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Sample records for aided tracking sarsat

  1. A neural network application to search and rescue satellite aided tracking (SARSAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Ivan W.; Vigneault, Michel O.

    1992-04-01

    The Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system uses polar orbiting satellites to monitor the earth's surface for emergency locator transmitters (ELT's). A detected ELT signal is retransmitted to ground facilities for processing. The ELT location is determined by fitting a Doppler curve to the signal, and this location estimate is then sent for transmission to a rescue unit for action. The heuristic based approach to predict the location accuracy category of SARSAT hits based on the parameters of the Doppler curve fit work reasonably well but are far from ideal. They consistently have difficulty identifying very good solutions when they occur and very poor solutions when they occur. Normal data fitting techniques based on multiple linear regression do not work well because SARSAT data are inherently nonlinear. Neural networks were thus applied to SARSAT data as a nonlinear data fitting technique. A neural network program was trained on a sample of 173 observations and tested on a sample of 172 observations. Results are compared to the current method. Although the results so far have been promising, they are still far from ideal. Other artificial intelligence technologies such as fuzzy logic, expert systems, and inductive learning are being investigated to enhance the neural network approach.

  2. Identification techniques for SARSAT signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Naga, S.; Carter, C. R.

    1987-03-01

    A process for the identification of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) signals related to search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) is presented. The ELT identification process is particularly important in order to increase the probability of detection and eliminate sources of interference from the data set. A set of ELT signal parameters is introduced and methods for estimating these parameters are developed. A theoretical analysis and performance evaluation of these methods is provided.

  3. Cospas-Sarsat - A beacon for those in distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Brendan

    1989-06-01

    The joint operation of Search and Rescuse Satellite-Aided Tracking system (Sarsat) and its companion system, Cospass, is discussed. The components of the combined Sarsat-Cospass system are described, including the system's spacecraft, aircraft-borne emergency locator transmitters, ship-borne emergency position-indicating radio beacons, earth stations, local user terminals, mission control centers, and rescue coordination centers. Case histories are presented to demonstrate the use of the system in rescue operations.

  4. Sarsat location algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Jerry

    The Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (Sarsat) is designed to detect and locate distress beacons using satellite receivers. Algorithms used for calculating the positions of 406 MHz beacons and 121.5/243 MHz beacons are presented. The techniques for matching, resolving and averaging calculated locations from multiple satellite passes are also described along with results pertaining to single pass and multiple pass location estimate accuracy.

  5. Spectral analysis of ELT signals for SARSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessouky, M. I.; Carter, C. R.

    1987-09-01

    Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) relays the emergency locator transmitter (ELT) signals of distressed aircraft to an earth station for spectral analysis. Of considerable importance are the characteristics of the spectrum of the ELT signal since the probability of locating the downed aircraft is closely related to the quality of the ELT signal spectrum itself. In this paper, it is shown that the spectrum can be adversely affected by a number of factors including the phase and frequency characteristics of the carrier and their interaction with the amplitude modulation. Two new models are proposed which greatly reduce the self-generated interference produced by ELT units presently being used.

  6. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor, Vol 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.; Garrett, James, Major

    1984-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the LUTs. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite. Additionally, a table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  7. Basic concepts in the processing of SARSAT signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T.; Carter, C. R.

    1987-03-01

    Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) involves the use of satellites in low-polar orbits which relay the emergency signals of distressed vehicles to an earth station for signal analysis. In this paper, some basic concepts and a theoretical analysis of the spectra produced by coherent and noncoherent emergency locator transmitter signals are presented. It is shown that coherent signals can be easily processed using linear spectral analysis. Noncoherent signals, however, require more advanced methods.

  8. COSPAS-SARSAT Satellite Orbit Predictor. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.; Garrett, James

    1984-01-01

    The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite (SARSAT or COSPAS) orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the LUTs. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite. Additionally, a table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  9. A baseband processor for SARSAT signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessouky, M. I.; Carter, C. R.

    Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) is a method of employing satellites in low polar orbits to relay the emergency signals of distressed aircraft and marine vessels to an earth station. At the earth station, the signals are processed using spectral estimation techniques, which permit the calculation of the location of the distressed vehicle. The paper describes a baseband implementation for processing distress signals, which employs both the periodogram and the maximum entropy method (MEM). It is shown, theoretically and by computer simulation, that the minimum detectable carrier-to-noise density ratio for a coherent ELT signal is approximately 21 dB-Hz, when the 512 complex-point FFT is applied to 50 blocks comprising 1s of data. By applying rate-reduction filtering to the data sequence, improved resolution and an increase in carrier-to-noise density ratio are obtained. The baseband implementation also offers flexibility not found in the bandpass processor.

  10. A theoretical bound for the processing of SARSAT signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical bound is calculated for a matched filter receiver for search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) signals. The processor is assumed to give the best possible performance when a single signal is immersed in noise. A solution in closed form is deduced, and values are calculated for several different cases. The results show that, for a processing duration of 125 ms, an emergency locator transmitter signal can be detected within + or - 8 Hz when the carrier-to-noise density ratio is only 15 dB-Hz. The bound can be used to evaluate the performance of more practical implementations, although it may also be possible to realize the matched filter in certain cases.

  11. The SARSAT program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, D.

    The SARSAT/COSPAS satellite network uses 121.5 and 406 MHz buoys to locate ships and aircraft in distress. The 121.5 MHz system, obligatory on many aircraft, gives localization to within 10 km, and, despite being subject to considerable radio interference and a poor signal to noise ratio, is responsible for saving nearly 200 lives. The 406 MHz location error is 2 km in 75% of cases, and 2 hr for 95% of cases in the worst conditions. It suffers however from interference from illegal broadcasts in the frequency band.

  12. Low cost high efficiency GaAs monolithic RF module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, W. C.; Siu, D. P.; Cook, H. F.

    1991-12-01

    Low cost high performance (5 Watts output) 406 MHz beacons are urgently needed to realize the maximum utilization of the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system spearheaded in the U.S. by NASA. Although current technology can produce beacons meeting the output power requirement, power consumption is high due to the low efficiency of available transmitters. Field performance is currently unsatisfactory due to the lack of safe and reliable high density batteries capable of operation at -40 C. Low cost production is also a crucial but elusive requirement for the ultimate wide scale utilization of this system. Microwave Monolithics Incorporated (MMInc.) has proposed to make both the technical and cost goals for the SARSAT beacon attainable by developing a monolithic GaAs chip set for the RF module. This chip set consists of a high efficiency power amplifier and a bi-phase modulator. In addition to implementing the RF module in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) form to minimize ultimate production costs, the power amplifier has a power-added efficiency nearly twice that attained with current commercial technology. A distress beacon built using this RF module chip set will be significantly smaller in size and lighter in weight due to a smaller battery requirement, since the 406 MHz signal source and the digital controller have far lower power consumption compared to the 5 watt power amplifier. All the program tasks have been successfully completed. The GaAs MMIC RF module chip set has been designed to be compatible with the present 406 MHz signal source and digital controller. A complete high performance low cost SARSAT beacon can be realized with only additional minor iteration and systems integration.

  13. Low cost high efficiency GaAs monolithic RF module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. C.; Siu, D. P.; Cook, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Low cost high performance (5 Watts output) 406 MHz beacons are urgently needed to realize the maximum utilization of the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system spearheaded in the U.S. by NASA. Although current technology can produce beacons meeting the output power requirement, power consumption is high due to the low efficiency of available transmitters. Field performance is currently unsatisfactory due to the lack of safe and reliable high density batteries capable of operation at -40 C. Low cost production is also a crucial but elusive requirement for the ultimate wide scale utilization of this system. Microwave Monolithics Incorporated (MMInc.) has proposed to make both the technical and cost goals for the SARSAT beacon attainable by developing a monolithic GaAs chip set for the RF module. This chip set consists of a high efficiency power amplifier and a bi-phase modulator. In addition to implementing the RF module in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) form to minimize ultimate production costs, the power amplifier has a power-added efficiency nearly twice that attained with current commercial technology. A distress beacon built using this RF module chip set will be significantly smaller in size and lighter in weight due to a smaller battery requirement, since the 406 MHz signal source and the digital controller have far lower power consumption compared to the 5 watt power amplifier. All the program tasks have been successfully completed. The GaAs MMIC RF module chip set has been designed to be compatible with the present 406 MHz signal source and digital controller. A complete high performance low cost SARSAT beacon can be realized with only additional minor iteration and systems integration.

  14. Interference suppression for 121.5/243 MHz SARSAT signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiangqun

    2000-12-01

    When an aircraft or marine vessel is in distress, the emergency unit is activated either automatically or by manually setting a switch. The signal is then received by an orbiting satellite as it sweeps out a path over the search and rescue satellite aided tracking (SARSAT) region of interest. Due to the relative motion between the satellite and the Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) or the Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) unit, the signal received at the spacecraft is Doppler shifted. New processing techniques for detecting ELT signals in an interfering background are investigated, based on not only computer simulations but also experimental data. The new methods involve the use of the Geometrically Averaged Spectrum (GAS) and the Harmonically Averaged Spectrum (HAS) in addition to the Arithmetically Averaged Spectrum (AAS) adopted by the existing system. Specifically, this thesis investigates the theoretical performance of AAS, GAS and HAS averaging in practical circumstances involving signals, noise and interference. It is shown that the carrier peaks of good ELT signals can be substantially enhanced in an interfering background. The treatise identifies certain types of interference such as Carrier interference with strong or weak AM, On-Off Modulation interference, Swept Carrier interference, and Ringing Response interference. Using computer simulation, it is demonstrated that under certain conditions the effects of background interference can be greatly reduced and the detection of ELT carrier peaks can be improved by employing a combination of AAS, GAS and HAS averaging. Real SARSAT pass data signals are fed into the computer and processed using AAS, GAS and HAS averaging. The background interference postulated in this thesis is found to exist and real ELT signals are identified. ELT signals representing the NIC model and a new model, called the Frequency Modulated ELT (FME) model, are identified along with a new ELT signal for which a model

  15. The COSPAS-SARSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werstiuk, H. L.; Ludwig, D.; Trudell, B. J.; Selivanov, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    The SARSAT/COSPAS satellite network uses 121.5 and 406 MHz buoys to locale ships and aircraft in distress. The 121.5 MHz system, obligatory on many aircraft, gives localization to within 10 km, and, despite being subject to considerable radio interference and a poor signal to noise ratio, is responsible for saving 200 lives. The 406 MHz location error is 2 km in 75% of cases, and 2 hr for 95% of cases in the worst conditions. It suffers however from interference from illegal broadcasts in the frequency band.

  16. COSPAS/SARSAT: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgunigal, T. E.; Mckinnon, D. J.; Brachet, G.; Zurabov, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The SARSAT/COSPAS satellite network uses 121.5 and 406 MHz buoys to locate ships and aircraft in distress. The 121.5 MHz system, obligatory on many aircraft, gives localization to within 10 km, and, despite being subject to considerable radio interference and a poor signal to noise ratio, is responsible for saving nearly 200 lives. The 406 MHz location error is 2 km in 75% of cases, and less than or equal to 2 hr for 95% of cases in the worst conditions. It suffers however from interference from illegal broadcasts in the frequency band.

  17. Initial Aid is Puzzle to Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    States and federal agencies are off to a slow and uneven start in allowing the public to track the first allotments from up to $100 billion in new education funding under the federal economic-stimulus package, despite strong pledges of transparency for the program from the Obama administration. Although about $145 million in aid has been sent from…

  18. SARSAT 406 MHz system technical evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudy, P.; King, J.; Kissel, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    The location accuracy, access to spacecraft, uplink margin, and interference problems of the COSPAS-SARSAT system are reviewed. Over 90% of positions are accurate to within 5 km, in local mode, slightly worse in global mode. The random access parameters of SARSAT provide for the location of up to 90 beacons with a uniform distribution in the satellite visibility circle (2600 km radius). The ratio of messages correctly processed on board to messages transmitted to the satellite is 0.8, increasing as number of beacons decreases. Interference, particularly over western Europe and the United States degrades performance, but sources can be located.

  19. Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B.; Gutwein, J. M.; Vollmers, R.; Wammer, D.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of Sarsat is to demonstrate that satellites can greatly facilitate the monitoring, detection, and location of distress incidents alerted by Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) carried on commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft and some marine vessels. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, ELT/EPIRB distress information to ground stations, which will complete the data processing and forward alert and position location data to rescue coordination services. This paper presents a Sarsat system description and a summary of Coast Guard and USAF objectives for the initial demonstration and evaluation tests of Sarsat.

  20. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  1. Antarctic field tests of SARSAT personal locater beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Field tests of SARSAT personal locater beacons were conducted in the Antarctic to assess the viability of using these beacons to increase the safety of Antarctic field parties. Data were collected on the extent to which dry or wet snow, melting conditions, crevasse walls and snow bridges affected the ability of the SARSAT satellite to calculate an accurate position of the beacon. Average response time between beacon turn on and alert reception in McMurdo was between 4 and 5 hours for these tests. It is concluded that the SARSAT system is viable for Antarctic operations and it is recommended that it be implemented for future field operations. Because of obstruction of line-of-sight between beacon and satellite degrades the accuracy of the location calculation (particularly in wet snow), it is further recommended that field parties have sufficient numbers of beacons to insure that in an emergency, one will be able to operate from the surface.

  2. High efficiency low cost monolithic module for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Wendell C.; Siu, Daniel P.

    1992-01-01

    The program objectives were to develop a highly efficient, low cost RF module for SARSAT beacons; achieve significantly lower battery current drain, amount of heat generated, and size of battery required; utilize MMIC technology to improve efficiency, reliability, packaging, and cost; and provide a technology database for GaAs based UHF RF circuit architectures. Presented in viewgraph form are functional block diagrams of the SARSAT distress beacon and beacon RF module as well as performance goals, schematic diagrams, predicted performances, and measured performances for the phase modulator and power amplifier.

  3. Radar signature generation for feature-aided tracking research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatt, Teri L.; Sherwood, John U.; Musick, Stanton H.

    2005-05-01

    Accurately associating sensor kinematic reports to known tracks, new tracks, or clutter is one of the greatest obstacles to effective track estimation. Feature-aiding is one technology that is emerging to address this problem, and it is expected that adding target features will aid report association by enhancing track accuracy and lengthening track life. The Sensor's Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory is sponsoring a challenge problem called Feature-Aided Tracking of Stop-move Objects (FATSO). The long-range goal of this research is to provide a full suite of public data and software to encourage researchers from government, industry, and academia to participate in radar-based feature-aided tracking research. The FATSO program is currently releasing a vehicle database coupled to a radar signature generator. The completed FATSO system will incorporate this database/generator into a Monte Carlo simulation environment for evaluating multiplatform/multitarget tracking scenarios. The currently released data and software contains the following: eight target models, including a tank, ammo hauler, and self-propelled artillery vehicles; and a radar signature generator capable of producing SAR and HRR signatures of all eight modeled targets in almost any configuration or articulation. In addition, the signature generator creates Z-buffer data, label map data, and radar cross-section prediction and allows the user to add noise to an image while varying sensor-target geometry (roll, pitch, yaw, squint). Future capabilities of this signature generator, such as scene models and EO signatures as well as details of the complete FATSO testbed, are outlined.

  4. Computer-aided tracking of MS lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Deborah; Gurwitz Kletenik, Devorah; Koshy, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions are known to change over time. The location, size and shape characteristics of lesions are often used to diagnose and to track disease progression. We have improved our lesion-browsing tool that allows users to automatically locate successive significant lesions in a MRI stack. In addition, an automatic alignment feature was implemented to facilitate comparisons across stacks. A lesion stack is formed that can be browsed independently or in tandem with the image windows. Lesions of interest can then be measured, rendered and rotated. Multiple windows allow the viewer to compare the size and shape of lesions from the MRI images of the same patient taken at different time intervals.

  5. COSPAS/SARSAT 406-MHz emergency beacon digital controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1988-07-01

    The digital control portion of a low-cost 406-MHz COSPAS/SARSAT emergency beacon has been designed and breadboarded at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This report discusses the requirements and design tradeoffs of the digital controller and describes the hardware and software design, which is available only to United States citizens and companies.

  6. COSPAS/SARSAT 406-MHz emergency beacon digital controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The digital control portion of a low-cost 406-MHz COSPAS/SARSAT emergency beacon has been designed and breadboarded at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This report discusses the requirements and design tradeoffs of the digital controller and describes the hardware and software design, which is available only to United States citizens and companies.

  7. Adaptive modeling of compression hearing aids: Convergence and tracking issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Vijay; Jamieson, Donald

    2003-10-01

    Typical measurements of electroacoustic performance of hearing aids include frequency response, compression ratio, threshold and time constants, equivalent input noise, and total harmonic distortion. These measurements employ artificial test signals and do not relate well to perceptual indices of hearing aid performance. Speech-based electroacoustic measures provide means to quantify the real world performance of hearing aids and have been shown to correlate better with perceptual data. This paper investigates the application of system identification paradigm for deriving the speech-based measures, where the hearing aid is modeled as a linear time-varying system and its response to speech stimuli is predicted using a linear adaptive filter. The performance of three adaptive filtering algorithms, viz. the Least Mean Square (LMS), Normalized LMS, and the Affine Projection Algorithm (APA) was investigated using simulated and real digital hearing aids. In particular, the convergence and tracking behavior of these algorithms in modeling compression hearing aids was thoroughly investigated for a range of compression ratio and threshold parameters, and attack and release time constants. Our results show that the NLMS and APA algorithms are capable of modeling digital hearing aids under a variety of compression conditions, and are suitable for deriving speech-based metrics of hearing aid performance.

  8. Future prospects of the COSPAS-SARSAT system use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniaev, R.; Balashov, A.; Zurabov, Y.; Pcheliakov, L.; Ludwig, D.

    The COSPAS-SARSAT system is capable of detecting and locating emergency beacon signals at time intervals of 1-3 hours, depending on EPIRB location latitude. The 406 MHz emergency position computation data are processed during EPIRB-to-satellite communication, and then stored aboard the spacecraft for direct or later transmission to ground stations. If equipped with X-band radar, the SAR vessel will be capable of detecting a float-free radar transponder at 3-10 miles. It is presently noted that the time saving obtainable through COSPAS-SARSAT in the prerescue period of SAR operations compensates for the delays of the satellite's intermittent passages over a site.

  9. Feature-aided multiple target tracking in the image plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew P.; Sullivan, Kevin J.; Miller, David J.

    2006-05-01

    Vast quantities of EO and IR data are collected on airborne platforms (manned and unmanned) and terrestrial platforms (including fixed installations, e.g., at street intersections), and can be exploited to aid in the global war on terrorism. However, intelligent preprocessing is required to enable operator efficiency and to provide commanders with actionable target information. To this end, we have developed an image plane tracker which automatically detects and tracks multiple targets in image sequences using both motion and feature information. The effects of platform and camera motion are compensated via image registration, and a novel change detection algorithm is applied for accurate moving target detection. The contiguous pixel blob on each moving target is segmented for use in target feature extraction and model learning. Feature-based target location measurements are used for tracking through move-stop-move maneuvers, close target spacing, and occlusion. Effective clutter suppression is achieved using joint probabilistic data association (JPDA), and confirmed target tracks are indicated for further processing or operator review. In this paper we describe the algorithms implemented in the image plane tracker and present performance results obtained with video clips from the DARPA VIVID program data collection and from a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight.

  10. The SARSAT-COSPAS program - Status and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, D.; Bailey, J.; Robinson, J.; Selivanov, A.

    1985-10-01

    SARSAT-COSPAS is a collaborative search/rescue activities satellite surveillance system encompassing two distinct elements: a 121.5 MHz aeronautics distress signal beacon frequency that is satellite-relayed to a ground terminal, where location is computed on the basis of signal Doppler shift characteristics; and a 406 MHz beacon signal transmission system, in which the signal contains a code furnishing identification for the aircraft or vessel in distress. In the latter case, satellite processing of the signal is followed by relay to a ground station.

  11. Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) signal models for Sarsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, C. R.; Casas, E.; Chung, T.

    1986-04-01

    For three Emergency Locator Translator (ELT) signal generation models for Sarsat, resulting spectra are computed and compared with those of actual signals. The Ideal Coherent Model ELT produces an idealized spectrum which does not exist in practice. The Non-Ideal Coherent Model ELT simulation, which produces a wide range of spectra closely related to actual ELT signals, predicts a design hazard, and suggests a new mandatory design specification. This hazard arises due to an interaction between the modulation and the short-term frequency instability of the carrier oscillator. The Non-Coherent Model demonstrates the degradation caused by not providing continuous operation of the ELT carrier oscillator.

  12. SARSAT 121.5/243 MHz technical evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, E. J.; Kissel, F. J.; Bossuat, F.

    1984-01-01

    The NOAA 8 SARSAT system performance was tested at 121.5/243 MHz to measure detection probability, detection threshold, location accuracy, ambiguity resolution, and multiple access capacity. Detection probability exceeds 0.95 for a single satellite pass. Detection threshold margin varies from 2 dB (243 MHz, incoherent) to 20 dB (121.5, coherent). Position location error is 20 km 68% of the time. Ambiguity is resolved 75% of the time. The system can locate 10 separate test signals.

