is true for structural models represented in state-space form. The ultimate goal is to cover the integration of flight, propulsion, and structural control engineering, including all discipline-specific functionality and interfaces. The current MCP-2.0 components and functionality are discussed.

  8. Multifiber optical bend sensor to aid colonoscope navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, Jessica E.; Gavalis, Robb M.; Wong, Peter Y.; Cao, Caroline G. L.

    2011-12-01

    A colonoscopy's near-blind navigation process frequently causes disorientation for the scope operator, leading to harm for the patient. Navigation can be improved if real-time colonoscope shape, location, and orientation information is provided by a shape-tracking aid, such as a fiber optic bend sensor. Fiber optic bend sensors provide advantages over conventional electromechanical shape-trackers, including low cost and ease of integration. However, current fiber optic bend sensors lack either the ability to detect both bending direction and curvature, or the ability to detect multiple localized bends. An inexpensive multifiber bend sensor was developed to aid users in navigation during colonoscopy. The bend sensor employs active-cladding optical fibers modified with fluorescent quantum dots, bandpass filters, and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imager as key components. Results from three-fiber sensors demonstrate the bend sensor's ability to measure curvature (error of 0.01 mm), direction (100% accuracy), and location (predetermined distance) of a bend in the fiber bundle. Comparison with spectroscopy data further confirmed the accuracy of the bending direction measurement for a three-fiber sensor. Future work includes improvements in fiber manufacturing to increase sensor sensitivity and consistency. An expanded 31 fiber bundle would be needed to track the full length of a colonoscope.

  9. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  10. How to perform first aid.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  11. HIV/AIDS and blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Kestelyn, P. G.; Cunningham, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 34 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS: ocular complications are common, affecting 50% to 75% of all such patients at some point during the course of their illness. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is by far the most frequent cause of vision loss in patients with AIDS. Although the prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis is decreasing in industrialized countries because of the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, between 10% and 20% of HIV-infected patients worldwide can be expected to lose vision in one or both eyes as a result of ocular cytomegalovirus infection. Less frequent but important causes of bilateral vision loss in patients with HIV/AIDS include varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus retinitis, HIV-related ischaemic microvasculopathy, ocular syphilis, ocular tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and ocular toxic or allergic drug reactions. At present, most patients with HIV/AIDS in developing countries who lose their vision have a very limited life expectancy. As antiretroviral therapy makes its way to these countries, however, both life expectancy and the prevalence of blindness related to HIV/AIDS can be expected to increase dramatically. PMID:11285664

  12. How to perform first aid.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26758166

  13. Asia: fastest growing AIDS problem.

    PubMed

    A recent UN report noted that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is growing faster in Asia than in any other region. Recent figures indicate that 2.3% of adults in Thailand are infected, and 50,000 die annually from AIDS. It is estimated that, by the year 2000, 12 million Asians could be infected and that the economic burden of this epidemic could be as high as $52 billion as the work force is lost to the disease. The increased incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is adding to the problem, with India, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, and the Philippines together contributing half of the world's TB cases. Efforts to fight these epidemics are hampered by political unrest, religious opposition, the economic crisis, and poverty. Worldwide, 5.8 million people have become infected with HIV/AIDS this year, bringing the total number of those infected to 33 million. Children under age 15 account for 90% of the 590,000 new cases in sub-Sahara Africa, a region which expects 2 million AIDS deaths this year. In developed countries, new drug therapies have reduced AIDS deaths, but the rate of new infection remains unchanged.

  14. Will Schools Risk Teaching about the Risk of AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unks, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    Discusses schools and current AIDS education; facts about AIDS; teaching about behavioral change; the use of condoms; an AIDS awareness curriculum; HIV/AIDS awareness and sex education; and HIV/AIDS awareness and democratic schooling. (SR)

  15. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Corlis, N. E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems.

  16. Space assembly fixtures and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, K. A.; Lillenas, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Concepts and requirements for assembly fixtures and aids necessary for the assembly and maintenance of spare platforms were studied. Emphasis was placed on erectable and deployable type structures with the shuttle orbiter as the assembly base. Both single and multiple orbiter flight cases for the platform assembly were considered. Applicable space platform assembly studies were reviewed to provide a data base for establishing the assembly fixture and aids design requirements, assembly constraints, and the development of representative design concepts. Conclusions indicated that fixture requirements will vary with platform size. Larger platforms will require translation relative to the orbiter RMS working volume. The installation of platform payloads and subsystems (e.g., utility distribution) must also be considered in the specification of assembly fixtures and aids.

  17. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of...

  18. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  19. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  20. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...