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Sample records for aids acquired immune

  1. Teaching AIDS: A Resource Guide on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia; Sargent, Pamela

    This document is a resource guide designed for teachers, youth leaders, and health educators as a practical and relevant approach to integrating information on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) into their existing courses. The curriculum is written in language appropriate for teenagers, junior college students, and the young adult…

  2. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and Employment Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    Protozoal and helminthic infections 1. Cryptosporidiosis 2. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (most common disease in AIDS victims) 3. Strongyloidosis 4...diagnosed with either a rare opportunistic infection (01), or cancer2 typically occurring only in individuals with severely compromised immune systems...disorder of the human immune system leading to enhanced susceptibility to particular opportunistic infections and certain cancers.5 In the immune

  3. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Hypotheses on the etiology.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T A

    1984-08-01

    AIDS could be caused by a mutant hepatitis B virus or even a prion-like agent. Hepatitis B, as a retro-like virus, might induce cancerous cells, which, like other malignant cells, could produce substances that inhibit macrophages and their activation of T-cells. Hepatitis B, by reverse transcription, might become a provirus in or adjacent to the Ir gene of the major histocompatibility locus (MHC) altering the Ia antigen on macrophages and inhibiting the immune response. A prion could by reverse translation produce a similar effect on the Ir gene or by protein----protein replication create new antigenic proteins which could confuse immune signals from the macrophages to T-cells; create enzymes modifying existing antigenic determinants; and create proteins not recognized as "self" that could initiate a frank, but subtle autoimmune phenomenon. Any one, or an interaction of these events, could create a "negative autoimmunity": the immune system would attack itself.

  4. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Brazil. Necropsy findings.

    PubMed

    Michalany, J; Mattos, A L; Michalany, N S; Filie, A C; Montezzo, L C

    1987-01-01

    According to the 15 autopsies performed at the Department of Pathological Anatomy, Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil, it was confirmed that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs preferably in young homosexual males, who die in a short period of time of the disease, which leads to a consumptive state verified by cachexia of the cadavers. The most affected organs of this series were the lungs and encephalum, exactly the ones responsible for the immediate cause of death. In this series of autopsies there were 9 types of microorganisms represented by virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans and two types of tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma of the central nervous system. From the microorganisms, the most frequent was the Cytomegalovirus and, from the tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma. The various types of microorganisms were frequently associated, principally in the central nervous and digestive systems. There was also association of microorganisms with tumors. Besides the lesions produced by microorganisms there were other associated alterations as brown atrophy of neuronia, which was related to the infiltration of cerebral lymphoma, and the lymphocytic depletion of lymphoid organs due to immunological exhaustion. Cellular reaction to microorganisms was practically none, principally with Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptococcus neoformans, the first one behaving as an inert mould in the pulmonary alveoli and the second proliferating freely in tissues. In two cases there was no granulomatous reaction to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The primary lymphoma of the central nervous system should be interpreted as a microglioma, i.e., a reticulosarcoma of this system according to Hortega's school.

  5. AIDS. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Curriculum Planning Guidelines: Elementary, Junior High, High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    The support materials in this guide provide background and content materials for school personnel and others to modify and use in their education programming on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) for K-12 students. The following support materials are included: (1) the U.S. Surgeon General's report on AIDS; (2) digest and reference guide to…

  6. AIDS Instruction about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Wisconsin Schools. Bulletin No. 8248.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taff, Laura

    This document provides a comprehensive framework for school districts to follow in developing instruction about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) within kindergarten through 12th grade health education programs. A curriculum progression matrix about AIDS is included. It lists student outcome objectives by grade level in the areas of…

  7. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)--complications in dental treatment. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Hurlen, B; Gerner, N W

    1984-04-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a new disease which has recently alerted the medical world. AIDS may also concern dental practitioners and oral surgeons who may be the first to suspect impairment of immunity in patients presenting opportunistic oral infections. Extraordinary resistance to treatment of dental infections, such as encountered in a 27-year-old man developing AIDS, could also be a sign of immunodepression. Epidemiological features of AIDS indicate transmissibility, and interim recommendations for prevention of spread correspond to the measures appropriate for hepatitis B.

  8. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HTLV-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena.

    This manual presents information about the disease, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and guidelines for service delivery to Montana residents who have been diagnosed with AIDS or related disorders. The first section describes the disease's causes, symptoms, and transmission; risk factors; high-risk populations; prevention suggestions;…

  9. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HIV. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena. Health Education Bureau.

    This volume consists of updated information to be inserted into a Montana AIDS Project manual on providing services to persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), originally published in December 1985. The updates are mainly statistics and terminology, along with the addition of several new sections.…

  10. An ongoing tragedy: the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Desai, B T

    1989-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has, to date, had only a minimal impact in India; however, given the low health status of the population and the lack of adequate health care facilities, the emergence of AIDS on a wider scale would be devastating. India's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity rate now stands at about 2-3/1000 people tested. In what is suspected to be a racially motivated move, the Government of India has embarked on testing all foreign students (most of whom are from Africa) for HIV and is returning all those who test seropositive to their countries of origin. Of concern is the steady increase in HIV infection in professional blood donors (1.5/1000 in late 1988). Mandatory screening of donated blood is prohibitively expensive in India, and none of the 9 companies that manufacture blood products in India test their donors for HIV infection. Another concern is the finding that 1 of every 6 prostitutes in Bombay is infected with HIV. The response of the Indian Government to the AIDS threat has tended to be punitive toward AIDS victims rather than based on a sound preventive strategy. For example, the 1989 AIDS Prevention Bill forces individuals who are infected with HIV to reveal their past sexual partners, empowers authorities to hospitalize AIDS victims and drug addicts, and contains no provisions to protect the human and civil rights of AIDS victims. The mass media have treated AIDS in a sensationalized manner rather than presenting scientific information about the prevention and transmission of the disease. It is essential that the Government of India--and all world governments--realize that punitive measures will do little to reduce the spread of AIDS. Needed, instead, is a global prevention and control effort based on generosity and compassion.

  11. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide 90 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Margaret

    This research guide presents a selected bibliography of federal government publications about the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These documents are listed in five categories: (1) Bibliographies (7); (2) Congressional Publications (69 hearings and reports); (3) Executive Branch Publications (43 reports); (4) Federal Government…

  12. Psychological support and counselling for patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D; Green, J

    1985-01-01

    The growing numbers of patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in England had led to the development of a counselling service for patients, their sexual partners, contacts, and others. The nature of the counselling is described with reference to the primary qualitative issues arising from diagnosis. The necessity for preventative education for patients and those at risk is stressed, and guidelines for low risk sexual activities are outlined. PMID:2991121

  13. Pathologic features of the liver in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Y; Liew, C T; Peters, R L; Govindarajan, S

    1986-06-01

    The livers of 26 adult males with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reviewed. The occurrence of portal tracts with diminished lymphocytes, probably reflecting generalized exhaustion of the lymphoid system, was a characteristic morphologic change, and was found in all cases. Kupffer cell hyperplasia was also a frequent finding and probably reflected generalized infection(s). Punched-out clusters of foamy histiocytes filled with acid-fast bacilli, typical for infection with Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAC), were found in three patients. In addition, MAC was cultured from two livers without the foamy histiocytic changes. Chronic viral hepatitis (three cases) and deposition of polarizable materials (one case) in the liver might be related to unusual habits of patients with AIDS. In conclusion, livers from patients with AIDS disclosed several kinds of lesions reflecting underlying or associated conditions in AIDS, but these did not contribute to the cause of death in our patients.

  14. Immunologic studies in asymptomatic hemophilia patients. Relationship to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Landay, A; Poon, M C; Abo, T; Stagno, S; Lurie, A; Cooper, M D

    1983-05-01

    Asymptomatic hemophilia patients receiving Factor VIII concentrate were found to have normal natural killer (NK) cells and B cells, and an inverted T helper/suppressor ratio due to an increase in cells of T suppressor phenotype. In contrast, a hemophilia patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) exhibited nonfunctional NK cells, low B cells, and an inverted T helper/suppressor ratio due to very low numbers of T helper cells. Hemophilia patients on cryoprecipitate therapy exhibited normal immune parameters. A high percentage of hemophilia patients on both treatments had antibody to hepatitis B virus. The isolated finding of elevated levels of T suppressor cells in hemophilia patients receiving Factor VIII concentrate has not been recognized as an early indicator of impending AIDS, and longitudinal studies will be required to determine its clinical significance.

  15. Active viral B hepatitis in parenteral drug abusers with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Leevy, C B; Nurse, H; Kapila, R

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-percent of 47 parenteral drug abusers with hepatomegaly and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome had HBV DNA in serum, although only 27% were HBsAg or "e" antigen-positive by polyclonal radioimmunoassay. Liver biopsies from each of 37 HBV DNA seropositive patients showed HBV DNA and were HBcAg-positive. The absence of positive HBsAg and "e" antigen in HBV DNA-positive patients was attributable to the presence of immune complexes; after in vitro dissociation of these complexes there was an increase in HBsAg from 24% to 86%, and of "e" antigen from 19% to 62%. These data indicate that actively replicating hepatitis B virus is common in patients with AIDS, and that precautions should be taken to prevent its dissemination. Therapy in these patients should address both human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B virus infections.

  16. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in leucocytes in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Lie-Injo, L E; Volberding, P; Golden, J A; Herrera, A R

    1985-01-01

    Earlier reported findings of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in white blood cells of patients with hepatoma, and in a patient with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, led to the examination of HBV DNA in a series of twenty three patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including nine with opportunistic infections and fourteen with Kaposi's sarcoma, by Southern blot hybridization method, using 32P labelled HBV DNA specific probe obtained by nick translation of HBV DNA cloned into plasmid pBR325. Four of the patients were found to be positive for HBV DNA or HBV related DNA in their leucocytes. The HBV DNA was found free or integrated in the leucocytes of the patients.

  17. Clinical and pathologic findings of the liver in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Glasgow, B J; Anders, K; Layfield, L J; Steinsapir, K D; Gitnick, G L; Lewin, K J

    1985-05-01

    Clinical data and histologic sections of the liver, including immunohistochemical studies for hepatitis B surface and core antigens, were reviewed in 42 autopsy cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Hepatomegaly, elevation of serum transaminases, and mild elevation of alkaline phosphatase were commonly observed clinical and biochemical abnormalities. Mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase and normal bilirubin levels were present in patients with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Histologic sections demonstrated liver involvement by MAI in eight cases; KS in six cases; cryptococcus in three cases; and CMV in two cases. One case of MAI infection was associated with marked central vein sclerosis, a finding previously unreported. Thirty-two (76%) of 42 cases had serologic or pathologic evidence of hepatitis exposure. Two patients had histologic evidence of chronic active hepatitis. The pathologic processes involving the liver appeared to be secondary to the infections and neoplasms for which this population is susceptible and did not significantly contribute to morbidity or mortality. No findings specific or pathognomic for AIDS were identified in the liver.

  18. Coping Strategies of Patients with Haemophilia as a Risk Group for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Brief Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji, Simon; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.…

  19. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  20. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  1. Addiction and sexually transmitted disease (STD), human immunodeficiency virus, (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): their mutual interactions.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Manuella

    2006-01-01

    We explore the links between substance use, misuse, addiction, and dependency1 and sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) to increase our awareness of their interdependence and to identify new ways to perceive, judge, and intervene (or not to) with associated problems. We consider the sociocultural and economic context in which these behaviors occur; the impact these behaviors have on one another; the personal opinions and attitudes; the religious, moral, or political beliefs and agendas; the physiological and fiscal constraints; and theories of rational decision-making and psychological motivation that act to increase or reduce the incidence of these behaviors and their sequellae, while hindering or facilitating prevention, harm reduction, and treatment interventions. Mechanisms of epidemic spread of STDS/HIV/AIDS are presented in the Appendix. Each of these terms are loaded "container concepts" that are culture-bound and stakeholder-driven and whose dimensions are less than consensus-based. They represent a range of meanings, uses, and misuses in an ongoing politicalized area of human and systemic functioning and adaptations.

  2. Gallium scans of the thorax in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): Description and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Le, G.; Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of distribution of gallium uptake in the thorax was investigated in patients (pts) with AIDS. Eleven pts (ages 18-53), all active homosexual males suspected of having acute pulmonary infection were studied. Ga lung scans were performed at 24-48 and/or 72 hrs. post injection. The diagnosis of AIDS was based on appropriate clinical and laboratory findings. The Ga activity in the lung was graded from zero = background to 4+ which is > liver activity. Eight of eleven pts have positive Ga scan while seven of eleven pts had positive CXR. Six pts had both positive CXR and Ga scan. One pt had a positive Ga scan with negative CXR, and one with positive CXR and negative Ga scan. The positive Ga scans included 3 pts with 4+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 2+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 1+ diffuse uptake, and two with hilar node uptake. Three pts have focal increased uptake superimposed on diffuse uptake. Two pts with 4+ diffuse uptake had mild abnormality on their CXR. One pt with 4+ uptake in the initial scan shows decreased activity on follow-up with clinical improvement after therapy. Thus, all but two pts with positive Ga scans had diffuse lung uptake. These two patients alone had B cell immunoblastic sarcoma and oral candidiasis. The pattern of Ga lung uptake in pts with AIDS reveal that a majority of positive scans are diffuse (6/8) and the intensity may suggest more active disease than CXR (2 normal) and, thus, the study may be useful in detecting changes from atypical pulmonary infection in this population.

  3. Communication and education as vaccine against the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Africa.

    PubMed

    Soola, E O

    1991-01-01

    Attention is focused on the segmentation of the audience (urban, rural, urban slum) and messages, and on how appropriate communication and educational strategies can be adopted to create awareness of AIDS among the African population. It is important to determine the scope, nature, and content of the message in addition to the delivery of these messages through proper channels. Channels of communication vary in reach and influence, and different segments of the population vary in the capacity to absorb information. Rural people are considered susceptible because of their penchant for continually using injections for treatment of any ailment; the source of concern is unsterilized needles and syringes. The semantics of AIDs is discussed to emphasize the problem of how to identify AIDs among the multiplicity of languages in individual countries. For instance, in Nigeria there may be 150-400 languages, and these languages lack systematically developed metalanguage and specialized vocabularies. The view that local language use must be one way, linear is accepted, and the difficulties surmounted. Local languages may be used to transmit information of a nontechnical nature. The literate minority should have access to detailed information on causes, modes of transmission, symptoms, treatment or management, but not everyone needs this extent of detail. The rural and urban residents should know about the incurability of the disease, the mode of transmission, its symptoms, and what should be done if someone is suspected of having an HIV infection. Already the Hausa of Nigeria have a term for AIDs, Karya-Garkuwa, which suggests a disease that breaks down the mechanism of the biological functioning of the body. Communicators must be knowledgeable and able to effectively transmit facts not myths. Of the 3 modes of transmission (sex, blood, mother to child), sexual transmission is the most important. Blood routes are through transfusions, contaminated blood products for

  4. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: review.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Cawson, R A; Porter, S R

    1986-07-19

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reviewed for dental practitioners, with an emphasis on oral findings; the clinical course, diagnosis, reporting, treatment, prognosis, transmission, and epidemiology are also covered. HIV infection has an incubation period that may be associated with glandular fever, a prodrome called AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) characterized by lymphadenopathy, low fever, weight loss, night sweats, diarrhea, oral candidosis, nonproductive cough and recurrent infections. AIDS is characterized by opportunistic infections. Over 50% present with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 21% with Kaposi's sarcoma, and 6% have both. The AIDS virus causes direct neurological symptoms in some cases. Oral candidosis (thrush) in a young male without a local cause such as xerostomia or immune suppression is strongly suggestive of AIDS. Other oral manifestations are severe herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, venereal warts, aphthous ulceration, mycobacterial oral ulcers, oral histoplasmosis, sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the jaw. Hairy leukoplakia, usually seen on the lateral border of the tongue, is probably caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Kaposi's sarcoma, an endothelial cell tumor, is characteristic of AIDS, and in 50% of patients is oral or perioral. Cervical lymph node enlargement will be seen in those with ARC as well as AIDS. No guidelines have been issued by the Department of Health and Social Security for dental surgeons in the UK for reporting AIDS cases. Although HIV virions have been isolated from saliva, there are no known incidents of transmission via saliva. HIV is less likely to be transmitted by needle stick injuries than, for example hepatitis B (25% risk), especially if the blood is from a carrier rather than a full blown AIDS case.

  5. Rhodoccocus Equi Pneumonia and Paradoxical Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

    PubMed Central

    Zijoo, Ritika; Dirweesh, Ahmed; Karabulut, Nigahus

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Rhodococcus equi pneumonia • paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome Symptoms: Cough • fever • shorthness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Case Report: A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R. equi. Although his initial response to antimicrobial therapy was optimal, he became symptomatic again in spite of continuation of antibiotics as he developed severe paradoxical IRIS 3 weeks after starting a new highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Conclusions: The diagnosis of IRIS remains challenging because of the wide variations in the clinical presentation and etiologies. In spite of its rarity as an opportunistic pathogen, we recommend that R. equi, an intracellular pathogen, be included in the differential list of pathogens associated with IRIS. PMID:28100903

  6. Induction of antibody to asialo GM1 by spermatozoa and its occurrence in the sera of homosexual men with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, S S; Sonnabend, J; Richards, J M; Purtilo, D T

    1983-01-01

    Compared to healthy homosexual and heterosexual men, homosexual men with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) possessed significantly higher levels of IgG antibody to the neutral glycolipid asialo GM1 (ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide) (P less than 0.01). Of 31 homosexuals with AIDS, 36% possessed levels of this antibody that were at least two standard deviations above the mean of the healthy men. Furthermore, asialo GM1 antibody could be removed from serum by adsorption with spermatozoa. Weekly rectal insemination of male rabbits with rabbit semen also led to the appearance of antibody to asialo GM1 by 15 weeks. These results suggest that asialo GM1 is a component of ejaculated spermatozoa and demonstrate that rectal insemination by itself can lead to the production of antibodies to this glycolipid in the rabbit. In addition, asialo GM1 antibodies may be of value as a serological marker for the early detection of individuals with AIDS. PMID:6652964

  7. A Case of Mycobacterium riyadhense in an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Patient with a Suspected Paradoxical Response to Antituberculosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Badreddine, Samar Assem

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old male patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented with clinical picture suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. He was commenced on antituberculosis therapy (ATT) with signs of improvement. Then he developed cervical lymph node abscess which was drained. Steroid was started for presumed paradoxical response to ATT which results in clinical regression. The culture result revealed Mycobacterium riyadhense. This report addresses the rarity of this bacteria in medical literature. It reviews clinical presentations and medical treatment particularly in the setting of coinfections. PMID:27703819

  8. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Veterans' Administration. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Hospitals and Health Care of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

    This document presents witness testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the role of the Veterans' Administration (VA) in combating AIDS. Opening statements are included from Representatives G. V. Montgomery, J. Roy Rowland, Joseph P. Kennedy, II,…

  9. AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987. Hearings on S. 1575: To Amend the Public Health Service Act To Establish a Grant Program To Provide for Counseling and Testing Services Relating to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and To Establish Certain Prohibitions for the Purpose of Protecting Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or Related Conditions. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document presents the text from two Senate hearings on the AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987 which concerns voluntary testing for AIDS virus, education and counseling to stop the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), and confidentiality and discrimination against AIDS victims. In the first hearing, opening statements are…

  10. Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Hospitalized Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad; Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Kouhpayeh, Hamid-Reza; Moazen, Javad; Farrokhian, Mohsen; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies show that nearly 40 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) around the world and since the beginning of the epidemic, about 35 million have died from AIDS. Heterosexual intercourse is the most common route for transmission of HIV infection (85%). People with a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to obtain HIV infection during sex. On the other hand, a patient with HIV can acquire other infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and also STIs. Co-infections and co-morbidities can affect the treatment route of patients with HIV/AIDs. Sometimes, physicians should treat these infections before treating the HIV infection. Therefore, it is important to identify co-infection or comorbidity in patients with HIV/AIDS. Objectives This study was conducted in order to understand the prevalence of HIV/AIDS/STI co-infection. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated all HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to the infectious wards of Boo-Ali hospital (Southeastern Iran) between March 2000 and January 2015. All HIV/AIDS patients were studied for sexually transmitted infections (STI) such as syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and genital herpes. A questionnaire including data on age, sex, job, history of vaccination against HBV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), HCV-Ab, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) test, and urine culture was designed. Data was analyzed by the Chi square test and P values of < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Among the 41 patients with HIV/AIDS (11 females and 30 males; with age range of 18 to 69 years) five cases (12.1%) had a positive test (1:8 or more) for

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Content in Introduction to Exceptionalities Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulk, David; Gessner, Linda J.; Koorland, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined textbooks used in introductory courses for teachers preparing to work with students with disabilities, determining the extent of HIV/AIDS content in five categories (e.g., individualized education plans and program planning, prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS, drug abuse prevention, and prevalence and background information about…

  12. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurring with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Hsu, C Y; Garen, P D; Goust, J M; Biggs, P J

    1984-08-01

    A 33-year-old homosexual man with symptoms and signs of a focal brain process was subsequently found to have an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with biopsy-proven progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This report reemphasizes the association of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with AIDS and probably is best viewed as another example of an opportunistic CNS infection complicating deficient cell-mediated immunity.

  13. Increase of the prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen related to immunodeficiency inherent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Ouattara, S A; Meite, M; Aron, Y; Akran, V; Gody, M; Manlan, L K; de-The, G

    1990-01-01

    During the period from January to December 1987, 2,191 serum samples were collected from different groups of the population in the Ivory Coast (1,126 healthy people selected from the general population, 416 blood donors, 112 healthy anti-HIV carriers, 173 AIDS patients, and 364 patients suffering from icterigenic hepatitis) and tested for anti-HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2) antibodies, HBsAg, HBeAg, delta antigen (HDAg), and anti-delta (anti-HD) antibody. Anti-HIV antibodies were found in 30 (2.6%) of the general population. 55 (13.2%) blood donors, and 93 (25.5%) patients suffering from icterigenic hepatitis. HBsAg was observed in 103 (9.1%) of the general population, 45 (10.8%) blood donors, 15 (13.4%) healthy anti-HIV carriers, 59 (34.1%) AIDS patients, and 45 (40%) icterigenous hepatitis patients. The simultaneous presence of anti-HIV and HBsAg was noted in 4 (0.4%) of the general population, 8 (2%) blood donors, 15 (13.4%) healthy anti-HIV carriers, 59 (34.1%) AIDS cases, and 36 (10%) patients suffering from icterigenic hepatitis. A high prevalence of HBeAg and serological markers of infection by the delta agent were noted in the different groups. HDAg was noted only among AIDS patients or those suffering from icterigenic hepatitis, with a higher frequency among anti-HIV carriers. Our conclusion from this study is that healthy anti-HIV carriers are no more likely to be HBsAg carriers than the HIV-seronegative subjects. However, immunodeficiency induced previously by HIV infection is likely to be responsible for the high prevalence of HBsAg among AIDS patients.

  14. Cryptosporidiosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D A; Wodak, A; Marriot, D J; Harkness, J L; Ralston, M; Hill, A; Penny, R

    1984-10-01

    Cryptosporidiosis was found in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The microbiological and morphological features of this newly recognized opportunistic infection are distinctive and diagnostic.

  15. Searching for the cause of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, R D

    1984-02-01

    An outbreak of unexplained immune deficiency associated with opportunistic infection and Kaposi's sarcoma is occurring in the USA and other parts of the world. Affected individuals with what had come to be known as the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have a high mortality. Epidemiological features suggest the presence of a transmissable agent, but no responsible agent has yet been identified. Homosexual and bisexual men make up 75% of these affected individuals. Cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr and herpes simplex viruses, organisms that commonly affect male homosexuals, may produce some features of AIDS. Individually or collectively, however, they can not account for the emergence of a previously unrecognized clinical syndrome. Hepatitis B is prevalent in patients with AIDS and may play a role as a co-factor in the disease. The properties of a number of other known viruses may provide a model for the pathogenesis of some features of the AIDS immunodeficiency. Newly described simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) is the best available animal model. In man, the retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) may play a role in AIDS. However, HTLV or any other known virus cannot yet be assumed to cause AIDS. It is likely that an as yet unrecognized agent is the key causative agent of AIDS.

  16. Acquired Immunity to Pathogenic Fungi.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    colonization of the nasal cavity, oral cavity or rectal area of the bacteria free guinea pigs. We allowed the infected animals (primary) to continue...canis, or T. mentagrophytes was able to colonize the bacteria free 6I tract, oral cavity, nasal cavity or lungs of2the girmfree rats: only T...the normal mice. The implanted thymus appeared-to suppress immunity to systemic candidiasis that was present in the athymic nude mice. We are going to

  17. The incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) in the Hospital "La Fe" of Valencia, Spain (1985-1989).

    PubMed

    Morales, M M; Llopis, A; Ballester, M L; Sanjuan, L

    1993-05-01

    We studied the incidence of TB and TB-AIDS in the area served by "La Fe" hospital in Valencia. We also studied the different evolution of the incidence of TB and TB-AIDS during the 1985-1989 period. We noticed the progressive increase of the incidence of TB in AIDS patients, while the incidence of TB without AIDS remained the same.