  13. Multisensory Narrative Tracking by a Profoundly Deaf Subject Using an Electrocutaneous Vocoder and a Vibrotactile Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study assessed the ability to track connected discourse by a congenitally profoundly deaf adult using an electrocutaneous vocoder and/or a vibrotactile aid in conjunction with or without lipreading and aided hearing. Overall, improvement in tracking performance occurred within and across phases of the study. (Author/DB)

  14. GaAs monolithic R.F. modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  15. A New Inertial Aid Method for High Dynamic Compass Signal Tracking Based on a Nonlinear Tracking Differentiator

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yao; Wu, Wenqi; Tang, Kanghua

    2012-01-01

    In Compass/INS integrated navigation systems, feedback inertial navigation solutions to baseband tracking loops may eliminate receiver dynamic effects, and effectively improve the tracking accuracy and sensitivity. In the conventional inertially-aided tracking loop, the satellite-receiver line-of-sight velocity is used directly to adjust local carrier frequency. However, if the inertial solution drifts, the phase tracking error will be enlarged. By using Kalman filter based carrier phase tracking loop, this paper introduces a new inertial aid method, in which the line-of-sight jerk obtained from inertial acceleration by a nonlinear tracking differentiator is used to adjust relevant parameters of the Kalman filter's process noise matrix. Validation is achieved through high dynamic Compass B3 signal with line-of-sight jerk of 10 g/s collected by a GNSS simulator. Experimental results indicate that the new inertial aid method proposed in this paper is free of the impact of the receiver dynamic and inertial errors. Therefore, when the integrated navigation system is starting or re-tracking after losing lock, the inertial error is absent from the navigation solution correction that induces large drift, and the new aid method proposed in this paper can track highly dynamic signals. PMID:22969365

  16. Multisensory narrative tracking by a profoundly deaf subject using an electrocutaneous vocoder and a vibrotactile aid.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M P; Eilers, R E; Oller, D K; Urbano, R C; Pero, P J

    1989-06-01

    A congenitally, profoundly deaf adult who had received 41 hours of tactual word recognition training in a previous study was assessed in tracking of connected discourse. This assessment was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, the subject used the Tacticon 1600 electrocutaneous vocoder to track a narrative in three conditions: (a) lipreading and aided hearing (L + H), (b) lipreading and tactual vocoder (L + TV), and (c) lipreading, tactual vocoder, and aided hearing (L + TV + H). Subject performance was significantly better in the L + TV + H condition than in the L + H condition, suggesting that the subject benefitted from the additional information provided by the tactual vocoder. In the second phase, the Tactaid II vibrotactile aid was used in three conditions: (a) lipreading alone, (b) lipreading and tactual aid (L + TA), and (c) lipreading, tactual aid, and aided hearing (L + TA + H). The subject was able to combine cues from the Tactaid II with those from lipreading and aided hearing. In the third phase, both tactual devices were used in six conditions: (a) lipreading alone (L), (b) lipreading and aided hearing (L + H), (c) lipreading and Tactaid II (L + TA), (d) lipreading and Tacticon 1600 (L + TV), (e) lipreading, Tactaid II, and aided hearing (L + TA + H), and (f) lipreading, Tacticon 1600, and aided hearing (L + TV + H). In this phase, only the Tactaid II significantly improved tracking performance over lipreading and aided hearing. Overall, improvement in tracking performance occurred within and across phases of this study. PMID:2739385

  17. An Adaptive INS-Aided PLL Tracking Method for GNSS Receivers in Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Li; Li, Xin; Jin, Tian; Yue, Song; Xue, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the weak link in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal processing, the phase-locked loop (PLL) is easily influenced with frequent cycle slips and loss of lock as a result of higher vehicle dynamics and lower signal-to-noise ratios. With inertial navigation system (INS) aid, PLLs’ tracking performance can be improved. However, for harsh environments with high dynamics and signal attenuation, the traditional INS-aided PLL with fixed loop parameters has some limitations to improve the tracking adaptability. In this paper, an adaptive INS-aided PLL capable of adjusting its noise bandwidth and coherent integration time has been proposed. Through theoretical analysis, the relation between INS-aided PLL phase tracking error and carrier to noise density ratio (C/N0), vehicle dynamics, aiding information update time, noise bandwidth, and coherent integration time has been built. The relation formulae are used to choose the optimal integration time and bandwidth for a given application under the minimum tracking error criterion. Software and hardware simulation results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the adaptive tracking method can effectively improve the PLL tracking ability and integrated GNSS/INS navigation performance. For harsh environments, the tracking sensitivity is increased by 3 to 5 dB, velocity errors are decreased by 36% to 50% and position errors are decreased by 6% to 24% when compared with other INS-aided PLL methods. PMID:26805853

  18. An Adaptive INS-Aided PLL Tracking Method for GNSS Receivers in Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Cong, Li; Li, Xin; Jin, Tian; Yue, Song; Xue, Rui

    2016-01-01

    As the weak link in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal processing, the phase-locked loop (PLL) is easily influenced with frequent cycle slips and loss of lock as a result of higher vehicle dynamics and lower signal-to-noise ratios. With inertial navigation system (INS) aid, PLLs' tracking performance can be improved. However, for harsh environments with high dynamics and signal attenuation, the traditional INS-aided PLL with fixed loop parameters has some limitations to improve the tracking adaptability. In this paper, an adaptive INS-aided PLL capable of adjusting its noise bandwidth and coherent integration time has been proposed. Through theoretical analysis, the relation between INS-aided PLL phase tracking error and carrier to noise density ratio (C/N₀), vehicle dynamics, aiding information update time, noise bandwidth, and coherent integration time has been built. The relation formulae are used to choose the optimal integration time and bandwidth for a given application under the minimum tracking error criterion. Software and hardware simulation results verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the adaptive tracking method can effectively improve the PLL tracking ability and integrated GNSS/INS navigation performance. For harsh environments, the tracking sensitivity is increased by 3 to 5 dB, velocity errors are decreased by 36% to 50% and position errors are decreased by 6% to 24% when compared with other INS-aided PLL methods. PMID:26805853

  19. Long-duration fused feature learning-aided tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Richard; Horn, Joel; Merkert, Raimund

    2010-04-01

    Multiple-hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithms solve the report-to-track association problem1-5 by accumulating kinematic evidence provided by one or more sensors over time to find likely correlations in the data. MHT technologies have long been applied to such problems as machine vision; automatic target tracking using radar moving target indicator (MTI) for ground, air, sea, and space vehicles; and video-based object tracking. However, relying on kinematic information alone to maintain reliable track in a multi-target scenario is problematic due to a plethora of issues such as sensor limitations, obscuration of the targets, or target/confuser proximity.6-7 We present our track fusion algorithm, the Long-term Hypothesis Tree (LTHT) that solves the tracklet-to-tracklet association problem by using signature information to repair errors in kinematic tracks. LTHT provides a framework for using arbitrary target signatures such as spectral or shape characteristics to correct errors made by an MHT tracker. The LTHT represents high-level interactions among complex tracks by condensing kinematic track trajectories into a compact representation that can be efficiently maintained over much longer temporal scales than typical MHT trees.

  20. Computer-aided target tracking in motion analysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Dominic C.; Marcuse, M. L.; Mislan, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    Motion analysis studies require the precise tracking of reference objects in sequential scenes. In a typical situation, events of interest are captured at high frame rates using special cameras, and selected objects or targets are tracked on a frame by frame basis to provide necessary data for motion reconstruction. Tracking is usually done using manual methods which are slow and prone to error. A computer based image analysis system has been developed that performs tracking automatically. The objective of this work was to eliminate the bottleneck due to manual methods in high volume tracking applications such as the analysis of crash test films for the automotive industry. The system has proven to be successful in tracking standard fiducial targets and other objects in crash test scenes. Over 95 percent of target positions which could be located using manual methods can be tracked by the system, with a significant improvement in throughput over manual methods. Future work will focus on the tracking of clusters of targets and on tracking deformable objects such as airbags.

  1. SARSAT - Using space for the search and rescue of lives in distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatow, F.; Trudell, B.

    1984-01-01

    A major cooperative effort between west and east bloc nations in developing a new space system for detecting ships and aircraft in distress is discussed. The compatible working of the SARSAT system developed by Canada, France, and the US and the COSPAS system developed by the Soviet bloc is summarized, and the SARSAT system is described. The method of location determination is presented, and the ELT and EPIRB, space segment, local user terminal, and mission control center subsystems of the SARSAT system are surveyed, showing block diagrams and data on spacecraft orbital parameters and ELT/EPIRB BECON characteristics. The current problem of ground-based interference is discussed. An outline of future development activities leading to the implementation of a fully operational system is included.

  2. SARSAT - Using space for the search and rescue of lives in distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatow, F.; Trudell, B.

    A major cooperative effort between west and east bloc nations in developing a new space system for detecting ships and aircraft in distress is discussed. The compatible working of the SARSAT system developed by Canada, France, and the US and the COSPAS system developed by the Soviet bloc is summarized, and the SARSAT system is described. The method of location determination is presented, and the ELT and EPIRB, space segment, local user terminal, and mission control center subsystems of the SARSAT system are surveyed, showing block diagrams and data on spacecraft orbital parameters and ELT/EPIRB BECON characteristics. The current problem of ground-based interference is discussed. An outline of future development activities leading to the implementation of a fully operational system is included.

  3. Development of INS-Aided GPS Tracking Loop and Flight Test Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujii, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Suganuma, Yoshimitsu; Tomita, Hiroshi; Petrovski, Ivan

    Robust tracking of a GNSS signal in a harsh environment such as a severe ionospheric scintillation is a challenge for the civil aviation. The use of an inertial sensor would improve the tracking performance since the Doppler frequency caused by aircraft dynamics could be compensated by the inertial measurements. In order to evaluate such an aiding, an INS aided GPS tracking loop is developed by using a software receiver, and a preliminary flight test is conducted. A navigation grade INS tightly-coupled with GPS as well as a low-cost MEMS INS loosely-coupled with GPS are installed to provide aiding information. In addition, two GPS front end units with different clock (TCXO and OCXO) are installed to collect digitized IF data. Off-line analyses during aircraft take-off show that the noise band width in tracking loop can be reduced to three hertz by the aiding. Also, the Doppler aiding by a low-cost MEMS INS shows a similar performance with the aiding by a navigation grade INS.

  4. Tracking development assistance for HIV/AIDS: the international response to a global epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Matthew T.; Birger, Maxwell; Haakenstad, Annie; Singh, Lavanya; Hamavid, Hannah; Chapin, Abigail; Murray, Christopher J.L.; Dieleman, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the global response to HIV/AIDS, this study tracked development assistance for HIV/AIDS at a granular, program level. Methods: We extracted data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation's Financing Global Health 2015 report that captured development assistance for HIV/AIDS from 1990 to 2015 for all major bilateral and multilateral aid agencies. To build on these data, we extracted additional budget data, and disaggregated development assistance for HIV/AIDS into nine program areas, including prevention, treatment, and health system support. Results: Since 2000, $109.8 billion of development assistance has been provided for HIV/AIDS. Between 2000 and 2010, development assistance for HIV/AIDS increased at an annualized rate of 22.8%. Since 2010, the annualized rate of growth has dropped to 1.3%. Had development assistance for HIV/AIDS continued to climb after 2010 as it had in the previous decade, $44.8 billion more in development assistance would have been available for HIV/AIDS. Since 1990, treatment and prevention were the most funded HIV/AIDS program areas receiving $24.6 billion and $22.7 billion, respectively. Since 2010, these two program areas and HIV/AIDS health system strengthening have continued to grow, marginally, with majority support from the US government and the Global Fund. An average of $252.9 of HIV/AIDS development assistance per HIV/AIDS prevalent case was disbursed between 2011 and 2013. Conclusion: The scale-up of development assistance for HIV/AIDS from 2000 to 2010 was unprecedented. During this period, international donors prioritized HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and health system support. Since 2010, funding for HIV/AIDS has plateaued. PMID:26950317

  5. Tracking aid flows for development assistance for health

    PubMed Central

    Vassall, Anna; Shotton, John; Reshetnyk, Olena Klein; Hasanaj-Goossens, Lindsey; Weil, Olivier; Vohra, Jawaad; Timmermans, Notburga; Vinyals, Lluis; Andre, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The global architecture for providing development assistance for health (DAH) has become increasing complex in the last decade, with many new funding agencies entering the health sector. This study presents a detailed picture of European Union (EU) and EU member state originating DAH between 2006 and 2009; with a specific focus on assessing the extent of complementarity of development assistance sourced from the EU. Design We use a combination of internal EU reporting systems, OECD-DAC creditor reporting system data and other data sources to estimate DAH flows. Our method uses a line by line project assessment in order to identify and categorise DAH flows. Results and conclusions Our findings show a complex picture of DAH flows – from source, to channel of assistance, to channel of implementation – that is hard to track at the global level, and rarely comprehensively and regularly tracked at the country level. While the majority of EU DAH is focused on low and lower middle income countries there also remains much disparity between countries; and further analysis is required to better understand whether these imbalances are fair and efficient; or result in overlap. We also recommend investment in quality control of DAH tracking internally within donor agencies, and investment in the development of country based systems in order to enable countries and development partners better harmonise DAH flows. PMID:24560260

  6. The theory, design, and operation of the suppressed carrier data-aided tracking receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Springett, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A viable, efficient, and easily mechanized carrier regenerating receiver for use in suppressed carrier-tracking system is described. The receiver referred to as a data-aided receiver (DAR) incorporates a data-aided loop (DAL) which provides the required carrier reference signal. The DAL employs the principle of decision feedback and as such is more efficient than other forms of suppressed carrier-tracking loops. The analysis, design, and implementation of the DAR are covered in detail. Performance comparisons and mechanization tradeoffs are made, wherever possible, with discrete carrier systems and other suppressed carrier systems presently in use. Experimental performance verification is given throughout in support of the theory presented.

  7. Measuring and tracking the flow of climate change adaptation aid to the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Simon D.; Kandlikar, Milind; Webber, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The developed world has pledged to mobilize at least US 100 billion per year of ‘new’ and ‘additional’ funds by 2020 to help the developing world respond to climate change. Tracking this finance is particularly problematic for climate change adaptation, as there is no clear definition of what separates adaptation aid from standard development aid. Here we use a historical database of overseas development assistance projects to test the effect of different accounting assumptions on the delivery of adaptation finance to the developing countries of Oceania, using machine algorithms developed from a manual pilot study. The results show that explicit adaptation finance grew to 3%–4% of all development aid to Oceania by the 2008–2012 period, but that total adaptation finance could be as high as 37% of all aid, depending on potentially politically motivated assumptions about what counts as adaptation. There was also an uneven distribution of adaptation aid between countries facing similar challenges like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The analysis indicates that data allowing individual projects to be weighted by their climate change relevance is needed. A robust and mandatory metadata system for all aid projects would allow multilateral aid agencies and independent third parties to perform their own analyses using different assumptions and definitions, and serve as a key check on international climate aid promises.

  8. The COSPAS/SARSAT demonstration and evaluation. Results of the first year in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, M. E.; Antoniazzi, R. V.; Hembree, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The COSPAS/SARSAT location accuracy, coverage, location probability, 406 MHz message transmission, and image rejection were tested using a commercially available beacon (EPIRB) with modulated, coherent, 121.5 and 243.0 MHz distress signals emitted at a minimum of 75 mW, a 406 MHz EPIRB with electronics designed to meet the international specification for experimental beacons, and a beacon with the same electronics as the other 406 MHz EPIRB, incorporating a floating antenna design. The COSPAS/SARSAT system contributed to 15 out of 33 rescue missions, in which 35 of the 85 lives were rescued. In 10% of the cases the COSPAS/SARSAT system provided the only means of notification, and in 18% it was the first means. Tests show that 121.5 MHz accuracy is adequate, but 406 MHz must improve. The 121.5 MHz location probability is 82%, but ambiguity resolution is inferior to 406 MHz. Performance of both 406 MHz beacons at low elevation angles and in high wave heights is good.

  9. Tracking skill of a deaf person with long-term tactile aid experience: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cholewiak, R W; Sherrick, C E

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes a case study of a single deaf individual who has been using a vibrotactile aid for approximately 13 years. He has acquired the ability to lip-read speakers in three languages, using the speech-analyzing device that he and his collaborators have developed. The report describes his communicative abilities with and without the aid in his native language, which is Russian, and in English and Hebrew. When he was tested with the De Filippo-Scott connected-discourse tracking technique, the aid produced a considerable improvement in performance over that for unaided lipreading. The amount of improvement was a function of several factors, in particular his unaided lipreading rates for the different languages. PMID:3723423

  10. Feature-aided multiple hypothesis tracking using topological and statistical behavior classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, David; Watkins, Adam; Porter, David; Harer, John; Bendich, Paul; Strawn, Nate; Munch, Elizabeth; DeSena, Jonathan; Clarke, Jesse; Gilbert, Jeff; Chin, Sang; Newman, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces a method to integrate target behavior into the multiple hypothesis tracker (MHT) likelihood ratio. In particular, a periodic track appraisal based on behavior is introduced that uses elementary topological data analysis coupled with basic machine learning techniques. The track appraisal adjusts the traditional kinematic data association likelihood (i.e., track score) using an established formulation for classification-aided data association. The proposed method is tested and demonstrated on synthetic vehicular data representing an urban traffic scene generated by the Simulation of Urban Mobility package. The vehicles in the scene exhibit different driving behaviors. The proposed method distinguishes those behaviors and shows improved data association decisions relative to a conventional, kinematic MHT.

  11. Sample-Wise Aiding in GPS/INS Ultra-Tight Integration for High-Dynamic, High-Precision Tracking.

    PubMed

    Kou, Yanhong; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    By aiding GPS receiver tracking loops with INS estimates of signal dynamics, GPS/INS ultra-tight coupling can improve the navigation performance in challenging environments. Traditionally the INS data are injected into the loops once every loop update interval, which limits the levels of dynamics accommodated. This paper presents a sample-wise aiding method, which interpolates the aiding Doppler into each digital sample of the local signal to further eliminate the dynamic errors. The relationship between the tracking error and the aiding rate is derived analytically. Moreover, the effects of sample-wise aiding using linear and spline interpolations are simulated and compared with traditional aiding under different INS data update rates. Finally, extensive tests based on a digital IF (intermediate frequency) signal simulator and a software receiver validate the theoretical equations and demonstrate that the dynamic stress error can be significantly reduced by sample-wise aiding. PMID:27077858

  12. Sample-Wise Aiding in GPS/INS Ultra-Tight Integration for High-Dynamic, High-Precision Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Yanhong; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    By aiding GPS receiver tracking loops with INS estimates of signal dynamics, GPS/INS ultra-tight coupling can improve the navigation performance in challenging environments. Traditionally the INS data are injected into the loops once every loop update interval, which limits the levels of dynamics accommodated. This paper presents a sample-wise aiding method, which interpolates the aiding Doppler into each digital sample of the local signal to further eliminate the dynamic errors. The relationship between the tracking error and the aiding rate is derived analytically. Moreover, the effects of sample-wise aiding using linear and spline interpolations are simulated and compared with traditional aiding under different INS data update rates. Finally, extensive tests based on a digital IF (intermediate frequency) signal simulator and a software receiver validate the theoretical equations and demonstrate that the dynamic stress error can be significantly reduced by sample-wise aiding. PMID:27077858

  13. Intelligence-aided multitarget tracking for urban operations - a case study: counter terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyan, T.; Bharadwaj, K.; Sinha, A.; Kirubarajan, T.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for tracking multiple mobile targets in an urban environment based on data from multiple sources of information, and for evaluating the threat these targets pose to assets of interest (AOI). The motivating scenario is one where we have to track many targets, each with different (unknown) destinations and/or intents. The tracking algorithm is aided by information about the urban environment (e.g., road maps, buildings, hideouts), and strategic and intelligence data. The tracking algorithm needs to be dynamic in that it has to handle a time-varying number of targets and the ever-changing urban environment depending on the locations of the moving objects and AOI. Our solution uses the variable structure interacting multiple model (VS-IMM) estimator, which has been shown to be effective in tracking targets based on road map information. Intelligence information is represented as target class information and incorporated through a combined likelihood calculation within the VS-IMM estimator. In addition, we develop a model to calculate the probability that a particular target can attack a given AOI. This model for the calculation of the probability of attack is based on the target kinematic and class information. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the operation of the proposed framework on a representative scenario.

  14. 406 MHz COSPAS/SARSAT distress beacon signals relayed by geosynchronous satellites - Present status and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Patrick

    1988-10-01

    To introduce a major new feature (near instant alerting) in the COSPAS/SARSAT system, NASA has initiated an experiment in relaying distress signals via geosynchronous spacecraft. Various tests have been conducted with beacon simulators and standard COSPAS/SARSAT 406 MHz beacons. The obtained results show that comfortable margins are reached in the main part of the satellite field coverage. The post GOES-7 period is already fixed up, and 6 new geosynchronous satellites will provide an extended and more efficient world coverage.

  15. Feature-aided JBPDAF group tracking and classification using an IFFN sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Connare, Tom

    2002-08-01

    Recent work has been conducted to develop group tracking algorithms that identify and track multiple targets. One of the characteristics of the group tracking algorithms is the ability to correctly identify the target. If enough evidence has been accumulated to identify the target, the algorithms perform well. However, in the case of spurious measurements and obscured targets, the target identity may not be completely realizable. For the case in which the target identity is not discerned, it is important to classify the target based on some methodology to aid the user. Such a classification could be an allegiance so that when the algorithm groups targets, the information is useful to the human. One sensor that is ideal for the scenario is an Identify Friend Foe Neutral (IFFN) sensor which can classify the target allegiance. By incorporating an IFFN sensor in the GRoup IMM-JBPDAF Tracker (GRIT) algorithm, results show that when identity information is not available, target classification is realizable with allegiance features. Results are simulated for a high-range resolution radar (HRR) and an IFFN sensor and a 29% reduction in the computational classification due to the presence of clutter.

  16. Trajectory-based ball detection and tracking with aid of homography in broadcast tennis video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinguo; Jiang, Nianjuan; Ang, Ee Luang

    2007-01-01

    Ball-detection-and-tracking in broadcast tennis video (BTV) is a crucial but challenging task in tennis video semantics analysis. Informally, the challenges are due to camera motion and the other causes such as the presence of many ball-like objects and the small size of the tennis ball. The trajectory-based approach proposed by us in our previous papers mainly counteracted the challenges imposed by causes other than camera motion and achieves a good performance. This paper proposes an improved trajectory-based ball detection and tracking algorithm in BTV with the aid of homography, which counteracts the challenges caused by camera motion and bring us multiple new merits. Firstly, it acquires an accurate homography, which transforms each frame into the "standard" frame. Secondly, it achieved higher accuracy of ball identification. Thirdly, it obtains the ball projection position in the real world, instead of ball location in the image. Lastly, it also identifies landing frames and positions of the ball. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm can obtain not only higher accuracy in ball identification and in ball position alike, but also ball landing frames and positions. With the intent of using homography to improve the video-based event detection for smart home we also do some experiments on acquiring the homography for home surveillance video.

  17. Catalyzing Country Ownership and Aid Effectiveness: Role of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Sajitha

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the contribution of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) global partnership in strengthening aid effectiveness in the education sector, and specifically how the implementation modalities of the EFA-FTI Catalytic Fund (CF) have contributed to this strengthening. The empirical findings are based on a review…

  18. A multiple model SNR/RCS likelihood ratio score for radar-based feature-aided tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slocumb, Benjamin J.; Klusman, Michael E., III

    2005-09-01

    Most approaches to data association in target tracking use a likelihood-ratio based score for measurement-to-track and track-to-track matching. The classical approach uses a likelihood ratio based on kinematic data. Feature-aided tracking uses non-kinematic data to produce an "auxiliary score" that augments the kinematic score. This paper develops a nonkinematic likelihood ratio score based on statistical models for the signal-to-noise (SNR) and radar cross section (RCS) for use in narrowband radar tracking. The formulation requires an estimate of the target mean RCS, and a key challenge is the tracking of the mean RCS through significant "jumps" due to aspect dependencies. A novel multiple model approach is used track through the RCS jumps. Three solution are developed: one based on an α-filter, a second based on the median filter, and the third based on an IMM filter with a median pre-filter. Simulation results are presented that show the effectiveness of the multiple model approach for tracking through RCS transitions due to aspect-angle changes.

  19. Computer-aided tracking and characterization of homicides and sexual assaults (CATCH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Keppel, Robert D.; La Moria, Robert D.

    1999-03-01

    When a serial offender strikes, it usually means that the investigation is unprecedented for that police agency. The volume of incoming leads and pieces of information in the case(s) can be overwhelming as evidenced by the thousands of leads gathered in the Ted Bundy Murders, Atlanta Child Murders, and the Green River Murders. Serial cases can be long term investigations in which the suspect remains unknown and continues to perpetrate crimes. With state and local murder investigative systems beginning to crop up, it will become important to manage that information in a timely and efficient way by developing computer programs to assist in that task. One vital function will be to compare violent crime cases from different jurisdictions so investigators can approach the investigation knowing that similar cases exist. CATCH (Computer Aided Tracking and Characterization of Homicides) is being developed to assist crime investigations by assessing likely characteristics of unknown offenders, by relating a specific crime case to other cases, and by providing a tool for clustering similar cases that may be attributed to the same offenders. CATCH is a collection of tools that assist the crime analyst in the investigation process by providing advanced data mining and visualization capabilities.These tools include clustering maps, query tools, geographic maps, timelines, etc. Each tool is designed to give the crime analyst a different view of the case data. The clustering tools in CATCH are based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANNs learn to cluster similar cases from approximately 5000 murders and 3000 sexual assaults residing in a database. The clustering algorithm is applied to parameters describing modus operandi (MO), signature characteristics of the offenders, and other parameters describing the victim and offender. The proximity of cases within a two-dimensional representation of the clusters allows the analyst to identify similar or serial murders and sexual

  20. Measurements of Integration Gain for the Cospas-Sarsat System from Geosynchronous Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein-Lebbink, Elizabeth; Christo, James; Peters, Robert; Nguyen, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The GOES-R satellite is the first satellite to use a standard straight bent pipe transponder with no on-board re-modulation to support Search and Rescue (SAR) operations. Here, we report on the link measurements with a high fidelity satellite transponder simulator made up of satellite EDU (Engineering Design Units) components using an uplink from a beacon simulator and received by a GEOLUT (GEOsynchronous satellite Local User Terminal). We also report on the first ever measurements showing the performance gain obtained by the signal integration performed by the GEOLUT. In addition, a simulator made of commercially available off-the-shelf components assembled to develop the test plan was found to perform very close to the high fidelity simulator. In this paper, we describe what message integration is, how it is implemented in the particular satellite receiving station model used for this tests, and show the measured improvement in message decoding due to this integration process. These are the first tests to quantify the integration gain and are the first tests on the new SARSAT standard for the bent pipe (no onboard re-modulation) repeater used in GOES-R. An inexpensive satellite simulator to run test scripts built from off the shelf components was also found to have the same performance as a high fidelity simulator using actual satellite EDUs.

  1. Emergency Systems Save Tens of Thousands of Lives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    To improve distress signal communications, NASA pioneered the Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system. Since its inception, the international system known as Cospas-Sarsat has resulted in the rescue of more than 30,000 people. Techno-Sciences Inc., of Beltsville, Maryland, has been involved with the ground station component of the system from its earliest days.

  2. Computer-aided evaluation of the railway track geometry on the basis of satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, Cezary; Koc, Władysław; Chrostowski, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, all over the world there has been a period of intensive development of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) measurement techniques and their extension for the purpose of their applications in the field of surveying and navigation. Moreover, in many countries a rising trend in the development of rail transportation systems has been noticed. In this paper, a method of railway track geometry assessment based on mobile satellite measurements is presented. The paper shows the implementation effects of satellite surveying railway geometry. The investigation process described in the paper is divided on two phases. The first phase is the GNSS mobile surveying and the analysis obtained data. The second phase is the analysis of the track geometry using the flat coordinates from the surveying. The visualization of the measured route, separation and quality assessment of the uniform geometric elements (straight sections, arcs), identification of the track polygon (main directions and intersection angles) are discussed and illustrated by the calculation example within the article.

  3. Police must join the fast track to end AIDS by 2030.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Nick; Patterson, David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders have committed to ending AIDS by 2030, but stigma and discrimination remain significant obstacles. In particular, police are critical, front-line determinants of risk for many people living with HIV (PLHIV) and members of other key affected populations (KAPs). The negative impact of adverse police behaviours and practices on HIV risk is well documented, and these risks undermine global efforts to end AIDS. Far less well documented, and less common, are attempts to ameliorate this impact by working to change police behaviours. This Special Issue seeks to help redress this imbalance by presenting a selection of original, provocative and important interventions from academics, police officers and other stakeholders concerned with documenting the potential for constructive, progressive and evidence-based approaches to the reduction of HIV risk. We recommend urgent boosting of efforts and funding to engage police in the HIV response. Among other strategies, this needs sustainable funding of programmes and their evaluation, and increased and continuing advocacy and education at all levels to match policy and law reform. PMID:27435719

  4. Police must join the fast track to end AIDS by 2030

    PubMed Central

    Crofts, Nick; Patterson, David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders have committed to ending AIDS by 2030, but stigma and discrimination remain significant obstacles. In particular, police are critical, front-line determinants of risk for many people living with HIV (PLHIV) and members of other key affected populations (KAPs). The negative impact of adverse police behaviours and practices on HIV risk is well documented, and these risks undermine global efforts to end AIDS. Far less well documented, and less common, are attempts to ameliorate this impact by working to change police behaviours. This Special Issue seeks to help redress this imbalance by presenting a selection of original, provocative and important interventions from academics, police officers and other stakeholders concerned with documenting the potential for constructive, progressive and evidence-based approaches to the reduction of HIV risk. We recommend urgent boosting of efforts and funding to engage police in the HIV response. Among other strategies, this needs sustainable funding of programmes and their evaluation, and increased and continuing advocacy and education at all levels to match policy and law reform. PMID:27435719

  5. Collaborative research on fluidization employing computer-aided particle tracking. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.M.

    1993-04-01

    Discussions presented in this report highlight all the important considerations for making particle dynamics measurements using the radioactive active particle tracking methodology. It is seen that the technique makes it possible to obtain data which are not accessible by any other means. Among the advantages of the methods are: (1) It is completely uninvasive, and hence cannot disturb the flow. (2) It can penetrate opaque suspensions. (3) It yields detailed, spatially resolved (subject to resolution limitations) data on mean velocity and density distributions as well as other statistical quantities. Its disadvantages are: (1) It can only provide time averaged data. It cannot provide instantaneous ``snap shots`` of the flow field. (2) It cannot yield information of flows around bubbles, which are of great interest in fluidization theories. (3) It has only modest resolution -- of the order of a two to four percent of the flow field. However, the resolution can be improved by almost an order of magnitude, if long test runs can be used to acquire data of high statistical quality. 4. For data of adequate resolution, long test runs -- several hours and up - are needed. Clearly if used with a clear understanding of its capabilities as well as limitations, the radioactive particle tracking technique can make possible measurements which are not possible by any other method, and contribute significantly to the study of suspension flows.

  6. A COMPUTER-ASSIST MATERIAL TRACKING SYSTEM AS A CRITICALITY SAFETY AID TO OPERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Claybourn, R V; Huang, S T

    2007-03-30

    In today's compliant-driven environment, fissionable material handlers are inundated with work control rules and procedures in carrying out nuclear operations. Historically, human errors are one of the key contributors of various criticality accidents. Since moving and handling fissionable materials are key components of their job functions, any means that can be provided to assist operators in facilitating fissionable material moves will help improve operational efficiency and enhance criticality safety implementation. From the criticality safety perspective, operational issues have been encountered in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) plutonium operations. Those issues included lack of adequate historical record keeping for the fissionable material stored in containers, a need for a better way of accommodating operations in a research and development setting, and better means of helping material handlers in carrying out various criticality safety controls. Through the years, effective means were implemented including better work control process, standardized criticality control conditions (SCCC) and relocation of criticality safety engineers to the plutonium facility. Another important measure taken was to develop a computer data acquisition system for criticality safety assessment, which is the subject of this paper. The purpose of the Criticality Special Support System (CSSS) is to integrate many of the proven operational support protocols into a software system to assist operators with assessing compliance to procedures during the handling and movement of fissionable materials. Many nuclear facilities utilize mass cards or a computer program to track fissionable material mass data in operations. Additional item specific data such as, the presence of moderators or close fitting reflectors, could be helpful to fissionable material handlers in assessing compliance to SCCC's. Computer-assist checking of a workstation material inventory against the

  7. What Is Required to End the AIDS Epidemic as a Public Health Threat by 2030? The Cost and Impact of the Fast-Track Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stover, John; Bollinger, Lori; Izazola, Jose Antonio; Loures, Luiz; DeLay, Paul; Ghys, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 a new Investment Framework was proposed that described how the scale-up of key HIV interventions could dramatically reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low and middle income countries by 2015. This framework included ambitious coverage goals for prevention and treatment services for 2015, resulting in a reduction of new HIV infections by more than half, in line with the goals of the declaration of the UN High Level Meeting in June 2011. However, the approach suggested a leveling in the number of new infections at about 1 million annually—far from the UNAIDS goal of ending AIDS by 2030. In response, UNAIDS has developed the Fast-Track approach that is intended to provide a roadmap to the actions required to achieve this goal. The Fast-Track approach is predicated on a rapid scale-up of focused, effective prevention and treatment services over the next 5 years and then maintaining a high level of programme implementation until 2030. Fast-Track aims to reduce new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% from 2010 to 2030 and proposes a set of biomedical, behavioral and enabling intervention targets for 2020 and 2030 to achieve that goal, including the rapid scale-up initiative for antiretroviral treatment known as 90-90-90. Compared to a counterfactual scenario of constant coverage for all services at early-2015 levels, the Fast-Track approach would avert 18 million HIV infections and 11 million deaths from 2016 to 2030 globally. This paper describes the analysis that produced these targets and the estimated resources needed to achieve them in low- and middle-income countries. It indicates that it is possible to achieve these goals with a significant push to achieve rapid scale-up of key interventions between now and 2020. The annual resources required from all sources would rise to US$7.4Bn in low-income countries, US$8.2Bn in lower middle-income countries and US$10.5Bn in upper-middle-income-countries by 2020 before declining

  8. A Bayesian framework with an auxiliary particle filter for GMTI-based ground vehicle tracking aided by domain knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Cunjia; Chen, Wen-hua; Chambers, Jonathon

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we propose a new ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radar based ground vehicle tracking method which exploits domain knowledge. Multiple state models are considered and a Monte-Carlo sampling based algorithm is preferred due to the manoeuvring of the ground vehicle and the non-linearity of the GMTI measurement model. Unlike the commonly used algorithms such as the interacting multiple model particle filter (IMMPF) and bootstrap multiple model particle filter (BS-MMPF), we propose a new algorithm integrating the more efficient auxiliary particle filter (APF) into a Bayesian framework. Moreover, since the movement of the ground vehicle is likely to be constrained by the road, this information is taken as the domain knowledge and applied together with the tracking algorithm for improving the tracking performance. Simulations are presented to show the advantages of both the new algorithm and incorporation of the road information by evaluating the root mean square error (RMSE).

  9. A Review of the Use of Script-Based Tracking in CALL Research for Data Sharing: Applications Providing Meaning Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwu, Fenfang

    2013-01-01

    Using script-based tracking to gain insights into the way students learn or process language information can be traced as far back as to the 1980s. Nevertheless, researchers continue to face challenges in collecting and studying this type of data. The objective of this study is to propose data sharing through data repositories as a way to (a) ease…

  10. Structure tracking aided design and synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals as high-power cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Liping; Bai, Jianming; Gao, Peng; Wang, Xiaoya; Looney, J. Patrick; Wang, Feng

    2015-07-30

    In this study, preparing new electrode materials with synthetic control of phases and electrochemical properties is desirable for battery applications but hardly achievable without knowing how the synthesis reaction proceeds. Herein, we report on structure tracking-aided design and synthesis of single-crystalline Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) nanoparticles with extremely high rate capability. A comprehensive investigation was made to the local structural orderings of the involved phases and their evolution toward forming LVP phase using in situ/ex situ synchrotron X-ray and electron-beam diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging techniques. The results shed light on the thermodynamics and kinetics of synthesis reactions and enabled the design ofmore » a cost-efficient synthesis protocol to make nanocrystalline LVP, wherein solvothermal treatment is a crucial step leading to an amorphous intermediate with local structural ordering resembling that of LVP, which, upon calcination at moderate temperatures, rapidly transforms into the desired LVP phase. The obtained LVP particles are about 50 nm, coated with a thin layer of amorphous carbon and featured with excellent cycling stability and rate capability – 95% capacity retention after 200 cycles and 66% theoretical capacity even at a current rate of 10 C. The structure tracking based method we developed in this work offers a new way of designing battery electrodes with synthetic control of material phases and properties.« less

  11. Three-dimensional analysis of moving target radar signals: methods and implications for ATR and feature-aided tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuff, Mark A.

    1999-08-01

    Like the hypothetical shadow watchers of Plato's cave, ATR researchers have spent years in the study of one and two- dimensional signals, collected from three dimensional targets. Three-dimensional geometric invariance theory of radar returns from moving targets gives us a new opportunity to escape the study of two-dimensional information which is present, with probability one, in the signals from any randomly moving target. Target recognition for moving targets is fundamentally harder than for stationary targets, if one remains in a two- dimensional paradigm. Viewing geometry calculations based on sensor flight lines become false, due to uncontrolled target rotations. Three-dimensional analysis shows that even the most optimal purely two-dimensional approach will generically construct false target measurements and distorted target images. But the geometric facts also show that all types of three-dimensional Euclidean invariants, such as true (not projected) lengths, surface areas, angles, and volumes of target components can be extracted from moving target data. These facts have profound implications for target recognition, and for the dynamic tracking of target movements, allowing target signals to be correlated by comparing fundamental three-dimensional invariants, which are not confounded by changing illumination directions.

  12. Electronic search and rescue aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    There are two elements to the basic electronic search and rescue problem: a means for immediately alerting potential rescuers and an effective method to guide the rescue forces to the scene of the emergency. An Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) used by aircraft or an Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) used by maritime vessels has the capability of providing for both an immediate alert and a homing signal to assist rescue forces in locating the site of the distress. This paper describes the development of ELT/EPIRB systems. Emphasis is placed on the SARSAT project, the COSPAS/SARSAT project, and an experimental 406 MHz ELT/EPIRB system.

  13. Eye-Tracking Measures Reveal How Changes in the Design of Aided AAC Displays Influence the Efficiency of Locating Symbols by School-Age Children without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; O'Neill, Tara; McIlvane, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many individuals with communication impairments use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems involving letters, words, or line drawings that rely on the visual modality. It seems reasonable to suggest that display design should incorporate information about how users attend to and process visual information. The…

  14. Chasing the Black Smoke: Building Software for CALIPSO Satellite Data to Aid in Tracking and Identifying Sources of Aerosols and their Impact on the Earth's Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite is a NASA Earth observation that analyzes aerosol particles suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. Researchers use visualized CALIPSO data to track the global distribution, dispersion, and source of aerosols. There currently exists a tool for displaying CALIPSO data, but this tool does not support needed features for tracking aerosols such as selecting regions of data and sharing those selected regions, making tracking specific airborne objects difficult for researchers. Adding these necessary features to the current CALIPSO visualization tool is difficult, as the tool is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL), a proprietary and obscure language and writing additional features for the tool would require a specialized development team. This topic will focus on release of a new tool for visualization CALIPSO's atmospheric data, or the Visualization of CALIPSO (VOCAL) open source Python program. The talk will explain why VOCAL will serve as the successor to the current visualization tool for CALIPSO data, what new features VOCAL brings to the table for researchers, and how this new tool can further support the tracking and identification of aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

  15. Use of Acoustic Transmitter-Equipped Remote Sedation to Aid in Tracking and Capture of Entangled California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Frankfurter, Greg; DeRango, Eugene; Johnson, Shawn

    2016-07-01

    Free-ranging California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) with marine debris entanglements were darted with a combination of medetomidine, butorphanol, and midazolam by using acoustic transmitter-equipped darts. Of the 15 animals sedated, 13 (87%) reentered the water and were tracked by using a unidirectional hydrophone. Sea lions that entered the water continued to surface and breathe postsedation. There were three mortalities (20%) during the course of this study due to the following: suspected drowning caused by entrapment under a dock, overdose due to inaccurate weight estimation, and trauma caused by a dart puncturing the animal's abdomen. The drug combination, new dart design, and tracking techniques allowed for successful remote sedation and capture of California sea lions in high-risk situations and improved our ability to determine the final outcome for all cases. These methods allow targeting and capture of individual animals, while minimizing disturbance to other animals. PMID:27243155

  16. Structure tracking aided design and synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals as high-power cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liping; Bai, Jianming; Gao, Peng; Wang, Xiaoya; Looney, J. Patrick; Wang, Feng

    2015-07-30

    In this study, preparing new electrode materials with synthetic control of phases and electrochemical properties is desirable for battery applications but hardly achievable without knowing how the synthesis reaction proceeds. Herein, we report on structure tracking-aided design and synthesis of single-crystalline Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) nanoparticles with extremely high rate capability. A comprehensive investigation was made to the local structural orderings of the involved phases and their evolution toward forming LVP phase using in situ/ex situ synchrotron X-ray and electron-beam diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging techniques. The results shed light on the thermodynamics and kinetics of synthesis reactions and enabled the design of a cost-efficient synthesis protocol to make nanocrystalline LVP, wherein solvothermal treatment is a crucial step leading to an amorphous intermediate with local structural ordering resembling that of LVP, which, upon calcination at moderate temperatures, rapidly transforms into the desired LVP phase. The obtained LVP particles are about 50 nm, coated with a thin layer of amorphous carbon and featured with excellent cycling stability and rate capability – 95% capacity retention after 200 cycles and 66% theoretical capacity even at a current rate of 10 C. The structure tracking based method we developed in this work offers a new way of designing battery electrodes with synthetic control of material phases and properties.

  17. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  18. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  19. Are Experienced Hearing Aid Users Faster at Grasping the Meaning of a Sentence Than Inexperienced Users? An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Julia; Kollmeier, Birger; Neher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here. Timed button presses to the target stimuli after the end of the sentences (offline reaction times) were also collected. Groups of experienced (eHA) and inexperienced (iHA) HA users matched in terms of age, hearing loss, and working memory capacity took part (N = 15 each). For the offline reaction times, no effects were found. In contrast, processing times increased with linguistic complexity. Furthermore, for all HA conditions, processing times were longer (poorer) for the iHA group than for the eHA group, despite comparable speech recognition performance. Taken together, these results indicate that processing times are more sensitive to speech processing-related factors than offline reaction times. Furthermore, they support the idea that HA experience positively impacts the ability to process noisy speech quickly, irrespective of the precise gain characteristics. PMID:27595793

  20. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  1. Deterministic Diffusion Fiber Tracking Improved by Quantitative Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Verstynen, Timothy D.; Wang, Yibao; Fernández-Miranda, Juan C.; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion MRI tractography has emerged as a useful and popular tool for mapping connections between brain regions. In this study, we examined the performance of quantitative anisotropy (QA) in facilitating deterministic fiber tracking. Two phantom studies were conducted. The first phantom study examined the susceptibility of fractional anisotropy (FA), generalized factional anisotropy (GFA), and QA to various partial volume effects. The second phantom study examined the spatial resolution of the FA-aided, GFA-aided, and QA-aided tractographies. An in vivo study was conducted to track the arcuate fasciculus, and two neurosurgeons blind to the acquisition and analysis settings were invited to identify false tracks. The performance of QA in assisting fiber tracking was compared with FA, GFA, and anatomical information from T1-weighted images. Our first phantom study showed that QA is less sensitive to the partial volume effects of crossing fibers and free water, suggesting that it is a robust index. The second phantom study showed that the QA-aided tractography has better resolution than the FA-aided and GFA-aided tractography. Our in vivo study further showed that the QA-aided tractography outperforms the FA-aided, GFA-aided, and anatomy-aided tractographies. In the shell scheme (HARDI), the FA-aided, GFA-aided, and anatomy-aided tractographies have 30.7%, 32.6%, and 24.45% of the false tracks, respectively, while the QA-aided tractography has 16.2%. In the grid scheme (DSI), the FA-aided, GFA-aided, and anatomy-aided tractographies have 12.3%, 9.0%, and 10.93% of the false tracks, respectively, while the QA-aided tractography has 4.43%. The QA-aided deterministic fiber tracking may assist fiber tracking studies and facilitate the advancement of human connectomics. PMID:24348913

  2. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  3. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  4. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  5. Suggested Curriculum for Distance Vision Training with Optical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William; Vopata, Alvin

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a sequential training curriculum in the use of telescopic visual aids. The curriculum covers 29 topics, including aid maintenance, holding aid properly, focusing, scanning, target location, tracking, aid use for city bus travel, in a shopping center, and in a fast food type restaurant. (Author/SBH)

  6. Tracking subsystem test requirements survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, D. H.; Tatosian, C. G.; Bynum, M. C.; Zook, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the test and checkout requirements of the tracking portion of the communications and tracking subsystem was performed to evaluate adequacy of planned tests and test requirement documents. Emphasis is placed on identifying test completeness, duplications, and omissions. Items that may save time, aid in testing, and present a more complete integrated test program are also noted. The results of this survey are summarized.