  18. Monocyte function in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Defective chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P D; Ohura, K; Masur, H; Lane, H C; Fauci, A S; Wahl, S M

    1984-01-01

    The ineffective immune response in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) contributes to severe and widespread infections and unrestricted growth by certain tumors. To determine whether monocyte dysfunction contributes to this immunosuppressed condition, we investigated monocyte chemotaxis in patients with AIDS. Using three different chemotactic stimuli, N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine, lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor, and C5a des Arg, we studied the chemotactic responses of monocytes from seven homosexual men with AIDS, three homosexuals with lymphadenopathy and an abnormal immunological profile, seven healthy homosexual men, and 23 heterosexual control individuals. Monocytes from each of the AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and/or opportunistic infection exhibited a marked reduction in chemotaxis to all stimuli compared with the healthy control subjects. The reduced chemotactic responses were observed over a wide range of concentrations for each stimulus. Monocytes from AIDS patients who had clinically apparent opportunistic infection(s) exhibited a greater reduction in monocyte migration to all three stimuli than monocytes from the AIDS patient with only Kaposi's sarcoma. Monocytes from each of three homosexuals with lymphadenopathy and an abnormal immunological profile exhibited decreased chemotactic responses that were intermediate between those of the AIDS patients and the healthy heterosexual control subjects. In contrast to these findings, monocytes from each of seven healthy homosexuals exhibited normal chemotactic responses to the same stimuli. In addition, monocytes from AIDS patients exhibited reduced chemotaxis to soluble products of Giardia lamblia, one of several protozoan parasites prevalent in AIDS patients. Thus the immune abnormality in AIDS, previously thought to involve only the T-, B-, and natural killer lymphocytes, extends to the monocyte-macrophage. Defective monocyte migratory function may contribute to

  19. [Thoracic manifestations of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, A; Zompatori, M; Chiodo, F; Costigliola, P; Ricchi, E; Colangeli, V; Canini, R; Gavelli, G

    1989-11-01

    AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) seems to be related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is characterized by severe T-helpers lymphocyte dysfunction. Many of the AIDS patients (47-70%) develop pulmonary manifestations, both infectious and neoplastic, in the course of their disease. In the Department of Infectious Diseases of our Hospital are studied many patients HIV+. Every year 246 seropositive new patients have been discovered. Among them we have studied 25 subjects with respiratory disease, by chest radiographs; successively, according to clinical picture, we have performed thoracic computed tomography, Gallium scintigraphy, fiberoptic bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy (TBB), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); the majority of these patients (68%) had AIDS, only 28% had ARC and 4% had PGL. In our experience, the diagnosed diseases were mainly infections (92%), and most frequently (52%) due to Pneumocystis carinii, alone or in association with other etiologic agents. We have not found pathognomonic radiographic abnormalities, but chest X-ray evaluated with clinical and laboratory data, may often be useful to obtain diagnostic indications and in order to determine a more specific and aggressive diagnostic approach.

  20. Transfusion-acquired AIDS in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yao, C; Wang, W W; Chung, Y M; Su, Y L; Liu, C Y; Chen, Y M

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be transmitted through blood transfusion. The first transfusion-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient in Taiwan was a 46-year-old woman who received two units of whole blood during a hysterectomy at a provincial hospital in 1985. In 1991, she experienced a herpes zoster infection. In March 1993, she had extensive herpetic gingivostomatitis and another herpes zoster attack, and was treated at the same hospital. Two months later, she had oral candidiasis and was treated at a medical center. She was not tested for HIV-1 infection until she developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in June 1993. In February 1994, and developed cytomegalovirus retinitis and died 6 months later. Donor blood given to the patients during the hysterectomy was HIV-1 positive. The donor's HIV infection was discovered in 1991 and he died of AIDS in 1993. As blood centers in Taiwan did not start screening for HIV-1 until January 1988, it is urgently recommended that any individual who received a blood transfusion between 1984 and 1987 in Taiwan and who currently experiences repeated episodes of opportunistic infections have an HIV-1 blood test. The receipt of a blood transfusion between 1984 and 1987 should be listed by the Department of Health as an indication for HIV-1 screening.

  1. Innate and acquired bacteriophage-mediated immunity

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jeremy J.; Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest

    2013-01-01

    We recently described a novel, non-host-derived, phage-mediated immunity active at mucosal surfaces, the main site of pathogen entry in metazoans. In that work, we showed that phage T4 adheres to mucus glycoproteins via immunoglobulin-like domains displayed on its capsid. This adherence positions the phage in mucus surfaces where they are more likely to encounter and kill bacteria, thereby benefiting both the phage and its metazoan host. We presented this phage-metazoan symbiosis based on an exclusively lytic model of phage infection. Here we extend our bacteriophage adherence to mucus (BAM) model to consider the undoubtedly more complex dynamics in vivo. We hypothesize how mucus-adherent phages, both lytic and temperate, might impact the commensal microbiota as well as protect the metazoan epithelium from bacterial invasion. We suggest that BAM may provide both an innate and an acquired antimicrobial immunity. PMID:24228227

  2. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  3. Introduction and immunopathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sudharshan, S; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2008-01-01

    India has a large number of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the third largest population of this group in the world. This disease was first described in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia in 1981. Ocular lesions can occur at any stage of the disease but are more commonly seen at the late stages. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS is a retrovirus with RNA genome and a unique 'Reverse transcriptase enzyme' and is of two types, HIV-1 and 2. Most human diseases are caused by HIV-1. The HIV-1 subtypes prevalent in India are A, B and C. They act predominantly by reducing the CD4+ cells and thus the patient becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections. High viral titers in the peripheral blood during primary infection lead to decrease in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Onset of HIV-1-specific cellular immune response with synthesis of HIV-1 specific antibodies leads to the decline of plasma viral load and chronification of HIV-1 infection. However, the asymptomatic stage of infection may lead to persistent viral replication and a rapid turnover of plasma virions which is the clinical latency. During this period, there is further decrease in the CD4+ counts which makes the patient's immune system incapable of controlling opportunistic pathogens and thus life-threatening AIDS-defining diseases emerge. Advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has revolutionized the management of AIDS though there is associated increased development of immune recovery uveitis in a few of these patients.

  4. Gastrointestinal surgery and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Weledji, Elroy P.; Nsagha, Dickson; Chichom, Alain; Enoworock, George

    2015-01-01

    Acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is becoming an increasing problem to the surgeon. The impact of HIV/AIDS on surgical practice include the undoubted risk to which the surgeon will expose him or herself, the atypical conditions that may be encountered and the outcome and long term benefit of the surgical treatment in view of disease progression. The two factors most associated with surgical outcome and poor wound healing were AIDS and poor performance status (ASA score). This article questions whether gastrointestinal surgical procedures can be safe and effective therapeutic measures in HIV/AIDS patients and if surgical outcome is worthy of the surgeon's ethical responsibility to treat. As HIV/AIDS patients are not a homogeneous group, with careful patient selection, emergency laparotomy for peritonitis confers worthwhile palliation. However, aggressive surgical intervention must be undertaken with caution and adequate peri-operative care is required. Symptomatic improvement of anorectal pathology may make delayed wound healing an acceptable complication. Alternatives to surgery can be contemplated for diagnosis, prophylaxis or palliation. PMID:25685343

  5. [Diagnosis and treatment of major protozoal infections among acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yin-Zhong; Lu, Hong-Zhou

    2008-04-01

    Protozoal infection is one of the most important opportunistic infections among patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In order to enhance the knowledge of protozoal infections in AIDS, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis, cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis and isosporiasis was reviewed in this paper.

  6. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A Preliminary Examination of the Effects on Gay Couples and Coupling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic significantly influences attitudes about life and lifestyles. Homosexuals have to give increased consideration to coupling, the nature of coupled relationships, sex and intimacy, and death long before the normal time. Discusses impact of AIDS on the early stages of gay coupling and on the…

  7. The evolution of resistance through costly acquired immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Michael; Bowers, Roger G.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the evolutionary dynamics of resistance to parasites through acquired immunity. Resistance can be achieved through the innate mechanisms of avoidance of infection and reduced pathogenicity once infected, through recovery from infection and through remaining immune to infection: acquired immunity. We assume that each of these mechanisms is costly to the host and find that the evolutionary dynamics of innate immunity in hosts that also have acquired immunity are quantitatively the same as in hosts that possess only innate immunity. However, compared with resistance through avoidance or recovery, there is less likely to be polymorphism in the length of acquired immunity within populations. Long-lived organisms that can recover at intermediate rates faced with fast-transmitting pathogens that cause intermediate pathogenicity (mortality of infected individuals) are most likely to evolve long-lived acquired immunity. Our work emphasizes that because whether or not acquired immunity is beneficial depends on the characteristics of the disease, organisms may be selected to only develop acquired immunity to some of the diseases that they encounter. PMID:15209105

  8. Hepatobiliary manifestations of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cappell, M S

    1991-01-01

    Patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) frequently develop hepatic dysfunction. Although hepatic injury may indirectly result from malnutrition, hypotension, administered medications, sepsis, or other conditions, the hepatic injury is frequently due to opportunistic hepatic infection, directly related to AIDS. Infection with Mycobacterium avium intracellulare typically occurs in patients with advanced immunocompromise and with systemic symptoms due to widely disseminated infection. In contrast, hepatic tuberculosis often occurs with less advanced immunocompromise. Cytomegaloviral infection may produce a hepatitis. Cytomegaloviral and cryptosporidial infections have been implicated as causes of acalculous cholecystitis and of a secondary sclerosing cholangitis. About 10-20% of patients with AIDS have chronic hepatitis B infection. These patients tend to develop minimal hepatic inflammation and necrosis. The clinical findings in patients with hepatic cryptococcal infection are usually due to concomitant extrahepatic infection. Hepatic histoplasmosis usually develops as part of a widely disseminated infection with systemic symptoms. Hepatic involvement by Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely documented ante mortem because an unguided liver biopsy is an insensitive diagnostic procedure. Patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver typically have lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and systemic symptoms. As a pragmatic approach, patients with liver dysfunction and HIV-related disease should have a sonographic or computerized tomographic examination of the liver. Patients with dilated bile ducts should undergo endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography because opportunistic infection may produce biliary obstruction. Patients with a focal hepatic lesion should be considered for a guided liver biopsy. Patients with a significantly elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level should be considered for a percutaneous liver biopsy. When performed for these

  9. Atopic manifestations in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: response to recombinant interferon gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, J M; Eales, L J; Galazka, A R; Pinching, A J

    1987-01-01

    Six patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) had exacerbations or recurrences of previously quiescent atopic disease when they developed immunodeficiency. Four developed a different atopic illness from that suffered previously. Atopic symptoms developed within three months after the patients developed AIDS or during prodromal illness. Two of the patients were treated with recombinant interferon gamma: both showed a striking improvement in symptoms and cellular immunity. These results indicate that cellular immunity, through interferon gamma, may have a role in regulating atopic disease. PMID:3109572

  10. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Yusuf, Nabiha Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-11-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8{sup +} T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4{sup +} T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents.

  11. Heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Detection by gallium scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Drane, W E; Tipler, B M

    1987-06-01

    A case of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) secondary to the central nervous system complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. Because of the overwhelming suspicion of infection in this patient, this diagnosis was not considered until a gallium scan revealed the typical findings of heterotopic ossification. Because of the increasing utilization of gallium imaging in the AIDS population, every imaging specialist should be aware of this potential disorder.

  12. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  13. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  14. Kaposi's sarcoma of the head and neck in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patow, C A; Steis, R; Longo, D L; Reichert, C M; Findlay, P A; Potter, D; Masur, H; Lane, H C; Fauci, A S; Macher, A M

    1984-06-01

    Since 1981 a new syndrome of acquired immune deficiency (AIDS) has been recognized. Male homosexuals, male and female intravenous drug abusers, and recipients of blood products (i.e., hemophiliacs) appear to be the populations at risk. The syndrome has been manifested by community-acquired opportunistic infections and/or Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Otolaryngologic manifestations of AIDS are not infrequent. Thirteen AIDS patients at the National Institutes of Health with KS of the head and neck region are presented. All 13 patients were homosexual or bisexual males. Nine initially presented with KS, five with KS of the head or neck. As a group the patients demonstrated lesions involving the oropharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and gastrointestinal regions. Their clinical course and complications are presented in detail. The mortality rate in this subgroup of AIDS patients is extraordinarily high (62%), with an average longevity of 11 months following initial diagnosis.

  15. Select Personality Characteristic Differences between Caregivers for Persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Caregivers for Other Types of Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Daniel Scott; Heritage, Jeannette

    The purpose of this study was to analyze select personality characteristics of individuals working within the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) population in comparison to non-AIDS caregivers by using two personality assessment instruments. Subjects were from two health care provider populations. Two hundred research packets were…

  16. Disseminated varicella zoster virus in an immunized child as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness.

    PubMed

    Chilek, Katherine; Routhouska, Shannon; Tamburro, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) immunization aids in the prevention of future VZV infections in immunocompetent patients; however, severely immunocompromised patients remain at increased risk of VZV infection. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy previously immunized to Varicella who presented with herpes zoster with hematogenous dissemination as the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-defining illness. Disseminated VZV is more commonly seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with more advanced disease, as was the case with our patient. Disseminated VZV infection in a previously immunized child should raise suspicion for underlying immunosuppression.

  17. Polymorphous hemangioendothelioma in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Paul, Stephan R; Hurford, Matthew T; Miettinen, Markku M; Aronoff, Stephen C; Delvecchio, Michael; Grewal, Harsh; Tuluc, Madalina

    2008-03-01

    Polymorphous hemangioendotheliomas (PH) are rare and borderline malignant tumors that are among the wide range of vascular tumors. We report here a 13-year-old male presenting with a history of weight loss, opportunistic infections, and lymphadenopathy. He was determined to be HIV positive and to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A biopsy of a femoral node was diagnostic of PH. His systemic lymphadenopathy appeared to resolve with anti-retroviral therapy. This tumor should be considered within the differential diagnoses of pediatric and immunocompromised patients.

  18. Inital observations of the effect of radiotherapy on epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. [Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.S.; Fried, P.R.; Laubenstein, L.J.

    1984-08-17

    Fifteen patients who had Kaposi's sarcoma in conjunction with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) received radiotherapy to a total of 17 selected lesions. All tumors exhibited at least partial regression, and the majority responded completely. The radiosensitivity of these lesions is similar to that observed in the classic form of the disease. The authors conclude that in appropriately selected cases radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of choice.

  19. Endocrine disorders in Brazilian patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Rosita; Vangeloti, Andréa; Pires, Maria Lucia; Lima, Mário B C; Dimetz, Trude; Faulhaber, Marcelo; Faria, Raul; Meirelles, Ricardo M

    2003-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first reported in Brazil in 1980. In 1997, its incidence was 147 per million and then declined to 90 per million in 2000. Abnormalities of endocrine organ systems occur frequently in patients with AIDS. We evaluated mineralcorticoid, glucocorticoid, and thyroid hormone axes and glucose and insulin responses to a standardized oral glucose dose in healthy individuals; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive, asymptomatic individuals; HIV-infected patients with general lymphadenopathy, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, nocturnal sweating, and weight loss; and HIV-infected patients diagnosed with secondary infectious diseases or neoplasms. Baseline cortisol levels in the patients with AIDS were significantly higher than those in healthy control subjects. However, after adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation, cortisol levels were significantly lower in HIV-infected patients. Insulin concentrations were significantly higher after the glucose load in HIV-infected asymptomatic than in patients with AIDS. There were no significant differences in mineralocorticoid or thyroid function among groups.

  20. Erythema elevatum diutinum in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Can it be an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Sheethal K; Marfatia, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented with multiple hyperpigmented papules and nodules on both ankles, dorsum of bilateral feet and soles. It was associated with mild itching and pain. The patient was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2007. First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 2009 to which he responded initially. He was shifted to second-line ART 11 months ago in March 2015 due to treatment failure as suggested by CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3. The present skin lesions started 2 months after the initiation of second-line ART. Differential diagnoses considered were Kaposi's sarcoma and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) related infections, but biopsy was suggestive of erythema elevatum diutinum (EED). Patient was started on oral dapsone 100 mg/day and increased to 200 mg/day to which he is responding gradually. In the present case, appearance of the lesions after initiation of second-line ART coupled with increase in CD4 count and decrease of viral load below undetectable level suggest that EED could be an IRIS. PMID:27190420

  1. The liver in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: emphasis on patients with intravenous drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, B M; Stahl, R E; Giardina, M A; Wormser, G P; Weiss, L; Jankowski, R; Rosenthal, W S

    1987-03-01

    To assess the spectrum of hepatic abnormalities in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), we reviewed clinical, biochemical, and pathological material in 32 patients with AIDS. Eight-four percent of AIDS cases had a history of intravenous drug abuse. Ninety percent of AIDS patients has some liver biochemical abnormality at the first presentation of illness. During the course of AIDS, significant (p less than 0.05, paired Student's t test) rises in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin occurred, without rises in aminotransferases. Mean abnormalities were mild, reflecting approximately 2-fold increases over baseline. Liver failure was not believed to contribute to the death of any AIDS patient. Pathological findings in AIDS included specific infectious diagnosis in 26%, granulomas in 16%, hemosiderosis in 26%, nonspecific abnormalities in 39%, cirrhosis in 23%, and chronic active hepatitis in 3%. AIDS cases were also compared to 10 selected age, sex, and epidemiologically similar non-AIDS patients. Although granulomas or infections were not seen in our comparison group, only the incidence of chronic active hepatitis was significantly different between the groups. If only those with intravenous drug abuse were studied, then none of 24 AIDS patients versus four of eight non-AIDS cases (p less than 0.005) had chronic active hepatitis. AIDS patients with specific hepatic infections tended to have a higher alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase (p less than 0.05) than noninfected cases. However, substantial overlap existed, and no difference in hepatomegaly was noted. Ninety percent of AIDS patients were ingesting at least one potentially hepatotoxic drug. We conclude that AIDS patients have a high incidence of underlying hepatic abnormalities. However, clinical and biochemical abnormalities are similar in our selected liver biopsy patients with intravenous drug abuse with or without AIDS. As expected, AIDS patients have a higher incidence of hepatic

  2. Effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Ji-Ping; Xu, Li-Ran

    2015-12-23

    Substantial progress has been made in China in using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our objective was to review the latest developments in TCM treatment of AIDS in China between 2004 and 2014. We reviewed the content of original articles investigating the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS published in Chinese and English language journals. Relevant references from 2004 to 2014 were found using PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database. We found that TCM has been widely used for treating AIDS and its complications in China. The number of TCM studies has increased, which indicates efficacy and safety. Measures of efficacy in the reviewed articles included the alleviation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related signs and symptoms, improvements in quality of life, improvements in long-term survival, counteraction of the adverse side effects of antiviral drugs, promotion of immune reconstitution, and improvement of laboratory results. In sum, the literature indicates that TCM is safe. TCM plays an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Some studies have attempted to measure the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS, but more evidence is needed. Therefore, more research on this topic is required in the future.

  3. Hepatic disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Lodenyo, Hudson; Segal, Issy

    2004-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is now the leading cause of death in the world. Liver involvement in opportunistic infections and neoplasms affecting patients with human immunodeficiency disease syndrome are common. Many of these patients also take many medicines and toxins that are potentially harmful to the liver. This is an overview on the aetiology and possible diagnostic guide to determine liver involvement in patients with HIV infection. A literature review was performed on major published series on the liver and HIV infection between 1985 and 1999, both years inclusive. Data and opinions from 5 general reviews and 31 original articles from MEDLINE on liver disease in patients with HIV infection regarding aetiology, pathology, presentation and patient evaluation are summarised. The liver is frequently affected in patients with AIDS. The majority of the patients have hepatomegaly and abnormal liver enzymes secondary to involvement with opportunities infections, AIDS associated neoplasms and drug therapy. Most of the infections reach the liver by lymphohaematogeneous spread from other sites in the body. Methodical approach in patient evaluation is therefore essential for prompt diagnosis and treatment to minimise morbidity and early mortality.

  4. Histopathologic features of the liver in pediatric acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jonas, M M; Roldan, E O; Lyons, H J; Fojaco, R M; Reddy, R K

    1989-07-01

    Autopsy and liver biopsy specimens from 30 pediatric patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) were retrospectively reviewed. Of 28 cases with histologic abnormalities, the following findings were noted singly or in combination: giant-cell transformation, cytomegalovirus inclusions, Kaposi's sarcoma, diffuse lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate, granulomatous hepatitis, mild portal inflammation, necrosis around central veins, steatosis, and cholestasis. For the most part, abnormalities in the liver were not predictive of those in other organs, but the two children with the diffuse parenchymal lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate also had lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP). Liver histopathology in pediatric patients with AIDS shares some features with that in adults, but appreciable differences are noted. In particular, these differences include the higher frequency of giant-cell transformation and the lower frequency of granulomas in children and the observation of diffuse lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate associated with LIP.

  5. Findings in psychiatric consultations with patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dilley, J W; Ochitill, H N; Perl, M; Volberding, P A

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen of 40 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) admitted to the wards of a large city hospital were seen by the staff of a psychiatric consultation service. Eleven were gay men and two were bisexual men. "Depression" was the stated reason for referral of 10 patients; of these, two met DSM-III criteria for major depression, one had dysthymic disorder, and seven had adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Recurrent psychological themes of the 13 patients were: dealing with a life-threatening illness, uncertainty about the implications of an AIDS diagnosis, social isolation, and guilt over their previous life style. The role of the primary physician and of the mental health professional in the psychological care of AIDS patients is discussed.

  6. Modulation of host immunity and reproduction by horizontally acquired Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Pigeault, Romain; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Marcadé, Isabelle; Mappa, Gaëtan; Mottin, Elmina; Sicard, Mathieu

    2014-11-01

    The Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria vertically transmitted from one host generation to another. However, a growing amount of data shows that horizontal transfers of Wolbachia also frequently occur within and between host species. The consequences of the arrival of new symbionts on host physiology can be studied by their experimental introduction in asymbiotic hosts. After experimental transfers of the eight major isopod Wolbachia strains in the isopod Porcellio dilatatus only two of them (wCon and wDil) were found to (1) have no pathogenic effect on the host and (2) be able to pass vertically to the host offspring. In the present work, we studied the influence of these two strains, able to complete an horizontal transfer, on immunity and reproduction of P. dilatatus at two stages of the transfer: (1) in recipient hosts that encounter the symbionts: to test the influence of symbiont when acquired during host life and (2) in vertically infected offspring: to test the influence of a symbiotic interaction occurring all lifelong. The impact of Wolbachia varied depending on the stage: there were clearer effects in vertically infected individuals than in those that acquired the symbionts during their lives. Moreover, the two Wolbachia strains showed contrasted effects: the strain wCon tended to reduce the reproductive investment but to maintain or increase immune parameters whilst wDil had positive effects on reproductive investment but decreased the investment in some immune parameters. These results suggest that horizontally acquisition of Wolbachia can influence the balance between host immune and reproductive traits.

  7. Acquired TTP: ADAMTS13 meets the immune system.

    PubMed

    Verbij, Fabian C; Fijnheer, Rob; Voorberg, Jan; Sorvillo, Nicoletta

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the patients affected by acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) develop autoantibodies directed towards ADAMTS13 that interfere with its von Willebrand Factor (VWF) processing activity. B cell responses have been shown to primarily target the spacer domain of ADAMTS13 thereby prohibiting the binding of ADAMTS13 to the VWF A2 domain. In this review we summarize recent knowledge gained on the immune recognition and processing of ADAMTS13 by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). HLA-DRB1*11 has been identified as a risk factor for acquired TTP. Analysis of MHC class II/peptide complexes of ADAMTS13 pulsed dendritic cells have shown that the CUB2 domain derived peptide FINVAPHAR is preferentially presented on HLA-DRB1*11. Based on these findings we propose a model for the initiation of the autoimmune reactivity against ADAMTS13 in previously healthy individuals. We hypothesize that mimicry between a pathogen-derived peptide and the CUB2 derived FINVAPHAR-peptide might contribute to the onset of acquired TTP.

  8. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: recommendations of a Working Party of the Hospital Infection Society.

    PubMed

    Speller, D C; Shanson, D C; Ayliffe, G A; Cooke, E M

    1990-01-01

    Unified procedures to control those infections that are transmitted by inoculation of blood are recommended. These should be applied to patients with acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), AIDS-related complex, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy or hepatitis B, those with serological evidence of infection by human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B virus, and those in medical and social categories with a higher than average prevalence of such infections. When the identification of these categories of patient would be particularly difficult, the precautions should be applied to all patients, in situations of high risk for inoculation incidents. Rational infection-control measures, based on the known mode of spread, permit efficient management of infected patients, with satisfactory protection of staff and other patients.

  9. Social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S K; Nedjat, S; Jabbari, H; Saiepour, N; Heris, M J

    2015-12-13

    This study investigated the social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the associated factors. In a cross-sectional study the Integrated Social Capital Questionnaire was filled by a sequential sample of 300 patients visiting a referral counselling centre in Tehran. The patients' social capital scores were around 50% in the trust, social cohesion, collective action and cooperation and political empowerment domains. The groups and networks membership domain scored the lowest (27.1%). In regression analysis, employment status was significantly associated with groups and networks membership; age, marital status and financial status were associated with collective action and cooperation; period of disease awareness and marital status affected social cohesion and inclusion; and having risky behaviour affected empowerment and political action. Efforts are needed to enhance the social capital of those patients living with AIDS who are younger, unemployed, divorced/widowed, with risky behaviours and shorter disease awareness.