  7. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  8. High-dynamic GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Statman, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The results of comparing four different frequency estimation schemes in the presence of high dynamics and low carrier-to-noise ratios are given. The comparison is based on measured data from a hardware demonstration. The tested algorithms include a digital phase-locked loop, a cross-product automatic frequency tracking loop, and extended Kalman filter, and finally, a fast Fourier transformation-aided cross-product frequency tracking loop. The tracking algorithms are compared on their frequency error performance and their ability to maintain lock during severe maneuvers at various carrier-to-noise ratios. The measured results are shown to agree with simulation results carried out and reported previously.

  9. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  10. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  11. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  12. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  13. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  14. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  15. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  17. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  18. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  19. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  20. Processing of real ELT signals for Sarsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T.; Carter, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of different processing strategies on real signals recorded from an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) test bed in Ottawa is examined. A processor based on the use of ordered statistics is developed. This new processor greatly reduces the interference produced by the ELT sidebands while maintaining good detection performance on weak signals. In addition, the maximum entropy method is found to be effective in processing ELT signals having noncoherent characteristics.

  1. Pregnancy and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Henrion, R

    1988-02-01

    Since the first cases of a new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) described by Oleske et al. and Rubinstein et al. in children in 1983, we have witnessed an ever-increasing number of such observations. As serology is not being performed on all pregnant women in many European countries, obstetricians must try to identify those belonging to risk groups: intravenous drug abusers, natives of affected regions or women having travelled to these areas, women having numerous sexual partners, presenting with other sexually transmitted diseases or living with infected individuals, prostitutes, transfused women. If the woman belongs to risk groups, HIV antibody testing is to be done at the beginning of pregnancy. The risks for the mother remain ill-defined, due in part to the difficulties inherent in keeping track of heroin abusers. Aggravation is certain if the mother is affected with AIDS or an associated syndrome called ARC (AIDS-related complex). It is debatable and at least rarer if the mother presents no clinical symptoms. Infant risks are becoming better known. The existence of materno-fetal contamination by transplacental route is undebatable. However, contamination during delivery or during the passage through the maternal genital tract cannot be excluded. The proportion of contaminated infants is approximately 40%. The disease in the infant is highly dangerous. According to these data, the procedure adopted by most obstetricians is the following: abortion is recommended at the first trimester of the pregnancy, a free choice is left open for the woman at the second trimester and at the third trimester delivery is carried out naturally. Caesarean sections are only done when there are obstetrical indications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3281969

  2. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  3. Doppler tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher Jacob

    This study addresses the development of a methodology using the Doppler Effect for high-resolution, short-range tracking of small projectiles and vehicles. Minimal impact on the design of the moving object is achieved by incorporating only a transmitter in it and using ground stations for all other components. This is particularly useful for tracking objects such as sports balls that have configurations and materials that are not conducive to housing onboard instrumentation. The methodology developed here uses four or more receivers to monitor a constant frequency signal emitted by the object. Efficient and accurate schemes for filtering the raw signals, determining the instantaneous frequencies, time synching the frequencies from each receiver, smoothing the synced frequencies, determining the relative velocity and radius of the object and solving the nonlinear system of equations for object position in three dimensions as a function of time are developed and described here.

  4. Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

  5. Student Aid Audio Guide, 2001-2002. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This CD-ROM contains a simulated conversation between a counselor at the Department of Education's Federal Student Aid Information Center and a student inquiring about financial assistance. Following an introductory track providing contents information, each track contains a section answering a different question about federal student loans. The…

  6. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  7. Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2010-08-02

    Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

  8. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  9. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  10. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  11. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  12. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  13. Track analysis of laser-illuminated etched track detectors using an opto-digital imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghan, Moses J.; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K.; Oppon, Osborne C.

    2007-11-01

    An opto-digital imaging system for counting and analysing tracks on a LR-115 detector is described. One batch of LR-115 track detectors was irradiated with Am-241 for a determined period and distance for linearity test and another batch was exposed to radon gas. The laser-illuminated etched track detector area was imaged, digitized and analysed by the system. The tracks that were counted on the opto-digital system with the aid of media cybernetics software as well as spark gap counter showed comparable track density results ranging between 1500 and 2750 tracks cm-2 and 65 tracks cm-2 in the two different batch detector samples with 0.5% and 1% track counts, respectively. Track sizes of the incident alpha particles from the radon gas on the LR-115 detector demonstrating different track energies are statistically and graphically represented. The opto-digital imaging system counts and measures other track parameters at an average process time of 3-5 s.

  14. Track and Field: Technique Through Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, Tom

    This book was designed to aid in applying the laws of dynamics to the sport of track and field, event by event. It begins by tracing the history of the discoveries of the laws of motion and the principles of dynamics, with explanations of commonly used terms derived from the vocabularies of the physical sciences. The principles and laws of…

  15. Tires and Tracks. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on tires and tracks servicing is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The…

  16. Tracking and orbit determination of near earth orbiting satellites using earth synchronous relay satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. C., Jr.; Goad, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    A Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) made up of two earth synchronous data relay satellites is proposed for the late 1970s to aid in the tracking, or take the place of ground tracking, or near-earth orbiters. Theoretical error analysis studies were conducted to evaluate the TDRSS concept of tracking user satellites. All major factors affecting orbit determination accuracy were considered in the analysis, including tracking system and dynamic modeling errors.

  17. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  18. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  19. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  20. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  1. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  2. Status tracking system for reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The program DGR03 Status of Langley Formal Reports was developed to aid the Research Information and Application Division (RIAD) in tracking the progress of NASA formal reports through the review cycle. This review cycle was established by Langley Management as a control for Langley's final product: its research reports. The cycle is divided into 5 main stages with substages in each. The cycle can be completed in 165 days. This program has been an aid to RIAD in eliminating manual calculation, providing visible data for everyone concerned with report processing, eliminating the need to telephone divisions when reports are delinquent. The program can also provide information on the number of reports in any stage of the system at any period.

  3. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  4. Radio tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, J. C.; Komarek, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The principles and techniques of deep space radio tracking are described along with the uses of tracking data in navigation and radio science. Emphasis is placed on the measurement functions of radio tracking.

  5. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  6. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  7. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  8. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  9. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  10. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  11. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  12. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  13. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  14. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  15. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  16. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  17. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  18. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  19. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  20. UWB Tracking System Design with TDOA Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Schwing, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort using a tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A two-stage weighted least square method is chosen to solve the TDOA non-linear equations. Matlab simulations in both two-dimensional space and three-dimensional space show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. The error analysis reveals various ways to improve the tracking resolution. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWBTDOA tracking capability with fine resolution. This research effort is motivated by a prototype development project Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS).

  1. Multi-object tracking of human spermatozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Østergaard, Jakob; Johansen, Peter; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-03-01

    We propose a system for tracking of human spermatozoa in phase-contrast microscopy image sequences. One of the main aims of a computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system is to automatically assess sperm quality based on spermatozoa motility variables. In our case, the problem of assessing sperm quality is cast as a multi-object tracking problem, where the objects being tracked are the spermatozoa. The system combines a particle filter and Kalman filters for robust motion estimation of the spermatozoa tracks. Further, the combinatorial aspect of assigning observations to labels in the particle filter is formulated as a linear assignment problem solved using the Hungarian algorithm on a rectangular cost matrix, making the algorithm capable of handling missing or spurious observations. The costs are calculated using hidden Markov models that express the plausibility of an observation being the next position in the track history of the particle labels. Observations are extracted using a scale-space blob detector utilizing the fact that the spermatozoa appear as bright blobs in a phase-contrast microscope. The output of the system is the complete motion track of each of the spermatozoa. Based on these tracks, different CASA motility variables can be computed, for example curvilinear velocity or straight-line velocity. The performance of the system is tested on three different phase-contrast image sequences of varying complexity, both by visual inspection of the estimated spermatozoa tracks and by measuring the mean squared error (MSE) between the estimated spermatozoa tracks and manually annotated tracks, showing good agreement.

  2. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  3. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  4. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  5. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  6. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  7. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  8. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  9. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  10. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  11. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  12. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  13. Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Peggy O; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases in the United States, the quality of life of children with AIDS, and concerns that parents and the community have about the disease. Suggests some responses for educational institutions and teachers to help confront AIDS and help children with the disease. (MDM)

  14. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  15. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  16. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Michael T.; Shields, Robert W.; Reed, Jack M.

    2004-10-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  17. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Jack W.; Shields, Rob W; Valley, Michael T.

    2004-08-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  18. Tracking filter algorithm for automatic video tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEver, Mark A.; Kimbrell, James E.

    2006-05-01

    In addition to servo control and power amplification, motion control systems for optical tracking pedestals feature capabilities such as electro-optical tracking using an integrated Automatic Video Tracker (AVT) card. An electro-optical system tracking loop is comprised of sensors mounted on a pointing pedestal, an AVT that detects a target in the sensor imagery, and a tracking filter algorithm that commands the pedestal to follow the target. The tracking filter algorithm receives the target boresight error from the AVT and calculates motion demands for the pedestal servo controller. This paper presents a tracking algorithm based on target state estimation using a Kalman filter. The servo demands are based on calculating the Kalman filter state estimate from absolute line-of-sight angles to the target. Simulations are used to compare its performance to tracking loops without tracking filters, and to other tracking filter algorithms, such as rate feedback loops closed around boresight error. Issues such as data latency and sensor alignment error are discussed.

  19. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  20. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  1. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  2. NOAA-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCain, Harry G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly developed a valuable series of polar-orbiting Earth environmental observation satellites since 1978. These satellites provide global data to NOAA's short- and long-range weather forecasting systems. The system consists of two polar-orbiting satellites known as the Advanced Television Infrared Observation Satellites (TIROS-N) (ATN). Operating as a pair, these satellites ensure that environmental data, for any region of the Earth, is no more than six hours old. These polar-orbiting satellites have not only provided cost-effective data for very immediate and real needs but also for extensive climate and research programs. The weather data (including images seen on television news programs) has afforded both convenience and safety to viewers throughout the world. The satellites also support the SARSAT (Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking) part of the COSPAS-SARSAT constellation. Russia provides the COSPAS (Russian for Space Systems for the Search of Vessels in Distress) satellites. The international COSPAS-SARSAT system provides for the detection and location of emergency beacons for ships, aircraft, and people in distress and has contributed to the saving of more than 10,000 lives since its inception in 1982.

  3. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students in high…

  4. Calculating track thrust with track functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsi-Ming; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-08-01

    In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a “calorimetric” measurement using both charged and neutral particles and a “track-based” measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe, and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on nonperturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. In this paper, we present the first calculation of the event shape “track thrust” and compare to measurements performed at ALEPH and DELPHI. This calculation is made possible through the recently developed formalism of track functions, which are nonperturbative objects describing how energetic partons fragment into charged hadrons. By incorporating track functions into soft-collinear effective theory, we calculate the distribution for track thrust with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Due to a partial cancellation between nonperturbative parameters, the distributions for calorimeter thrust and track thrust are remarkably similar, a feature also seen in LEP data.

  5. Tracking-integrated optics: applications in solar concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelwright, Brian M.; Angel, Roger; Coughenour, Blake

    2014-12-01

    Conventional concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems track the sun with high precision dual-axis trackers. The emergent field of tracking-integrated optics has the potential to simplify the mechanics of CPV systems by loosening or eliminating the need for dual-axis tracking. In a tracking-integrated scheme, external module tracking is complemented or entirely replaced by miniature tracking within the module. This internal tracking-integration may take the form of active small-motion translation, rotation of arrayed optics, or by passive material property changes induced by the concentrated light. These methods are briefly reviewed. An insolation weighting model is presented which will aid in the design of tracking-integrated optics by quantifying the tradeoff between angular operation range and annual sunlight collection. We demonstrate that when tracking-integrated optics are used to complement external module tracking about a horizontal, North-South oriented axis, truncating the operational range may be advantageous. At Tucson AZ latitude (32.2°N), 15.6% of the angular range may be truncated while only sacrificing 3.6% of the annual insolation. We show that modules tracked about a polar-aligned axis are poorly-suited for truncation.

  6. UWB Tracking System Design for Free-Flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Phan, Chan; Ngo, Phong; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort for Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) that operates cooperatively with the UWB system is developed in this research effort. Matlab simulations show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWB tracking capability with fine resolution.

  7. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  8. AIDS: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Turk, H N

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has had a profound effect on society and the workplace and has raised legal and social problems for which society was not prepared. This article will chronicle the evolution of federal, state and local law concerning AIDS and the workplace. Although there are some clear-cut answers and guidelines that address the relationship of employer and employee to the AIDS epidemic, current legislation and enforcement of those laws does not adequately address the AIDS victim as a handicapped individual. Emphasis is also placed on the problems peculiar to the health care industry, the constitutionality of present legislation, and the AIDS victim's right to privacy versus the employer's need to know. Finally, some practical solutions and guidelines will be presented that will help the employer deal with the AIDS victim and his or her co-worker. PMID:10295811

  9. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  10. Photographing Track Meets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the sport of track and field, because of the sport itself and its relatively easy access to photographers, is an obvious target for cameras. Discusses rules of the track that photographers must follow; picking a location; and equipment. Discusses shooting four specific track and field events and offers behind the scenes photos. (SR)

  11. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  12. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  13. Track and Field Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Discusses planning and design tips that help ensure track and field facilities are successful and well-suited to both school and community use. Examines approaches to determining the best track surface and ways to maximize track and field flexibility with limited space. (GR)

  14. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  15. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  16. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  17. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  18. Two-axis manual positioning and tracking controls.

    PubMed

    Mehr, M H

    1973-09-01

    In this article, the author examines the characteristics of joysticks and trackballs, two of the more common controls used for positioning tasks, such as occur with radar or some computer displays, and for continuous tracking tasks such as vehicle steering or weapon aiming. Results are given of a number of tests with digital positioning controls, and the author discusses the prediction of operator performance on tracking tasks, also the use of 'aiding' circuits to increase control response. PMID:15677126

  19. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-04-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  20. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  1. Finite resolution multitarget tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mušicki, Darko; Morelande, Mark R.

    2005-09-01

    Target tracking algorithms have to operate in an environment of uncertain measurement origin, due to the presence of randomly detected target measurements as well as clutter measurements from unwanted random scatterers. A majority of Bayesian multi-target tracking algorithms suffer from computational complexity which is exponential in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. The Linear Multi-target (LM) tracking procedure is a Bayesian multi-target tracking approximation with complexity which is linear in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. It also has a much simpler structure than the "optimal" Bayesian multi-target tracking, with apparently negligible decrease in performance. A vast majority of target tracking algorithms have been developed with the assumption of infinite sensor resolution, where a measurement can have only one source. This assumption is not valid for real sensors, such as radars. This paper presents a multi-target tracking algorithm which removes this restriction. The procedure utilizes a simple structure of LM tracking procedure to obtain a LM Finite Resolution (LMfr) tracking procedure which is much simpler than the previously published efforts. Instead of calculating the probability of measurement merging for each combination of potentially merging targets, we evaluate only one merging hypotheses for each measurement and each track. A simulation study is presented which compares LMfr-IPDA with LM-IPDA and IPDA target tracking in a cluttered environment utilizing a finite resolution sensor with five crossing targets. The study concentrates on the false track discrimination performance and the track retention capabilities.

  2. STS-56 MS1 Foale, in LES/LEH, floats during bailout exercises in JSC WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Michael Foale, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), floats in a single person life raft during launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. Foale's body is covered with the life raft tarp. His head and the space shuttle search and rescue satellite aided tracking (SARSAT) antenna protrude above the tarp. This simulation prepares the astronauts for the event of an emergency egress and subsequent water landing during launch.

  3. STS-55 MS2 Precourt in life raft during egress exercises at JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Using a small single person life raft, STS-55 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt floats in the pool located in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Precourt, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), operates the Space Shuttle Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) portable locating beacon (PLC) as SCUBA-equipped diver looks on. Precourt, along with other crewmembers, practiced launch emergency egress (bailout). STS-55 with the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) payload will fly aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, in 1993.

  4. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  5. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  6. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  7. Vehicle track loading simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupa, Milan; Severa, Libor; Vlach, Radek

    2011-12-01

    The paper describes possible design of the vehicle track computational model and basic testing procedure of the track dynamic loading simulation. The proposed approach leads to an improvement of track vehicle course stability. The computational model is built for MSC. ADAMS, AVT computational simulating system. Model, which is intended for MSC computational system, is built from two basic parts. The first one is represented by geometrical part, while the second one by contact computational part of the model. The aim of the simulating calculation consist in determination of change influence of specific vehicle track constructive parameters on changes of examined qualities of the vehicle track link and changes of track vehicle course stability. The work quantifies the influence of changes of track preloading values on the demanded torque changes of driving sprocket. Further research possibilities and potential are also presented.

  8. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  9. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  10. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  11. Health Aides Serve...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huscher, John

    1976-01-01

    The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

  12. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  13. A New AIDS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of young people are affected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). An effective AIDS education program must address functional knowledge, relevant skills, and motivation. The program must be comprehensive and taught by trained teachers. Lists a source of an annotated…

  14. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  15. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  16. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  17. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  18. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Torno, M S; Babapour, R; Gurevitch, A; Witt, M D

    2000-02-01

    Acanthamoeba is a recognized pathogen in the immunocompromised patient, commonly presenting as chronic or subacute encephalitis. However, cutaneous disease in the absence of CNS involvement is increasingly recognized, especially in the setting of chronic, nonhealing skin lesions in the patient with AIDS. We describe a patient with AIDS and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and review our experience with treatment and diagnosis. PMID:10640931

  19. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  20. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  1. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  2. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  3. Games and Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This document is filled with suggestions for inexpensive teacher-made classroom aids that can be used for concept reinforcement with the total class, a small group, or individual students. The games and teaching aids provided, allow instructors to provide the motivational drill to develop speed and accuracy for basic computational skills. The…

  4. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  5. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  6. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  7. Student Aid Audio Guide, 1999. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This CD-ROM, also available in audiotape format, contains a simulated telephone conversation between a counselor at the Department of Education's Federal Student Aid Information Center and a student inquiring about financial assistance for the visually impaired. Following an introduction containing information about the contents, each track or…

  8. Student Aid Audio Guide, 2003-2004. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM contains a simulated conversation between a counselor at the Department of Education's Federal Student Aid Information Center and a student inquiring about financial assistance. The information pertains to the year from July 2003 through June 2004. Following an introductory track containing information about the contents of the CD,…

  9. Video-assisted segmentation of speech and audio track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Medha; Yusoff, Yusseri; Kittler, Josef; Christmas, William J.; Chilton, E. H. S.

    1999-08-01

    Video database research is commonly concerned with the storage and retrieval of visual information invovling sequence segmentation, shot representation and video clip retrieval. In multimedia applications, video sequences are usually accompanied by a sound track. The sound track contains potential cues to aid shot segmentation such as different speakers, background music, singing and distinctive sounds. These different acoustic categories can be modeled to allow for an effective database retrieval. In this paper, we address the problem of automatic segmentation of audio track of multimedia material. This audio based segmentation can be combined with video scene shot detection in order to achieve partitioning of the multimedia material into semantically significant segments.

  10. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  11. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  12. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  13. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  14. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Research Grants Research Accomplishments Scientific ... Archive TREAT Asia TREAT Asia About TREAT Asia AIDS in Asia Research and Treatment Education and AIDS ...

  15. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  16. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  17. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  18. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  19. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  20. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  1. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678

  2. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  3. Tracking toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A new report tracking industrial pollution in North America indicates some good news, in terms of downward trends in the release and transfer of these substances.The July report, which tracks 165 chemicals released in the United States and Canada, shows that the total amount of 3.2 million tonnes of chemical releases and transfers from industrial facilities tracked by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) decreased by 2% overall from 1995 to 1998.

  4. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  5. National Diffusion Network's Evaluation of the Fast Track Music System 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymczuk, Michael

    This document reports on an evaluation project to determine the effectiveness of the Fast Track method of instrumental music instruction as applied to beginning band instruction. The Fast Track music system is unique because it simultaneously aids both visual and aural learning by using a book and cassette tape approach to instruction. Traditional…

  6. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

  7. World AIDS Day 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  8. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  9. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  10. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  11. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  12. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  13. First aid kit

    MedlinePlus

    ... shield, pads, and bandages Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Sterile gauze pads, non- ... aid manual Hand sanitizer Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Save-A-Tooth storage ...

  14. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  15. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  16. AIDS and economic disruption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G S

    1996-10-01

    Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities. PMID:12293251

  17. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  18. [The liver and AIDS].

    PubMed

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  19. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  20. Confronting AIDS: international consensus?

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    A coordinated effort by the World Bank, the European Commission, and UNAIDS, and drawing from a number of academic disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and public economics, the recently published book "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" argues that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic can be overcome and that national governments have a major role in preventing the spread of AIDS and tempering its impact. Considerable evidence is presented in support of the argument. The original idea for the book came out of collaboration between individuals in the European Commission and the World Bank. The World Bank's recognition of the importance of AIDS is a milestone in the course of the pandemic. Confronting AIDS highlights the potential and actual impact of AIDS upon households, communities, and countries; argues the case for interventions in both HIV prevention and care; and generally considers some of the difficult choices which need to be made about how scarce resources will be allocated, especially in developing countries. PMID:12294024

  1. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival. PMID:1786270

  2. Sensor-based animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Andrew

    The advent of Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies has provided wildlife researchers with new insights into the movement and habitat utilization patterns of wildlife species by being able to provide vast quantities of detailed location data. However, current wildlife tracking techniques have numerous limitations, as GPS locations can be biased to an unknown extent because animals move through habitats that are often denied GPS signals. This can result in some habitat types being under sampled or not sampled at all. Additionally, researchers using GPS tracking systems cannot understand what behaviour an animal is exhibiting at each GPS position without either relying on extensive field data or statistical techniques that may infer behaviour. Overall these issues, and others, limit the knowledge that can be derived from the data currently being collected by GPS collars alone. To address these limitations, a dead reckoning solution (called the NavAid) has been developed to augment GPS tracking collars, which enables both the acquisition of continuous movement trajectories for animals under study, and the collection of digital images on a user-defined schedule along travel routes. Analysis of an animal's velocity allows one to identify different types of movement behaviours that can be associated with foraging, searching for food, and locomotion between patches. In addition, the ability to capture continuous paths allows researchers to identify habitat that is important to a species, and habitat that is not---something that is not possible when relying solely on GPS. This new system weighs approximately 220 g and can be deployed on most conventional collar systems for a wide range of species. This thesis presents the research and development of this new system over the past four years, along with preliminary findings from field work carried out on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Analysis of tracking data suggests

  3. Can Tracking Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  4. On the Wrong Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    By any measure--student achievement, social development, or democratic values--ability grouping and tracking practices are indefensible and unsupported by research. Tracking allows schools to practice in-school segregation and perpetuate unequal opportunities and unequal socialization within classrooms. Jonathan Kozol's investigation shows how…

  5. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  6. Explaining cloud chamber tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, A.A.

    1992-06-16

    The operation of many detection devices is usually explained in terms of the ionization tracks produced by particles despite the fact that the corresponding incident wave functions extended over the entire sensitive regions of the detectors. The mechanisms by which the wave function appears to collapse to a track is analyzed here.

  7. TMDL TRACKING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The TMDL Tracking System database contains information on the waters listed under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act and to track those listed waters through TMDL development. The purpose of the database is to allow EPA, the States/Territories/Tribes, ...

  8. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  9. Track record in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, S. A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of nuclear-track analysis in meteoritic crystals with reference to several areas of research is reviewed. The applications discussed include: fission-track retention ages and cooling rates of meteoritic parent bodies, cosmic-ray studies, determination of pre-atmospheric sizes of meteorites, and search for superheavy elements.

  10. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  11. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  12. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  13. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parametersmore » of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.« less

  14. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  15. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  16. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  17. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  18. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services. PMID:1602509

  19. Construction computer-aided engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Atkins, D.; Astleford, R.

    1987-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. and Bechtel Power Corporation are presently designing nuclear power plants for Japanese utilities exclusively on three-dimensional computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems. To make these three-dimensional CADD models more effective for construction activities, Hitachi and Bechtel are jointly developing a software package that allows construction engineers and planners to effectively empty an area of the three-dimensional CADD model and rebuild it electronically to simulate, animate, and optimize the construction sequence and methodology. The components in the three-dimensional CADD model are placed as they would be for actual construction (i.e., piping spool pieces, skid-mounted systems, piping, and equipment modules, etc.). The construction engineer and planners can then select the components along with appropriate handling equipment and simulate/animate the actual construction sequence. After the construction sequence has been optimized, it is captured on videotape for use in the field. The results of the simulated activities are then passed on to computer program module (CPM) scheduling and work breakdown structure programs for accurate bottom-up construction activity planning and commodity tracking. This entire process can be iterated to an optimum solution before the actual construction begins. Once construction is in progress, the program can compare the actual status and allow resimulations for workarounds.

  20. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  1. Extrapolating target tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, James R.

    2012-05-01

    Steady-state performance of a tracking filter is traditionally evaluated immediately after a track update. However, there is commonly a further delay (e.g., processing and communications latency) before the tracks can actually be used. We analyze the accuracy of extrapolated target tracks for four tracking filters: Kalman filter with the Singer maneuver model and worst-case correlation time, with piecewise constant white acceleration, and with continuous white acceleration, and the reduced state filter proposed by Mookerjee and Reifler.1, 2 Performance evaluation of a tracking filter is significantly simplified by appropriate normalization. For the Kalman filter with the Singer maneuver model, the steady-state RMS error immediately after an update depends on only two dimensionless parameters.3 By assuming a worst case value of target acceleration correlation time, we reduce this to a single parameter without significantly changing the filter performance (within a few percent for air tracking).4 With this simplification, we find for all four filters that the RMS errors for the extrapolated state are functions of only two dimensionless parameters. We provide simple analytic approximations in each case.

  2. AID AND SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to an assault by foreign organisms, peripheral B cells can change their antibody affinity and isotype by somatically mutating their genomic DNA. The ability of a cell to modify its DNA is exceptional in light of the potential consequences of genetic alterations to cause human disease and cancer. Thus, as expected, this mechanism of antibody diversity is tightly regulated and coordinated through one protein, activation induced deaminase (AID). AID produces diversity by converting cytosine to uracil within the immunoglobulin loci. The deoxyuracil residue is mutagenic when paired with deoxyguanosine, since it mimics thymidine during DNA replication. Additionally, B cells can manipulate the DNA repair pathways so that deoxyuracils are not faithfully repaired. Therefore, an intricate balance exists which is regulated at multiple stages to promote mutation of immunoglobulin genes, while retaining integrity of the rest of the genome. Here we discuss and summarize the current understanding of how AID functions to cause somatic hypermutation. PMID:20510733

  3. Correction: AIDS commission.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    A recent article by William Booth on the President's AIDS commission (News & Comment, 16 Oct., p. 262) incorrectly states that commission member Cory SerVaas, publisher of the Saturday Evening Post, drives her AIDS Mobile around the country. SerVaas does not drive the traveling van that offers free AIDS testing. Rather, she often flies to meet it as it travels around the country, stopping at shopping malls and churches by prearrangement with local civic and religious groups. SerVaas denies saying that homosexuals are "deviants." "We have helped homosexuals for many years," she says, pointing out that although her group primarily tests people who have a low risk of being infected, such as recipients of blood transfusions and women who may become pregnant, members of high-risk groups such as homosexuals and drug addicts are not excluded. PMID:17814691

  4. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Edemikpong, N B

    1990-01-01

    While the origin of the AIDS virus remains controversial, it is indisputable that AIDS is spreading worldwide. By June 1987, the World Health Organization estimated that 50 million Africans were infected with HIV and that the disease was epidemic in many parts of the continent. However, African governments chose to deny the threat of the disease. The AIDS crisis has diverted resources from other vital areas of disease prevention, health promotion, and research. Whereas AIDS is spread in developed nations by sexual promiscuity, by drug addicts sharing unclean hypodermic needles, and by homosexual behavior, in Africa cultural factors contribute to the transmission of AIDS. Female genital mutilation leads to extensive laceration of the female genitals upon initiation of sexual intercourse and/or to substitution of anal sex during the weeks and months before vaginal penetration can be achieved. In addition, the reuse of the same knives during the mutilation can spread HIV infection. Other factors that contribute to the spread of HIV in Africa include the patriarchal practice of polygamy, the subordinate position of women that makes them unable to insist on protection during intercourse, and a failure to screen blood used in transfusions. With all of these risk factors at play, women at the grassroots level must be equipped with the health education that is the only available tool to fight AIDS. Women's organizations can provide information and education to people at risk of acquiring HIV, counsel infected persons, ensure the safety of the blood supply, and work to overcome harmful traditional practices. PMID:12317073

  5. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  6. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

  7. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  8. Revolutionising the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Gupta, Geeta Rao; Warner, Ann; Fisher, William F

    2011-01-01

    Individual behaviour change interventions and technological approaches to HIV prevention can only be effective over time if the broader social environment in which health-related decisions are made facilitate their uptake. People need to be not only willing but also able to take up and maintain preventive behaviours, seek testing, treatment and care for HIV. This paper presents findings and recommendations of the Social Drivers Working Group of the aids2031 initiative, which focus on how to ensure that efforts to address the root causes of HIV vulnerability are integrated into AIDS responses at the national level. Specific guidance is given on how to operationalise a structural approach. PMID:21970296

  9. AIDS: the frightening facts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M

    1986-01-01

    Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has succeeded in creating an unprecedented wave of panic among the Western public and some sections of the medical profession. Research clearly shows that the AIDS virus is transmissible in a number of ways: from man to woman and vice versa during sexual intercourse, through semen and possibly vaginal fluids; from mothers to their children through breast milk; through exchange of saliva (but not through just a casual kiss); and through blood and blood products. Far from being exclusive to homosexuals, studies in Europe have shown that female virus carriers can transmit AIDS to healthy men through sexual intercourse--the predominant means by which transmission appears to occur in Central Africa. Although cases of AIDS began being diagnosed in a few Central African countries at the beginning of the 1980s, at the same time as they were first being observed in Europe and North America, many commentators assumed that the virus originated in Africa. Yet, it is safe to say that the nature of the virus, let alone its origins, remains controversial among scientists and virologists. 1 supporter of the theory that the AIDS virus has African origins is Robert Gall of the US National Institute of Health (NIH). He is one of the co-discoverers of the virus, which he named HTLV3 (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 3). The virus also was discovered at France's Pasteur Institute by Luc Montaigner, who called it LAV (Lymphadenpathy Associated Virus). Gallo named the virus as he did because he believes it to be related to a pair of other viruses, HTLV1 and HTLV2, which like the AIDS virus attack the body's immunity system. Unlike AIDS, these 2 viruses, do not destroy the T-cells but cause them to replicate into cancer tumors. In Gallo's view, HTLV1 has long been endemic to some parts of Africa, from where he believes it spread via the slave trade to other parts of the world. Montaigner does not agree. He denies that the AIDS virus is related to

  10. Bringing the World together to fight HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    There were some significant first for nursing at the 12th World AIDS Conference in Geneva: a special nursing session, the concept of "care" in one of the four tracks and ICN as a partner in organizing the event. The major drive was "bridging the gap" between the have and have not in access to therapies and continuum of care. At a Pre-Conference Nursing Satellite Meeting nurses exchanged ideas and research and were provided another perspective of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--the continually widening gap between the North and South--to which nurses should respond in unison. PMID:9850493

  11. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  12. Enhanced optical tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSheery, Tracy

    2008-04-01

    Enhanced tracking is accomplished by increasing the resolution, frame rate and processing capabilities in tracking dynamic regions of interest for vision applications. In many proven algorithms, the ability to distinguish an object and track it is dependent on the system performance in more than one attribute. We have conducted studies on proven techniques such as Active Appearance Models, Principle Component Analysis and Eigen tracking. All perform better as the camera resolution increases, and camera frame rate increases. Additional opportunities have been observed by combining these techniques, taking advantage of Multicore CPUs, and GPU graphic card processing. Results from an 8 Megapixel commercial sensor combined with a Field Programmable Gate array are presented, and algorithm performance compared with down scaled images of the same scenes, and simulated typical 30 hertz frame rates verses the 120 hertz to 300 hertz typical of this smart camera.

  13. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  14. Probabilistic color matching and tracking of human subjects.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Abdeq M; Schmiedekamp, Mendel; Phoha, Shashi

    2010-09-10

    Pattern discovery algorithms based on the computational mechanics (CM) method have been shown to succinctly describe underlying patterns in data through the reconstruction of minimum probabilistic finite state automata (PFSA). We apply the CM approach toward the tracking of human subjects in real time by matching and tracking the underlying color pattern as observed from a fixed camera. Objects are extracted from a video sequence, and then raster scanned, decomposed with a one-dimensional Haar wavelet transform, and symbolized with the aid of a red-green-blue (RGB) color cube. The clustered causal state algorithm is then used to reconstruct the corresponding PFSA. Tracking is accomplished by generating the minimum PFSA for each subsequent frame, followed by matching the PFSAs to the previous frame. Results show that there is an optimum alphabet size and segmentation of the RGB color cube for efficient tracking. PMID:20830182

  15. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  16. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  17. Apartheid and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, A T

    1989-11-25

    To persuade South Africa to abolish its apartheid policy several measures have been taken by the international community, including economic sanctions. The harm done by sanctions to the South African economy is obvious. As economic activity has slowed down, unemployment, especially in the black community, has risen. For the unemployed poverty and hunger are harsh realities while for those lucky enough to have jobs income remains quite high. Prostitution has become a way of redistributing income and for many families it is the only way to avoid starvation. With prostitution, however, has come AIDS: it is estimated that HIV infection is doubling every 5-8 months. On 1 calculation 85% of sexually active blacks could be infected with HIV by 1996; most would proceed to AIDS and die, leaving millions of children without parents. Although economic sanctions have speeded up some measure of reform in South Africa they are now harming the very people they were intended to help. Furthermore insidious voices are already being heard saying the government should stop all reform processes and anti-AIDS campaigns and just "sit it out" for the next few years. A further consequence of an ailing economy is the unavailability of funding for those who wish to curb the spread of AIDS via educational and other programs. [Full text] PMID:2573792

  18. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  19. Management of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

    The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…

  20. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  1. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  2. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  3. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  4. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  5. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sites Podcasts QR Codes RSS Feeds Social Bookmarking Social Network Sites Text Messaging Twitter Video Games Video Sharing ... here Read related blog here Get updates via Facebook Live interviews Join the conversation: #RyanWhite2016​ International AIDS ...

  6. AIDS: Implications for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Eleanor D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and its epidemiology. Discusses implications for families (social stigma and isolation, fears of contagion, infection and abandonment, guilt, anger, grief, and economic hardship) and for human service professionals (public education, voluntary, anonymous testing with counseling, and…

  7. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  8. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  9. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  10. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  11. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  12. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and…

  13. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  14. First aid advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  15. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  16. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  17. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  18. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)

  19. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  20. Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Graham

    This report discusses the impact of and presents guidelines for developing a computer-aided instructional (CAI) system. The first section discusses CAI in terms of the need for the countries of Asia to increase their economic self-sufficiency. The second section examines various theories on the nature of learning with special attention to the role…

  1. The Way the Money Goes: An Investigation of Flows of Funding and Resources for Young Children Affected by HIV/AIDS. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development. Young Children and HIV/AIDS Sub-Series, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Alison

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses routes by which HIV/AIDS money is dispersed and received. It notes that capturing accurate data on actual spending patterns of large donors can be difficult, as there is no uniform tracking or reporting system and much HIV/AIDS money is spent under the broader category of sexual and reproductive health. Most of the information…

  2. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  3. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    PubMed

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future. PMID:12316939

  4. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  5. Attentive Tracking of Sound Sources.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kevin J P; McDermott, Josh H

    2015-08-31

    Auditory scenes often contain concurrent sound sources, but listeners are typically interested in just one of these and must somehow select it for further processing. One challenge is that real-world sounds such as speech vary over time and as a consequence often cannot be separated or selected based on particular values of their features (e.g., high pitch). Here we show that human listeners can circumvent this challenge by tracking sounds with a movable focus of attention. We synthesized pairs of voices that changed in pitch and timbre over random, intertwined trajectories, lacking distinguishing features or linguistic information. Listeners were cued beforehand to attend to one of the voices. We measured their ability to extract this cued voice from the mixture by subsequently presenting the ending portion of one voice and asking whether it came from the cued voice. We found that listeners could perform this task but that performance was mediated by attention-listeners who performed best were also more sensitive to perturbations in the cued voice than in the uncued voice. Moreover, the task was impossible if the source trajectories did not maintain sufficient separation in feature space. The results suggest a locus of attention that can follow a sound's trajectory through a feature space, likely aiding selection and segregation amid similar distractors. PMID:26279234

  6. Keeping track of worm trackers.

    PubMed

    Husson, Steven J; Costa, Wagner Steuer; Schmitt, Cornelia; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    C. elegans is used extensively as a model system in the neurosciences due to its well defined nervous system. However, the seeming simplicity of this nervous system in anatomical structure and neuronal connectivity, at least compared to higher animals, underlies a rich diversity of behaviors. The usefulness of the worm in genome-wide mutagenesis or RNAi screens, where thousands of strains are assessed for phenotype, emphasizes the need for computational methods for automated parameterization of generated behaviors. In addition, behaviors can be modulated upon external cues like temperature, O(subscript)2(/subscript) and CO(subscript)2(/subscript) concentrations, mechanosensory and chemosensory inputs. Different machine vision tools have been developed to aid researchers in their efforts to inventory and characterize defined behavioral "outputs". Here we aim at providing an overview of different worm-tracking packages or video analysis tools designed to quantify different aspects of locomotion such as the occurrence of directional changes (turns, omega bends), curvature of the sinusoidal shape (amplitude, body bend angles) and velocity (speed, backward or forward movement). PMID:23436808

  7. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  8. Development of New Filter and Tracking Schemes for Weak GPS Signal Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Pejman Lotfali

    Various emerging applications require location of users in challenging environments where typical GPS receivers suffer degraded performance or complete failure. Special algorithms and techniques are required to track weak GPS signals, where the signal is typically weaker by 10 to 40 dB compared to the nominal or line-of-sight signal strength. This thesis endeavours to propose solutions that can potentially offer performance improvements over conventional techniques. Optimum digital tracking filters for loops of first to fourth order, for rate only and phase and rate feedback NCO are derived. It is shown that, contrary to conventional methods, the loops remain stable for high B LT (the product of loop noise bandwidth and loop update interval) values and for both types of aforementioned NCOs. By using these filters, a significant improvement for high BLT can be achieved, allowing one to operate in ranges where previous methods cannot operate. As a result, stable loops with longer integration times (update interval) can be easily designed and the tracking sensitivity is improved accordingly. For the cases when external data aiding is not available, a decision feedback principle is used herein, in which the data bits are estimated through the tracking process itself. An enhanced digital phase locked loop with a frequency rate estimator is also developed. The NCO with phase rate and frequency rate feedback is introduced and based on this NCO and the transfer function of the frequency rate estimator, the tracking loop is optimized in order to minimize the phase noise variance. By utilizing this loop, the performance of low update rate loops in terms of phase mismatch and bit error rate can be improved. A multistage tracking scheme is also implemented to overcome the problem of tracking weak GPS signals in indoor environments. In this technique several tracking schemes are serially cascaded. It is shown that this technique combined with a developed optimum delay locked

  9. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  10. HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates…

  11. Joint tracking, pose estimation, and identification using HRRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald P. S.; Rago, Constantino; Zajic, Tim; Musick, Stanton; Mehra, Raman K.

    2000-08-01

    The work presented here is pat of a generalization of Bayesian filtering and estimation theory to the problem of multisource, multitarget, multi-evidence unified joint detection, tracking, and target ID developed by Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems and Scientific Systems Co., Inc. Our approach to robust joint target identification and tracking was to take the StaF algorithm and integrate it with a Bayesian nonlinear filter, where target position, velocity, pose, and type could then be determined simultaneously via maximum a posteriori estimation. The basis for the integration between the tracker and classifier is base don 'finite-set statistics' (FISST). The theoretical development of FISST is a Lockheed Martin ongoing project since 1994. The specific problem addressed in this paper is that of robust joint target identification and tracking via fusion of high range resolution radar (HRRR) - from the automatic radar target identification (ARTI) data base - signatures and radar track data. A major problem in HRRR ATR is the computational load created by having to match observations against target models for every feasible pose. If pose could be estimated efficiently by a filtering algorithm from track data, the ATR search space would be greatly reduced. On the other hand, HRRR ATR algorithms produce useful information about pose which could potentially aid the track-filtering process as well. We have successfully demonstrated the former concept of 'loose integration' integrating the tracker and classifier for three different type of targets moving on 2D tracks.

  12. AIDS Education for the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Jeffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    Sun Life in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has an ongoing education program about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that provides employees with facts and works to change attitudes about the implications of AIDS for the workplace. (SK)

  13. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  14. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  15. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  16. Human operator tracking performance with a vibrotactile display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inbar, Gideon F.

    1991-01-01

    Vibrotactile displays have been designed and used as a sensory aid for the blind. In the present work the same 6 x 24 'Optacon' type vibrotactile display (VTD) was used to characterize human operator (HO) tracking performance in pursuit and compensatory tasks. The VTD was connected via a microprocessor to a one-dimensional joy stick manipulator. Various display schemes were tested on the VDT, and were also compared to visual tracking performance using a specially constructed photo diode matrix display comparable to the VTD.

  17. Automated cloud tracking using precisely aligned digital ATS pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Phillips, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the interactive man-computer system (WIMDCO) for measuring cloud motion from ATS pictures. The multipicture model of ATS navigation is used for consecutive ATS digital picture alignment to provide the required precision in cloud motion measurements by automated tracking techniques. Cloud motion is measured by tracking clouds between two digital pictures with the aid of two-dimensional cross correlation analysis. The fast Fourier transform method and other programming techniques are used for time and cost minimization. Cloud motion vectors were computed over three time intervals in July, 1969. The EW and NS components were reproducible within roughly 2 knots.

  18. Magnetic Low-Friction Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetkau, Mark; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Gamblen, James

    2008-05-01

    The standard low-friction tracks used to test Newton's laws are the air track and the low-friction cart track. Both are commercially available and provide low-friction environments to test various physics concepts. At a recent science fair, one of the authors (JG) presented a magnetically levitated cart and track. A literature search found no previous testing of magnetically levitated carts. This paper compares a magnetically levitated cart against the two standard low-friction tracks.

  19. The AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Conant, M A

    1994-09-01

    The nature of the clinical presentation of HIV infection continues to evolve over time. New cutaneous (e.g., seborrheic dermatitis, onychomycosis, and tinea pedis) and systemic (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium marneffei) opportunistic fungal infections can now be added to the classic clinical markers for progressive HIV infection, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium intercellulare infections, and cryptococcal meningitis. The fact that the appearance of many of these fungal diseases is directly correlated with the patient's CD4 cell count is a valuable tool for ongoing clinical evaluation. Although systemic manifestations characterize a progression from asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS, many of the signs of disease progression are cutaneous. Prophylaxis against many of the potentially life-threatening systemic opportunistic infections associated with HIV positivity has had a positive impact on the life expectancy of patients with AIDS. PMID:7915731

  20. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  1. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  2. Educational Aids for Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY.

    Listings specifying source and cost are provided of tactile aids and materials designed for the visually handicapped. Items are presented in the following categories: supply sources and catalogs for aids; braille devices, including duplicators, reading and writing aids, reading readiness materials, and writing machines, slates, and styluses; deaf…

  3. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  4. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  5. In Support of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devitt, James

    1995-01-01

    Concerns about cuts in federal student loan and grant programs are outlined, and ways in which institutions can act to influence policy are examined. Basic facts about potential cuts, their effects, federal spending on student aid, aid recipients, public opinion, and aid policy's effects on tuition are discussed. (MSE)

  6. AIDS Awareness in Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Lyndall L.

    1994-01-01

    Survey responses from 88 of 293 industrial technology education department heads found that 68% could not identify courses in which acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is covered; 52% were not aware of AIDS-related activities on their campuses; and 48% had AIDS education programs at their institutions. (SK)

  7. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  8. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  9. Computer aided manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  10. Computer aided inspection qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, D.; McNab, A.; Potts, A.; Toft, M.; McDonald, J.