  10. Speculations on the viral etiology of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Conant, M A

    1984-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) appeared in the United States in late 1978 and has spread at an epidemic rate through the four major coastal cities of this country. The disease appears to show the same epidemiologic distribution as hepatitis B virus infection, and for this reason, most investigators feel that this new disease is caused by a blood-borne sexually transmitted virus. A number of viral agents have been suggested as the cause of AIDS, but to date, no virus has been consistently isolated. The most likely candidate is a retrovirus that has recently been introduced into the human population and has found its way into two extremely high-risk groups, namely, promiscuous male homosexuals and intravenous drug abusers. The relationship between Kaposi's sarcoma and cytomegalovirus is still unclear, but evidence is mounting that cytomegalovirus may be the agent that initiates this multifocal malignancy. Multiple factors must be involved in this process. It is known that some immunosuppressed individuals develop Kaposi's sarcoma, which completely resolves when the immunosuppression is reversed; however, in individuals with classical Kaposi's sarcoma, the profound degree of helper T-cell depression that characterizes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome is not seen.

  11. Role of vitamin D in acquired immune and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Delvin, Edgard; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Viard, Jean-Paul; Salle, Bernard

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin D has been attributed roles in the pathogenesis and prevention of several diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, autism and autoimmune diseases. The concomitant expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase and of the vitamin D3 receptor in animal and human tissues and organs other than bone supports this paradigm. Translated into the clinical field, meta-analyses and systematic reviews have also revealed an association between vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and non-osseous diseases. Although relying on the large databases, they are diverse in nature and involve participants of varying age and evolving in different environments. Furthermore, they do not allow any analysis of a possible causal relationship between vitamin D supplementation and clinical outcomes. Following a brief historical account, this review addresses these caveats, and gives examples of randomized controlled trials conducted in the fields of acquired immune and autoimmune diseases.

  12. Do all creatures possess an acquired immune system of some sort?

    PubMed

    Rimer, Jacob; Cohen, Irun R; Friedman, Nir

    2014-03-01

    Recent findings have provided evidence for the existence of non-vertebrate acquired immunity. We survey these findings and propose that all living organisms must express both innate and acquired immunity. This is opposed to the paradigm that only vertebrates manifest the two forms of immune mechanism; other species are thought to use innate immunity alone. We suggest new definitions of innate and acquired immunity, based on whether immune recognition molecules are encoded in the inherited genome or are generated through somatic processes. We reason that both forms of immunity are similarly ancient, and have co-evolved in response to lifestyle, cost-benefit tradeoffs and symbiosis versus parasitism. However, different species have evolved different immune solutions that are not necessarily genetically related, but serve a similar general function - allowing individuals to learn from their own immune experience; survival of species is contingent on the acquired immune experience of its individuals.

  13. Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sudharshan, S

    2008-01-01

    Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. They can be severe leading to ocular morbidity and visual handicap. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person. Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS. This in turn has led to an increase in the prevalence of anterior segment and adnexal disorders. Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi′s sarcoma. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise. Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye. This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population. PMID:18711264

  14. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  15. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  16. Liver biopsies in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: influence of endemic disease and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Comer, G M; Mukherjee, S; Scholes, J V; Holness, L G; Clain, D J

    1989-12-01

    A retrospective review of 48 liver biopsies in 34 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 10 patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC) was performed at Harlem Hospital Center to assess the diagnostic yield of liver biopsies in this distinct patient population. Among the patients, 93.2% were black and 32 were males, with a mean age of 36.7 yr. Intravenous drug abuse was a risk factor for AIDS in 81.8% of patients. Liver biopsies were particularly useful in patients with fever of unclear origin, which was positively correlated with the presence of granulomas (p = 0.01). Granulomas due to mycobacteria were present in 16 (33.3%) of the biopsies. Liver biopsy proved to be clinically significant in 14 of 17 patients (82.3%) with mycobacterial disease, or 29.3% of the liver biopsies. Chronic active hepatitis was present in 12 (29.2%) of the biopsies, and in all but one was due to non-A non-B hepatitis viruses. All patients with chronic active hepatitis were intravenous drug abusers or the sexual partners of intravenous drug abusers. Liver biopsy can provide important diagnostic information in AIDS patients. The pathological findings in this series reflect the high risk of exposure to tuberculosis and hepatitis in the intravenous drug abusers in Harlem.

  17. Invasive fungal infections among inpatients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome at a Chinese university hospital.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yin Zhong; Qi, Tang Kai; Ma, Jian Xin; Jiang, Xue Yan; Wang, Jiang Rong; Xu, Qing Nian; Huang, Qin; Liu, Xi Nian; Sun, Hong Qing; Lu, Hong Zhou

    2007-11-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), however, little is known about the clinical features and prognosis of IFI in AIDS in China. This study aimed to characterise the clinical features and prognosis of IFI in AIDS patients in China. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all HIV-infected patients at a Chinese university hospital between December 2004 and May 2006. We identified 35 patients with IFI. IFIs included thrush, oesophageal candidiasis, fungal pneumonia, cryptococcosis, penicilliosis and fungaemia, 44.4% of IFIs occurred in the digestive tract, 71.8% of IFIs occurred in patients with CD4(+)T-lymphocyte counts <100 cells mm(-3). Candida albicans accounted for 57.4% of fungal pathogens isolated. All the patients received both antiretroviral and antifungal therapy; 27 patients were cured and eight died. IFI is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients in China. IFIs mainly occur in patients with low CD4(+)T-lymphocyte counts. The majority of IFIs occur in the digestive tract. The most common pathogen causing IFI is C. albicans. The mortality rate remains high although antiretroviral therapy and many newer antifungals are available in China.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Results: HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. Conclusion: HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients. PMID:27830031

  19. A pilot study of surrogate tests to prevent transmission of acquired immune deficiency syndrome by transfusion.

    PubMed

    Simon, T L; Bankhurst, A D

    1984-01-01

    Because of reports that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) might be transmissible by blood transfusion, we studied potential surrogate tests that could be used for screening donors. Male donors at one volunteer blood center and two plasma centers were screened for total lymphocyte count, OKT3, OKT4, OKT8, OKT11, LEU-7, LEU-M2, antibodies to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes and circulating immune complexes. Total lymphocyte counts and the OKT11 were significantly lower in one plasma center. No significant differences were found for the other lymphocyte or monocyte tests. Low T4/T8 ratios, found in 20 percent of donors, did not correlate with other abnormalities. A small percentage (3.3%) of volunteer donors, 15.4 percent at one plasma center and 20.8 percent at a second plasma center, and 38.5 percent of the male homosexual donors were positive for anti-HBc (significant when comparing the male homosexuals to the volunteers at p = 0.032). Positive CMV and herpes titers were similar in the groups. Circulating immune complex levels greater than two standard deviations above the mean were found in 20 percent of the volunteer donors, 7.7 percent at one plasma center and 8.3 percent at the second plasma center, and none in the male homosexual population. Pearson product moment correlations showed reasonably good agreement among the lymphocyte tests. However, the anti-HBc, CMV, and herpes antibodies and circulating immune complex levels did not correlate with any of the other tests. Surrogate tests for AIDS are nonspecific and unlikely to be helpful in screening blood donor units.

  20. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome: an international health problem of increasing importance.

    PubMed

    Wofsy, C B; Mills, J

    1984-06-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a new disease which first appeared in human populations about 1979. The disease is defined by the development of unusual types of cancer (e.g. Kaposi's sarcoma), or severe cellular immunodeficiency manifested by opportunistic infections (e.g. Pneumocystis carinii infection), or both. Although the etiology of AIDS is unknown, the epidemiologic evidence is consistent with an infectious agent transmitted by blood (e.g. transfusion, needle sharing) or sexual intercourse. Over three-quarters of the cases have been in homosexual or bisexual males and in intravenous drug abusers; about 5% of cases do not have recognized risk factors. A small number of cases have resulted from transfusion of blood or blood products. The early clinical manifestations are non-specific, and may include asymptomatic skin lesions, dyspnea and dry cough, weight loss, chronic diarrhea, and focal and non-focal central nervous system findings. Treatment for the associated cancers and opportunistic infections may be successful in individual instances, but the underlying immunosuppression of AIDS appears to progress inexorably and the fatality rate approaches 100% within a few years from diagnosis. Although nosocomial transmission has not been documented, infection control guidelines have been developed by analogy with hepatitis B infection.

  1. Serum immunoglobulin G subclass dysbalances in the lymphadenopathy syndrome and acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Aucouturier, P; Couderc, L J; Gouet, D; Danon, F; Gombert, J; Matheron, S; Saimot, A G; Clauvel, J P; Preud'homme, J L

    1986-01-01

    Serum IgG subclass levels were measured by an indirect competitive immunoenzymatic assay with monoclonal antibodies in 61 adult patients of different geographic origins affected either with the lymphoadenopathy syndrome (LAS, 46 cases) or with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, 15 cases). In spite of considerable variations from patient to patient, IgG-1 and IgG-3 levels were higher than in normal Caucasians, with IgG-1 levels much more elevated in LAS than in AIDS patients. In Caucasians with AIDS or LAS, IgG-4 levels were low. IgG-2 levels tended to be low and correlated negatively with IgG-1 levels. IgG subclass imbalances were especially striking in patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. The results suggest that the IgG increase predominantly affects the less T-dependent subclasses. The low levels of the more T-dependent isotypes do not appear to play a clear role in the occurrence of pyogenic infections in certain patients. PMID:3955884

  2. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Thomas W.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  3. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  4. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  5. Insights into the naturally acquired immune response to Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Longley, Rhea J; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-02-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread of the malaria parasites causing human disease, yet it is comparatively understudied compared with Plasmodium falciparum. In this article we review what is known about naturally acquired immunity to P. vivax, and importantly, how this differs to that acquired against P. falciparum. Immunity to clinical P. vivax infection is acquired more quickly than to P. falciparum, and evidence suggests humans in endemic areas also have a greater capacity to mount a successful immunological memory response to this pathogen. Both of these factors give promise to the idea of a successful P. vivax vaccine. We review what is known about both the cellular and humoral immune response, including the role of cytokines, antibodies, immunoregulation, immune memory and immune dysfunction. Furthermore, we discuss where the future lies in terms of advancing our understanding of naturally acquired immunity to P. vivax, through the use of well-designed longitudinal epidemiological studies and modern tools available to immunologists.

  6. Isoprinosine (inosine pranobex BAN, INPX) in the treatment of AIDS and other acquired immunodeficiencies of clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Glasky, A J; Gordon, J F

    1987-01-01

    The immunopharmacologic effects of Isoprinosine (INPX) have been associated with clinical benefit to the patient in a number of conditions characterized by immunodeficiency of diverse etiology. Immunodepressed homosexuals at risk of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated with placebo or INPX experienced an increase in the function and number of immunocompetent cells associated with clinical improvement. A multicenter trial designed to confirm these results has demonstrated that INPX produced an increase in natural killer (NK)-cell activity, total T cells, and T-helper cells, with certain effects persisting for months after completion of the 28-day treatment period. INPX-treated patients also experienced clinical improvement and decreased incidence of progression to AIDS. The administration of INPX for longer periods to patients with frank AIDS under a compassionate-use protocol has also proved useful. Clinical benefit associated with INPX treatment has been demonstrated in other patients with a depressed immune response, such as aged patients, cancer patients, severely burned patients, ill patients, and surgery patients. This program of clinical trials supports the therapeutic use of INPX in the treatment of AIDS and other acquired immunodeficiencies of clinical importance.

  7. Extracerebral toxoplasmosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Hofman, P; Bernard, E; Michiels, J F; Thyss, A; Le Fichoux, Y; Loubière, R

    1993-09-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii frequently causes lesions of the central nervous system in AIDS, the exact incidence of extracerebral toxoplasmosis in these immunodepressed patients remains difficult to determine. Isolation of the parasite outside the central nervous system is rarely performed ante mortem, and most diagnoses of extracerebral toxoplasmosis are made post mortem. This article describes 23 cases of extracerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosed between 1987 and 1991 in an autopsy series of 170 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ante mortem diagnosis of extracerebral involvement was affirmed in 4 of these 23 patients by identification of trophozoites in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (2 cases), a surgical pulmonary biopsy specimen, and a bladder biopsy. Clinical and paraclinical findings suggested cardiac involvement in 4 other patients. Post mortem examination demonstrated disseminated toxoplasmosis in 18 cases and extracerebral monovisceral involvement in 5 cases. Extracerebral toxoplasmosis was directly responsible for the death of 6 patients. The most frequent extracerebral sites of Toxoplasma gondii involvement were the heart (21/23 cases; 91%), the lungs (14/23 cases; 61%) and the pancreas (6/23 cases; 26%). The tissular consequences of toxoplasmic involvement varied considerably, from formation of pseudocysts or cysts without any surrounding inflammatory reaction to necrotic lesions rich in neutrophilic polynuclear cells containing numerous free parasites. Immunoperoxidase study using antitoxoplasmic antibodies contributed to the diagnosis of 8 extracerebral localizations. Electron microscopy examination of a surgical lung biopsy and myocardial specimens (2 cases) demonstrated the ultrastructural characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii trophozoites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Dynamic optical projection of acquired luminescence for aiding oncologic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarder, Pinaki; Gullicksrud, Kyle; Mondal, Suman; Sudlow, Gail P.; Achilefu, Samuel; Akers, Walter J.

    2013-12-01

    Optical imaging enables real-time visualization of intrinsic and exogenous contrast within biological tissues. Applications in human medicine have demonstrated the power of fluorescence imaging to enhance visualization in dermatology, endoscopic procedures, and open surgery. Although few optical contrast agents are available for human medicine at this time, fluorescence imaging is proving to be a powerful tool in guiding medical procedures. Recently, intraoperative detection of fluorescent molecular probes that target cell-surface receptors has been reported for improvement in oncologic surgery in humans. We have developed a novel system, optical projection of acquired luminescence (OPAL), to further enhance real-time guidance of open oncologic surgery. In this method, collected fluorescence intensity maps are projected onto the imaged surface rather than via wall-mounted display monitor. To demonstrate proof-of-principle for OPAL applications in oncologic surgery, lymphatic transport of indocyanine green was visualized in live mice for intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes. Subsequently, peritoneal tumors in a murine model of breast cancer metastasis were identified using OPAL after systemic administration of a tumor-selective fluorescent molecular probe. These initial results clearly show that OPAL can enhance adoption and ease-of-use of fluorescence imaging in oncologic procedures relative to existing state-of-the-art intraoperative imaging systems.

  9. Altered erythrocyte C3b receptor expression, immune complexes, and complement activation in homosexual men in varying risk groups for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Tausk, F A; McCutchan, A; Spechko, P; Schreiber, R D; Gigli, I

    1986-01-01

    We studied levels of erythrocyte C3b receptors (E-CR1) and correlated them to the level of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and complement activation in patients with or at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A significant reduction was found in patients with AIDS (185 +/- 93 CR1/cell), AIDS-related complex, and generalized lymphadenopathy, whereas healthy male homosexuals or normal controls had 434 +/- 193 and 509 +/- 140 CR1/cell, respectively (P less than 0.001). Family studies indicate that this defect is acquired. Reduction in E-CR1 was associated with increased levels of CIC when assayed by binding to Raji cells, but not when tested by C1q binding. Complement activation was assessed by levels of C3bi/C3d-g in plasma, measured with a monoclonal antibody specific for a neoantigen in C3d. AIDS patients had increased C3 activation (2.68 +/- 1.67%) when compared with normal controls (0.9 +/- 0.22%) (P less than 0.01). The decreased E-CR1, the presence of CIC, and C3 activation suggest that complement activation by immune complexes may play a role in the clinical expression of the disease. PMID:2944915

  10. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs. PMID:25313360

  11. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: Influence on innate and acquired immunity

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Mercedes; Fernández Gutiérrez del Álamo, Clotilde; Girón-González, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Even in cases where viral replication has been controlled by antiretroviral therapy for long periods of time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have several non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related co-morbidities, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which have a clear impact on survival. It has been considered that persistent innate and acquired immune activation contributes to the pathogenesis of these non-AIDS related diseases. Immune activation has been related with several conditions, remarkably with the bacterial translocation related with the intestinal barrier damage by the HIV or by hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis. Consequently, increased morbidity and mortality must be expected in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Disrupted gut barrier lead to an increased passage of microbial products and to an activation of the mucosal immune system and secretion of inflammatory mediators, which in turn might increase barrier dysfunction. In the present review, the intestinal barrier structure, measures of intestinal barrier dysfunction and the modifications of them in HIV monoinfection and in HIV-HCV coinfection will be considered. Both pathogenesis and the consequences for the progression of liver disease secondary to gut microbial fragment leakage and immune activation will be assessed. PMID:26819512

  12. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: Influence on innate and acquired immunity.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Mercedes; Fernández Gutiérrez del Álamo, Clotilde; Girón-González, José Antonio

    2016-01-28

    Even in cases where viral replication has been controlled by antiretroviral therapy for long periods of time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have several non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related co-morbidities, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which have a clear impact on survival. It has been considered that persistent innate and acquired immune activation contributes to the pathogenesis of these non-AIDS related diseases. Immune activation has been related with several conditions, remarkably with the bacterial translocation related with the intestinal barrier damage by the HIV or by hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis. Consequently, increased morbidity and mortality must be expected in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Disrupted gut barrier lead to an increased passage of microbial products and to an activation of the mucosal immune system and secretion of inflammatory mediators, which in turn might increase barrier dysfunction. In the present review, the intestinal barrier structure, measures of intestinal barrier dysfunction and the modifications of them in HIV monoinfection and in HIV-HCV coinfection will be considered. Both pathogenesis and the consequences for the progression of liver disease secondary to gut microbial fragment leakage and immune activation will be assessed.

  13. Host age as a determinant of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K

    1995-03-01

    The usual course of infection by Plasmodium falciparum among adults who lack a history of exposure to endemic malaria is fulminant. The infection in adults living with hyper- to holoendemic malaria is chronic and benign. Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria is the basis of this difference. Confusion surrounds an essential question regarding this process: What is its rate of onset? Opinions vary because of disagreement over the relationships between exposure to infection, antigenic polymorphism and naturally acquired immunity. In this review, Kevin Baird discusses these relationships against a backdrop of host age as a determinant of naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria.

  14. Extrachromosomal sequences of hepatitis B virus DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Noonan, C A; Yoffe, B; Mansell, P W; Melnick, J L; Hollinger, F B

    1986-08-01

    The primary etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a human T-lymphotropic retrovirus (the AIDS virus). However, the pathogenesis of this virus suggests that other cofactors may contribute to the development of clinically overt disease. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been implicated as a potential cofactor because HBV and AIDS virus infections frequently coexist, striking similarities exist in their epidemiologic patterns, and recent data indicate that HBV is lymphotropic. To establish the prevalence of HBV infections in lymphoid cells from individuals with AIDS-related disorders, sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 16 males with AIDS virus infections were examined for the presence of HBV DNA by DNA X DNA blot hybridization. Fifteen (94%) of these individuals had serologic evidence of a recent or prior HBV infection. HBV DNA was detected in the PBMC of all of these patients, regardless of existing HBV serology. Among the 36 control individuals without AIDS-related symptomatology, PBMC-associated HBV DNA was detected in 8 of 14 carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and in 3 of 10 individuals immune to HBV, but it was absent from the PBMC of 12 individuals without HBV infection. In all instances, the HBV DNA was extrachromosomal and existed as replicative intermediates or high molecular weight oligomers of the viral genome. Replicative intermediates and serum-associated HBV DNA were detected in all hepatitis B e antigen-positive carriers, regardless of their clinical status. In contrast, the high molecular weight oligomers of HBV DNA were detected in the PBMC of all of the AIDS virus-infected patients examined, but in only 33% of those in the control group who had evidence of HBV infection. This finding suggests that a unique and complex HBV-host-cell interaction exists in patients infected with the AIDS virus.

  15. Patterns of gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the AIDS related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bitran, J.; Bekerman, C.; Weinstein, R.; Bennett, C.; Ryo, U.; Pinsky, S.

    1987-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent /sup 67/Ga scans as part of their evaluation. Three patterns of /sup 67/Ga biodistribution were found: lymph node uptake alone; diffuse pulmonary uptake; normal scan. Gallium-67 scans were useful in identifying clinically occult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in seven of 15 patients with ARC who were asymptomatic and had normal chest radiographs. Gallium scans are a useful ancillary procedure in the evaluation of patients with ARC or AIDS.

  16. Blood donors at high risk of transmitting the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Contreras, M; Hewitt, P E; Barbara, J A; Mochnaty, P Z

    1985-03-09

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs most commonly in homosexual men. This group carries the greatest risk of transmitting AIDS by blood transfusion. Both promiscuous and nonpromiscuous male homosexuals should refrain from giving blood. A leaflet stating this advice was prepared by the Department of Health and Social Security, United Kingdom. In July 1984 a questionnaire was given to all donors attending a blood donor clinic in the west end of London, England. 53% were male. Donors were given a leaflet on AIDS and a questionnaire to complete in private. Those who considered themselves to be in a high risk group were asked to designate their blood for research purposes only. Serum samples from donors who confirmed that they were in the high risk category were tested for antihepatitis B core antigen and anti-human T lymphotropic virus type III (anti-HTLV-III) in addition to the routine screening of donors for hepatitis B surface antigen and syphilis. All high risk donors were men. Homosexuality was the only high risk factor. Of 5000 questionnaires administered between July and October, 614 were not completed or had ambiguous answers. 38 donors who completed the questionnaire beonged to a high risk group. Of these, 7 were positive for antihepatitis B core antigen; none were positive for anti-HTLV-III, T pallidum hemagglatination, or hepatits B surface antigen. Although the homosexual donors had a much lower incidence of sexually transmitted disease than those attending special clinics, this should not encourage complacency. All possible measures must be taken to prevent homosexuals from donating blood.

  17. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A perspective for the medical practitioner.

    PubMed

    Sherertz, R J

    1985-07-01

    AIDS is a new disease process with complications and management problems unlike anything ever seen before. An attempt has been made to summarize the available information about its various clinical presentations and how to manage them. Subjects covered will include associated malignancies, infections, transmissibility, prodromal states, and infection control issues.

  18. Hepatitis in children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Histopathologic and immunocytologic features.

    PubMed

    Duffy, L F; Daum, F; Kahn, E; Teichberg, S; Pahwa, R; Fagin, J; Kenigsberg, K; Kaplan, M; Fisher, S E; Pahwa, S

    1986-01-01

    Hepatic morphology and immunocytology were evaluated in 4 children with clinical and immunologic characteristics of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immune deficiency syndrome related complex. All 4 children had hepatomegaly and increased serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Both lobular and portal changes were noted. Lymphocytic infiltration, piecemeal necrosis, hepatocellular and bile duct damage, sinusoidal cell hyperplasia, and endothelialitis were prominent. Vesicular rosettes in sinusoidal lymphocytes and tubuloreticular structures in sinusoidal endothelial cells were demonstrated by electron microscopy. The lymphocytic infiltrate in both the lobular and portal spaces was characterized by a relative increase of cytotoxic/suppressor (T8) cells. Hepatitis may be a common feature of pediatric acquired immune deficiency syndrome and acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related complex. Although the histopathologic changes are consistent with chronic active hepatitis, the specific pathogenesis remains to be determined.

  19. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  20. Renal syndromes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): lessons learned from analysis over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rao, T K; Friedman, E A

    1988-06-01

    Renal syndromes associated with the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome include: potentially reversible acute renal failure, AIDS associated nephropathy which leads to end stage renal disease, and AIDS developing in patients who are being treated by maintenance hemodialysis. The longitudinal study of 95 patients with AIDS and various forms of renal syndrome at two urban institutions indicates that both acute and chronic renal failure is increasing yearly. While some patients with acute renal failure recover renal function and survive for prolonged period, the mortality of dialyzed patients with irreversible renal failure continues to be unsatisfactory. There is a great need for collecting data from high risk areas to analyze the results of maintenance dialysis therapy in patients with AIDS, to assess the economic impact of uremia therapy, and for long-term planning of available resources.

  1. Systemic sarcocystosis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Di Risio, Cecilia; Etchart, Cristina B; Chertcoff, Agustín V; Mendez, Nora; Cabrera, Marta G; Labbé, Jorge H; Carnevale, Silvana

    2008-08-01

    Sarcocystis sp is a tissue coccidian parasite in humans that causes intestinal and muscular sarcocystosis in immunocompetent patients. Intestinal sarcocystosis can be diagnosed at the tissue level in the lamina propria of the small bowel and by fecal examination. Muscular sarcocystosis is diagnosed by microscopic examination of muscle biopsies. This report describes a case of systemic sarcocystosis in an HIV-infected patient. We studied a 31-year-old patient with AIDS, chronic diarrhea, cholestatic hepatitis, and musculoskeletal pain by stool analysis and endoscopy with duodenal and liver biopsy specimens that were processed for routine histology. The microgamete and macrogamete stages of Sarcocystis sp were present in the lamina propria, with sporulated oocysts in feces. Schizont stages of the protozoa were found in liver biopsy. In summary, sarcocystosis should be considered another opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients.