    2002-05-01

    Inspection Qualification under the ENIQ methodology uses a Technical Justification as a key element in assuring the performance of the inspection. It combines a mixture of physical reasoning and modeling linked to limited experimental trial data from identified worst-case defects, but the qualification process is costly and time-consuming. This paper describes an investigation into providing an integrated set of intelligent software tools to aid the process of inspection qualification.

  11. [AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Bolin, H

    1987-12-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943

  12. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  13. Tube-welder aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Simple tools assist in setting up and welding tubes. Welder aids can be easily made to fit given tube diameter. Finished set can be used repeatedly to fix electrode-to-weld gap and mark sleeve and joint positions. Tools are readily made in tube-manufacturing plants and pay for themselves in short time in reduced labor costs and quality control: Conventional measurements are too slow for mass production and are prone to errors.

  14. Comparison of benefit from vibrotactile aid and cochlear implant for postlinguistically deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Skinner, M W; Binzer, S M; Fredrickson, J M; Smith, P G; Holden, T A; Holden, L K; Juelich, M F; Turner, B A

    1988-10-01

    Four postlinguistically deaf adults were evaluated presurgically with a one- or two-channel vibrotactile aid and postsurgically with a multichannel, multielectrode, intracochlear implant. Although the vibrotactile aid provided awareness of sound and enhanced flow of conversation, benefit to lipreading was small on videotaped tests and speech tracking. Scores on recorded, sound-only speech tests were not significantly above chance except in discrimination of noise from voice. With the cochlear implant, benefit to lipreading was significantly greater than with the vibrotactile aid, and scores on sound-only tests were significantly above chance. Communication was markedly better with the implant than with the vibrotactile aid. In counseling those who get no benefit from a hearing aid, the results of this study provide data on the amount of benefit one- or two-channel vibrotactile aids provide postlinguistically deaf adults who are subsequently implanted. PMID:3172956

  15. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  16. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  17. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for themore » return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.« less

  18. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries. PMID:11961693

  19. Fast Compressive Tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-10-01

    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness. PMID:26352631

  20. Hazardous waste tracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, R. )

    1993-08-01

    The concept of cradle-to-grave oversight of hazardous waste was established in 1976 under RCRA. Since then, the multicopy Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest has been a key component in the federal tracking system. The manifests ensure that generators, transporters and TSDFs maintain documentation of hazardous waste shipments. To a large extent, the tracking system has served its intended purpose; nevertheless, certain shortcomings exist. Anyone involved in shipping hazardous waste should be aware of the system's weaknesses and take appropriate measures to compensate for them.

  1. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  2. Computationally efficient Bayesian tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughenbaugh, Jason; La Cour, Brian

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the progress we have achieved in developing a computationally efficient, grid-based Bayesian fusion tracking system. In our approach, the probability surface is represented by a collection of multidimensional polynomials, each computed adaptively on a grid of cells representing state space. Time evolution is performed using a hybrid particle/grid approach and knowledge of the grid structure, while sensor updates use a measurement-based sampling method with a Delaunay triangulation. We present an application of this system to the problem of tracking a submarine target using a field of active and passive sonar buoys.

  3. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  4. A Future of Satellite-Aided Search and Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Satellite technology has been an integral part of maritime search and rescue since the Cospas-Sarsat system began operation in 1984. This system, credited with more than eighty-six hundred lives saved, has recently been augmented to provide immediate response through geostationary satellites. The other satellite-based distress alerting system, INMARSAT, launched its emergency Standard C service in 1991 and Standard E in 1997. Current plans call for a continuation of service from both of these vital systems at least through the first decade of the next century. We are currently witnessing the construction of a number of new satellite systems that will have the potential for revolutionizing mobile communications. These systems will be capable of emergency communication, and must be given due consideration in any look at the future, This paper reviews existing systems using satellites for distress alerting, describes the plans in place for them, and discusses likely developments.

  5. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  6. Energy rays tracking device

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, R.J.

    1981-05-12

    An energy rays tracking device includes a receiver for fixing a position relative to the direction of maximum energy rays, a prime mover for maintaining the alignment of the receiver and an energy rays user, an energy rays tracker for controlling the power to the prime mover in response to the receiver, a timed tracker for controlling the prime mover when the energy rays tracker is not functioning due to energy rays being too diffused, an energy sensitive element for detecting the presence or absence of energy rays, and a power controller responsive to the energy sensitive element for repositioning the receiver and the energy rays user for the following period of tracking is disclosed. The receiver includes an enclosure which only allows a selected pattern of direct rays to penetrate into the enclosure. A razor sharp edge at the opening of the enclosure maintains the outermost direct energy rays undiffused. A differential sensor sensitive to direct energy rays is installed inside the enclosure for determining the direction of the direct energy rays. In an application for tracking the sun, the time tracker uses a piecewise linear method of tracking. In the return cycle during the night, the return is interspersed with a wash cycle for cleaning the energy rays user.

  7. Personal Tracking Charts

    MedlinePlus

    ... only on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Keep an eye out for allergic reactions. I should take Prezista with food. year keeping track of my periods month mark the Type of Flow in the boxes below L =exceptionally light N =normal h =exceptionally heavy S =spotting O =none ...

  8. Manure Tracking Book

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides an example of the ‘Manure Tracking Book’ that was used by the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the “On Farmers’ Ground” nutrient management research project. This Book was used to systematically tract how, when and where farmers spread manure, and factors...

  9. General defocusing particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Barnkob, Rune; Kähler, Christian J; Rossi, Massimiliano

    2015-09-01

    A General Defocusing Particle Tracking (GDPT) method is proposed for tracking the three-dimensional motion of particles in Lab-on-a-chip systems based on a set of calibration images and the normalized cross-correlation function. In comparison with other single-camera defocusing particle-tracking techniques, GDPT possesses a series of key advantages: it is applicable to particle images of arbitrary shapes, it is intuitive and easy to use, it can be used without advanced knowledge of optics and velocimetry theory, it is robust against outliers and overlapping particle images, and it requires only equipment which is standard in microfluidic laboratories. We demonstrate the method by tracking the three-dimensional motion of 2 μm spherical particles in a microfluidic channel using three different optical arrangements. The position of the particles was measured with an estimated uncertainty of 0.1 μm in the in-plane direction and 2 μm in the depth direction for a measurement volume of 1510 × 1270 × 160 μm(3). A ready-to-use GUI implementation of the method can be acquired on . PMID:26201498

  10. Spiral track oven

    SciTech Connect

    Drobilisch, Sandor

    1998-12-20

    Final report on development of a continuously operating oven system in which the parts are progressing automatically on a spiral track for in-line service installation for the production of electronic and/or other components to be heat cured or dried.

  11. Tracking the Invisible Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravois, John

    2006-01-01

    For decades it has been happening everywhere in academe, but nowhere in particular. The sweeping shift toward non-tenure-track academic labor has been one of the most worried-over trends in American higher education. But it has been charted mostly with broad-brush data, which give little indication of the trend's progress at the institutional…

  12. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03052 Dust Devil Tracks

    These dust devil tracks are located in the region surrounding Hooke Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 46.6S, Longitude 316.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Asset tracking systems.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Asset tracking systems are used in healthcare to find objects--medical devices and other hospital equipment--and to record the physical location of those objects over time. Interest in asset tracking is growing daily, but the technology is still evolving, and so far very few systems have been implemented in hospitals. This situation is likely to change over the next few years, at which point many hospitals will be faced with choosing a system. We evaluated four asset tracking systems from four suppliers: Agility Healthcare Solutions, Ekahau, Radianse, and Versus Technology. We judged the systems' performance for two "levels" of asset tracking. The first level is basic locating--simply determining where in the facility an item can be found. This may be done because the equipment needs routine inspection and preventive maintenance or because it is required for recall purposes; or the equipment may be needed, often urgently, for clinical use. The second level, which is much more involved, is inventory optimization and workflow improvement. This entails analyzing asset utilization based on historical location data to improve the use, distribution, and processing of equipment. None of the evaluated products is ideal for all uses--each has strengths and weaknesses. In many cases, hospitals will have to select a product based on their specific needs. For example, they may need to choose between a supplier whose system is easy to install and a supplier whose tags have a long battery operating life. PMID:17278873

  14. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  15. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  16. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  17. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  18. Tracking Virtual Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Lorenceau, Jean D.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Current models of smooth pursuit eye movements assume that it is largely driven by retinal image motion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pursuit of elliptical motion (3.2s, 0.9 Hz, 1.4 deg x 1.6 deg, 4 randomly interleaved phases) of either a small spot ("real" motion) or of a line-figure diamond viewed through apertures such that only the motion of four isolated oblique line segments was visible ("virtual" motion). Each segment moved sinusoidally along a linear trajectory yet subjects perceived a diamond moving along an elliptical path behind the aperture. We found, as expected, that real motion produced accurate tracking (N = 2) with mean gain (over horizontal and vertical) of 0.9, mean phase of -6 deg (lag), mean relative phase (H vs V) of 90 +/- 8 deg (RMS error). Virtual motion behind an X-shaped aperture (N= 4 with one naive) yielded a mean gain of 0.7, mean phase of -11 deg, mean relative phase of 87 +/- 15 deg. We also measured pursuit with the X-shaped aperture using a higher segment luminance which prevents the segments from being grouped into a coherently moving diamond while keeping the motion otherwise identical. In this incoherent case, the same four subjects no longer showed consistent elliptical tracking (RMS error in relative phase rose to 60 deg) suggesting that perceptual coherence is critical. Furthermore, to rule out tracking of the centroid, we also used vertical apertures so that all segment motion was vertical (N = 3). This stimulus still produced elliptical tracking (mean relative phase of 84 +/- 19 deg), albeit with a lower gain (0.6). These data show that humans can track moving objects reasonably accurately even when the trajectory can only be derived by spatial integration of motion signals. Models that merely seek to minimize retinal or local stimulus motion cannot explain these results.

  19. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  20. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  1. Refocusing disaster aid.

    PubMed

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg

    2005-08-12

    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  2. Migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U

    1995-09-23

    A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital

  3. Should Aid Reward Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  4. Computer Aided Engineering Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Anupam; Sahay, Birendra

    This book amalgamates geometric modelling, analysis and optimization, the three important aspects in Computer Aided Engineering Design. While the three subjects are well developed by themselves, a detailed discussion on engineering visualization (transformations and projections) and mathematical background of free form, parametric and piecewise design of curves and surfaces is provided. A topological basis is given when discussing wireframe, boundary representation and constructive solid geometry as solid modelling techniques. http://www.springeronline.com/alert/article?a=3D1_1fva7w_9hjul_18j_6

  5. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  6. Remote sensing of water tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Water tracks are an intrinsic part of the surficial drainage network in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. They preferentially transport water off hillslopes and represent the interplay between hydrology, vegetation, geomorphology, and permafrost characteristics. This research on mapping the location of water tracks builds on previous work which demonstrated that different types of water tracks exist due to difference primarily driven by geomorphology. We used a combination method where spectral classifications, texture, and topography were fed into random forests to identify the water track classes. The most accurate distributions were obtained for the organic-rich and wide water track classes. The distinct linear shapes of the water tracks could also be visualized for many of the classes, especially in areas where the water tracks were particularly discrete. The biggest challenges to mapping the water tracks were due to class imbalances and high variability within and overlapping between classes. This research presents a significant step forward in understanding periglacial landscape dynamics.

  7. HIV/AIDS epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Todd, C

    2000-10-14

    In this paper, Charles Todd comments that the report of Evan Wood and colleagues illustrates the dangers of taking a narrow medical view of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa. It runs the risk of reversing the growing realization that the HIV/AIDS epidemic in southern Africa is a broad, social, cultural, political, and economic issue rather than a purely medical one. Todd raises the point that Wood and colleagues did not model the costs associated with the voluntary testing and counseling that should accompany a prophylaxis program. To this effect, a more helpful approach on meeting basic health needs and eradicating poverty would be to compare the impact of such levels of expenditure. It is also emphasized that the title of the paper of Wood and colleagues is misleading, implying that the focus of the modeling was sub-Saharan Africa as a whole, when it was in fact South Africa alone. Accordingly, the gross domestic product of South Africa per person is higher than that of nearly all other sub-Saharan African countries, and health expenditure is 10-20 times greater. PMID:11073053

  8. Fuel dispenser aid

    SciTech Connect

    Bobst, J.M.

    1993-08-31

    A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.

  9. AIDS-related myopathy.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Rafiq A.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Munn, Robert; Ruebner, Boris H.; Ellis, William G.

    1999-09-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and wasting is one of the defining clinical features of AIDS. Muscular weakness due to myopathy may develop at any stage of HIV infection. We report two illustrative cases of HIV-associated myopathies. One was due to inflammatory myosits most likely directly related to the HIV infection, and the other was most likely the result of mitochondrial damage due to zidovudine, a nucleoside analogue commonly used in treating HIV infection. Biopsies from both patients showed alterations of myofiber structures, of varying severity, culminating in necrosis, lipid droplets, and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory response. The zidovudine-treated patient also showed distinctive mitochondrial changes, predominantly enlargement, variation in shape and size, and disorganization of the cristae. These two types of HIV-associated inflammatory myopathies are reviewed, along with other HIV-associated myopathies, including HIV wasting syndrome, nemaline rod myopathy, pyomyositis, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, and other miscellaneous myopathies associated with HIV infection. PMID:11810429

  10. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  11. The accuracy of automatic tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastrov, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that tracking accuracy changes similarly to the rate of change of the curve of the measurement conversion. The problem that internal noise increases along with the signals processed by the tracking device and that tracking accuracy thus drops were considered. The main prerequisite for solution is consideration of the dependences of the output signal of the tracking device sensor not only on the measured parameter but on the signal itself.

  12. Efficient Sample Tracking With OpenLabFramework

    PubMed Central

    List, Markus; Schmidt, Steffen; Trojnar, Jakub; Thomas, Jochen; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Tan, Qihua; Baumbach, Jan; Mollenhauer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advance of new technologies in biomedical research has led to a dramatic growth in experimental throughput. Projects therefore steadily grow in size and involve a larger number of researchers. Spreadsheets traditionally used are thus no longer suitable for keeping track of the vast amounts of samples created and need to be replaced with state-of-the-art laboratory information management systems. Such systems have been developed in large numbers, but they are often limited to specific research domains and types of data. One domain so far neglected is the management of libraries of vector clones and genetically engineered cell lines. OpenLabFramework is a newly developed web-application for sample tracking, particularly laid out to fill this gap, but with an open architecture allowing it to be extended for other biological materials and functional data. Its sample tracking mechanism is fully customizable and aids productivity further through support for mobile devices and barcoded labels. PMID:24589879

  13. Synchronization using pulsed edge tracking in optical PPM communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R.

    1972-01-01

    A pulse position modulated (PPM) optical communication system using narrow pulses of light for data transmission requires accurate time synchronization between transmitter and receiver. The presence of signal energy in the form of optical pulses suggests the use of a pulse edge tracking method of maintaining the necessary timing. The edge tracking operation in a binary PPM system is examined, taking into account the quantum nature of the optical transmissions. Consideration is given first to pure synchronization using a periodic pulsed intensity, then extended to the case where position modulation is present and auxiliary bit decisioning is needed to aid the tracking operation. Performance analysis is made in terms of timing error and its associated statistics. Timing error variances are shown as a function of system signal to noise ratio.

  14. Are informal caregivers important in AIDS care?

    PubMed

    Decarlo, P; Folkman, S

    1997-01-01

    Informal caregivers of people with AIDS provide practical help and nursing care at home. They are often the lovers, spouses, friends, or family of someone with AIDS and are not professional care providers. They provide essential care, saving society considerable expense. Caregivers provide practical support such as shopping, housekeeping, and transportation to clinics, as well as basic assistance such as help with bathing, going to the bathroom, and feeding. As symptoms worsen, caregivers are also likely to adopt the more clinical roles of keeping track of medications, giving injections, inserting catheters, and cleaning wounds. Caregivers also often assess medical and mental conditions, being the first to notice changes in health and to decide when to seek help. Caregivers, however, can suffer considerable care-related stress, leading to numbness, compassion fatigue, or burnout. Caregivers may also fear social rejection, loss of job and/or housing and may therefore hide their caregiving status from family, friends, and co-workers. For women with HIV, being responsible for children at home may make it difficult or impossible to obtain caregiving support for themselves. Helping caregivers benefits both the caregiver and the patient. Professional clinicians can include the caregiver in the triad of care comprised of the doctor, caregiver, and patient. Participating in support groups can also help caregivers. PMID:12293155

  15. HIV/AIDS institutional discrimination in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Arber, F; Haour-Knipe, M

    2001-05-01

    A UNAIDS protocol designed to identify discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS was applied in Switzerland, a country where policies against such discrimination had been actively promoted since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Discrimination, in its strict legal definition, was examined in nine areas of everyday life, and at three levels: legislation, written regulations, and actual practices. Data concerning both expert opinion and subjective experience of discrimination was gathered by members of an interdisciplinary work group by means of: (1) interviews with over 200 key informants and experts, covering each of the areas investigated, and (2) actively seeking testimonies as to experiences of discrimination through local AIDS groups and through informal contacts of work group members. The study revealed little institutional discrimination in the region investigated, attesting to the efficacy of clear and actively promoted anti-discrimination policies. Individual discrimination and stigmatisation persist, however. It is in combating individual discrimination and stigmatisation that efforts must now concentrate. The UNAIDS protocol was found to be a valuable tool for tracking the sorts of discrimination that can most easily be influenced by policy measures. PMID:11314849

  16. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  17. Track-to-track association in decentralized tracking systems with feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmberg, Anders; Karlsson, Mathias

    2000-07-01

    In air combat, information advantage over the opponent is vital for the success of the operation. For that reason, modern fighter aircraft have extensive sensor suites to track other objects. In order to form a unified picture of the vicinity; all sensor information is fused. Since system modularity and high computational performance are key issues in the application, a decentralized tracking approach, where the information from the decentralized trackers is fused in a central node, is preferable. Furthermore, in order to improve the sensor tracking performance, it is often desired to feed back information to the sensors from the central node. In this paper, track-to-track association in such a decentralized tracking system with feedback is addressed. The central fusion node has to associate the sensor tracks to each other to be able to fuse them. In a system without feedback, the track-to-track association algorithm bases its conclusions on the assumption that the estimation errors of the tracks from different local trackers are not correlated. However, when information is fed back to the local trackers, this assumption is not valid, since the sensor tracks then consist of common information. System configurations that deal with this problem are proposed and tested in a fighter aircraft application. One approach is to extract the uncorrelated information from the sensor data and use that in the association process. Another approach is to keep parallel trackers in the sensors that only contain the local sensor information. Both approaches produce sensor tracks that contain the same information as the sensor tracks in a system without feedback. Also, a track-to-track association algorithm that recursively uses information from multiple time steps is proposed. The use of multiple time step data separates it from conventional track-to-track association algorithms that mostly use only current information. The result is an algorithm that improves the performance and

  18. Track Initiation for Electro-Optical Tracking of Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. W.; Wang, X.

    2016-03-01

    Aimed at the track initiation for the electro-optical tracking of space objects, and based on modified Hough transformation, a track initiation algorithm without prior information is proposed to realize the fully robotic identification and tracking of moving objects. The method is valid for the tracking of multi-target as well as with a non-continuous sequence. Simulation shows that the method is effective and applicable for operational usage, and is especially good for the search and discovery of new objects.

  19. Satellite (IRLS) tracking of elk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    The practicability of tracking free roaming animals in natural environments by satellite systems is reported. Satellite systems combine continuous tracking with simultaneous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters through a combination of radio tracking and biotelemetric ground systems that lead to a better understanding of animal behavior and migration patterns.

  20. Footstep detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, George P.; Clapp, Daniel; Gampert, Robert; Prado, Gervasio

    2001-09-01

    Persons or vehicles moving over ground generate a succession of impacts; these soil disturbances propagate away from the source as seismic waves. These seismic waves are especially useful in detecting footsteps which cannot be detected acoustically. Footstep signals can be distinguished from other seismic sources, such as vehicles or wind noise, by their impulsive nature. Even in noisy environments, statistical measures of the seismic amplitude distribution, such as kurtosis, can be used to identify a footstep. These detection methods can be used even with single component geophones. Moreover, the seismic signal is a vector wave that can be used to track the source bearing. To do such tracking a three-component measurement is needed. If multiple sources are separated in angle, we can use this bearing information to estimate the number of walkers.

  1. Longwall shearer tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, P. D. (Inventor); Stein, R. J.; Pease, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system for measuring and recording the movements of a longwall shearer vehicle includes an optical tracking assembly carried at one end of a desired vehicle path and a retroreflector assembly carried by the vehicle. Continuous horizontal and vertical light beams are alternately transmitted by means of a rotating Dove prism to the reflector assembly. A vertically reciprocating reflector interrupts the continuous light beams and converts these to discrete horizontal and vertical light beam images transmitted at spaced intervals along the path. A second rotating Dove prism rotates the vertical images to convert them to a second series of horizontal images while the first mentioned horizontal images are left unrotated and horizontal. The images are recorded on a film.

  2. On particle track detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

  3. Motion Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

  4. Fast tracking hospital construction.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made. PMID:23513759

  5. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  6. Optical tracking telescope compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    In order to minimize the effects of parameter variations in the dynamics of an optical tracking telescope, a model referenced parameter adaptive control system is described that - in conjunction with more traditional forms of compensation - achieves a reduction of rms pointing error by more than a factor of six. The adaptive compensation system utilizes open loop compensation, closed loop compensation, and model reference compensation to provide the precise input to force telescope axis velocity to follow the ideal velocity.

  7. Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

  8. AIDS prevention training for pharmacy workers in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Pick, S; Reyes, J; Alvarez, M; Cohen, S; Craige, J; Troya, A

    1996-02-01

    Mexican pharmacies play an important adjunct health care role in sexually transmitted disease prevention and treatment. In light of the rapid spread of the AIDS pandemic, research was initiated in 1989 to investigate the feasibility of pharmacies assisting in AIDS and STD prevention and control through community education and condom promotion. This study was implemented in three stages: a needs assessment, development of a training course and complementary materials, and an evaluation of the course and materials. The instruments used in the needs assessment were a KAP questionnaire and 'mystery shopper' visits to pharmacies. The evaluation design utilized pre- and post-tests, condom sales tracking and 'mystery shopper' visits. The needs assessment found that pharmacy employees have some basic knowledge about AIDS and STDs, but lack important information and do not communicate effectively with clients in spite of client interest in these topics. Pharmacy workers expressed great in learning more about AIDS and STDs. The evaluation of the intensive 8-hour course and supporting materials showed that, when given together, the course and materials increased short term knowledge about AIDS and condom use. However, the interventions were less successful in achieving longer term information retention, transfer of knowledge to clients or in influencing condom sales. Adjustments in the training course content and in participant recruitment strategies are recommended. PMID:8664370

  9. Approximate Bayesian multibody tracking.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Oswald

    2006-09-01

    Visual tracking of multiple targets is a challenging problem, especially when efficiency is an issue. Occlusions, if not properly handled, are a major source of failure. Solutions supporting principled occlusion reasoning have been proposed but are yet unpractical for online applications. This paper presents a new solution which effectively manages the trade-off between reliable modeling and computational efficiency. The Hybrid Joint-Separable (HJS) filter is derived from a joint Bayesian formulation of the problem, and shown to be efficient while optimal in terms of compact belief representation. Computational efficiency is achieved by employing a Markov random field approximation to joint dynamics and an incremental algorithm for posterior update with an appearance likelihood that implements a physically-based model of the occlusion process. A particle filter implementation is proposed which achieves accurate tracking during partial occlusions, while in cases of complete occlusion, tracking hypotheses are bound to estimated occlusion volumes. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is efficient, robust, and able to resolve long-term occlusions between targets with identical appearance. PMID:16929730

  10. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  11. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  12. Respiration tracking in radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikard, Achim; Shiomi, Hiroya; Adler, John

    2004-10-01

    Respiratory motion is difficult to compensate for with conventional radiotherapy systems. An accurate tracking method for following the motion of the tumor is of considerable clinical relevance. We investigate methods to compensate for respiratory motion using robotic radiosurgery. In this system the therapeutic beam is moved by a robotic arm, and follows the moving target through a combination of infrared tracking and synchronized x-ray imaging. Infrared emitters are used to record the motion of the patient's skin surface. The position of internal gold fiducials is computed repeatedly during treatment, via x-ray image processing. We correlate the motion between external and internal markers. From this correlation model we infer the placement of the internal target during time intervals where no x-ray images are taken. Fifteen patients with lung tumors have recently been treated with a fully integrated system implementing this new method. The clinical trials confirm our hypothesis that internal motion and external motion are indeed correlated. In a preliminar study we have extended our work to tracking without implanted fiducials, based on algorithms for computing deformation motions and digitally reconstructed radiographs.

  13. NEKF IMM tracking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Mark W.; Stubberud, Allen R.

    2003-12-01

    Highly maneuvering threats are a major concern for the Navy and the DoD and the technology discussed in this paper is intended to help address this issue. A neural extended Kalman filter algorithm has been embedded in an interacting multiple model architecture for target tracking. The neural extended Kalman filter algorithm is used to improve motion model prediction during maneuvers. With a better target motion mode, noise reduction can be achieved through a maneuver. Unlike the interacting multiple model architecture which uses a high process noise model to hold a target through a maneuver with poor velocity and acceleration estimates, a neural extended Kalman filter is used to predict corrections to the velocity and acceleration states of a target through a maneuver. The neural extended Kalman filter estimates the weights of a neural network, which in turn are used to modify the state estimate predictions of the filter as measurements are processed. The neural network training is performed on-line as data is processed. In this paper, the simulation results of a tracking problem using a neural extended Kalman filter embedded in an interacting multiple model tracking architecture are shown. Preliminary results on the 2nd Benchmark Problem are also given.

  14. NEKF IMM tracking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Mark W.; Stubberud, Allen R.

    2004-01-01

    Highly maneuvering threats are a major concern for the Navy and the DoD and the technology discussed in this paper is intended to help address this issue. A neural extended Kalman filter algorithm has been embedded in an interacting multiple model architecture for target tracking. The neural extended Kalman filter algorithm is used to improve motion model prediction during maneuvers. With a better target motion mode, noise reduction can be achieved through a maneuver. Unlike the interacting multiple model architecture which uses a high process noise model to hold a target through a maneuver with poor velocity and acceleration estimates, a neural extended Kalman filter is used to predict corrections to the velocity and acceleration states of a target through a maneuver. The neural extended Kalman filter estimates the weights of a neural network, which in turn are used to modify the state estimate predictions of the filter as measurements are processed. The neural network training is performed on-line as data is processed. In this paper, the simulation results of a tracking problem using a neural extended Kalman filter embedded in an interacting multiple model tracking architecture are shown. Preliminary results on the 2nd Benchmark Problem are also given.

  15. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-01

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

  16. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  17. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Schuman, P; Sobel, J D

    1993-11-01

    The number and proportion of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have increased rapidly throughout the last decade. Despite these increases, the scientific community has focused limited research attention on women living with HIV infection. Data from studies of predominantly gay/bisexual men may not reliably be extended to women; studies of the natural history of HIV infection in women are needed. Obstetrician-gynaecologists are increasingly called upon to diagnose HIV infection in women and provide care in both clinical and research settings. In this review we discuss the serodiagnosis of HIV infection in women; the impact of pregnancy on HIV disease progression; transmission of HIV infection from mother to offspring; gynaecological infections and malignancies which may manifest differently in HIV-infected women; and clinical care of women living with HIV. PMID:8179538

  18. Neurologic presentations of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Singer, Elyse J; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Commins, Deborah; Levine, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS, has infected an estimated 33 million individuals worldwide. HIV is associated with immunodeficiency, neoplasia, and neurologic disease. The continuing evolution of the HIV epidemic has spurred an intense interest in a hitherto neglected area of medicine, neuroinfectious diseases and their consequences. This work has broad applications for the study of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, dementias, neuropathies, and CNS disease in other immunosuppressed individuals. HIV is neuroinvasive (can enter the CNS), neurotrophic (can live in neural tissues), and neurovirulent (causes disease of the nervous system). This article reviews the HIV-associated neurologic syndromes, which can be classified as primary HIV neurologic disease (in which HIV is both necessary and sufficient to cause the illness), secondary or opportunistic neurologic disease (in which HIV interacts with other pathogens, resulting in opportunistic infections and tumors), and treatment-related neurologic disease (such as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). PMID:19932385

  19. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development. PMID:26975128

  20. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. PMID:27348226

  1. AIDS awareness study.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, B

    1989-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control was given the responsibility for developing and disseminating information about AIDS. To that end, the Center retained Ogilvy & Mather Advertising to prepare an extensive public service campaign on the subject. In order to develop the most effective communication, research was needed to establish the level of public awareness and to explore attitudes toward this disease. The study presented here deals with the attitudes of women. It was conducted by Blanka Eckstein of B. Eckstein Qualitative Research and by Paul Murdoch, Research Director of Ogilvy & Mather Atlanta. Findings from other population groups (i.e., teenage boys, gay men, parents of teens) were reported by other researchers. Address correspondence to Blanka Eckstein Social Science Applications, 251 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016. PMID:10296128

  2. Marine Mammal Transmitter for porpoise tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, W. G.

    The Marine Mammal Transmitter (MMT) forms part of the equipment to be used in a worldwide Porpoise Tracking System. Knowledge of porpoise migration, distribution characteristics, and population estimates are needed to aid in protection of the porpoise. A major problem is suffocation of porpoises when they are caught in tuna purse seine fishing nets. Location of the porpoise can be determined to within + or - 5 kilometers. The MMT utilizes low power CMOS integrated circuits in timing and control circuits to extend battery life. The MMT with battery pack is contained in two cylinders which are two inches in diameter and 8.5 inches long. The unit is mounted to the porpoise's dorsal fin with a vertical quarter wave monopole antenna extending from one of the cylinders. A signal from the MMT is transmitted to the Nimbus satellite. From there the information is later transmitted to a ground receiver and a data processing facility.

  3. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  4. Quality of Slab Track Construction - Track Alignment Design and Track Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šestáková, Janka

    2015-05-01

    The slab track superstructure design (without ballast) is a perspective construction especially for building tunnels and bridges in the modernized sections of railway tracks in Slovakia. Monitoring of the structure described in this article is focused on the transition areas between standard structure with ballast and slab track construction.

  5. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  6. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    PubMed

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  7. Modeling and development of INS-aided PLLs in a GNSS/INS deeply-coupled hardware prototype for dynamic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tisheng; Niu, Xiaoji; Ban, Yalong; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    A GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system can improve the satellite signals tracking performance by INS aiding tracking loops under dynamics. However, there was no literature available on the complete modeling of the INS branch in the INS-aided tracking loop, which caused the lack of a theoretical tool to guide the selections of inertial sensors, parameter optimization and quantitative analysis of INS-aided PLLs. This paper makes an effort on the INS branch in modeling and parameter optimization of phase-locked loops (PLLs) based on the scalar-based GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system. It establishes the transfer function between all known error sources and the PLL tracking error, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the candidate inertial measurement unit (IMU) affecting the carrier phase tracking error. Based on that, a steady-state error model is proposed to design INS-aided PLLs and to analyze their tracking performance. Based on the modeling and error analysis, an integrated deeply-coupled hardware prototype is developed, with the optimization of the aiding information. Finally, the performance of the INS-aided PLLs designed based on the proposed steady-state error model is evaluated through the simulation and road tests of the hardware prototype. PMID:25569751

  8. Modeling and Development of INS-Aided PLLs in a GNSS/INS Deeply-Coupled Hardware Prototype for Dynamic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tisheng; Niu, Xiaoji; Ban, Yalong; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    A GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system can improve the satellite signals tracking performance by INS aiding tracking loops under dynamics. However, there was no literature available on the complete modeling of the INS branch in the INS-aided tracking loop, which caused the lack of a theoretical tool to guide the selections of inertial sensors, parameter optimization and quantitative analysis of INS-aided PLLs. This paper makes an effort on the INS branch in modeling and parameter optimization of phase-locked loops (PLLs) based on the scalar-based GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system. It establishes the transfer function between all known error sources and the PLL tracking error, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the candidate inertial measurement unit (IMU) affecting the carrier phase tracking error. Based on that, a steady-state error model is proposed to design INS-aided PLLs and to analyze their tracking performance. Based on the modeling and error analysis, an integrated deeply-coupled hardware prototype is developed, with the optimization of the aiding information. Finally, the performance of the INS-aided PLLs designed based on the proposed steady-state error model is evaluated through the simulation and road tests of the hardware prototype. PMID:25569751

  9. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health care ...

  10. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  11. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  12. School Teachers' Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Van; Spangler, Tracy

    A survey was conducted of 100 elementary and secondary teachers in northwestern Ohio concerning their knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results indicated a lack of basic knowledge of AIDS among the majority of respondents, with a mean score of 14 out of 21 points (67 percent). Several of the most frequently missed questions…

  13. Who Receives Federal Student Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Washington, DC.

    Information on federal student aid recipients by income, undergraduate and graduate level, and financial dependency status is presented for Pell Grants, campus-based programs, and Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL). Income data are reported for all aid recipients and for financially dependent and independent students for 1983-1984 and for 1976-1977,…

  14. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  15. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

  16. The Changing Face of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    The New Mexico AIDS Education and Training Center developed a self-guided Internet course to help New Mexico's rural health-care providers treat and counsel today's changing AIDS patients. The Center also provides on-site customized training to rural health-care providers, acts as an information center, and funds mini-sabbaticals during which…

  17. 75 Hour Nurse Aide Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This 75-hour nurse aide course has been designed to meet the training requirements of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 for aides working in nursing facilities and skilled nursing facilities. Emphasis in the course is on students achieving a basic level of knowledge and demonstrating skills to provide safe, effective resident care. The…

  18. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

  19. Visual Aids for English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Masahira

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for the use of the following visual aids are described: hand gestures, drawing diagrams on the blackboard, real objects, magnetic boards and pictures and charts. The aids help to maintain student interest and bridge the gap between drill and communication. (AG)

  20. Let's Talk about Teacher Aides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Since 1989, teacher aides have become a familiar part of our classrooms as they support students with special educational needs. International and New Zealand research shows that despite many teacher aide practices that effectively support student learning in inclusive settings, there are some practices that work against the inclusion of some…

  1. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    PubMed

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms. PMID:12282686

  2. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  3. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2014, ...

  4. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  5. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each track owner shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the following table: Track surface (inches) Class...

  6. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each track owner shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the following table: Track surface (inches) Class...

  7. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the track to which this part applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed...

  8. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the track to which this part applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed...

  9. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  10. Context exploitation in intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for detection and tracking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Jonathan D.; Stanfill, S. Robert

    2015-05-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions involve complex analysis of sensor data that can benefit from the exploitation of geographically aligned context. In this paper we discuss our approach to utilizing geo-registered imagery and context for the purpose of aiding ISR detection and tracking applications. Specifically this includes rendering context masks on imagery, increasing the speed at which detection algorithms process data, providing a way to intelligently control detection density for given ground areas, identifying difficult traffic terrain, refining peak suppression for congested areas, reducing target center of mass location errors, and increasing track coverage and duration through track prediction error robustness.

  11. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  12. Tracking the GLOMR satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, Keith W.; Oneil, Jason C.

    1987-01-01

    The task of day-to-day low orbiting satellite tracking utilizing the NAVSPASUR orbital elements is discussed and methods for improving pass time predictions are presented. Estimates are needed for preprogramming of satellite-initiated communications scheduling which requires an accuracy of approximately 30 seconds. This can be achieved by removing the variance associated with the NAVSPASUR D sub 2 (decay) term. Finally, the shock evidenced in GLOMR's orbit on February 7, 1986 is documented and attributed to a severe solar storm with immediately enhanced drag. GLOMR's life expectancy in orbit is now estimated to have dropped approximately 17% by the end of orbit in early February, 1987.

  13. Adaptive Objectness for Object Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pengpeng; Pang, Yu; Liao, Chunyuan; Mei, Xue; Ling, Haibin

    2016-07-01

    Object tracking is a long standing problem in vision. While great efforts have been spent to improve tracking performance, a simple yet reliable prior knowledge is left unexploited: the target object in tracking must be an object other than non-object. The recently proposed and popularized objectness measure provides a natural way to model such prior in visual tracking. Thus motivated, in this paper we propose to adapt objectness for visual object tracking. Instead of directly applying an existing objectness measure that is generic and handles various objects and environments, we adapt it to be compatible to the specific tracking sequence and object. More specifically, we use the newly proposed BING objectness as the base, and then train an object-adaptive objectness for each tracking task. The training is implemented by using an adaptive support vector machine that integrates information from the specific tracking target into the BING measure. We emphasize that the benefit of the proposed adaptive objectness, named ADOBING, is generic. To show this, we combine ADOBING with seven top performed trackers in recent evaluations. We run the ADOBING-enhanced trackers with their base trackers on two popular benchmarks, the CVPR2013 benchmark (50 sequences) and the Princeton Tracking Benchmark (100 sequences). On both benchmarks, our methods not only consistently improve the base trackers, but also achieve the best known performances. Noting that the way we integrate objectness in visual tracking is generic and straightforward, we expect even more improvement by using tracker-specific objectness.

  14. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  15. Tracking with the LHCb spectrometer: Detector performance and track reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuning, N.; LHCb Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    The LHCb experiment aims to measure CP violation and rare B-decays. For this, a tracking system is constructed consisting of a silicon micro-strip vertex locator close to the interaction point, and tracking detectors around a dipole magnet. The resulting tracking performance is estimated from simulation to yield 95% efficiency. The momentum and impact parameter resolutions vary between 0.35% and 0.5%, and 20 and 160 μm, respectively.

  16. Putting Off-Track Youths Back on Track to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Adria; Allen, Lili

    2011-01-01

    Back on Track, developed by Jobs for the Future, is a design for schools to not only re-engage off-track and out-of-school youths to graduate from high school, but also to put them on a clear, supported path to a college education. Two schools that have combined Back on Track with the early college model, in which students can earn both a high…

  17. Missile tracking and range safety: Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowgiallo, David J.; Rauen, Stephen; Peters, Wendy M.; Polisensky, Emil J.

    2013-05-01

    The tracking of missiles at close range proximity has been an ongoing challenge for many launch environments. The ability to provide accurate missile trajectory information is imperative for range safety and early termination of flight. In an effort to provide a potential solution to tracking issues that have plagued many traditional techniques, the Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS) was developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. The paper herein describes the design, field test, and results of an interferometer deployed for missile tracking.

  18. Peircean Decision Aid

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  19. Cassini Archive Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

  20. Integrated Management Tracking System

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronicmore » search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.« less

  1. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  2. Integrated Management Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Terrance

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronic search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.

  3. NORAD satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Joseph J. F.

    1987-01-01

    NORAD routinely tracks about 6000 orbiting objects. During the last 30 days of orbital time, prior to reentry, special perturbations are used in the orbital update procedure. Besides routine orbit determination, NORAD does special tasks such as predicting satellite orbit conjunctions within 20 km, ephimerides of weather satellites, satellite decay predictions and other studies. Since their mission is operational, they do not store the data from their analyses. The ballistic coefficient is not known for most of the orbiting objects. If a ballistic coefficient were derived that was consistent with one density model, it might give erroneous results if used with a different density model. Given the ballistic coefficient, density values could, in principle, be obtained from their tracking data. The densities would represent an integrated mean over the orbital path near perigee. They would be model dependent and would not necessarily represent the real density. In summary, the primary need is for reliable forecasts of solar flux (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity (Ap) in the 1 to 4 week time scale. Forecasts over longer time spans would also be useful for special projects.

  4. HIV / AIDS and the law.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights. PMID:12222382

  5. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  6. AIDS: what should we do?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A

    1990-08-01

    There is no 1 AIDS epidemic in the US. The 1st epidemic includes gay and bisexual men. The 2nd consists of intravenous (IV) drug users and their infants, pimps, lovers, and customers. The 3rd and most recent epidemic affects individuals who are exclusively heterosexual who have never had a blood transfusion, never used IV drugs, and have not had sex with those who did any of these things. The former director of the Center for AIDS Research in Baltimore, MD put out 8 proposals that, if implemented, would reduce the transmission of HIV and provide adequate medical care for AIDS patients. Health and educational professionals must develop improved AIDS education programs directed to those at risk. Since many of them are functionally illiterate, television should carry AIDS education messages. In addition, all AIDS prevention and educational programs need to be evaluated strongly so the country can focus on those activities which are most effective. Those who determine public policy should heed the advice of those who truly understand AIDS. Government, drug companies, and university scientists should all increase research to develop antiretroviral drugs that are not dependent on refrigeration, can be transported rapidly, and are inexpensive. Scientists also need to continue working on a vaccine and determine if an HIV vaccine can indeed immunize entire populations. Moreover affordable health care must be available to all AIDS patients. The present haphazard structure of AIDS treatment services must be recognized and integrated into a system that provides patients with coordinated medical and social services. Likewise, all research, treatment and education programs at federal, state, and local levels must be coordinated so that various players do not bicker over priorities. PMID:12283707

  7. Fighting AIDS the Cuban way.

    PubMed

    Hughes, N S

    1995-01-01

    Cuba is using elements of classical public health practice in its national AIDS control program. Its AIDS policy appears to be successful. Cuba has 927 HIV-positive cases and 187 AIDS cases (111 deaths) in a population of more than 10 million. Its neighbors have cumulative AIDS prevalence rates at least on par with those of the US. Puerto Rico (around 3 million population) has more than 8000 AIDS cases. Cuba's health system provides for a family physician for every 12 apartment blocks. This physician lives in the community and makes home visits. Medical testing and screenings, including HIV screening, are routine in Cuba. Cuba has the most comprehensive HIV testing program in the world. This program detects fewer than 125 new HIV-positive cases annually. Cuba's successful health system existed before the advent of AIDS. More than 60% of HIV-positive persons are heterosexuals. Many were infected while serving abroad (internationalists) or as sexual partners of internationalists. Cuba considered AIDS as just another health threat and handled it accordingly. It did not worry about offending high risk populations. HIV-infected persons living in the HIV/AIDS sanatoria receive full salaries regardless of their work status and are expected to follow rules that serve to benefit themselves as well as Cuban society. They must accept the three safe sex commandments of the sanatoria before being allowed to leave after completion of a 6-month probationary period. Some patients are allowed to return home after the probationary period. Residents who practice unsafe sex lose their right to leave unchaperoned. All residents receive an individually tailored regimen, which regimen includes exercise, interferon or AZT, and a high calorie and protein diet (5000 kc/day). The Cuban AIDS program focuses on protecting gays, women, and children. PMID:12319588

  8. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh. PMID:12285939

  9. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease. PMID:12284225

  10. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nariddh, M C

    1994-08-01

    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs. PMID:12345639

  11. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... and have resulted in a dramatic decrease in AIDS deaths in the U.S. NIH Research to Results ...