  2. Early developmental exposures shape trade-offs between acquired and innate immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McDade, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Life history theory predicts resource allocation trade-offs between competing functions and processes. We test the hypothesis that relative investment towards innate versus acquired immunity in humans is subject to such trade-offs and that three types of early developmental exposures are particularly salient in shaping adult immunophenotype: (i) pathogen exposure, (ii) nutritional resources; and (iii) extrinsic mortality cues. Methodology We quantified one aspect each of innate and acquired immune function, via C-reactive protein and Epstein–Barr virus antibodies, respectively, in a sample of 1248 men and women from the Philippines (ca. 21.5 years old). Early developmental exposures were assessed via long-term data collected prospectively since participants’ birth (1983–4). We calculated a standardized ratio to assess relative bias towards acquired versus innate immune function and examined its relationship to a suite of predictors via multiple regression. Results In partial support of our predictions, some of the measures of higher pathogen exposure, greater availability of nutritional resources, and lower extrinsic mortality cues in early life were associated with a bias toward acquired immunity in both men and women. The immune profile of women, in particular, appeared to be more sensitive to early life pathogen exposures than those of men. Finally, contrary to prediction, women exhibited a greater relative investment toward innate, not acquired, immunity. Conclusions and implications Early environments can exert considerable influence on the development of immunity. They affect trade-offs between innate and acquired immunity, which show adaptive plasticity and may differ in their influence in men and women. PMID:27530543

  3. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in acquired immune deficiency syndrome mimicking toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Utsuki, Satoshi; Oka, Hidehiro; Abe, Katsutoshi; Osawa, Shigeyuki; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Yasui, Yoshie; Fujii, Kiyotaka

    2011-02-01

    A 37-year-old man, a hepatitis B virus carrier due to mother-to-child transmission, had a medical examination in September 2008 in nearby hospitals due to anorexia and weight loss. He was transported to our hospital because computed tomography (CT) detected intracranial lesions, and he had a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test. Head computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hemorrhagic lesions and enhancement effect, suggesting a thin wall. Also, an enhancement effect was present in the ventricle walls and the subarachnoid space. No accumulation was found in the thallium-201 scintigraphy. The enhancement effect of the ventricle walls and the subarachnoid space disappeared after oral administration of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and calcium folinate, contributing to the diagnosis of an abscess and meningitis due to toxoplasma. However, mass lesions did not reduce. A biopsy was performed on 30 October, and the pathological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma. He died from respiratory function deterioration on 8 November. Lymphoma cells were found in ventricle wall tissue and the subarachnoid space at the autopsy. Toxoplasmosis will typically occur as a brain lesion most commonly in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), whereas malignant lymphoma commonly manifests as a brain neoplastic lesion. However, differentiating between images of these lesions is difficult, so diagnosis by early biopsy is recommended.

  4. Predictive factors for the Nursing Diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo; Costa, Romanniny Hévillyn Silva; Nelson, Ana Raquel Cortês; Duarte, Fernando Hiago da Silva; Prado, Nanete Caroline da Costa; Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the predictive factors for the nursing diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Method: a cross-sectional study, undertaken with 113 people living with AIDS. The data were collected using an interview script and physical examination. Logistic regression was used for the data analysis, considering a level of significance of 10%. Results: the predictive factors identified were: for the nursing diagnosis of knowledge deficit-inadequate following of instructions and verbalization of the problem; for the nursing diagnosis of failure to adhere - years of study, behavior indicative of failure to adhere, participation in the treatment and forgetfulness; for the nursing diagnosis of sexual dysfunction - family income, reduced frequency of sexual practice, perceived deficit in sexual desire, perceived limitations imposed by the disease and altered body function. Conclusion: the predictive factors for these nursing diagnoses involved sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, defining characteristics, and related factors, which must be taken into consideration during the assistance provided by the nurse. PMID:27384466

  5. Acquired immunity and stochasticity in epidemic intervals impede the evolution of host disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Harding, Karin C; Hansen, B Johan L; Goodman, Simon J

    2005-12-01

    Disease can generate intense selection pressure on host populations, but here we show that acquired immunity in a population subject to repeated disease outbreaks can impede the evolution of genetic disease resistance by maintaining susceptible genotypes in the population. Interference between the life-history schedule of a species and periodicity of the disease has unintuitive effects on selection intensity, and stochasticity in outbreak period further reduces the rate of spread of disease-resistance alleles. A general age-structured population genetic model was developed and parameterized using empirical data for phocine distemper virus (PDV) epizootics in harbor seals. Scenarios with acquired immunity had lower levels of epizootic mortality compared with scenarios without acquired immunity for the first PDV outbreaks, but this pattern was reversed after about five disease cycles. Without acquired immunity, evolution of disease resistance was more rapid, and long-term population size variation is efficiently dampened. Acquired immunity has the potential to significantly influence rapid evolutionary dynamics of a host population in response to age-structured disease selection and to alter predicted selection intensities compared with epidemiological models that do not consider such feedback. This may have important implications for evolutionary population dynamics in a range of human, agricultural, and wildlife disease settings.

  6. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H

    2010-10-28

    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  7. Toward immunogenetic studies of amphibian chytridiomycosis: Linking innate and acquired immunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, J.Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Rosenblum, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent declines in amphibian diversity and abundance have contributed significantly to the global loss of biodiversity. The fungal disease chytridiomycosis is widely considered to be a primary cause of these declines, yet the critical question of why amphibian species differ in susceptibility remains unanswered. Considerable evidence links environmental conditions and interspecific variability of the innate immune system to differential infection responses, but other sources of individual, population, or species-typical variation may also be important. In this article we review the preliminary evidence supporting a role for acquired immune defenses against chytridiomycosis, and advocate for targeted investigation of genes controlling acquired responses, as well as those that functionally bridge the innate and acquired immune systems. Immunogenetic data promise to answer key questions about chytridiomycosis susceptibility and host-pathogen coevolution, and will draw much needed attention to the importance of considering evolutionary processes in amphibian conservation management and practice. ?? 2009 by American Institute of Biological Sciences.

  8. Passive immunization against HIV/AIDS by antibody gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Wang, Pin

    2014-01-27

    Despite tremendous efforts over the course of many years, the quest for an effective HIV vaccine by the classical method of active immunization remains largely elusive. However, two recent studies in mice and macaques have now demonstrated a new strategy designated as Vectored ImmunoProphylaxis (VIP), which involves passive immunization by viral vector-mediated delivery of genes encoding broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) for in vivo expression. Robust protection against virus infection was observed in preclinical settings when animals were given VIP to express monoclonal neutralizing antibodies. This unorthodox approach raises new promise for combating the ongoing global HIV pandemic. In this article, we survey the status of antibody gene transfer, review the revolutionary progress on isolation of extremely bnAbs, detail VIP experiments against HIV and its related virus conduced in humanized mice and macaque monkeys, and discuss the pros and cons of VIP and its opportunities and challenges towards clinical applications to control HIV/AIDS endemics.

  9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifesting Gerstmann's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Sakai, H; Fujihara, K; Fujihara, K; Itoyama, Y

    1998-11-01

    We reported a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) via multiple blood transfusions, who manifested progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) about 18 months after the development of AIDS. PML initiated with right hemiparesis, dysphasia, and Gerstmann's syndrome and resulted in death within 2 months after the onset. Neuroimaging examinations revealed white matter lesions mainly in the left posterior parietal lobe. The cortical gray matter also showed abnormal signal intensity. Peripheral CD4+ lymphocyte count was 81/microl. Routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were negative. CSF antibodies against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus as well as serum antibody against toxoplasma gondii were negative. Though autopsy or biopsy of the brain was not performed, JC virus genomes were detected in the CSF sample by a polymerase chain reaction, and their sequencing showed unique alterations of the regulatory regions, characteristic to PML-type JC virus.

  10. Google Calendar: a new memory aid to compensate for prospective memory deficits following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A; Haslam, C; Yates, P; Gurr, B; Leeder, G; Sayers, A

    2011-12-01

    Prospective memory impairment is common following acquired brain injury (ABI) and intervention has proved challenging. The current treatment of choice involves using external memory aids as a method of compensation, with those incorporating active reminders proving most successful. In this paper we report findings of an investigation into the effectiveness of a novel external memory aid, Google Calendar. This aid incorporates active reminders and overcomes some of the limitations associated with existing aids. Twelve participants with ABI took part in the study incorporating a randomised control crossover within-subjects design, consisting of a 5-week baseline phase, followed by two 5-week intervention phases where either Google Calendar or a standard diary were used. Participants identified activities to target during the study and a family member monitored their success. Google Calendar was more effective than the diary in enhancing prospective memory performance. It also proved more popular, on account of its active reminders which helped trigger the retrieval of intentions, whilst reducing the need for monitoring. While further research is required to substantiate these initial findings, it is recommended that clinicians familiarise themselves with using Google Calendar, as it appears to offer additional potential in the management of prospective memory deficits following ABI.

  11. Small intestinal lymphoma in three patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, J J; Bridges, N; Feiner, H D; Valensi, Q

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of small bowel lymphoma in young homosexual men are presented. All three had acquired immune deficiency syndrome as demonstrated by demography, sexual history, cachexia, opportunistic infections by Cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis carinii, atypical Mycobacterium, Candida, and/or evidence of immune deficiency, such as skin test anergy, lymphopenia, inversion of T-helper/T-suppressor ratio, and diminished lymphocyte response to either phytohemmaglutinin or pokeweed mitogen. All had peripheral and/or abdominal lymphadenopathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms, e.g., diarrhea, spasms, constipation, and oral candidiasis. The diagnosis of lymphoma was made at laparotomy in all cases. All three had complete removal of localized tumor (stage Ie or IIe), yet died within 6 months of surgery and/or chemotherapy. Thus gastrointestinal complaints may not always be related to "gay bowel" syndrome, or other infectious diseases in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Small intestinal lymphoma should be added to the list of neoplasms to which this group is susceptible.

  12. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines.

  13. Non-genomic and Immune Evolution of Melanoma Acquiring MAPKi Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Willy; Shi, Hubing; Sun, Lu; Piva, Marco; Song, ChunYing; Kong, Xiangju; Moriceau, Gatien; Hong, Aayoung; Dahlman, Kimberly B.; Johnson, Douglas B.; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Clinically acquired resistance to MAPK inhibitor (MAPKi) therapies for melanoma cannot be fully explained by genomic mechanisms and may be accompanied by co-evolution of intra-tumoral immunity. We sought to discover non-genomic mechanisms of acquired resistance and dynamic immune compositions by a comparative, transcriptomic-methylomic analysis of patient-matched melanoma tumors biopsied before therapy and during disease progression. Transcriptomic alterations across resistant tumors were highly recurrent, in contrast to mutations, and were frequently correlated with differential methylation of tumor cell-intrinsic CpG sites. We identified in the tumor cell compartment supra-physiologic c-MET up-expression, infra-physiologic LEF1 down-expression, and YAP1 signature enrichment as drivers of acquired resistance. Importantly, high intra-tumoral cytolytic T-cell inflammation prior to MAPKi therapy preceded CD8 T-cell deficiency/exhaustion and loss of antigen-presentation in half of disease-progressive melanomas, suggesting cross-resistance to salvage anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. Thus, melanoma acquires MAPKi-resistance with highly dynamic and recurrent non-genomic alterations and co-evolving intra-tumoral immunity. PMID:26359985

  14. Non-genomic and Immune Evolution of Melanoma Acquiring MAPKi Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Willy; Shi, Hubing; Sun, Lu; Piva, Marco; Song, Chunying; Kong, Xiangju; Moriceau, Gatien; Hong, Aayoung; Dahlman, Kimberly B; Johnson, Douglas B; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S

    2015-09-10

    Clinically acquired resistance to MAPK inhibitor (MAPKi) therapies for melanoma cannot be fully explained by genomic mechanisms and may be accompanied by co-evolution of intra-tumoral immunity. We sought to discover non-genomic mechanisms of acquired resistance and dynamic immune compositions by a comparative, transcriptomic-methylomic analysis of patient-matched melanoma tumors biopsied before therapy and during disease progression. Transcriptomic alterations across resistant tumors were highly recurrent, in contrast to mutations, and were frequently correlated with differential methylation of tumor cell-intrinsic CpG sites. We identified in the tumor cell compartment supra-physiologic c-MET up-expression, infra-physiologic LEF1 down-expression and YAP1 signature enrichment as drivers of acquired resistance. Importantly, high intra-tumoral cytolytic T cell inflammation prior to MAPKi therapy preceded CD8 T cell deficiency/exhaustion and loss of antigen presentation in half of disease-progressive melanomas, suggesting cross-resistance to salvage anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. Thus, melanoma acquires MAPKi resistance with highly dynamic and recurrent non-genomic alterations and co-evolving intra-tumoral immunity.

  15. Acquired immune deficiency in Haitians: opportunistic infections in previously healthy Haitian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J; Frank, E; Spira, T J; Landesman, S H

    1983-01-20

    We describe acquired immune deficiency manifested by opportunistic infections in 10 previously healthy heterosexual Haitian men. The opportunistic pathogens included Toxoplasma gondii (in four patients), Cryptococcus neoformans (in one), Pneumocystis carinii (in four patients), and Candida albicans (in three). Six of the patients also had Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Immunologic studies of three patients showed a decrease in the numbers and activity of helper T cells, with normal or increased populations of suppressor T cells. Serologic markers for previous infections from hepatitis A, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus were detected in several patients. Six of the patients died despite specific antimicrobial therapy. The clinical and immunologic findings in these 10 Haitians are similar to those reported in drug addicts and homosexuals with the acquired immune-deficiency syndrome.

  16. Potential Suppressive Effects of Two C60 Fullerene Derivatives on Acquired Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Toshiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Udaka, Asako; Uemura, Eiichiro; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Aoshima, Hisae; Gao, Jian-Qing; Kokubo, Ken; Oshima, Takumi; Nagano, Kazuya; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Mashino, Tadahiko; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    The therapeutic effects of fullerene derivatives on many models of inflammatory disease have been demonstrated. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of these nanoparticles remain to be elucidated, though their beneficial roles in allergy and autoimmune diseases suggest their suppressive potential in acquired immunity. Here, we evaluated the effects of C60 pyrrolidine tris-acid (C60-P) and polyhydroxylated fullerene (C60(OH)36) on the acquired immune response in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, both C60 derivatives had dose-dependent suppressive effects on T cell receptor-mediated activation of T cells and antibody production by B cells under anti-CD40/IL-4 stimulation, similar to the actions of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. In addition, C60-P suppressed ovalbumin-specific antibody production and ovalbumin-specific T cell responses in vivo, although T cell-independent antibodies responses were not affected by C60-P. Together, our data suggest that fullerene derivatives can suppress acquired immune responses that require T cells.

  17. Antigen-specific acquired immunity in human brucellosis: implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Cannella, Anthony P; Tsolis, Renee M; Liang, Li; Felgner, Philip L; Saito, Mayuko; Sette, Alessandro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Brucella spp., are Gram negative bacteria that cause disease by growing within monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Clinical manifestations of brucellosis are immune mediated, not due to bacterial virulence factors. Acquired immunity to brucellosis has been studied through observations of naturally infected hosts (cattle, goats), mouse models (mice), and human infection. Even though Brucella spp. are known for producing mechanisms that evade the immune system, cell-mediated immune responses drive the clinical manifestations of human disease after exposure to Brucella species, as high antibody responses are not associated with protective immunity. The precise mechanisms by which cell-mediated immune responses confer protection or lead to disease manifestations remain undefined. Descriptive studies of immune responses in human brucellosis show that TH(1) (interferon-γ-producing T cells) are associated with dominant immune responses, findings consistent with animal studies. Whether these T cell responses are protective, or determine the different clinical responses associated with brucellosis is unknown, especially with regard to undulant fever manifestations, relapsing disease, or are associated with responses to distinct sets of Brucella spp. antigens are unknown. Few data regarding T cell responses in terms of specific recognition of Brucella spp. protein antigens and peptidic epitopes, either by CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, have been identified in human brucellosis patients. Additionally because current attenuated Brucella vaccines used in animals cause human disease, there is a true need for a recombinant protein subunit vaccine for human brucellosis, as well as for improved diagnostics in terms of prognosis and identification of unusual forms of brucellosis. This review will focus on current understandings of antigen-specific immune responses induced Brucella peptidic epitopes that has promise for yielding new insights into vaccine and diagnostics development, and for

  18. Patterns in age-seroprevalence consistent with acquired immunity against Trypanosoma brucei in Serengeti lions.

    PubMed

    Welburn, Sue; Picozzi, Kim; Coleman, Paul G; Packer, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosomes cause disease in humans and livestock throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Although various species show evidence of clinical tolerance to trypanosomes, until now there has been no evidence of acquired immunity to natural infections. We discovered a distinct peak and decrease in age prevalence of T. brucei s.l. infection in wild African lions that is consistent with being driven by an exposure-dependent increase in cross-immunity following infections with the more genetically diverse species, T. congolense sensu latu. The causative agent of human sleeping sickness, T. brucei rhodesiense, disappears by 6 years of age apparently in response to cross-immunity from other trypanosomes, including the non-pathogenic subspecies, T. brucei brucei. These findings may suggest novel pathways for vaccinations against trypanosomiasis despite the notoriously complex antigenic surface proteins in these parasites.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Using drug from mathematical perceptive.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Amar Nath; Saha, Shubhankar; Roy, Priti Kumar

    2015-11-12

    Entry of acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus into the host immune cell involves the participation of various components of host and viral cell unit. These components may be categorized as attachment of the viral surface envelope protein subunit, gp120, to the CD4(+) receptor and chemokine coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, present on T cell surface. The viral fusion protein, gp41, the second cleaved subunit of Env undergoes reconfiguration and the membrane fusion reaction itself. Since the CD4(+) T cell population is actively involved; the ultimate outcome of human immunodeficiency virus infection is total collapse of the host immune system. Mathematical modeling of the stages in viral membrane protein-host cell receptor-coreceptor interaction and the effect of antibody vaccine on the viral entry into the susceptible host cell has been carried out using as impulsive differential equations. We have studied the effect of antibody vaccination and determined analytically the threshold value of drug dosage and dosing interval for optimum levels of infection. We have also investigated the effect of perfect adherence of drug dose on the immune cell count in extreme cases and observed that systematic drug dosage of the immune cells leads to longer and improved lives.

  20. Cross-reactive acquired immunity influences transmission success of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Maxime; Durand, Jonas; Rais, Olivier; Voordouw, Maarten J

    2015-12-01

    Cross-reactive acquired immunity in the vertebrate host induces indirect competition between strains of a given pathogen species and is critical for understanding the ecology of mixed infections. In vector-borne diseases, cross-reactive antibodies can reduce pathogen transmission at the vector-to-host and the host-to-vector lifecycle transition. The highly polymorphic, immunodominant, outer surface protein C (OspC) of the tick-borne spirochete bacterium Borrelia afzelii induces a strong antibody response in the vertebrate host. To test how cross-immunity in the vertebrate host influences tick-to-host and host-to-tick transmission, mice were immunized with one of two strain-specific recombinant OspC proteins (A3, A10), challenged via tick bite with one of the two B. afzelii ospC strains (A3, A10), and infested with xenodiagnostic ticks. Immunization with a given rOspC antigen protected mice against homologous strains carrying the same major ospC group allele but provided little or no cross-protection against heterologous strains carrying a different major ospC group allele. There were cross-immunity effects on the tick spirochete load but not on the probability of host-to-tick transmission. The spirochete load in ticks that had fed on mice with cross-immune experience was reduced by a factor of two compared to ticks that had fed on naive control mice. In addition, strain-specific differences in mouse spirochete load, host-to-tick transmission, tick spirochete load, and the OspC-specific IgG response revealed the mechanisms that determine variation in transmission success between strains of B. afzelii. This study shows that cross-immunity in infected vertebrate hosts can reduce pathogen load in the arthropod vector with potential consequences for vector-to-host pathogen transmission.

  1. Molecular characteristics of Illicium verum extractives to activate acquired immune response

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wanxi; Lin, Zhi; Wang, Lansheng; Chang, Junbo; Gu, Fangliang; Zhu, Xiangwei

    2015-01-01

    Illicium verum, whose extractives can activate the demic acquired immune response, is an expensive medicinal plant. However, the rich extractives in I. verum biomass were seriously wasted for the inefficient extraction and separation processes. In order to further utilize the biomedical resources for the good acquired immune response, the four extractives were obtained by SJYB extraction, and then the immunology moleculars of SJYB extractives were identified and analyzed by GC–MS. The result showed that the first-stage extractives contained 108 components including anethole (40.27%), 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde (4.25%), etc.; the second-stage extractives had 5 components including anethole (84.82%), 2-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-n-methyl-acetamide (7.11%), etc.; the third-stage extractives contained one component namely anethole (100%); and the fourth-stage extractives contained 5 components including cyclohexyl-benzene (64.64%), 1-(1-methylethenyl)-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene (17.17%), etc. The SJYB extractives of I. verum biomass had a main retention time between 10 and 20 min what’s more, the SJYB extractives contained many biomedical moleculars, such as anethole, eucalyptol, [1S-(1α,4aα,10aβ)]-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, stigmast-4-en-3-one, γ-sitosterol, and so on. So the functional analytical results suggested that the SJYB extractives of I. verum had a function in activating the acquired immune response and a huge potential in biomedicine. PMID:27081359

  2. Ribosomal and immune transcripts associate with relapse in acquired ADAMTS13-deficient thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Contessa E; Terrell, Deirdra R; Vesely, Sara K; Wren, Jonathan D; Dozmorov, Igor M; Niewold, Timothy B; Brown, Michael; Zhou, Fang; Frank, Mark Barton; Merrill, Joan T; Kremer Hovinga, Johanna A; Lämmle, Bernhard; James, Judith A; George, James N; Farris, A Darise

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 40% of patients who survive acute episodes of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) associated with severe acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency experience one or more relapses. Risk factors for relapse other than severe ADAMTS13 deficiency and ADAMTS13 autoantibodies are unknown. ADAMTS13 autoantibodies, TTP episodes following infection or type I interferon treatment and reported ensuing systemic lupus erythematosus in some patients suggest immune dysregulation. This cross-sectional study asked whether autoantibodies against RNA-binding proteins or peripheral blood gene expression profiles measured during remission are associated with history of prior relapse in acquired ADAMTS13-deficient TTP. Peripheral blood from 38 well-characterized patients with autoimmune ADAMTS13-deficient TTP in remission was examined for autoantibodies and global gene expression. A subset of TTP patients (9 patients, 24%) exhibited a peripheral blood gene signature composed of elevated ribosomal transcripts that associated with prior relapse. A non-overlapping subset of TTP patients (9 patients, 24%) displayed a peripheral blood type I interferon gene signature that associated with autoantibodies to RNA-binding proteins but not with history of relapse. Patients who had relapsed bimodally expressed higher HLA transcript levels independently of ribosomal transcripts. Presence of any one potential risk factor (ribosomal gene signature, elevated HLA-DRB1, elevated HLA-DRB5) associated with relapse (OR = 38.4; p = 0.0002) more closely than any factor alone or all factors together. Levels of immune transcripts typical of natural killer (NK) and T lymphocytes positively correlated with ribosomal gene expression and number of prior episodes but not with time since the most recent episode. Flow cytometry confirmed elevated expression of cell surface markers encoded by these transcripts on T and/or NK cell subsets of patients who had relapsed. These data associate elevated ribosomal and

  3. Human Immune Responses to HTLV-III Virus Infections in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-10

    in western blots in the antibodies to HIV-1 structural antigens between this serum and the other sera which neutralize HIV at low dilutions but enhance...n3est AvailabCe AD N T== HUMAN IMMUNE RESPONSE TO HTLV -III VIRUS INFECTION IN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME N ANNUAL REPORT FRANCIS A. ENNIS D...Stimulation of HIV-1 specific T cells. We have stimulated the PBL of 20 HIV antibody-positive donors with live HIV-1 ( HTLV -IIIB) virus, and only 30% respond

  4. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: recommendations of a working party of the Hospital Infection Society.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    Unified procedures to control those infections that are transmitted by inoculation of blood are recommended. These should be applied to patients with overt acquired immune deficiency syndrome, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy or hepatitis B, those with serological evidence of infection by HTLV III or hepatitis B virus, and those in medical and social categories with a higher than average prevalence of such infections. Rational infection control measures, based on the known modes of spread, permit efficient management of infected patients, with satisfactory protection of staff and other patients.

  5. Acquired immune response to oncogenic human papillomavirus associated with prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H

    2008-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common infection among women and a necessary cause of cervical cancer. Oncogenic HPV types infecting the anogenital tract have the potential to induce natural immunity, but at present we do not clearly understand the natural history of infection in humans and the mechanisms by which the virus can evade the host immune response. Natural acquired immune responses against HPV may be involved in the clearance of infection, but persistent infection with oncogenic virus types leads to the development of precancerous lesions and cancer. B cell responses are important for viral neutralization, but antibody responses in patients with cervical cancer are poor. Prophylactic vaccines targeting oncogenic virus types associated with cervical cancer have the potential to prevent up to 80% of cervical cancers by targeting HPV types 16 and 18. Clinical data show that prophylactic vaccines are effective in inducing antibody responses and in preventing persistent infection with HPV, as well as the subsequent development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. This article reviews the known data regarding natural immune responses to HPV and those developed by prophylactic vaccination.