  12. How Young Children View Mathematical Representations: A Study Using Eye-Tracking Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, David; Barmby, Patrick; Raine, Stephanie; Gardner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that mathematical representations can aid children's understanding of mathematical concepts but that children can sometimes have difficulty in interpreting them correctly. New advances in eye-tracking technology can help in this respect because it allows data to be gathered concerning children's focus of…

  13. Expanding Support for Education in Fragile States: What Role for the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative? CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrent, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The new international aid architecture was established to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of development aid by emphasising country ownership, alignment with national priorities and the harmonisation of donor processes. These features are evident in the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative [EFA-FTI], a global partnership between donor…

  14. [The AIDS myth in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mosquera, B

    1997-01-01

    The lack of knowledge and awareness about HIV in Venezuela is causing anxiety. Most Venezuelans still believe that AIDS is a disease that only homosexuals get and others believe that it is a punishment from God. To take control of the situation, adolescents need to be given prevention education, and the government needs to stop the false rumors. The Latin American AIDS Koalition (LAAK) and Venezuelans in the United States are working on providing education to the public and medications to people living with HIV/AIDS in Venezuela. Telephone numbers are provided for more information. PMID:11364949

  15. Pathogenesis of AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Herndier, B G; Kaplan, L D; McGrath, M S

    1994-08-01

    The AIDS-associated lymphomas represent a heterogeneous set of disease processes. The largest histologic subset of lymphomas is the large-cell lymphomas, which represent a spectrum of disease processes ranging from monomorphic monoclonal B-cell proliferations to very polymorphic and polyclonal mixtures of B cells, T cells and macrophages. The next most frequent class of systemic lymphoma are the small non-cleaved cell or Burkitt's-like lymphomas. These are relatively monomorphic, monoclonal malignant B-cell proliferations. The final subset of lymphomas, which are likely to become more common as the AIDS epidemic progresses, are the primary CNS lymphomas, which are expansions of EBV-immortalized B cells. The high incidence of tumor-associated EBV in the CNS lymphomas makes these lesions somewhat analogous to an opportunistic EBV infection. In HIV disease there is a long lag after infection before the appearance of clinical manifestations of impaired T-cell immunity. During this period, both appropriate B-cell proliferation in response to antigen (including the ubiquitous HIV) and abnormal B-cell proliferation (autoimmune, dysregulated) occur as the follicular architecture is disrupted by the virus and potential APC are exposed and/or infected with HIV. The destruction of FDC or the involution of their processes could interfere with the elimination by apoptosis of low-avidity B-cell clones. Antigen-competent B cells with pre-existing chromosomal translocations such as the t(8;14) (c-myc, IgH) would have a selective growth advantage in this setting. Figure 9 shows a schematic representation of prelymphomatous and lymphomagenic events as they are projected to occur. A similar pathogenetic scheme has been postulated for follicular B-cell lymphomas: PCR studies have demonstrated that a pool of t(14;18) (IgH;bcl-2) B-cells are present in lymph nodes featuring follicular hyperplasia. In response to antigen (the evidence favoring antigen drive is extensive hypersomatic

  16. Solar Array Tracking Control

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D)more » convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed at compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  17. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  18. Novel lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Longbottom, C; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A

    2009-01-01

    Several non-invasive and novel aids for the detection of (and in some cases monitoring of) caries lesions have been introduced in the field of 'caries diagnostics' over the last 15 years. This chapter focusses on those available to dentists at the time of writing; continuing research is bound to lead to further developments in the coming years. Laser fluorescence is based on measurements of back-scattered fluorescence of a 655-nm light source. It enhances occlusal and (potentially) approximal lesion detection and enables semi-quantitative caries monitoring. Systematic reviews have identified false-positive results as a limitation. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence is another sensitive method to quantitatively detect and measure mineral loss both in enamel and some dentine lesions; again, the trade-offs with lower specificity when compared with clinical visual detection must be considered. Subtraction radiography is based on the principle of digitally superimposing two radiographs with exactly the same projection geometry. This method is applicable for approximal surfaces and occlusal caries involving dentine but is not yet widely available. Electrical caries measurements gather either site-specific or surface-specific information of teeth and tooth structure. Fixed-frequency devices perform best for occlusal dentine caries but the method has also shown promise for lesions in enamel and other tooth surfaces with multi-frequency approaches. All methods require further research and further validation in well-designed clinical trials. In the future, they could have useful applications in clinical practice as part of a personalized, comprehensive caries management system. PMID:19494675

  19. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Dual Antenna Joint Carrier Tracking Loop

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenfei; Lin, Tao; Niu, Xiaoji; Shi, Chuang; Zhang, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    In order to track the carrier phases of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals in signal degraded environments, a dual antenna joint carrier tracking loop is proposed and evaluated. This proposed tracking loop processes inputs from two antennas, namely the master antenna and the slave antenna. The master antenna captures signals in open-sky environments, while the slave antenna capture signals in degraded environments. In this architecture, a Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is adopted as a master loop to track the carrier phase of the open-sky signals. The Doppler frequency estimated by this master loop is utilized to assist weak carrier tracking in the slave loop. As both antennas experience similar signal dynamics due to satellite motion and clock frequency variations, a much narrower loop bandwidth and possibly a longer coherent integration can be adopted to track the weak signals in slave channels, by utilizing the Doppler aid from master channels. PLL tracking performance is affected by the satellite/user dynamics, clock instability, and thermal noise. In this paper, their impacts on the proposed phase tracking loop are analyzed and verified by both simulation and field data. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed loop structure can track degraded signals (i.e., 18 dB-Hz) with a very narrow loop bandwidth (i.e., 0.5 Hz) and a TCXO clock. PMID:26437415

  20. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Dual Antenna Joint Carrier Tracking Loop.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenfei; Lin, Tao; Niu, Xiaoji; Shi, Chuang; Zhang, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    In order to track the carrier phases of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals in signal degraded environments, a dual antenna joint carrier tracking loop is proposed and evaluated. This proposed tracking loop processes inputs from two antennas, namely the master antenna and the slave antenna. The master antenna captures signals in open-sky environments, while the slave antenna capture signals in degraded environments. In this architecture, a Phase Lock Loop (PLL) is adopted as a master loop to track the carrier phase of the open-sky signals. The Doppler frequency estimated by this master loop is utilized to assist weak carrier tracking in the slave loop. As both antennas experience similar signal dynamics due to satellite motion and clock frequency variations, a much narrower loop bandwidth and possibly a longer coherent integration can be adopted to track the weak signals in slave channels, by utilizing the Doppler aid from master channels. PLL tracking performance is affected by the satellite/user dynamics, clock instability, and thermal noise. In this paper, their impacts on the proposed phase tracking loop are analyzed and verified by both simulation and field data. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed loop structure can track degraded signals (i.e., 18 dB-Hz) with a very narrow loop bandwidth (i.e., 0.5 Hz) and a TCXO clock. PMID:26437415

  1. Discriminator aided phase lock acquisition for suppressed carrier signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, L. M.; Krasin, F. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A discriminator aided technique for acquisition of phase lock to a suppressed carrier signal utilizes a Costas loop which is initially operated open loop and control voltage for its VCXO is derived from a phase detector that compares the VCXO to a reference frequency thus establishing coarse frequency resolution with the received signal. Then the Costas loop is closed with the low-pass filter of the channel having a bandwidth much greater (by a factor of about 10) than in the I channel so that a frequency discriminator effect results to aid carrier resolution. Finally, after carrier acquisition, the Q-channel filter of the Costas loop is switched to a bandwidth substantially equal to that of the I-channel for carrier tracking.

  2. AIDing cancer treatment: Reducing AID activity via HSP90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rebhandl, Stefan; Geisberger, Roland

    2015-08-01

    The activation induced deaminase (AID) catalyses the two key events underlying humoral adaptive immunity: class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of antibody genes in B lymphocytes. AID accomplishes this task by directly deaminating cytosines within the genomic immunoglobulin locus, thereby triggering a complex mutagenic process eventually leading to improved effector function of antibodies. However, it has long been noticed that AID can be aberrantly expressed in cancer and that its activity is not absolutely restricted to antibody genes, as substantial genome-wide off-target mutations have been observed, which contribute to tumorigenesis and clonal evolution of AID-expressing malignancies. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Montamat-Sicotte et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 2365-2376] investigate the feasibility and efficacy of in vivo inhibition of AID with HSP90 inhibitors in a mouse model of B-cell leukemia and in vitro with a human breast cancer cell line, thereby demonstrating that cancer patients may benefit from preventing noncanonical AID functions. PMID:26151367

  3. Operator vision aids for space teleoperation assembly and servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thurston L.; Ince, Ilhan; Lee, Greg

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates concepts for visual operator aids required for effective telerobotic control. Operator visual aids, as defined here, mean any operational enhancement that improves man-machine control through the visual system. These concepts were derived as part of a study of vision issues for space teleoperation. Extensive literature on teleoperation, robotics, and human factors was surveyed to definitively specify appropriate requirements. This paper presents these visual aids in three general categories of camera/lighting functions, display enhancements, and operator cues. In the area of camera/lighting functions concepts are discussed for: (1) automatic end effector or task tracking; (2) novel camera designs; (3) computer-generated virtual camera views; (4) computer assisted camera/lighting placement; and (5) voice control. In the technology area of display aids, concepts are presented for: (1) zone displays, such as imminent collision or indexing limits; (2) predictive displays for temporal and spatial location; (3) stimulus-response reconciliation displays; (4) graphical display of depth cues such as 2-D symbolic depth, virtual views, and perspective depth; and (5) view enhancements through image processing and symbolic representations. Finally, operator visual cues (e.g., targets) that help identify size, distance, shape, orientation and location are discussed.

  4. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  5. Solar tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.R.; Scott, D.R.

    1981-04-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

  6. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  7. Microencapsulated cell tracking

    PubMed Central

    Arifin, Dian R.; Kedziorek, Dorota A.; Fu, Yingli; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; McMahon, Michael T.; Weiss, Clifford R.; Kraitchman, Dara L.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation of therapeutic cells has been widely pursued to achieve cellular immunoprotection following transplantation. Initial clinical studies have shown the potential of microencapsulation using semi-permeable alginate layers, but much needs to be learned about the optimal delivery route, in vivo pattern of engraftment, and microcapsule stability over time. In parallel with noninvasive imaging techniques for ‘naked’ (i.e. unencapsulated) cell tracking, microcapsules have now been endowed with contrast agents that can be visualized by 1H MRI, 19F MRI, X-ray/computed tomography and ultrasound imaging. By placing the contrast agent formulation in the extracellular space of the hydrogel, large amounts of contrast agents can be incorporated with negligible toxicity. This has led to a new generation of imaging biomaterials that can render cells visible with multiple imaging modalities. PMID:23225358

  8. Solar tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  9. The Tracking Meteogram, an AWIPS II Tool for Time-Series Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Jason Eric; Sperow, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A new tool has been developed for the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) II through collaboration between NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) and the NWS Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL). Referred to as the "Tracking Meteogram", the tool aids NWS forecasters in assessing meteorological parameters associated with moving phenomena. The tool aids forecasters in severe weather situations by providing valuable satellite and radar derived trends such as cloud top cooling rates, radial velocity couplets, reflectivity, and information from ground-based lightning networks. The Tracking Meteogram tool also aids in synoptic and mesoscale analysis by tracking parameters such as the deepening of surface low pressure systems, changes in surface or upper air temperature, and other properties. The tool provides a valuable new functionality and demonstrates the flexibility and extensibility of the NWS AWIPS II architecture. In 2014, the operational impact of the tool was formally evaluated through participation in the NOAA/NWS Operations Proving Ground (OPG), a risk reduction activity to assess performance and operational impact of new forecasting concepts, tools, and applications. Performance of the Tracking Meteogram Tool during the OPG assessment confirmed that it will be a valuable asset to the operational forecasters. This presentation reviews development of the Tracking Meteogram tool, performance and feedback acquired during the OPG activity, and future goals for continued support and extension to other application areas.

  10. FIESTA: An operational decision aid for space network fault isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Dawn; Quillin, Bob; Matteson, Nadine; Wilkinson, Bill; Miksell, Steve

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tolerance Expert System for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Applications (FIESTA) is a fault detection and fault diagnosis expert system being developed as a decision aid to support operations in the Network Control Center (NCC) for NASA's Space Network. The operational objectives which influenced FIESTA development are presented and an overview of the architecture used to achieve these goals are provided. The approach to the knowledge engineering effort and the methodology employed are also presented and illustrated with examples drawn from the FIESTA domain.

  11. Geo Issue Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, Mohammad; Paulik, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Communication about remote sensing data quality between data providers and users as well as between the users is often difficult. The users have a hard time figuring out if a product has known problems over their region of interest and data providers have to spend a lot of effort to make this information available, if it exists. Scientific publications are one tool for communicating with the users base but they are static and mostly one way. As a data provider it is also often difficult to make feedback, received from users, available to the complete user base. The Geo Issue Tracking System (GeoITS) is an Open Source Web Application which has been developed to mitigate these problems. GeoITS combines a mapping interface (Google Maps) with a simple wiki platform. It allows users to give region specific feedback on a remote sensing product by drawing a polygon on the map and describing the problems they had using the remote sensing product in this area. These geolocated wiki entries are then viewable by other users as well as the data providers which can modify and extend the entries. In this way the conversations between the users and the data provider are no longer hidden in e.g. emails but open for all users of the dataset. This new kind of communication platform can enable better cooperation between users and data providers. It will also provide data providers with the ability to track problems their dataset might have in certain areas and resolve them with new product releases. The source code is available via http://github.com/TUW-GEO/geoits_dev A running instance can be tried at https://geoits.herokuapp.com/

  12. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1996-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: First, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities. PMID:9462062

  13. Thailand's fear of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, S

    1995-07-01

    Because of a terrorist incident against Bangkok's Relief Center for HIV/AIDS Carriers, it is feared that a rising intolerance is occurring in Thailand. Such fears are damaging efforts to help those with HIV/AIDS. Misconceptions about the nature of HIV/AIDS continue to dominate Thai society. The Thai government is particularly worried that an overemphasis on HIV/AIDS will hurt tourism. According to the Population and Community Development Association, Thai people are infected with HIV at the rate of 500 per day and treatment costs may exceed $170 million a year by the year 2000. Unfortunately, the lack of nongovernmental institutions (other than Buddhist monasteries) and the lack of positive response from other Thai social institutions is driving relatives and friends to take care of the afflicted, and the terrorist attack shows that many Thai people are still unprepared for the challenge. PMID:11362731

  14. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... UNAIDS. Global AIDS Update 2016; 2016. ← Return to text UNAIDS. 2016 Core Epidemiology Slides ; 2016. UNAIDS. AIDSinfo ... available at: http://aidsinfo.unaids.org/ . ← Return to text WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF. Global update on HIV treatment ...

  15. AIDS in the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1988-01-01

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd

  16. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  17. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

  18. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  19. AIDS activists arrested in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-05-27

    Health activists in India are outraged over the arrests of 11 AIDS activists belonging to the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Sahyog. These AIDS activists were charged with obscenity and rioting. Rioting broke out when the local print media published details of a report entitled ¿AIDS and Us¿ that was produced by Sahyog in Hindi. The report tackled prevalent sexual practices, very low level of awareness, and other risk factors related to contracting HIV infection or developing AIDS in the rural areas of the Almora district. Critics charged the activists with destroying the image of the people of the region, portraying them as promiscuous and practicing high-risk sexual behavior. Consequently, Sahyog issued a statement of apology and promised to withdraw the report, but the district administration still banned their work in the area. Several NGOs also feel that the presentation of the report should have been more cautious. PMID:10827034

  20. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...

  1. Opportunity Egress Aid Contacts Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's egress aid touching the martian soil at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken after the rear lander petal hyperextended in a manuever to tilt the lander forward. The maneuver pushed the front edge lower, placing the tips of the egress aids in the soil. The rover will drive straight ahead to exit the lander.

  2. The deafening silence of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cameron, E

    2000-01-01

    For most of those attending the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, the Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered by Justice Edwin Cameron on Monday, 10 July 2000, was one of the highlights of the conference. The presentation is a passionate and compelling appeal to make medical care and treatment accessible and affordable to the more than 30 million people in resource-poor countries who face death from AIDS. PMID:11833178

  3. The history of AIDS exceptionalism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain. PMID:21129197

  4. Learning to track multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Tao, Dacheng; Song, Mingli; Zhang, Luming; Bu, Jiajun; Chen, Chun

    2015-05-01

    Monocular multiple-object tracking is a fundamental yet under-addressed computer vision problem. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for tracking multiple objects by detection. First, instead of heuristically defining a tracking algorithm, we learn that a discriminative structure prediction model from labeled video data captures the interdependence of multiple influence factors. Given the joint targets state from the last time step and the observation at the current frame, the joint targets state at the current time step can then be inferred by maximizing the joint probability score. Second, our detection results benefit from tracking cues. The traditional detection algorithms need a nonmaximal suppression postprocessing to select a subset from the total detection responses as the final output and a large number of selection mistakes are induced, especially under a congested circumstance. Our method integrates both detection and tracking cues. This integration helps to decrease the postprocessing mistake risk and to improve performance in tracking. Finally, we formulate the entire model training into a convex optimization problem and estimate its parameters using the cutting plane optimization. Experiments show that our method performs effectively in a large variety of scenarios, including pedestrian tracking in crowd scenes and vehicle tracking in congested traffic. PMID:25051561

  5. Retention Tracking Using Institutional Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillibridge, Fred

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a sophisticated approach for tracking student cohorts from entry through departure within an institution. It describes how a researcher can create a student tracking model to perform longitudinal research on student cohorts. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

  6. Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

  7. Tracking System for Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Webster, C. R.; Menzies, R. T.; Morrison, G. B.; Riccio, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Visible laser tracking system for infrared laser spectometer keeps probe infrared laser beam aimed at moving reflector, thereby keeping reflector image and return laser beam within spectrometer field of view. System includes tracking mirror tilted by stepping motors under microprocessor control to deflect beams toward continually changing reflector position.

  8. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  9. SRNL Tagging and Tracking Video

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-06-15

    SRNL generates a next generation satellite base tracking system. The tagging and tracking system can work in remote wilderness areas, inside buildings, underground and other areas not well served by traditional GPS. It?s a perfect response to customer needs and market demand.

  10. Manchester transition tracking loop (MTTL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cellier, A.; Ma, L. N.; Huey, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    In new tracking loop, separate phase detection algorithm is incorporated for acquisition; programmed acquisition-to-track sequence includes automatic bandwidth switching. Additionally, system has very effective phase detection signal-to-noise ratio and can operate at any rate by changing master clock frequency. All system parameters remain constant.

  11. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  12. Drift and proportional tracking chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, J. A.

    1980-11-01

    The many techniques exploited in constructing tracking chambers, particle detectors which measure the trajectories and momenta of charged particles, are discussed. In high energy interactions, the final states are dominated by closely collimated jets of high multiplicity, requiring good track-pair resolution in the tracking chamber. High energy particles deflect very little in limited magnetic field volumes, necessitating good spatial resolution for accurate momentum measurements. The colliding beam technique requires a device easily adapted to full solid angle coverage, and the high event rates expected in some of these machines put a premium on good time resolution. Finally, the production and subsequent decays of the tau, charmed and beautiful mesons provide multiple vertex topologies. To reconstruct these vertices reliably requires improvements in spatial resolution and track pair resolution. The proportional counter and its descendant, the drift chamber, are considered as tracking chambers. The physics of this device are discussed in order to understand its performance limitations and promises.

  13. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  14. Multiple vehicle detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betke, Margrit; Haritaoglu, Ismail; Davis, Larry S.

    1997-02-01

    A hard real time vision system has been developed that recognizes and tracks multiple cars from video sequences taken from a car driving on highways and country roads. Recognition is accomplished by combining the analysis of single image frames with the analysis of the motion information provided by multiple consecutive image frames. In single image frames, cars are recognized by matching deformable gray-scale templates, by detecting image features, such as corners, and by evaluating how these features relate to each other. Cars are also recognized by tracking motion parameters that are typical for cars. The vision system utilizes the hard real-time operating system Maruti which guarantees that the timing constraints on the various vision processes are satisfied. The dynamic creation and termination of tracking processes optimizes the amount of computational resources spent and allows fast detection and tracking of multiple cars. Experimental results demonstrate robust, real-time recognition and tracking over thousands of image frames.

  15. Constant magnification optical tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A constant magnification optical tracking system for continuously tracking of a moving object is described. In the tracking system, a traveling objective lens maintains a fixed relationship with an object to be optically tracked. The objective lens was chosen to provide a collimated light beam oriented in the direction of travel of the moving object. A reflective surface is attached to the traveling objective lens for reflecting an image of the moving object. The object to be tracked is a free-falling object which is located at the focal point of the objective lens for at least a portion of its free-fall path. A motor and control means is provided for mantaining the traveling objective lens in a fixed relationship relative to the free-falling object, thereby keeping the free-falling object at the focal point and centered on the axis of the traveling objective lens throughout its entire free-fall path.

  16. Teacher's Guide for Tracks. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, David; And Others

    This teacher's guide suggests activities that provide opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Methods are explained for using sets of 52 Track Cards which show life-size drawings of tracks made by 14 animals; sets of 10 large Mystery Track Cards with life-size drawings of the prints of large mammals; and a Track Picture…

  17. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  18. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  19. Predicting the course of AIDS in Australia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P J; Wilson, S R; Swanson, C E; Cooper, D A

    1990-10-01

    There have been urgent demands for knowledge about the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Australia. Accurate predictions are important for efficient allocation and planning of limited health-care resources. Ideal data for this purpose would be reliable knowledge of the past and present incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, since the incidence of the infection is unknown predictions can only be based on historical data of the incidence of AIDS. In this article, we show the limitations of such predictions by examining a broad range of mathematical models that successfully track the observed data (1187 cases diagnosed to December 31, 1988). In addition, we describe a simple method for prediction in subgroups where the numbers of cases observed so far are small. Four models representing different forms of departure from the simple exponential model provide the best fits to the Australian AIDS data. Regional variability and a possible effect resulting from the introduction of zidovudine were incorporated into the models. Significant regional variability in the course of the epidemic was observed between New South Wales, Victoria and the rest of the country. For Australia as a whole, the doubling time changed from less than one year before mid 1987 to more than two years after this time. Model fits were improved by fitting the models to just the four years of data from 1985. The models give comparable predictions for the first year (1989) of around 600 new cases. However, by 1993 the predictions vary considerably, ranging from 500 to 2300 new cases. It is predicted that between 3100 and 6700 cases are likely to be diagnosed in Australia between 1989 and 1993. The results from the subgroup prediction demonstrate that when the observed number of cases is small, then the range of predictions for a future time interval is very wide. For reliable long-term predictions that are necessary for public health planning, basic

  20. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors--I: Track Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Nand

    1991-01-01

    Heavily ionizing charged particles produce radiation damage tracks in a wide variety of insulating materials. The experimental properties of these tracks and track recorders are described. The mechanisms by which the tracks are produced are discussed. (Author/KR)