  6. Effects of fish oil on cytokines and immune functions of mice with murine AIDS.

    PubMed

    Xi, S; Cohen, D; Chen, L H

    1998-08-01

    The effects of fish oil, which is rich in n-3 fatty acids, on cytokine levels in a murine model of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied. Thirty-two C57BL/6 female mice were divided into two dietary groups and fed either a corn oil diet or a fish oil diet. After 4 weeks, each diet group was further divided into two subgroups, and mice in one subgroup were injected i.p. with LP-BM5 murine retrovirus (MAIDS) stock. After 4 weeks, all mice were killed, blood samples were collected, and the spleens and the livers were excised. Splenocytes were isolated immediately and cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and stimulated by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Concanavalin A (ConA) for 24 h. The supernatant was collected for cytokine assays. The results showed that MAIDS infection increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta), while fish oil partially prevented this elevation. MAIDS infection depressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), while fish oil partially prevented the depression of IL-2. In addition, MAIDS infection depressed LPS- and ConA-stimulated cell proliferation, while fish oil partially prevented the depression. The results suggest that fish oil may slow down the progression of murine AIDS by modulating levels of cytokines including TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-2.

  7. Attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akgun Kostak, Melahat; Unsar, Serap; Kurt, Seda; Erol, Ozgul

    2012-10-01

    Health professionals caring for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) show poor or negative attitudes because of fear of contagion. Therefore, it is important to know the attitudes of midwives' and nurses' towards people living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study is to assess the attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals to people living with HIV/AIDS and to identify factors that affect these attitudes. A group of 46 midwives and 192 nurses working in hospitals were included in the study. Data were collected through AIDS Attitude Scale. Age, professional experience, number of children and marital status influenced the attitudes of the participants towards people living with HIV/AIDS. We concluded that higher level of education appear to positively influence the attitudes of the participants. Education programmes including evidence-based nursing implications might be planned to improve positive attitudes and to prevent stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  8. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of cystic benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in patients at risk for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Finfer, M D; Gallo, L; Perchick, A; Schinella, R A; Burstein, D E

    1990-01-01

    Cystic benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLL), a previously rare lesion of the parotid gland consisting of marked lymphoid hyperplasia with accompanying squamous-lined cysts, has recently been described in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS risk factors. Thirteen fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples of parotid gland masses from patients with AIDS (one case), AIDS risk factors (five cases) or denial of AIDS risk factors (two cases) and a histopathologic diagnosis of BLL were examined. The FNA features that correlated best with the histopathologic findings were (1) a heterogeneous lymphoid population, (2) scattered single and/or clustered foamy macrophages and (3) superficial and/or anucleated squamous cells. Most aspirates showed some combination of these three components. The differential diagnostic considerations, the clinical and radiologic correlations and the relationship of this lesion to HIV infection are discussed. Patients with parotid masses whose aspirates consist of some combination of squamous cells, lymphocytes and foamy macrophages should be questioned for possible AIDS risk factors.

  9. Naturally Acquired Human Immunity to Pneumococcus Is Dependent on Antibody to Protein Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Reglinski, Mark; Jose, Ricardo J.; Marshall, Helina; de Vogel, Corné; Gordon, Stephen; Petersen, Fernanda C.; Baxendale, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Naturally acquired immunity against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is thought to be dependent on anti-capsular antibody. However nasopharyngeal colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae also induces antibody to protein antigens that could be protective. We have used human intravenous immunoglobulin preparation (IVIG), representing natural IgG responses to S. pneumoniae, to identify the classes of antigens that are functionally relevant for immunity to IPD. IgG in IVIG recognised capsular antigen and multiple S. pneumoniae protein antigens, with highly conserved patterns between different geographical sources of pooled human IgG. Incubation of S. pneumoniae in IVIG resulted in IgG binding to the bacteria, formation of bacterial aggregates, and enhanced phagocytosis even for unencapsulated S. pneumoniae strains, demonstrating the capsule was unlikely to be the dominant protective antigen. IgG binding to S. pneumoniae incubated in IVIG was reduced after partial chemical or genetic removal of bacterial surface proteins, and increased against a Streptococcus mitis strain expressing the S. pneumoniae protein PspC. In contrast, depletion of type-specific capsular antibody from IVIG did not affect IgG binding, opsonophagocytosis, or protection by passive vaccination against IPD in murine models. These results demonstrate that naturally acquired protection against IPD largely depends on antibody to protein antigens rather than the capsule. PMID:28135322

  10. Difficult Decisions: AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on public education about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Discusses the problems of a second epidemic of fear and anxiety. Presents several questions for classroom discussion and analysis of the public fear of AIDS. Gives some statistics highlighting misinformation about AIDS. (CW)

  11. Chronic immune activation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of AIDS and cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Angus G; O'Byrne, Ken J

    2002-01-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) invariably leads to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in most infected humans, yet does so rarely, if at all, in HIV-infected chimpanzees. The differences between the two species are not due to differences in cellular receptors or an inability of the chimpanzee to be infected, but rather to the lack of pan-immune activation in the infected primate. This results in reduced apoptotic death in CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes and a lower viral load. In humans the degree of chronic immune activation correlates with virus load and clinical outcome with high immune activation leading to high viral loads and the more rapid progression to AIDS and death. The type of immune perturbation seen in HIV-associated AIDS is similar to that of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) where reduced cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses occur early in the course of the disease and where humoral responses (HI) predominate. A reduced CMI response occurs in a number of chronic infectious diseases, including tuberculosis and leishmaniasis. More recently, it has become increasingly apparent that the CMI response is suppressed in virtually all malignant diseases, including melanoma and colorectal and prostate cancer. This raises the possibility that, as the malignant process develops, the cancer cells evolve to subvert the CMI response. Moreover, the reduced CMI response seen in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is completely reversed following curative surgery strongly supporting the hypothesis that CRC can suppress the systemic immune response. Wound healing, ovulation, embryo implantation, and fetal growth are all associated with suppressed CMI and neovascularization (the formation of new blood vessels) or angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature). If unresolved, wound healing results in chronic inflammation, which can give rise to the phenomenon of "scar cancers." Indeed all the

  12. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  13. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…

  14. Norovirus Infection and Acquired Immunity in 8 Countries: Results From the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Saba; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Siguas Salas, Mery; Rengifo Trigoso, Dixner; Mondal, Dinesh; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Platts-Mills, James; Samie, Amidou; Kabir, Furqan; Lima, Aldo; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl J.; Kalam, Adil; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mduma, Estomih; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Lima, Ila; Ramdass, Rakhi; Lang, Dennis; George, Ajila; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric; Kosek, Margaret N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhea. We present data from a longitudinal, multicountry study describing norovirus epidemiology during the first 2 years of life. Methods. A birth cohort of 1457 children across 8 countries contributed 7077 diarrheal stools for norovirus testing. A subset of 199 children contributed additional asymptomatic samples (2307) and diarrheal stools (770), which were used to derive incidence rates and evaluate evidence for acquired immunity. Results. Across sites, 89% of children experienced at least 1 norovirus infection before 24 months, and 22.7% of all diarrheal stools were norovirus positive. Severity of norovirus-positive diarrhea was comparable to other enteropathogens, with the exception of rotavirus. Incidence of genogroup II (GII) infection was higher than genogroup I and peaked at 6–11 months across sites. Undernutrition was a risk factor for symptomatic norovirus infection, with an increase in 1 standard deviation of length-for-age z score associated with a 17% reduction (odds ratio, 0.83 [95% confidence interval, .72–.97]; P = .011) in the odds of experiencing diarrhea when norovirus was present, after accounting for genogroup, rotavirus vaccine, and age. Evidence of acquired immunity was observed among GII infections only: Children with prior GII infection were found to have a 27% reduction in the hazard of subsequent infection (hazard ratio, 0.727; P = .010). Conclusions. The high prevalence of norovirus across 8 sites in highly variable epidemiologic settings and demonstration of protective immunity for GII infections provide support for investment in vaccine development. PMID:27013692

  15. Acquired transmission-blocking immunity to Plasmodium vivax in a population of southern coastal Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, J M; Salinas, E; Rodríguez, M H

    1996-05-01

    Naturally acquired transmission-blocking immunity to Plasmodium vivax was studied in three groups of patients from the southern coast of Mexico: primary cases (Group A, 61% of the study population), secondary cases with the prior infection seven or more months earlier (Group B, 23%), and secondary cases with the previous malaria experience within six months of the present study (Group C, 16%). Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes were fed with patients' infected blood cells in the presence of autologous or control serum, with or without heat-inactivation. Patients from all three groups had transmission-blocking immunity, although the quality and quantity of this blocking activity was significantly higher in the two secondary patient groups (B and C). Only primary malaria cases produced transmission-enhancing activity (23% of the cases), which was dependent on heat-labile serum components. The levels of patient group transmission-blocking immunity and mosquito infectivity were used to calculate the probabilities of a mosquito becoming infective after taking a blood meal from a P. vivax-infected patient from any one of the three groups. This probability was 0.025, with Group A patients providing the major source of these infections (92% risk from Group A and 4% risk for Groups B and C).

  16. Persistence of Immunity Acquired after a Single Dose of Rubella Vaccine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okafuji, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2016-05-20

    To date, Takahashi, Matsuura, and TO-336 strains of live-attenuated rubella vaccine have been used in Japan. Japan implemented a single-dose rubella vaccination program until 2006. However, few reports are available on the persistence of immunity after this vaccination program. We collected 276 serum samples from January 2009 to December 2011 at Okafuji Pediatric Clinic and assessed the immune status of these samples against rubella virus during 1-10 years after vaccination with a single dose of Takahashi rubella vaccine. Regional outbreak of rubella did not occur during 1999-2011. The collected serum samples were tested for antibodies against the rubella virus by performing a standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test. Our results showed that all the tested serum samples contained antibodies against the rubella virus 10 years after the vaccination. Geometric mean titer of HAI antibodies was 1:180 and decreased to 1:68 at 10 years after the vaccination. The levels of HAI antibodies decreased logarithmically with time after the vaccination. In conclusion, vaccine-acquired immunity after vaccination with a single dose of live-attenuated Takahashi rubella vaccine was retained for at least 10 years when rubella was under regional control.

  17. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fábián, Tibor Károly; Hermann, Péter; Beck, Anita; Fejérdy, Pál; Fábián, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate), periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid) and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate) may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins), are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed. PMID:22605979

  18. Chronic beryllium disease: an updated model interaction between innate and acquired immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Richard T.; Maier, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, there have been concerted efforts to reduce beryllium (Be) exposure in the workplace and thereby reduce potential cases of this occupational lung disorder. Despite these efforts, it is estimated that there are at least one million Be-exposed individuals in the U.S. who are potentially at risk for developing chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Previously, we reviewed the current CBD literature and proposed that CBD represents a model interaction between innate and acquired immunity (Sawyer et al., Int Immunopharmacol 2:249–261, 2002). We closed this review with a section on “future directions” that identified key gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of CBD. In the intervening period, progress has been made to fill in some of these gaps, and the current review will provide an update on that progress. Based on recent findings, we provide a new hypothesis to explain how Be drives sustained chronic inflammation and granuloma formation in CBD leading to progressive compromised lung function in CBD patients. This paradigm has direct implications for our understanding of the development of an immune response to Be, but is also likely applicable to other immune-mediated lung diseases of known and unknown etiology. PMID:20981472

  19. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Survey in African-Americans with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, Claire; McCarty, Frances; Hankerson-Dyson, Dana; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a culturally- and stage-of-disease-appropriate measure of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among a population of African-American individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) using a mixed-method design. Design Data were collected in two phases. In phase 1, qualitative data were used to refine an existing CAM measure for the specific study population in the present study. In phase 2, this refined instrument was implemented in a larger sample. The resulting numeric data were analyzed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the revised CAM instrument. Setting Data were collected from patients who were receiving care from the infectious disease clinic of a large, public, urban hospital in the Southeastern United States. Subjects Patients were eligible to participate if they (1) were receiving their care from the clinic, (2) had an AIDS diagnosis, (3) were identified as African-American, (4) were ≥21 years of age, (5) spoke English, and (6) were not cognitively impaired. Measures Focus groups in phase 1 were conducted with a semistructured focus group guide. Participants also completed a basic sociodemographic survey. Phase 2 participants used programmed laptops to answer questions about their CAM use and several sociodemographic questions. Results Information from the focus groups prompted some substantive revisions in the already-existing CAM survey. The revised instrument had satisfactory face validity and adequate test–retest reliability (r = 0.79). Furthermore, the instrument factored in a manner that was interpretable and consistent with prior findings. Conclusions In order for human immunodeficiency virus health care providers to provide the best care to their patients, they need to be informed about the types and frequency of CAM use among their patients. This can be accomplished by methodologically developing

  1. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  2. Analysis of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus antibody responses in treated hemophiliacs. Implications for the study of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, S H; Sullivan, J L; Brettler, D B; Levine, P H

    1984-07-06

    One hundred hemophiliacs were studied for serological evidence of infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hepatitis B virus. Ninety-eight percent had markers of hepatitis B infection, while 69% had antibody to EBV and only 42% had antibody to CMV, suggesting that factor VIII preparations do not transmit EBV and CMV efficiently. Seventy-one percent of those seropositive to EBV had an antibody pattern suggestive of active infection, as compared with 23% of healthy young adult blood donors. These findings make the patients with hemophilia an unusually favorable population for the study of the role of persistent viral infection in the immunodeficiency now found to be widespread in groups at high risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and for the contribution of CMV and EBV to AIDS itself.

  3. The effects of immunity and resistance on the development of AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Martha; Braselton, James; Braselton, Lorraine

    2007-09-01

    We incorporate basic genetics into an AIDS model. We illustrate that if a homozygote is immune to the disease or is resistant to the effects of the disease, the corresponding allele goes to fixation. On the other hand, if the heterozygote is immune to the disease or is resistant to the effects of the disease, polymorphism usually occurs.

  4. Radiation-resistant acquired immunity of vaccinated mice to Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, R.; Coulson, P.S.; Dixon, B.; Wilson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    Vaccination of mice with attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni induces specific acquired resistance to challenge infection. This resistance is immunologically-mediated, possibly via a delayed-type hypersensitivity. Studies of parasite migration have shown that the protective mechanism operates most effectively in the lungs of vaccinated mice. We have probed the mechanism by exposing mice to 500 rads of gamma radiation before challenge infection. Our results show that the effector mechanism operative against challenge larvae is resistant to radiation. In contrast, classical immune responses are markedly suppressed by the same treatment. While leukocyte populations in the blood fall dramatically after irradiation, numbers of cells recoverable by bronchoalveolar lavage are unaffected. We suggest that vaccination with attenuated cercariae establishes populations of sensitized cells in the lungs which trigger the mechanism of resistance when challenge schistosomula migrate through pulmonary capillary beds. Although the cells may be partially disabled by irradiation, they remain responsive to worm antigens and thereby capable of initiating the elimination mechanism. This hypothesis would explain the radiation resistance of vaccine-induced immunity to S. mansoni.

  5. Herd immunity acquired indirectly from interactions between the ecology of infectious diseases, demography and economics.

    PubMed

    Bonds, Matthew H; Rohani, Pejman

    2010-03-06

    Patterns of morbidity and mortality around the globe are determined by interactions between infectious diseases and systematic human socioeconomic processes. The most obvious of these patterns is that the greatest burdens of infectious diseases are found among the poor, who lack the basic resources for disease prevention and treatment. Yet, it is becoming increasingly clear that many infectious diseases are themselves causes of poverty owing to their effects on labour productivity. A particularly subtle phenomenon that receives little attention in the epidemiology literature and is especially important for poor communities is the role of the birth rate as an important direct cause of high disease burdens. Because of their high rates of transmission and life-long immunity, the persistence of many child diseases such as measles relies on high rates of reproduction as their source of susceptible individuals. Thus, there are significant direct health benefits of lower fertility rates, which are further enhanced by interactions with economic processes. Indeed, fertility, poverty and disease all interact with each other in important and predictable ways that can be built into traditional disease ecology models. We present such a model here that provides insights into the long-term effect of policy interventions. For example, because of indirect income effects, herd immunity may be acquired with lower vaccine coverage than previously thought. Reductions in the disease burden can also occur through lower fertility. Our model thus provides a disease ecology framework that is useful for the analysis of demographic transitions.

  6. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Education: Activities Aimed at the General Public Implemented Slowly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Budget (Fiscal Years 1984-1988) 8 Table 1.3: CDC AIDS Education Expenditure Plan by 9 Target Group /Activity (Fiscal Years 1985-1987) Table 11. 1...four target groups and various program activities within each target group , as shown in table 1.3. Page 8 GAO ItRD.S-21 AIDS Education Appeudix I CI...Xs AIDS Education Budget and Planned Expenditures (FIscal Years IlS-1US) Table 1.3: CDC AIDS Education Expenditure Plan by Target Group / Dollars in

  7. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Prevention: Views on the Administration’s Budget Proposals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-12

    protozoal, or fungal infections. The two most common infections contracted by AIDS patients are pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi’s sarcoma. CDC...according to CDC, the proportion of AIDS patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma may decrease while pneumocystis carinii pneumonia may increase. Since the latter

  8. [The use of growth hormone to treat endocrine-metabolic disturbances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients].

    PubMed

    Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Siviero-Miachon, Adriana A; da Silva, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2008-07-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids) was initially related to HIV-associated wasting syndrome, and its metabolic disturbances to altered body composition. After Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) was started, malnutrition has declined and HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome has emerged as an important metabolic disorder. Aids is also characterized by hormonal disturbances, principally in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis. The use of recombinant human GH (hrGH) was formerly indicated to treat wasting syndrome, in order to increase lean body mass. Even though the use of hrGH in lipodystrophy syndrome has been considered, the decrease in insulin sensitivity is a limitation for its use, which has not been officially approved yet. Diversity in therapeutic regimen is another limitation to its use in Aids patients. The present study has reviewed the main HIV-related endocrine-metabolic disorders as well as the use of hrGH in such conditions.

  9. Acquired immunity and asymptomatic reservoir impact on frontline and airport ebola outbreak syndromic surveillance and response.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The number of surveillance networks for infectious disease diagnosis and response has been growing. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, which has been endorsed by each of the 46 WHO African members since then. Yet, taming the dynamics and plague of the vicious Ebola virus disease (EVD) in African countries has been patchy and erratic due to inadequate surveillance and contact tracing, community defiance and resistance, a lack of detection and response systems, meager/weak knowledge and information on the disease, inadequacies in protective materials protocols, contact tracing nightmare and differing priorities at various levels of the public health system. Despite the widespread acceptance of syndromic surveillance (SS) systems, their ability to provide early warning alerts and notifications of outbreaks is still unverified. Information is often too limited for any outbreak, or emerging or otherwise unexpected disease, to be recognized at either the community or the national level. Indeed, little is known about the role and the interactions between the Ebola infection and exposure to other syndemics and the development of acquired immunity, asymptomatic reservoir, and Ebola seroconversion. Can lessons be learnt from smallpox, polio, and influenza immunity, and can immunization against these serve as a guide? In most endemic countries, community health centers and disease control and prevention at airports solely relies on passive routine immunization control and reactive syndromic response. The frontline and airport Ebola SS systems in West Africa have shown deficiencies in terms of responding with an alarming number of case fatalities, and suggest that more detailed insights into Ebola, and proactive actions, are needed. The quest for effective early indicators (EEE) in shifting the public and global health paradigm requires the development and implementation of a comprehensive and effective

  10. Decreased expression of human class II antigens on monocytes from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Increased expression with interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Heagy, W; Kelley, V E; Strom, T B; Mayer, K; Shapiro, H M; Mandel, R; Finberg, R

    1984-01-01

    The expression of HLA-DR (a class II histocompatibility antigen) on monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of normal individuals and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was investigated by the use of dual fluorescent staining and cytofluorometry. In animal models the absence of class II positive monocytes is linked to a failure of T cells to respond to antigens. We now report that patients with AIDS have a paucity of HLA-DR+ monocytes. The percentage of HLA-DR+ monocytes among eight normal individuals ranged from 49.3 to 95.0%+, and only one individual had less than 50% HLA-DR+ monocytes. HLA-DR expression on monocytes from homosexual male patients with lymphadenopathy was similar to that of normal subjects (range, 58.0 to 97.4%+). In contrast, seven of nine patients with AIDS had less than 50% HLA-DR+ monocytes (range, 13.4 to 78.8%+). The in vitro incubation of monocytes from AIDS patients with cloned human interferon-gamma resulted in an increase of the expression of HLA-DR to near normal levels. PMID:6439741

  11. Utility of /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and bronchial washings in the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, C.U.; Delaney, M.D.; Simon, G.L.; Witorsch, P.; Varma, V.M.

    1985-11-01

    Twenty patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were evaluated by /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy for initial diagnosis and response to therapy. Lung uptake of /sup 67/Ga was demonstrated in 100% of AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, including those with subclinical infection. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy identified P. carinii in the bronchial washings of 100% of cases (19 patients), whereas only 13 of 16 (81%) patients had P. carinii in lung tissue obtained by transbronchial biopsy. Repeat fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 16 of 20 patients. After 2 to 4 wk of therapy, P. carinii was identified in bronchial washings in 8 of 16 (50%) patients and in transbronchial biopsy in 1 of 10 (10%) patients examined. Bronchial washing has a higher yield than transbronchial biopsy in demonstrating P. carinii in patients with AIDS and may evolve as the procedure of choice in such patients. Based on the clinical course and results of /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, optimal therapy may require at least 3 wk of treatment.

  12. Can we find a solution to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome controversy? Is acquired immune deficiency syndrome the consequence of continuous excessive stressing of the body?

    PubMed

    Hässig, A; Wen-Xi, L; Stampfli, K

    1996-04-01

    The time of re-evaluation of the role of human immunodeficiency viruses in the pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome has now come, now that methods are available for the direct detection of human immunodeficiency viruses and for the detection of cellular anti-human immunodeficiency virus immune reactions. It has been shown that human immunodeficiency virus infections are common among anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody negative high-risk individuals. The disease is brought under control by cellular immune reactions and the anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody test remains negative. Apart from proof that infection with human immunodeficiency viruses has occurred, a positive result in an anti-human immunodeficiency virus-antibody test is also an indication of an independent immunosuppression state. According to the definition of the Centers of Disease Control classical acquired immune deficiency syndrome is the consequence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus in association with continuous excessive stress, such as observed in the known risk groups. At the center of the pathogenetic process is hypercortisolism-determined damage of T lymphocytes, in which insufficiency of thymus is prominent. For this reason, in our view, there are indications for shifting efforts from the prophylaxis of infection with human immunodeficiency viruses to the prophylaxis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome by reducing stress factors.

  13. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  14. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...

  15. The Sobering Geography of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palca, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The rate at which the epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is spreading in North America, Asia, Latin America, and Africa is discussed. The number of people infected globally and in low-risk urban populations is presented. (KR)

  16. Soluble suppressor factors in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and its prodrome. Elaboration in vitro by T lymphocyte-adherent cell interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, J; Gottlieb, A B; Kunkel, H G

    1983-01-01

    Supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from certain patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or its prodrome were capable of depressing spontaneous and pokeweed mitogen-driven B lymphocyte differentiation into plasmacytes, and the proliferative responses of T cells to specific antigen. These soluble suppressor factors (SSF) were present in uniquely high concentrations, with significant differences from healthy controls and from patients with various other conditions previously associated with factor-mediated immunosuppression. T cell-independent functions were not modified by SSF. Suppression was not genetically constrained, and did not appear to be mediated by cytotoxicity, prostaglandin, or alpha or gamma interferons. SSF was a product of the interaction of T lymphocytes with adherent cells. T cells or T cell factors from AIDS patients, but not from normal controls, could collaborate with control adherent cells in the formation of SSF. Restoration of DNA synthesis-independent differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasmacytes in SSF-treated cultures was realized by addition of reducing agents, such as 2-mercaptoethanol, on culture initiation. These data suggest inhibitory mechanisms possibly related to that of concanavalin A-induced soluble immune response suppression, and perhaps offer clues to clinically applicable substances which are potentially capable of mitigating such responses. PMID:6605980

  17. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  18. Passive transfer of naturally acquired specific immunity against West Nile Virus to foals in a semi-feral pony herd.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Glaser, Amy L; McDonnell, Sue M

    2006-01-01

    Horses naturally exposed to West Nile Virus (WNV) or vaccinated against WNV develop humoral immunity thought to be protective against development of clinical disease in exposed or infected animals. No reports evaluate the efficacy of passive transfer of naturally acquired specific WNV humoral immunity from dam to foal. The purpose of this study was to investigate passive transfer of naturally acquired immunity to WNV to foals born in a herd of semi-feral ponies, not vaccinated against WNV, in an endemic area, with many dams having seroconverted because of natural exposure. Microwell serum neutralization titers against WNV were determined in all mares and foals. Serum IgG concentration was determined in foals by serial radial immunodiffusion. Differences in IgG concentration between seropositive and seronegative foals were examined by means of the Mann-Whitney U-test. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between mare and foal titers. Seventeen mare-foal pairs were studied; 1 foal had inadequate IgG concentration. IgG concentration was not different between seronegative and seropositive foals (P = .24). Mare and foal titers were significantly correlated in foals with adequate passive transfer of immunity (Spearman's rho = .84; P < .001); >90% of the foal's titer was explained by the mare's titer (R2 = 0.91; P < .001). Passive transfer of specific immunity to WNV is present in pony foals with adequate passive transfer of immunity born to seroconverted mares.

  19. [Characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)].

    PubMed

    Garza-Garza, D; Buendía-Uribe, J L; Martínez-Cruz, E; Argüero-Licea, B

    1995-01-01

    In Mexico cryptococosis ranks third in frequency among the mycoses ocurring as complications in AIDS patients. Neither the prevalence of the two varieties of C. neoformans in these patients nor the morphological and physiological changes suffered by these strains in AIDS patients are known. A total of 60 isolates were obtained from patients with AIDS from the Hospital de Infectología, Centro Médico "La Raza" IMSS. The identity of each isolate was established by: growth at 37 degrees C, colony and microscopic characteristics, urease and phenoloxidase activity, carbon sources assimilation. The canavanine glycine-bromothymol blue agar was used to distinguish C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii. Pathogenicity in mice was also tested. Fifty one isolates of C. neoformans var. neoformans and nine of C. neoformans var. gattii were identified. All strains grew well at 37 degrees C, urease and phenoloxidase were positive, the morphology and the auxanographic profile were variable. C. neoformans var. neoformans was more virulent in mouse than C. neoformans var. gattii. This study has confirmed the presence of the two varieties of C. neoformans in Mexico with 85% prevalence of var. neoformans and 15% of var. gattii in AIDS patients. This frequency was higher than in reports from other countries.

  20. Computer-Aided Relearning Activity Patterns for People with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Francisco; Lopez-Jaquero, Victor; Navarro, Elena; Sanchez, Enriqueta

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities constitute a collective that requires continuous and customized attention, since their conditions or abilities are affected with respect to specific standards. People with "Acquired Brain Injury" (ABI), or those who have suffered brain injury at some stage after birth, belong to this collective. The treatment these people…

  1. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  2. AIDS as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  3. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  4. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  5. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  6. Findings from the Horizontes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Education project: the impact of indigenous outreach workers as change agents for injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Birkel, R C; Golaszewski, T; Koman, J J; Singh, B K; Catan, V; Souply, K

    1993-01-01

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) intervention using indigenous outreach workers was implemented with Hispanic injection drug users (IDUs) and their sexual partners in three locations: Laredo, Texas; San Diego, California; and San Juan, Puerto Rico. A total of 2,169 subjects were contacted, given health education, HIV antibody testing, and follow-up counseling. This article reports on the 1,616 IDUs (75%) who completed the initial and follow-up interviews. The results indicated significant increases in health knowledge on AIDS, decreases in needle risk drug taking behaviors, some decreases in sex risk behaviors, and more realistic perceptions of personal AIDS risk. Using multivariate analyses, gender (male) and increasing age (older than age 25 years) were the strongest predictors of behavior change. Surprisingly, the identification of a positive HIV serostatus was not a significant predictor of behavior change. Although intended as a comparison study between contrasting levels of intervention, logistical and administrative problems undermined the use of a true quasi-experimental design. Nonetheless, the results from this research suggest that the use of indigenous outreach workers is an effective means of combatting the spread of HIV in this difficult to reach population. Some programmatic recommendations are provided for future efforts of this kind, particularly in relation to role conflicts experienced by outreach workers.

  7. The thymus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Comparison with other types of immunodeficiency diseases, and presence of components of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, H. J.; Krone, W. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; van Baarlen, J.; van Veen, P.; Golstein, A. L.; Huber, J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied thymus specimens taken at autopsy from eight acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and compared these with those taken from four patients with congenital immunodeficiency (unrelated to an intrinsic thymus defect) and seven patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In all cases, histology showed a severely involuted architecture, compatible with a debilitating disease before death. There were no major differences between thymus tissue in AIDS patients and in the other patients studied. This argues against the claim expressed in the literature that the epithelial microenvironment incurs particular HIV-1-induced injury in AIDS. This conclusion is substantiated by immunohistochemistry for HIV-1 gag and env proteins, and by hybridohistochemistry for gag/pol and env mRNA of HIV-1. Positive cells were observed only in low numbers, both inside the epithelial parenchyma and in the (expanded) perivascular areas. An interesting finding was the labeling of subcapsular/medullary epithelium in normal uninvoluted thymus by a number of antibodies to HIV-1 gag p17 and p24 proteins. Compatible with this labeling was the staining of epithelial stalks in hyperinvoluted thymuses irrespective of disease category. The previously reported cross-reactivity between HIV-1 core protein and thymosin alpha 1 cannot fully explain this observation, because the epithelium in the hyperinvoluted state is negative for thymosin alpha 1. This study confirms and extends previous reports on the endogenous presence of epitopes of retroviral antigens in thymic epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2474255

  8. Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders and/or Hospice Care, Psychological Health, and Quality of Life among Children/Adolescents with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Williams, Paige L.; Woods, Elizabeth R.; Hutton, Nancy; Butler, Anne M.; Sibinga, Erica; Brady, Michael T.; Oleske, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The frequency of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and hospice enrollment in children/adolescents living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and followed in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Study 219C was examined, and evaluated for any association with racial disparities or enhanced quality of life (QOL), particularly psychological adjustment. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of children with AIDS enrolled in this prospective multicenter observational study between 2000 and 2005 was conducted to evaluate the incidence of DNR/hospice overall and by calendar time. Linear regression models were used to compare caregivers' reported QOL scores within 6 domains between those with and without DNR/hospice care, adjusting for confounders. Results Seven hundred twenty-six (726) children with AIDS had a mean age of 12.9 years (standard deviation [SD] = 4.5), 51% were male, 60% black, 25% Hispanic. Twenty-one (2.9%) had either a DNR order (n = 16), hospice enrollment (n = 7), or both (n = 2). Of 41 children who died, 80% had no DNR/hospice care. Increased odds of DNR/hospice were observed for those with CD4% less than 15%, no current antiretroviral use, and prior hospitalization. No differences by race were detected. Adjusted mean QOL scores were significantly lower for those with DNR/hospice enrollment than those without across all domains except for psychological status and health care utilization. Poorer psychological status correlated with higher symptom distress, but not with DNR/hospice enrollment after adjusting for symptoms. Conclusions Children who died of AIDS rarely had DNR/hospice enrollment. National guidelines recommend that quality palliative care be integrated routinely with HIV care. Further research is needed to explore the barriers to palliative care and advance care planning in this population. PMID:18363489

  9. Attitudes of Dental Faculty toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)

  10. Functions of innate and acquired immune system are reduced in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) given a low protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Yuko; Frankel, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Racing pigeons are exposed to and act as carriers of diseases. Dietary protein requirement for their maintenance has not been determined experimentally despite their being domesticated for over 7000 years. A maintenance nitrogen (protein) requirement (MNR) for pigeons was determined in a balance study using diets containing 6, 10 and 14% crude protein (CP). Then, the effects of feeding the diets were investigated to determine whether they were adequate to sustain innate and acquired immune functions. Nitrogen intake from the 6% CP diet was sufficient to maintain nitrogen balance and body weight in pigeons. However, the immune functions of phagocytosis, oxidative burst and lymphocyte proliferation in pigeons fed this diet were reduced compared with those fed 10 and 14% CP diets. Pigeons given the 6 and 10% CP diets had lower antibody titres following inoculation against Newcastle disease (ND) than those on the 14% CP diet. A confounding factor found on autopsy was the presence of intestinal parasites in some of the pigeons given the 6 and 10% CP diets; however, none of the pigeons used to measure MNR or acquired immunity to ND were infested with parasites. In conclusion, neither the 6 nor 10% CP diets adequately sustained acquired immune function of pigeons. PMID:27069640

  11. The AIDS Challenge: Prevention Education for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia, Ed.; And Others

    This book on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education was developed by national and international experts to aid educators, professionals, parents, and youth leaders in developing and implementing AIDS education programs. Included are: (1) "Living with AIDS" (Jack Martin Balcer); (2) "The AIDS Epidemic: Problems in Limiting Its Impact"…

  12. The influence of gender and of AIDS on the immunity of autopsied patients' esophagus.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Laura Penna; de Melo E Silva, Ana Teresa; Gomes, Nayara Cândida; Faria, Humberto Aparecido; Silva, Renata Beatriz; Olegário, Janaínna Grazielle Pacheco; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that males who have AIDS are more frequently affected by infectious diseases than females. The esophagus is the organ in the digestive tube that is more commonly affected by opportunistic infections during the syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of AIDS and of gender on local immunity of the esophageal epithelium. Fragments of the esophagus from 29 autopsied women and 37 autopsied men were collected at a university hospital from 1980 to 2009 and were divided in groups with and without AIDS. The IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-positive cells and Langerhans cells (LCs) were immunostained, respectively, with anti-IgA, anti-IgG, anti-IgM, and anti-S100. The software Image J was used to measure the esophageal epithelium and to count the epithelium cellular layers. Patients with AIDS, apart from gender, showed an increase in IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-positive cells and a reduction of Langerhans cells, in thickness and in number of cellular layers in the esophageal epithelium. However, among individuals with AIDS, men presented lower secretory expression of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-positive cells than women and more intense reduction of LCs. Women have naturally presented better local esophageal immunity than men. Although AIDS possibly causes immunological and morphological alterations in the esophageal epithelium in both genders, women have better esophageal immunity, which may explain a greater frequency of hospital admissions due to infection of men with AIDS when compared with women.

  13. Schistosoma mansoni: is acquired immunity induced by highly x-irradiated cercariae dependent on the size of the challenging dose

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.Y.; Hsue, H.F.; Osborne, J.W.; Johnson, S.C.

    1982-04-01

    A high degree of immunity, as shown by a 91% reduction of the number of worms recovered was found in five groups of mice that were immunized five times with highly X-irradiated cercariae and then challenged with 10, 20, 50, 100, or 500 normal Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in worm reduction in immunized mice challenged with different numbers of cercariae; consequently the immunity induced by this immunization method did not appear to be challenge-dose-dependent. However, the results also showed that when immunized mice were challenged with 500, 100, 50, 20, and 10 cercariae, 0, 13, 26, 56, and 68%, respectively, of the experimental animals were free of worms. Thus, the percentage of worm-negative cases increased as the number of challenge cercariae decreased. When viewed in this manner, the acquired immunity may be considered challenge-dose-dependent as well. If this method of vaccination is used for schistosomiasis control, we may anticipate that in both hypo- and hyperendemic areas, the intensity of infection and the severity of the disease will be reduced owing to a reduction in worms burdens, and in hypoendemic areas, there will be a number of worm-free cases.

  14. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  15. Intestinal microsporidiosis in a Chilean patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Oddó, D; Chuaqui, R; Hoffmann, E; Garcia, M

    1993-03-01

    A 24-year-old male patient with AIDS diagnosed in 1989, and with several episodes of pneumocystosis, was admitted because of a chronic diarrheic syndrome and severe epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed a granular duodenal mucosa. Light microscopy showed a moderate villous atrophy with round-cell inflammatory infiltration of the chorion. Giemsa, Ziehl-Neelsen, and Gram stains showed microsporidial spores measuring between 1.5 and 2 microns in the supranuclear cytoplasm of some enterocytes. Electron microscopy showed sporoblasts and spores consistent with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with an apparently non-tubular, rather electron-dense polar filament showing up to 7 coils and also a microtubular internal structure with annular disposition, a finding which has not been adequately emphasized in the pertinent literature, probably representing a contractile property of the polar filament, rather than a mere duct for the parasitic sporoplasm to be inoculated.

  16. Influence of the home environment on the prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sewnunan, A; Modiba, L M

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a 'family crises' which marks the beginning of the deterioration of the family unit and the trauma in the emotional, psychological and material lives of both the mother and child. In South African context where the majority of HIV-positive mothers are young single women who live in extended families, disclosure to the sexual partner alone is not an adequate condition for the success of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). In South Africa, close to one in three women who attend antenatal clinics are HIV positive. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the worst affected provinces, where as many as 40-60% of pregnant women attending antenatal services are living with HIV infection. The study sought to investigate the link between the home environment and its contribution to the success of the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was used in this study to explore whether the home environment for the support system is available for the HIV-positive women on the PMTCT programme. The population of this study included all women who have undergone counselling and tested HIV positive and who have joined the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS in a specific hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province. Although 14 women agreed to participate in the study, only 10 women were interviewed as saturation was attained. Data were collected using semi-structured interview schedule. Interviews were audio-taped and field notes were taken. Content analysis was used and it was done manually. This study revealed that one of the major issues still surrounding HIV/AIDS and PMTCT is that of non-disclosure, selective disclosure and the stigma and discrimination that surrounds this disease.

  17. I kappa B kinase alpha (IKKα) activity is required for functional maturation of dendritic cells and acquired immunity to infection.

    PubMed

    Mancino, Alessandra; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Johnson, Ella; Luron, Lionel; Bebien, Magali; Memet, Sylvie; Fong, Carol; Bajenoff, Marc; Wu, Xuefeng; Karin, Michael; Caamano, Jorge; Chi, Hongbo; Seed, Michael; Lawrence, Toby

    2013-03-20

    Dendritic cells (DC) are required for priming antigen-specific T cells and acquired immunity to many important human pathogens, including Mycobacteriuim tuberculosis (TB) and influenza. However, inappropriate priming of auto-reactive T cells is linked with autoimmune disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate the priming and activation of naïve T cells is critical for development of new improved vaccines and understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The serine/threonine kinase IKKα (CHUK) has previously been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity and inhibit innate immunity. Here, we show that IKKα is required in DC for priming antigen-specific T cells and acquired immunity to the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. We describe a new role for IKKα in regulation of IRF3 activity and the functional maturation of DC. This presents a unique role for IKKα in dampening inflammation while simultaneously promoting adaptive immunity that could have important implications for the development of new vaccine adjuvants and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  18. Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-06

    President. Addiction Research and Treatment Corporation, Brooklyn, New York DONALD S. BURKE, Colonel, Medical Corps. U.S. Army. and Director...Stephen Carter. Harold Edgar, and Martin Delaney. ŘD. Dranove and D. Meltzer . "Do Important Drugs Reach the Market Sooner"." R.I.) .ournal of Economics

  19. Testing the 'toxin hypothesis of allergy': mast cells, IgE, and innate and acquired immune responses to venoms.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Work in mice indicates that innate functions of mast cells, particularly degradation of venom toxins by mast cell-derived proteases, can enhance resistance to certain arthropod or reptile venoms. Recent reports indicate that acquired Th2 immune responses associated with the production of IgE antibodies, induced by Russell's viper venom or honeybee venom, or by a component of honeybee venom, bee venom phospholipase 2 (bvPLA2), can increase the resistance of mice to challenge with potentially lethal doses of either of the venoms or bvPLA2. These findings support the conclusion that, in contrast to the detrimental effects associated with allergic type 2 (Th2) immune responses, mast cells and IgE-dependent immune responses to venoms can contribute to innate and adaptive resistance to venom-induced pathology and mortality.

  20. Testing the "toxin hypothesis of allergy": Mast cells, IgE, and innate and acquired immune responses to venoms*

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Work in mice indicates that innate functions of mast cells, particularly degradation of venom toxins by mast cell-derived proteases, can enhance resistance to certain arthropod or reptile venoms. Recent reports indicate that acquired Th2 immune responses associated with the production of IgE antibodies, induced by Russell’s viper venom or honeybee venom, or by a component of honeybee venom, bee venom phospholipase 2 (bvPLA2), can increase the resistance of mice to challenge with potentially lethal doses of either of the venoms or bvPLA2. These findings support the conclusion that, in contrast to the detrimental effects associated with allergic Th2 immune responses, mast cells and IgE-dependent immune responses to venoms can contribute to innate and adaptive resistance to venom-induced pathology and mortality. PMID:26210895

  1. [Digestive manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): study in 26 patients].

    PubMed

    René, E; Marche, C; Régnier, B; Saimot, A G; Vittecoq, B; Matheron, S; Le Port, C; Bricaire, F; Bure, A; Brun-Vezinet, C

    1985-04-01

    We studied the gastrointestinal manifestations in 26 cases of AIDS. The patients belonged to two different epidemiological groups: the first group included thirteen french homosexual men, the second group included 6 Haitians, 6 Africans and a Pakistanian, none of them admit homosexual activity. The clinical manifestations were: chronic watery diarrhea in 17 cases, bloody diarrhea in 2 cases; loss of weight in the 26 cases; dysphagia in five cases; jaundice in one patient (due to Kaposi sarcoma of the ampulla of Vater). The digestive lesions found, alone or associated, were necrotizing enteritis (2), ulcerative colitis (1), pseudomembranous colitis (1), Candida esophagitis (10), erythematous duodenitis (6), proctitis (4), Kaposi sarcoma (3), diffuse (2) or localized (1). Thirteen patients out of the 26 presented opportunistic digestive infections due to one or several germs. These were 10 cases of esophageal infection (due to Candida albicans) and 8 cases of enterocolonic infection due to Cytomegalovirus (3 cases), Cryptosporidium (3 cases), Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (1 case), Cryptococcus neoformans (1 case). The other digestive infections cases were due to non-opportunistic pathogens: Entamoeba histolytica (3 cases); Giardia lamblia (3 cases); Strongyloides stercoralis (2 cases); Salmonella typhi (2 cases); Shigella (1 case); Herpes simplex virus (1 case). No difference was noticed between the homosexual and the heterosexual groups with respect to the nature and the frequency of the digestive infections.

  2. Clinical aspects of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, J N; Carmichael, D J; Sawyer, N; Pinching, A J; Harris, J R

    1984-01-01

    Between August and November 1983, seven new patients with AIDS were seen at this hospital; two with disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma, and five with opportunist infections, of whom three have died. We present the case histories of the five patients with opportunist infections, which show the wide clinical range of AIDS and suggest that the pattern of infection in the UK may differ from that reported in the USA. PMID:6744012

  3. Acquired immunodeficiencies and tuberculosis: focus on HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ronacher, Katharina; Joosten, Simone A; van Crevel, Reinout; Dockrell, Hazel M; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H M

    2015-03-01

    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection within Africa led to marked increases in numbers of cases of tuberculosis (TB), and although the epidemic peaked in 2006, there were still 1.8 million new cases in 2013, with 29.2 million prevalent cases. Half of all TB cases in Africa are in those with HIV co-infection. A brief review of the well-documented main immunological mechanisms of HIV-associated increased susceptibility to TB is presented. However, a new threat is facing TB control, which presents itself in the form of a rapid increase in the number of people living with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in areas that are already hardest hit by the TB epidemic. T2DM increases susceptibility to TB threefold, and the TB burden attributable to T2DM is 15%. This review addresses the much smaller body of research information available on T2DM-TB, compared to HIV-TB comorbidity. We discuss the altered clinical presentation of TB in the context of T2DM comorbidity, changes in innate and adaptive immune responses, including lymphocyte subsets and T-cell phenotypes, the effect of treatment of the different comorbidities, changes in biomarker expression and genetic predisposition to the respective morbidities, and other factors affecting the comorbidity. Although significant gains have been made in improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of T2DM-associated increased susceptibility, knowledge gaps still exist that require urgent attention.

  4. The Role of Nutrition in AIDS and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumwalt, Sally A.; Schmidt, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in immunity both among the elderly and among persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Appropriate nutritional intake and counseling may improve immune status and enable both prevention and progression of AIDS and the susceptibility of the elderly to infectious diseases. (SK)

  5. Computer-aided diagnostic approach of dermoscopy images acquiring relevant features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillejos-Fernández, H.; Franco-Arcega, A.; López-Ortega, O.

    2016-09-01

    In skin cancer detection, automated analysis of borders, colors, and structures of a lesion relies upon an accurate segmentation process and it is an important first step in any Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. However, irregular and disperse lesion borders, low contrast, artifacts in images and variety of colors within the interest region make the problem difficult. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach of automatic classification which considers specific lesion features. First, for the selection of lesion skin we employ the segmentation algorithm W-FCM.1 Then, in the feature extraction stage we consider several aspects: the area of the lesion, which is calculated by correlating axes and we calculate the specific the value of asymmetry in both axes. For color analysis we employ an ensemble of clusterers including K-Means, Fuzzy K-Means and Kohonep maps, all of which estimate the presence of one or more colors defined in ABCD rule and the values for each of the segmented colors. Another aspect to consider is the type of structures that appear in the lesion Those are defined by using the ell-known GLCM method. During the classification stage we compare several methods in order to define if the lesion is benign or malignant. An important contribution of the current approach in segmentation-classification problem resides in the use of information from all color channels together, as well as the measure of each color in the lesion and the axes correlation. The segmentation and classification measures have been performed using sensibility, specificity, accuracy and AUC metric over a set of dermoscopy images from ISDIS data set

  6. Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein gene inhibition enhances the acquired immune response during malaria infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Herbas, Maria Shirley; Natama, Magloire Hamtandi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Immune response to malaria infection is complex and seems to be regulated by innate and adaptive immune response as well as environmental factors such as host genetics and nutritional status. Previously, we have reported that α-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (α-ttp(Δ)) mice, showing low concentrations of α-tocopherol in circulation, infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 survived significantly longer as compared with the wild-type mice. In addition, Plasmodium yoelii XL-17, a lethal strain, showed non-lethal virulence in α-ttp(Δ) mice. Thus, we hypothesized that the ability of the α-ttp(Δ) mice to control P. yoelli XL-17 proliferation may allow them to build an efficient immune response against murine malaria infection. On 15 days after infection with P. yoelli XL-17, α-ttp(Δ) mice were challenged to infection with P. berghei NK65. Results indicated that α-ttp(Δ) mice infected with P. yoelli XL-17 built a protective immunity against P. berghei NK65 associated to extremely low levels of parasitemia, a controlled inflammatory response, and a robust antibody response. Moreover, the importance of α-tocopherol for parasite proliferation was remarkable. The results suggest that inhibition of α-tocopherol transfer protein activity is effective for the enhancement of acquired immunity in murine malaria infection.

  7. Successful Treatment of Cerebral Aspergillosis in a Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Wang, X; Yang, Y; Lan, T; Ashraf, MA; Mao, Q

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report a case of a patient with AIDS and a brain abscess caused by aspergillus, who underwent neurosurgical excision of the lesion and received subsequent therapy with voriconazole. The patient suffered from intracranial hypertension and visual disorders. PMID:27399315

  8. AID can restrict L1 retrotransposition suggesting a dual role in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    MacDuff, Donna A; Demorest, Zachary L; Harris, Reuben S

    2009-04-01

    Retrotransposons make up over 40% of the mammalian genome. Some copies are still capable of mobilizing and new insertions promote genetic variation. Several members of the APOBEC3 family of DNA cytosine deaminases function to limit the replication of a variety of retroelements, such as the long-terminal repeat (LTR)-containing MusD and Ty1 elements, and that of the non-LTR retrotransposons, L1 and Alu. However, the APOBEC3 genes are limited to mammalian lineages, whereas retrotransposons are far more widespread. This raises the question of what cellular factors control retroelement transposition in species that lack APOBEC3 genes. A strong phylogenetic case can be made that an ancestral activation-induced deaminase (AID)-like gene duplicated and diverged to root the APOBEC3 lineage in mammals. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that present-day AID proteins possess anti-retroelement activity. We found that AID can inhibit the retrotransposition of L1 through a DNA deamination-independent mechanism. This mechanism may manifest in the cytoplasmic compartment co- or posttranslationally. Together with evidence for AID expression in the ovary, our data combined to suggest that AID has innate immune functions in addition to its integral roles in creating antibody diversity.

  9. Purinergic signaling and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: From viral entry to therapy.

    PubMed

    Passos, Daniela F; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Leal, Daniela Br

    2015-08-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious condition associated to severe immune dysfunction and immunodeficiency. Mechanisms involved in HIV-associated immune activation, inflammation and loss of CD4+ T cells have been extensively studied, including those concerning purinergic signaling pathways. Purinergic signaling components are involved in viral entry and replication and disease progression. Research involving the participation of purinergic signaling in HIV infection has been not only important to elucidate disease mechanisms but also to introduce new approaches to therapy. The involvement of purinergic signaling in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and its implications in the control of the HIV infection are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Providing Empowerment to the Person with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Describes author's experiences after his own diagnoses of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Related Complex (ARC) and AIDS itself. Discusses six ways for social workers to provide empowerment to persons with AIDS, which focus on the positive, the healing power of caring, reconnections, direction, victim mindset, and advocacy. (ABL)

  11. AIDS: A Strain on Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Peggy H.

    A diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has both a physical and psychosocial impact that require substantial support. Relating to the families of origin concerning an AIDS diagnosis is a difficult task which sometimes results in rejection and sometimes results in support. In this study subjects (N=32) with AIDS described their…

  12. Living with HIV/AIDS in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter article is concerned with understanding what schools can and must do to sustain life in the age of human immunodeficiency virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The article looks at the incidence of AIDS and reviews legislation related to AIDS infection and school attendance. School policy as it relates to…

  13. Plasmodesmata localizing proteins regulate transport and signaling during systemic acquired immunity in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants is mediated by the signaling molecules azelaic acid (AzA),glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), and salicylic acid (SA).Here, we show that AzA and G3P transport occurs via the symplastic route, which is regulated by channels known as plasmodesmata (PD). In contrast...

  14. Enhancement of natural and acquired immunity by Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019).

    PubMed

    Gill, H S; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Gopal, P K

    2000-02-01

    Consumption of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been suggested to confer a range of health benefits including stimulation of the immune system and increased resistance to malignancy and infectious illness. In the present study, the effects of feeding Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001, DR20), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019, DR10) on in vivo and in vitro indices of natural and acquired immunity in healthy mice were examined. Mice were fed daily with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis (10(9) colony forming units) and their immune function was assessed on day 10 or day 28. Supplementation with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis resulted in a significant increase in the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leucocytes and peritoneal macrophages compared with the control mice. The proliferative responses of spleen cells to concanavalin A (a T-cell mitogen) and lipopolysaccharide (a B-cell mitogen) were also significantly enhanced in mice given different LAB. Spleen cells from mice given L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis also produced significantly higher amounts of interferon-gamma in response to stimulation with concanavalin A than cells from the control mice. LAB feeding had no significant effect on interleukin-4 production by spleen cells or on the percentages of CD4+, CD8+ and CD40+ cells in the blood. The serum antibody responses to orally and systemically administered antigens were also significantly enhanced by supplementation with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis. Together, these results suggest that supplementation of the diet with L. rhamnosus (HN001), L. acidophilus (HN017) or B. lactis (HN019) is able to enhance several indices of natural and acquired immunity in healthy mice.

  15. Studies on acquired immunity to coccidiosis in bursaless and thymectomized fowls

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, A. E.; Long, P. L.

    1965-01-01

    Fowls hatched from embryos inoculated in ovo with testosterone between the sixth and ninth day of incubation hatched without a detectable bursa of Fabricius. These fowls failed to develop antibodies as the result of repeated infection with Eimeria tenella and levels of serum immune globulin were usually markedly reduced or undetectable. There were very few pyroninophilic cells in the caeca or spleen and secondary foci in the spleen and caecal lymphoid tissue were either not detected or were very reduced in number. The spleen and thymus weights were significantly reduced by testosterone treatment. Nevertheless, these fowls were successfully immunized, so that they resisted infection when challenged with viable oocysts of E. tenella. Active E. tenella infection of normal, susceptible, control fowls significantly reduced the thymus weight and increased the bursa weight. Severe haemorrhage into the caecal lumen of infected fowls resulted in lowered blood erythrocyte and lymphocyte counts and a reduction in the total serum protein. Antibodies, capable of lysing sporozoites, were detected in normal fowls after immunization and in normal susceptible fowls 5 days after initial infection. Complete surgical thymectomy was attempted within the first 1½ hours after hatching. However, this was only exceptionally complete and about 10 per cent of thymic tissue was detectable at subsequent post-mortem 56 days later. Thymectomized birds produced antibody, pyroninophilic cells and secondary spleen foci indistinguishable from normal control immunized chickens. However, there was a significant reduction in the number of small lymphocytes in the blood. Although thymectomized fowls were successfully immunized against E. tenella infection, there was an indication, shown by daily oocyst discharge determinations that thymectomized fowls were less resistant during immunization than normal fowls. However, both groups of fowls, when challenged, were fully immune. The significance of partial

  16. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  17. Role of B Cells and Antibodies in Acquired Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Chan, John; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has documented a role for B cells and antibodies (Abs) in the immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Passive transfer studies with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mycobacterial antigens have shown protection against the tubercle bacillus. B cells and Abs are believed to contribute to an enhanced immune response against Mtb by modulating various immunological components in the infected host including the T-cell compartment. Nevertheless, the extent and contribution of B cells and Abs to protection against Mtb remains uncertain. In this article we summarize the most relevant findings supporting the role of B cells and Abs in the defense against Mtb and discuss the potential mechanisms of protection. PMID:25301934

  18. Comorbidities in Children and Adolescents with AIDS Acquired by HIV Vertical Transmission in Vitória, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Silva, Sandra F.; Zandonade, Eliana; Frauches, Diana O.; Machado, Elisa A.; Lopes, Lays Ignacia A.; Duque, Lívia L.; Querido, Polyana P.; Miranda, Angélica E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studying diseases associated with AIDS is essential for establishing intervention strategies because comorbidities can lead to death. The objectives were to describe the frequency of comorbidities and verify their distribution according to demographic, epidemiological and clinical data as well as to classify diseases in children and adolescents with AIDS in Vitória, Brazil. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted among children with AIDS, as defined according to the criteria established by the Ministry of Health, who acquired HIV via vertical transmission, were aged 0 to 18 years, and were monitored at a referral hospital from January 2001 to December 2011. Results A total of 177 patients were included, of whom 97 were female (55%). There were 60 patients (34%) <1 year old, 67 patients (38%) between the ages of 1 and 5, and 50 patients (28%) ≥6 years of age included at the time of admission to the Infectious Diseases Ward. Regarding clinical-immunological classification, 146 patients (82.5%) showed moderate/severe forms of the disease at the time of admission into the Ward, and 26 patients (14.7%) died during the study. The most common clinical signs were hepatomegaly (81.62%), splenomegaly (63.8%), lymphadenopathy (68.4%) and persistent fever (32.8%). The most common comorbidities were anaemia (67.2%), pneumonia/septicaemia/acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) (64.2%), acute otitis media (AOM)/recurrent sinusitis (55.4%), recurrent severe bacterial infections (47.4%) and dermatitis (43.1%). An association between severe clinical-immunological classification and admission to the Ward for children aged less than one year old was found for several comorbidities (p<0.001). Conclusion Delayed diagnosis was observed because the majority of patients were admitted to the Infectious Diseases Ward at ≥1 year of age and were already presenting with serious diseases. The general paediatrician should be alert to this possibility to make an early

  19. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide. Grades 7-10. Bulletin 1827, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This curriculum guide on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was developed for students at the junior high school level. There are five major sections: (1) introduction, an overview of AIDS; (2) an overview of the history of AIDS; (3) basic immunology; (4) the effects of AIDS on the host; and (5) prevention of AIDS. The appendices include…

  20. Adolescents' Thoughts and Feelings about AIDS in Relation to Cognitive Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Murphy, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    Studied adolescents' (N=163) formal operational reasoning in relation to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, AIDS fear, sexual knowledge, and reactions to AIDS victims. Found that advanced reasoning predicted better AIDS knowledge and general sexual knowledge. Advanced reasoning and AIDS knowledge were also linked with heightened…

  1. AIDS: Understanding and Prevention. Student and Teacher Editions. The Merrill Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Linda; Heit, Philip

    This two-document set includes a student workbook and a teacher guide designed to present factual information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subjects covered include; transmission of AIDS, risk behaviors, detection of AIDS, AIDS infection, treatment and research, and prevention of AIDS infection. The teacher guide presents…

  2. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome: an overview for the emergency physician, Part 2.

    PubMed

    Guss, D A

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects all organ systems. Infection of the heart can manifest with evidence of myocarditis, pericarditis, or cardiomyopathy. The most common gastrointestinal symptom is diarrhea, which can result from infection with a variety of bacterial, fungal, or protozoal organisms. In about 15% of cases, no pathogen is recognized and the diarrhea syndrome is termed AIDS enteropathy. Any portion of the alimentary tract can be affected as well as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Cryptosporidium, a previously infrequent cause of human illness, has emerged as an important pathogen in the HIV-infected patient and is responsible for chronic diarrhea, cholecystitis, and biliary tract obstruction. Evidence of neurologic involvement is present in more than 80% of patients at the time of autopsy. Cryptococcal meningitis, toxoplasma encephalitis, and neurosyphilis are the most often encountered central nervous system infections. While all three are responsive to therapy, treatment must be prolonged or persist for the duration of the patient's life to avoid recurrence. Peripheral nervous system manifestations include myelopathy, myopathy, and a variety of peripheral neuropathies. Retinal infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and toxoplasma can lead to irreversible loss of vision. Cotton wool spots are a common benign physical finding that must be differentiated from the early signs of CMV or toxoplasma infection. Management of the HIV-infected patient, while most often conducted by specialists in Internal Medicine or Infectious Diseases, is often an issue for the emergency physician. Many of the commonly afforded therapies are reviewed. Part 1 of this two-part series discussed the pathophysiology and clinical expression, epidemiology, laboratory testing, and the general clinical manifestations of AIDS, as well as dermatologic, pulmonary, and cardiac symptoms. Part 2 discusses the gastrointestinal, neurologic, and ocular symptoms, as well as the

  3. Autopsy findings in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A report of 395 cases from the south of France.

    PubMed

    Hofman, P; Saint-Paul, M C; Battaglione, V; Michiels, J F; Loubière, R

    1999-01-01

    Necropsy findings in 395 adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who died in Nice, France, between March 1983 and May 1996 were compared retrospectively with antemortem diagnoses, risk factors and number of positive T CD4 lymphocytes at the time of death. Special emphasis on bacterial infections was made in this study. Lesions observed from 1983 through 1989 and from 1990 through 1996 were compared. We assessed the role of organ lesions in the immediate cause of death. The organ system distribution of major opportunistic infections and neoplasms was similar throughout the years of the study. The most common diagnostic disease entities in all organ sites were cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis and candidiasis. Toxoplasmosis was more common in the intravenous drug abuser group. Bacterial infections were frequent and contributed to the mortality and morbidity of all risk factor groups. Kaposi' sarcoma continued to occur more frequently in the homosexual population. Cytomegalovirus infection remained one of the most common causes of death from 1983 to 1996. Mortality from fungal and bacterial infections, and mycobacteriosis increased in frequency during the course of this study whereas deaths from pneumocystosis declined. The death rate from malignant lymphoma and carcinoma increased after 1989. The clinical cause of death concurred with the pathological cause in 55% of the cases. Lung was the most frequent organ involved followed by the central nervous system the gastrointestinal tract and the heart.

  4. Technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and gallium scanning in acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, C.; Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Mayaud, C.; Revuz, J.

    1987-07-01

    In 11 non-smoking AIDS patients suspected of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the results of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol clearances, gallium scans, and arterial blood gases were compared with those of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine patients had PCP. All had increased clearances five times higher than the normal (5.6 +/- 2.3% X min-1 vs 1.1 +/- 0.34% X min-1, N = 10, P less than 0.001), suggesting an increased alveolar permeability. Gallium scans were abnormal in six patients but normal or slightly abnormal in the three others. Four of these nine patients had normal chest x-rays. In two of these the gallium scan was abnormal, but in the two others, only the increased Tc-99m DTPA clearances showed evidence of lung disease. Two patients had normal BAL, with normal clearances and gallium scans. Four out of the nine patients with PCP were studied after treatment. Three recovered and had normal clearance and gallium scans. One still had PCP with increased clearance but normal gallium scan. Gallium scanning and Tc-99m DTPA clearance are useful for detecting lung disease in AIDS patients with suspected PCP and for prompting BAL when chest x-rays and PaO/sub 2/ levels are normal. Due to its high sensitivity, a normal Tc-99m DTPA clearance could avoid BAL.

  5. Tuberculoid leprosy and cytomegalovirus retinitis as immune restoration disease in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shishir; Ghosh, Manab Kumar; Sarkar, Somenath; Mallik, Sudeshna; Biswas, Pradyot Narayan; Saha, Bibhuti

    2012-02-01

    Here we report a unique case of tuberculoid leprosy and cytomegalovirus retinitis in a 27-year-old female patient with AIDS, suggestive of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced immune restoration disease. After initiation of HAART, the patient presented with decreased visual acuity, hypoesthetic patch with local nerve thickening, and an increase in her CD4+ T cell count. On further investigations cytomegalovirus retinitis and tuberculoid leprosy were confirmed. To our knowledge no case with such a co-existence has previously been reported.

  6. Optimal vaccination and bednet maintenance for the control of malaria in a region with naturally acquired immunity.

    PubMed

    Prosper, Olivia; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Martcheva, Maia

    2014-07-21

    Following over two decades of research, the malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S has reached the final stages of vaccine trials, demonstrating an efficacy of roughly 50% in young children. Regions with high malaria prevalence tend to have high levels of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) to severe malaria; NAI is caused by repeated exposure to infectious bites and results in large asymptomatic populations. To address concerns about how these vaccines will perform in regions with existing NAI, we developed a simple malaria model incorporating vaccination and NAI. Typically, if the basic reproduction number (R0) for malaria is greater than unity, the disease will persist; otherwise, the disease will become extinct. However, analysis of this model revealed that NAI, compounded by a subpopulation with only partial protection to malaria, may render vaccination efforts ineffective and potentially detrimental to malaria control, by increasing R0 and increasing the likelihood of malaria persistence even when R0<1. The likelihood of this scenario increases when non-immune infected individuals are treated disproportionately compared with partially immune individuals - a plausible scenario since partially immune individuals are more likely to be asymptomatically infected. Consequently, we argue that active case-detection of asymptomatic infections is a critical component of an effective malaria control program. We then investigated optimal vaccination and bednet control programs under two endemic settings with varying levels of naturally acquired immunity: a typical setting under which prevalence decays when R0<1, and a setting in which subthreshold endemic equilibria exist. A qualitative comparison of the optimal control results under the first setting revealed that the optimal policy differs depending on whether the goal is to reduce total morbidity, or to reduce clinical infections. Furthermore, this comparison dictates that control programs should place less effort in

  7. Impact of waning acquired immunity and asymptomatic infections on case-control studies for enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Swart, Arno

    2016-12-01

    Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control studies of enteric pathogens by waning and boosting of immunity, and by asymptomatic infections, using Campylobacter jejuni as an example. Individuals in the population are either susceptible (at risk of infection and disease), fully protected (not at risk of either) or partially protected (at risk of infection but not of disease). The force of infection is a function of the exposure frequency and the exposure dose. We show that the observed disease odds ratios are indeed strongly biased towards the null, i.e. much lower than the infection rate ratio, and furthermore even not proportional to it. The bias could theoretically be controlled by sampling controls only from the reservoir of susceptible individuals. The population at risk is in a dynamic equilibrium, and cannot be identified as those who are not and have never experienced disease. Individual-level samples to measure protective immunity would be required, complicating the design, cost and execution of case-control studies.

  8. BLyS inhibition eliminates primary B cells but leaves natural and acquired humoral immunity intact.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Jean L; Crowley, Jenni E; Tomayko, Mary M; Steinel, Natalie; O'Neill, Patrick J; Quinn, William J; Goenka, Radhika; Miller, Juli P; Cho, Yun Hee; Long, Vatana; Ward, Chris; Migone, Thi-Sau; Shlomchik, Mark J; Cancro, Michael P

    2008-10-07

    We have used an inhibiting antibody to determine whether preimmune versus antigen-experienced B cells differ in their requisites for BLyS, a cytokine that controls differentiation and survival. Whereas in vivo BLyS inhibition profoundly reduced naïve B cell numbers and primary immune responses, it had a markedly smaller effect on memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells, as well as secondary immune responses. There was heterogeneity within the memory pools, because IgM-bearing memory cells were sensitive to BLyS depletion whereas IgG-bearing memory cells were not, although both were more resistant than naïve cells. There was also heterogeneity within B1 pools, as splenic but not peritoneal B1 cells were diminished by anti-BLyS treatment, yet the number of natural antibody-secreting cells remained constant. Together, these findings show that memory B cells and natural antibody-secreting cells are BLyS-independent and suggest that these pools can be separately manipulated.

  9. [Epidemiology of HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency disease syndrome in Chile].

    PubMed

    Martínez G, Paulina; Olea N, Andrea; Chiu A, Mónica

    2006-12-01

    Since 1984 to December 2004, 14.611 HIV/AIDS cases (85% in males) have been reported to the Chilean surveillance system. This figure represents an incidence of 103 x 10(5) inhabitants. The epidemic affects mainly men in their active working and sexual age. The main risk factor for infection, has been the sexual contact. Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed the epidemic trend. In 1997 bi-therapy and in 2003 three-drug therapy (HAART) were implemented. Mortality was 2,4 cases x 10(5) inhabitants during 2004, with a 67% reduction since 1984. Vertical transmission has been significantly reduced, as a result of implementing since 1995 a preventive strategy that benefits seropositive women and their newborn infant. Local experts are preparing an electronic registration system in order to optimize resources and to accede to statistics in a real time.

  10. Risk of Cataract among Subjects with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Free of Ocular Opportunistic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, John H.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Varma, Rohit; Dunn, James P.; Heinemann, Murk-Hein; Jabs, Douglas A.; Lyon, Alice T.; Lewis, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the risk of cataract in the setting of AIDS. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Subjects with AIDS free of ocular opportunistic infections throughout catamnesis. Methods During 1998–2008 inclusive, subjects ≥13 years of age were enrolled. Demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics were documented at enrollment and semiannually. Main Outcome Measures Cataract was defined as high-grade lens opacity observed by biomicroscopy and judged to be the cause of a best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/40. Eyes that underwent cataract surgery during follow-up were considered to have developed cataract prior to the first visit when pseudophakia or aphakia was observed. Results Among 1,606 participants (3,212 eyes), at enrollment 1.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3%−2.7%) were observed to have cataract or prior cataract surgery. Among the 2,812 eyes initially free of cataract, and followed longitudinally (median follow-up=4.6 years), the incidence of cataract was 0.37%/eye-year (95% CI: 0.26%– 0.53%). In addition to age, significant cataract risk factors included prior cataract in the contralateral eye (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=21.6, 95% CI: 10.4–44.8), anterior segment inflammation (aHR=4.40, 95% CI: 1.64–11.9), prior retinal detachment (aHR=4.94, 95% CI: 2.21–11.0), and vitreous inflammation (aHR=7.12, 95% CI: 2.02– 25.0), each studied as a time-updated characteristic. Detectable HIV RNA in peripheral blood was associated with lower risk of cataract at enrollment (adjusted odds ratio=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12–0.80) but not of incident cataract (aHR=1.58, 95% CI: 0.90–2.76). After adjustment for other factors, neither the then current absolute CD4+ T cell count nor antiretroviral therapy status showed consistent association with cataract risk, nor did an additive diagnosis of other other co-morbidities. Compared to the available population-based studies that used similar definitions of cataract, the age

  11. Studies in homosexual patients with and without lymphadenopathy. Relationships to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    deShazo, R D; Penico, J P; Pankey, G A; Nordberg, J A; Newton, J L; Bozelka, B; Cortez, L M; Dalovisio, J R

    1984-06-01

    We studied the immunologic function of 19 sexually active homosexual men, ten of whom had persistent lymphadenopathy. Analysis of mononuclear cell populations distinguished homosexuals from heterosexual controls since, as a group, homosexuals had increased percentages of natural killer cells (Leu 7+), decreased helper-inducer T lymphocytes (OKT-4+), increased suppressor/cytotoxic (OKT-8+) T lymphocytes, low OKT-4:OKT-8 ratios, and depressed mitogenic responses. Homosexuals without lymphadenopathy were distinguishable from controls by increased percentages of Ia+ cells, decreased OKT-4+ cells, and decreased OKT-4:OKT-8 ratios. Four had positive findings simultaneously for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and surface antibody, and five had positive findings for HBsAg alone. Homosexuals with lymphadenopathy were distinguishable from controls by increased percentages of Leu 7+ cells, increased total lymphocyte numbers per cubic millimeter, decreased percentages of both OKT-4+ and OKT-8+ cells, abnormal OKT-4:OKT-8 ratios, and depressed mitogenic responses. Only histories of larger numbers of sexually acquired diseases, higher numbers of OKT-8+ cells per cubic millimeter, and lower mitogenic responses in homosexuals with lymphadenopathy distinguished this group from homosexuals without lymphadenopathy. Furthermore, none of the nine patients tested in this group was HBsAg positive. We conclude that homosexuals without lymphadenopathy are distinguishable from those with lymphadenopathy by both immunologic and serologic abnormalities.

  12. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  13. Laboratory-acquired vaccinia virus infection in a recently immunized person--Massachusetts, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Christopher H; Farland, Julien; Winters, Thomas; Gunn, Julia; Caron, Donna; Evans, Jennifer; Osadebe, Lynda; Bethune, Leon; McCollum, Andrea M; Patel, Nishi; Wilkins, Kimberly; Davidson, Whitni; Petersen, Brett; Barry, M Anita

    2015-05-01

    On November 26, 2013, the CDC poxvirus laboratory was notified by the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC) of an inadvertent inoculation of a recently vaccinated (ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine) laboratory worker with wild type vaccinia virus (VACV) Western Reserve. A joint investigation by CDC and BPHC confirmed orthopoxvirus infection in the worker, who had reported a needle stick in his thumb while inoculating a mouse with VACV. He experienced a non-tender, red rash on his arm, diagnosed at a local emergency department as cellulitis. He subsequently developed a necrotic lesion on his thumb, diagnosed as VACV infection. Three weeks after the injury, the thumb lesion was surgically debrided and at 2 months post-injury, the skin lesion had resolved. The investigation confirmed that the infection was the first reported VACV infection in the United States in a laboratory worker vaccinated according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations. The incident prompted the academic institution to outline biosafety measures for working with biologic agents, such as biosafety training of laboratory personnel, vaccination (if appropriate), and steps in incident reporting. Though vaccination has been shown to be an effective measure in protecting personnel in the laboratory setting, this case report underscores the importance of proper safety measures and incident reporting.

  14. Production and function of cytokines in natural and acquired immunity to Candida albicans infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, R B; Papadimitriou, J M

    1995-01-01

    Host resistance against infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans is mediated predominantly by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. Antigens of Candida stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis, and in both humans and mice, these cytokines enhance the candidacidal functions of the phagocytic cells. In systemic candidiasis in mice, cytokine production has been found to be a function of the CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. The Th1 subset of these cells, characterized by the production of gamma interferon and interleukin-2, is associated with macrophage activation and enhanced resistance against reinfection, whereas the Th2 subset, which produces interleukins-4, -6, and -10, is linked to the development of chronic disease. However, other models have generated divergent data. Mucosal infection generally elicits Th1-type cytokine responses and protection from systemic challenge, and identification of cytokine mRNA present in infected tissues of mice that develop mild or severe lesions does not show pure Th1- or Th2-type responses. Furthermore, antigens of C. albicans, mannan in particular, can induce suppressor cells that modulate both specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral immune responses, and there is an emerging body of evidence that molecular mimicry may affect the efficiency of anti-Candida responses within defined genetic contexts. PMID:8531890

  15. Acquired resistance to innate immune clearance promotes Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 pulmonary infection

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Danielle; Peñaloza, Hernán; Wang, Zheng; Wickersham, Matthew; Parker, Dane; Patel, Purvi; Koller, Antonius; Chen, Emily I.; Bueno, Susan M.; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Prince, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive changes in the genome of a locally predominant clinical isolate of the multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 (KP35) were identified and help to explain the selection of this strain as a successful pulmonary pathogen. The acquisition of 4 new ortholog groups, including an arginine transporter, enabled KP35 to outcompete related ST258 strains lacking these genes. KP35 infection elicited a monocytic response, dominated by Ly6Chi monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells that lacked phagocytic capabilities, expressed IL-10, arginase, and antiinflammatory surface markers. In comparison with other K. pneumoniae strains, KP35 induced global changes in the phagocytic response identified with proteomics, including evasion of Ca2+ and calpain activation necessary for phagocytic killing, confirmed in functional studies with neutrophils. This comprehensive analysis of an ST258 K. pneumoniae isolate reveals ongoing genetic adaptation to host microenvironments and innate immune clearance mechanisms that complements its repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes and facilitates persistence in the lung. PMID:27777978

  16. Genetic determinants of HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS: immune response genes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, G; Mehra, N

    2009-11-01

    Genomic studies involving well-defined multicenter cohorts of HIV-1/AIDS covering multiple populations have led to a greater understanding of the role of host determinants in viral acquisition, disease progression, transmission, and response to anti-retroviral therapy. Similarly, recent knowledge on the virus genetic diversity has helped in elucidating mechanisms leading to the evolution of viral escape mutants and the role played by host immune determinants, in particular the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) associated genes. At least two alleles, HLA-B*27 and B*57, have been identified as 'protective' against HIV-1 while B*35 and B*53 act as susceptibility favoring factors. How human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mediated selection drives the evolution of HIV-1 and which circulating variants are more likely to evade immune surveillance of the population are now beginning to become clear. Importantly, the rare HLA alleles in a population bear a selective advantage to the host because these can induce immune responses against pre-adapted viruses. It is conceivable that previously established protective HLA associations are shifting with the evolving cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes and may not remain protective in future. At the same time, this process is unraveling novel sub-dominant epitopes of the virus which could now be incorporated as the dominant target CTL epitopes. An insight into the population-specific correlates of protection is hence necessary for designing future anti-HIV therapeutic and/or prophylactic vaccine formulation(s).

  17. Nurses' Attitudes toward Gay and Hemophiliac Patients with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Judith A.; Damrosch, Shirley

    A sample of nurses (N=183) enrolled in a School of Nursing's master degree program was randomly assigned to read one of six vignettes about a patient who differed only in terms of diagnosis and lifestyle. Possible diagnoses were Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS acquired by a hemophiliac through blood therapy, and leukemia; possible…

  18. Circulating Mediators of Inflammation and Immune Activation in AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Brian M.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Bream, Jay H.; Jenkins, Frank J.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Lokshin, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common AIDS-related malignancy in developed countries. An elevated risk of developing NHL persists among HIV-infected individuals in comparison to the general population despite the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms underlying the development of AIDS-related NHL (A-NHL) are not fully understood, but likely involve persistent B-cell activation and inflammation. Methods This was a nested case-control study within the ongoing prospective Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Cases included 47 HIV-positive male subjects diagnosed with high-grade B-cell NHL. Controls were matched to each case from among participating HIV-positive males who did not develop any malignancy. Matching criteria included time HIV+ or since AIDS diagnosis, age, race and CD4+ cell count. Sera were tested for 161 serum biomarkers using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays. Results A subset of 17 biomarkers, including cytokines, chemokines, acute phase proteins, tissue remodeling agents and bone metabolic mediators was identified to be significantly altered in A-NHL cases in comparison to controls. Many of the biomarkers included in this subset were positively correlated with HIV viral load. A pathway analysis of our results revealed an extensive network of interactions between current and previously identified biomarkers. Conclusions These findings support the current hypothesis that A-NHL develops in the context of persistent immune stimulation and inflammation. Further analysis of the biomarkers identified in this report should enhance our ability to diagnose, monitor and treat this disease. PMID:24922518

  19. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  20. HIV/AIDS Education for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colson, Steven E.; Carlson, Judith K.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses human immune deficiency disease, the role of education as a prevention tool, a rationale for the inclusion of students with special needs in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, a scope and sequence of skills related to AIDS, suggestions for implementing objectives across curricular areas, and multimedia…

  1. Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of Model Equations on Interactions of the HIV/AIDS Virus and the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parumasur, N.; Willie, R.

    2008-09-01

    We consider a simple HIV/AIDs finite dimensional mathematical model on interactions of the blood cells, the HIV/AIDs virus and the immune system for consistence of the equations to the real biomedical situation that they model. A better understanding to a cure solution to the illness modeled by the finite dimensional equations is given. This is accomplished through rigorous mathematical analysis and is reinforced by numerical analysis of models developed for real life cases.

  2. Insights into vaccine development for acquired immune deficiency syndrome from crystal structures of human immunodeficiency virus-1 gp41 and equine infectious anemia virus gp45.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liangwei; Du, Jiansen; Liu, Xinqi

    2015-10-01

    An effective vaccine against acquired immune deficiency syndrome is still unavailable after dozens of years of striving. The glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus is a good candidate as potential immunogen because of its conservation and relatively low glycosylation. As a reference of human immunodeficiency virus gp41, gp45 from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) could be used for comparison because both wild-type and vaccine strain of EIAV have been extensively studied. From structural studies of these proteins, the conformational changes during viral invasion could be unveiled, and a more effective acquired immune deficiency syndrome vaccine immunogen might be designed based on this information.

  3. AIDS Prevention Education Project, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, Barbara K.; And Others

    A curriculum guide for an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention education program for grades 4-8 is presented in this document. The purpose of these materials is to serve as a resource to encourage and facilitate AIDS education in order to prevent the disease. It is recommended that this AIDS program be taught as part of the human…

  4. The Creative Use of Psychotherapy with Terminally Ill AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, William A.

    One clinical psychologist who worked with terminally ill, end-stage Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in a hospice type setting experienced more than 150 deaths over an 18-month time period. Many of the patients denied that they had AIDS; some distinguished between having AIDS and testing positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus…

  5. Therapeutic Recreation Professionals' Attitudes toward and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cherie; Dattilo, John

    1993-01-01

    Survey of therapeutic recreation professionals' attitudes toward persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and knowledge of AIDS found no significant relationship between knowledge and attitudes but a positive relationship between attendance at workshops and knowledge. Professionals who knowingly cared for persons with AIDS expressed…

  6. The Science of AIDS. Readings from Scientific American Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    This collection of scientific articles on the subject of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) covers many facets of the physical and social aspects of the disease. Technical articles deal with the molecular and cellular biology of AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The national and international epidemiology of AIDS and HIV are…

  7. AIDS: What Early Childhood Educators Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spar, Ruth

    Noting that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is expected to become the fifth leading cause of death for children ages 1 to 4, this paper provides relevant information on AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to help educators understand that they can work with children and adults who are HIV positive or who have AIDS. The…

  8. Latinas and HIV/AIDS: Implications for the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Miguelina

    1991-01-01

    Among Latinas, the number of cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is increasing relentlessly. From August 1989 to August 1990, there was a 53 percent increase nationally in cumulative AIDS cases among Latinas. In New York City, AIDS is the leading cause of death among Latinas aged 25-34. The conditions and circumstances that place…

  9. An Evaluation of an Undergraduate Course on AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The impact of an undergraduate course on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was studied. Results of a post-test, completed by 352 students (including 96 controls), suggested that the course had a beneficial impact on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior relevant to the transmission of AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed. (SLD)

  10. Home Economists in the Workplace: Formulating HIV/AIDS Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanberry, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews facts about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), HIV transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS; discusses risks for contracting HIV; reviews relevant legislation regarding the rights of employees, employers, and consumers; describes HIV/AIDS workplace policies and procedures; and presents implications…

  11. Prenatally acquired vitamin A deficiency alters innate immune responses to human rotavirus in a gnotobiotic pig model§

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Chattha, Kuldeep S.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Siegismund, Christine S.; Saif, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined how prenatally acquired vitamin A deficiency (VAD) modulates innate immune responses and human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine efficacy in a gnotobiotic (Gn) piglet model of HRV diarrhea. The VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) Gn pigs were vaccinated with attenuated HRV (AttHRV) with or without concurrent oral vitamin A supplementation (100,000IU) and challenged with virulent HRV (VirHRV). Regardless of vaccination status, the numbers of conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (cDCs and pDCs) were higher in VAD piglets pre-challenge, but decreased substantially post-challenge as compared to VAS pigs. We observed significantly higher frequency of CD103 (integrin αEβ7) expressing DCs in VAS vs. VAD piglets post-challenge, indicating that VAD may interfere with homing (including intestinal) phenotype acquisition. Post VirHRV challenge, we observed longer and more pronounced diarrhea and higher VirHRV fecal titers in non-vaccinated VAD piglets. Consistent with higher VirHRV shedding titers, higher IFNα levels were induced in control VAD vs. VAS piglet sera at post-challenge day (PCD)2. Ex vivo HRV-stimulated mononuclear cells (MNCs) isolated from spleen and blood of VAD pigs pre-challenge also produced more IFNα. In contrast at PCD10, we observed reduced IFNα levels in VAD pigs that coincided with decreased TLR3+ MNC frequencies. Numbers of necrotic MNCs were higher in VAD pigs in spleen (coincident with splenomegaly in other VAD animals) pre-challenge and intestinal tissues (coincident with higher VirHRV induced intestinal damage) post-challenge. Thus, prenatal VAD caused an imbalance in innate immune responses and exacerbated VirHRV infection, whereas vitamin A supplementation failed to compensate for these VAD effects. PMID:23536630

  12. Epidemiology of children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (stage 3): A referral hospital-based study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Keshavarz Valian, Nasrin; Sabouni, Farah; Ramezani, Amitis; Bahador, Abbas; Mamishi, Setareh

    2016-01-01

    Lack of recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection especially in children and delayed implementation of effective control programs makes HIV infection as a major cause for concern. Information on HIV epidemiology in Iran as well as other Islamic countries is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical manifestation and laboratory finding of HIV infected children who were admitted to a referral Children Medical Center (CMC) in Tehran, Iran, during 11 years from January 2002 to January 2013. This was a retrospective study carried out over a period of 11 years. The records of all patients attending to the CMC with confirmed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were screened. The patients were evaluated for social circumstance, family history, age, gender, clinical, and laboratory features. Clinical data including fever, respiratory distress, diarrhea, rash, etc. as well as laboratory tests including complete blood count, serum glucose level, electrolytes, liver function test, cultures, CD4 lymphocyte count were evaluated. During the study period, 32 HIV positive children were enrolled. The majority of patients were presented with weight loss, prolonged fever, respiratory infection and chronic diarrhea. In this study, salmonella infections as well as streptococcal pneumonia and candida infections followed by, tuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were the predominant opportunistic infections. Since the number of HIV-positive children has been alarmingly increasing in recent years and perinatal transmission is the most common route of HIV infection in children, essential recommendations for prenatal HIV testing as well as appropriate antiretroviral therapy by HIV infected mothers are needed.

  13. Legal Rights and Duties in the AIDS Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Bernard M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of some major areas of legal concern in which the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is having an impact. Reviews rights of confidentiality and nondiscrimination regarding access to health care, employment, housing, education, and insurance. (TW)

  14. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  15. Form follows function: astrocyte morphology and immune dysfunction in SIV neuroAIDS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; Renner, Nicole A; Sansing, Hope A; Didier, Peter J; MacLean, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Cortical function is disrupted in neuroinflammatory disorders, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Astrocyte dysfunction includes retraction of foot processes from the blood-brain barrier and decreased removal of neurotransmitters from synaptic clefts. Mechanisms of astrocyte activation, including innate immune function and the fine neuroanatomy of astrocytes, however, remain to be investigated. We quantified the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytes per square millimeter and the proportion of astrocytes immunopositive for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to examine innate immune activation in astrocytes. We also performed detailed morphometric analyses of gray and white matter astrocytes in the frontal and parietal lobes of rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), both with and without encephalitis, an established model of AIDS neuropathogenesis. Protoplasmic astrocytes (gray matter) and fibrous astrocytes (deep white matter) were imaged, and morphometric features were analyzed using Neurolucida. Gray matter and white matter astrocytes showed no change in cell body size in animals infected with SIV regardless of encephalitic status. In SIV-infected macaques, both gray and white matter astrocytes had shorter, less ramified processes, resulting in decreased cell arbor compared with controls. SIV-infected macaques with encephalitis showed decreases in arbor length in white matter astrocytes and reduced complexity in gray matter astrocytes compared to controls. These results provide the first evidence that innate immune activation of astrocytes is linked to altered cortical astrocyte morphology in SIV/HIV infection. Here, we demonstrate that astrocyte remodeling is correlated with infection. Perturbed neuron-glia signaling may be a driving factor in the development of HAND.

  16. Death and AIDS: A Review of the Medico-Legal Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jeffrey T.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) continues to denote death sentence. Contends that AIDS is unique terminal illness in that no other single disease in history of American legal system has generated more litigation than AIDS. Examines medico-legal issues associated with AIDS-related death: estate planning,…

  17. College Students' Perception of AIDS Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Roger C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated college students' (N=60) perceptions of victims of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) based on how the victim contracted the disease. Found in nondeterioration condition victims contracting AIDS via sexual encounters or illicit drug injection were perceived as less trustworthy, less moral, and less desirable as a prospective…

  18. Behavioral Risk Factors for AIDS among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millstein, Susan G.

    This document examines the incidence of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in the United States and identifies several risk factors for AIDS among this population. It classifies adolescents' risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by the degree to which adolescents engage in behaviors that are…

  19. Public Health Nursing for People with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Dena; And Others

    Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related conditions (ARC) need continual care and support, at a level which can severely tax the health resources of a community. Public health nursing should have a central role in the effective and efficient response to this devastating problem. Since the early stages of the AIDS…

  20. Effective AIDS Education: A Policymakers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Katherine; Mitchell, Patricia

    This guide provides information to support state and local efforts to fight the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The guide is divided into three sections: (1) the need; (2) the challenge: providing effective AIDS prevention education; and (3) developing a comprehensive state leadership role. An extensive bibliography of 66…

  1. Illness Cognition and Responses to AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, George D.

    Along with the current epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has come what some have called an epidemic of fear. Two studies were conducted to explore lay responses to AIDS from the perspective of recent research on how lay people process illness information. The research examines the cognitive organization of disease information…

  2. Judicial Attitude toward Legal Rights and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavis, Paul F.

    1989-01-01

    Caselaw that functions as law until statutes are enacted has been characteristic of legal issues surrounding the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) diseases. In most cases such caselaw has protected the civil rights of persons with HIV/AIDS under established law as well as the traditions of Western…

  3. AIDS Instructional Guide: Grades K-12. Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This guide provides a framework for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) instruction within a comprehensive health education program stressing positive health behaviors. The guide is structured to: (1) provide information to school personnel on how to implement a home/school/community approach to AIDS instruction; (2) provide suggested…

  4. Children, Teachers and the AIDS Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silin, Jonathan G.

    For schools, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) initially represented a policy problem requiring legal and public health experts to assess their ability to exclude students or staff infected with the human immuno-deficiency virus. As the crisis over the potential presence of people with AIDS in the schools abated and with the growing…

  5. Workers' Reactions to AIDS and Other Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Eugene P.; And Others

    Previous research on the public's response to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been concerned with attitudes and knowledge in relation to the disease itself. This study investigated people's willingness to interact with individuals with AIDS in the workplace. Participants (N=358) were college students with an average age of 25.…

  6. The influence of age, smoking, antiretroviral therapy, and esophagitis on the local immunity of the esophagus in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Gomes, Nayara Cândida; de Melo e Silva, Ana Teresa; Silva, Renata Beatriz; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia Fonseca; Faria, Humberto Aparecido; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rocha, Laura Penna

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown immunological and morphological alterations in the esophagus during the course of AIDS. Esophageal postmortem samples of 22 men with AIDS autopsied in a teaching hospital between 1982 and 2009 were collected. We carried out revision of the autopsy reports and medical records, morphometric analysis (Image J and KS-300 Kontron-Zeiss), and immunohistochemical (anti-S100, anti-IgA, anti-IgG, and anti-IgM) analysis of the esophagus. In accordance with most of the parameters evaluated, age and the smoking habit harmed the esophageal local immunity, whereas the use of antiretroviral therapy improved the immune characteristics of this organ. Patients with esophagitis also presented immunological fragility of the esophagus. This leads to the conclusion that alterations in the esophageal epithelium of patients with AIDS are not only caused by direct action of HIV but also the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the patient.

  7. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    PubMed

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p < .01). The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that components of public perception about HIV/AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  8. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  9. Failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy in reconstituting immune response to Clostridium tetani vaccine in aged AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Lazaro, Marta A; Vieira, Morgana M M; Barros, Priscila O; Borner, Alice R S; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Santos, Juliana O; Brindeiro, Rodrigo M; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of age on tetanus-specific immune response in successfully highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated AIDS patients, using healthy age-matched individuals as controls. Whole Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or CD8(+) cell-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells from previously tetanus toxoid (TT)-immunized individuals were activated with TT plus IL-2, and cell proliferation, cytokine production, and in vitro HIV-1 replication were measured. The in vivo magnitude of the humoral immune response was also assessed by antibody measurements. Our results showed that, compared with other groups, both in vitro TT-specific lymphoproliferation and serum antibody concentration were lower in older AIDS patients. Although the IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production were higher in cultures from aged HIV-1-infected patients, a dramatic damage on the interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release was observed, when compared with younger patients. CD8(+) T lymphocytes depletion reduced IL-1beta and TNF-alpha release in the older groups, however, it did not significantly alter their IFN-gamma production. Furthermore, the neutralization of endogenous IL-10 did not change the IFN-gamma deficiency in older AIDS patients. Finally, the lower cellular immune response in this patient group was not related to in vitro HIV-1 replication. The results suggest that successfully highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated aged AIDS patients do not reconstitute the immune response to TT, making them probably more susceptible to tetanus even after vaccination.

  10. Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression of Apoptosis, Multigene Families, and Interferon-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    García-Valtanen, Pablo; Martínez-López, Alicia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Bello-Perez, Melissa; Medina-Gali, Regla M; Ortega-Villaizán, María Del Mar; Varela, Monica; Figueras, Antonio; Mulero, Víctoriano; Novoa, Beatriz; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To investigate fish innate immunity, we have conducted organ and cell immune-related transcriptomic as well as immunohistologic analysis in mutant zebra fish (Danio rerio) lacking adaptive immunity (rag1(-/-)) at different developmental stages (egg, larvae, and adult), before and after infection with spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). The results revealed that, compared to immunocompetent zebra fish (rag1(+/+) ), rag1(-/-) acquired increased resistance to SVCV with age, correlating with elevated transcript levels of immune genes in skin/fins and lymphoid organs (head kidney and spleen). Gene sets corresponding to apoptotic functions, immune-related multigene families, and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1(-/-) zebra fish. Overexpression of activated CASPASE-3 in different tissues before and after infection with SVCV further confirmed increased apoptotic function in rag1(-/-) zebra fish. Concurrently, staining of different tissue samples with a pan-leukocyte antibody marker showed abundant leukocyte infiltrations in SVCV-infected rag1(-/-) fish, coinciding with increased transcript expression of genes related to NK-cells and macrophages, suggesting that these genes played a key role in the enhanced immune response of rag1(-/-) zebra fish to SVCV lethal infection. Overall, we present evidence that indicates that rag1(-/-) zebra fish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral state was characterized by (i) a more rapid response to viral infection, which resulted in increased survival, (ii) the involvement of NK-cell- and macrophage-mediated transcript responses rather than B- and/or T-cell dependent cells, and (iii) enhanced apoptosis, described here for the first time, as well as the similar modulation of multigene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived lethal viral infections. From this and other studies, it might

  11. Physicians Mutual Aid Group: A Response to AIDS-Related Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Describes origins and functioning of physician's mutual aid group for physicians providing primary care to people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Offers suggestions related to overcoming resistance physicians might have to participating in such a group and reviews modalities that were helpful in facilitating participants' ability…

  12. Guide to Planning Health Promotion for AIDS Prevention and Control. WHO AIDS Series 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide is intended to provide planners, managers, and technical staff with guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) health promotion program. As such, it can be used in the development of a detailed AIDS health promotion action plan. The guide reviews the steps, processes,…

  13. AIDS: Information/Education Plan to Prevent and Control AIDS in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents a comprehensive Public Health Service plan for informing and educating the American public about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The plan specifies the audiences to be addressed by this effort, the basic elements of AIDS information and education, and the means by which this education will be accomplished. Mass…

  14. Fear of AIDS and Risk Reduction among Heroin-Addicted Female Street Prostitutes: Personal Interviews with 72 Southern California Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 72 heroin-addicted female street prostitutes and assessed fear of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS risk reduction behavior, and prostitutes' recommendations for AIDS risk reduction programs. Self-reported data showed that, although subjects were afraid of AIDS, irrationality produced by addiction compelled risky…

  15. Adolescents, AIDS and HIV. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for Educators, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This compilation of educational resources is designed for communities which have been either overlooked in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education efforts or disproportionately affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The materials listed target Blacks, Latinos, Asians and Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, young…

  16. AIDS Victims and Heterosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Knud S.; And Others

    This study reports on the development of a Likert scale measuring attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) victims (ATAV) in five phases. Participants included a total of 215 male and 268 female undergraduates at Oregon State University. The results for phase 1 yielded a scale with high part-whole correlations, corrected…

  17. AIDS Elementary/Intermediate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Nancy Rader

    This Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Curriculum was developed for intermediate elementary (5th, 6th, and 7th grade) students. It is an integrated unit that encompasses health, science, social studies, math, and language arts. The curriculum is comprised of nine class activities designed to meet the following objectives: (1) to determine…

  18. Topical Search: AIDS and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This topical search includes 30 of the most representative citations on the subject of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and youth selected from the National Institute of Justice/NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service) database. Topics covered in this package include education programs for in-school youth, policies and…

  19. A Generation in Jeopardy: Children and AIDS. A Report of the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (December 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document presents a Congressional report on the topic of children and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These topics are addressed: (1) dramatic increases in AIDS among infants and young children; (2) differences in pediatric AIDS and AIDS among adults; (3) minority children's disproportional rate of infection with AIDS; (4)…

  20. Women and AIDS: What We Need To Know. A Workshop and Resource Manual on Educating Women about AIDS and Safer Sex (January 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redman, Julie M.

    This document focuses on women and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first part discusses the topic of women and AIDS. A workshop is described and a agenda provided. The role of facilitators is discussed. Materials required for the workshop are listed. The second section presents a curriculum on women and AIDS. An overview of the…

  1. Learning about AIDS. Interim Materials. Participatory Health Education Strategies for Health Educators with a Responsibility for Adult Education about AIDS [and] Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homans, Hilary; And Others

    Intended for those who are responsible for educating other educators about AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), these materials are designed to result in learner-centered instruction about AIDS--helping students of all kinds explore their own anxieties about AIDS and consider the implications of factual information for their own behavior…

  2. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human ... use the HIV Testing & Care Services Locator. GO Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS ...

  3. Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV-III Brain Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Encephalopathy: A Prospective Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-15

    0UIN) over s~x months (r=.85, p<.01). QUIN is an endogenous excitatory ncurotoxin which acts specifically at the NMDA glutamate receptors ; it wdil...response to various therapies. A small clinical trial of an NMDA receptor antagonist in seropositive patients with slowed information processing would 4...Continue on reverse itf necessary and #dentify by bNock number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP RA 1, HIV, Neurology, CNS Complications, Encephalitis , 06 03

  4. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): Views on the Administration’s Fiscal Year 1989 Public Health Service Budget

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    contact, but primarily through intimate sexual contact and the sharing of hypodermic needles by intravenous (IV) drug users. In addition, infected...and possession of sterile hypodermic needles and syringes. This would give IV drug users whc do not want to enter treatment the opportunity to reduce...department officials as well as experts in the research community agree that education is the most powerful public health tool available to reduce the

  5. Getting Started. Becoming Part of the AIDS Solution. A Guide for Hispanic Community-Based Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimbres, Manuel F.; McKay, Emily Gantz

    This guide is designed to help Hispanic community-based organizations (CBOs) begin Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education and prevention activities. The following barriers to AIDS education in the Hispanic community are outlined: (1) the perception that AIDS is a gay, white, male disease; (2) the social stigma associated with…

  6. Coping with AIDS: Psychological and Social Considerations in Helping People with HTLV-III Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runck, Bette

    This booklet was written to familiarize health and mental health professionals and paraprofessionals with the psychological and social problems associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It briefly reviews the realities of AIDS and describes the challenge that AIDS poses for health care professionals. A section on neuropsychiatric…

  7. Psychosocial Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on the Lives of Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Ian; Smith, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Assessed the psychosocial impact of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic on the lives of homosexual men (N=301) who had not been diagnosed with AIDS or AIDS Related Complex (ARC). Found subjects reported increasing frequency of no-risk sexual activities and decreased frequency of possible risk and high-risk activities. (ABL)

  8. Psychological Distress amongst AIDS-Orphaned Children in Urban South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background: South Africa is predicted to have 2.3 million children orphaned by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by 2020 (Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2005). There is little knowledge about impacts of AIDS-related bereavement on children, to aid planning of services. This study aimed to investigate psychological consequences of AIDS…

  9. Alternative Techniques for Teaching about HIV/AIDS in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This volume is a collection of interactive games and activities created to supplement existing curricula on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and designed to give students a sense of responsibility in the fight against AIDS while taking the fear out of AIDS education. All of the games and activities in the volume have undergone…

  10. Effect of changing patterns of care and duration of survival on the cost of treating the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed Central

    Seage, G R; Landers, S; Lamb, G A; Epstein, A M

    1990-01-01

    We performed a two-year cost of illness study of 240 AIDS patients (55 percent of all Massachusetts cases) diagnosed and treated at five hospitals from March 1984 through February 1986. Sociodemographic and clinical data as well as information on medical utilization were obtained from review of inpatient and outpatient hospital records. The yearly inpatient cost per patient decreased by 28 percent from $38,369 in year one to $27,714 in year two. These changes were related to shorter lengths of stay (from 20.6 days to 16.8 days per hospitalization, mean difference of 3.8 days, 95% CI of the difference -.2, 7.8), and less costly hospitalizations (from $12,463 to $9,957, mean difference of $2,506, 95% CI of the difference $135, $4,877). The probability of hospitalization, however, was similar in both years. These patterns of care were still evident after controlling for transmission category, race, site, mortality, insurance, age, gender, number and type of opportunistic diseases and time since diagnosis. Although the cost per patient per year decreased between years one and two, median survival increased by 70 percent (from 10 to 17 months). Hence overall estimated lifetime costs increased by 24 percent. PMID:2356908

  11. Naturally Acquired Immune Responses to Plasmodium falciparum Sexual Stage Antigens Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 in an Area of Seasonal Transmission ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, André Lin; Roeffen, Will; Luty, Adrian J. F.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Nebie, Issa; Ilboudo-Sanogo, Edith; Cuzin-Ouattara, Nadine; Teleen, Karina; Tiono, Alfred B.; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu; Verhave, Jan-Peter; Bousema, Teun; Sauerwein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Acquisition of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages is a key determinant for reducing human-mosquito transmission by preventing the fertilization and the development of the parasite in the mosquito midgut. Naturally acquired immunity against sexual stages may therefore form the basis for the development of transmission-blocking vaccines, but studies conducted to date offer little in the way of consistent findings. Here, we describe the acquisition of antigametocyte immune responses in malaria-exposed individuals in Burkina Faso. A total of 719 blood samples were collected in a series of three cross-sectional surveys at the start, peak, and end of the wet season. The seroprevalence of antibodies with specificity for the sexual stage antigens Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 was 2-fold lower (22 to 28%) than that for an asexual blood stage antigen glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) (65%) or for the preerythrocytic stage antigen circumsporozoite protein (CSP) (54%). The youngest children responded at frequencies similar to those for all four antigens but, in contrast with the immune responses to GLURP and CSP that increased with age independently of season and area of residence, there was no evidence for a clear age dependence of responses to Pfs48/45 and Pfs230. Anti-Pfs230 antibodies were most prevalent at the peak of the wet season (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that naturally acquired immunity against Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 is a function of recent exposure rather than of cumulative exposure to gametocytes. PMID:21969000

  12. Ethical Issues in the Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, LeRoy

    1988-01-01

    Poses questions about how we can control the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and the harm that it causes without unjustly discriminating against particular social groups and without unnecessarily infringing on the freedom of individuals. (TW)

  13. AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes, Provisional Data from the National Health Interview Survey: United States, August 1987. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics. No. 146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Deborah A.; And Others

    This document presents provisional data for all Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) questionnaire items from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for August 1987. It notes that the AIDS questionnaire was designed to provide baseline estimates of public knowledge and attitudes about AIDS transmission, the prevention of AIDS virus…

  14. Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression of Apoptosis, Multigene Families, and Interferon-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    García-Valtanen, Pablo; Martínez-López, Alicia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Bello-Perez, Melissa; Medina-Gali, Regla M.; Ortega-Villaizán, María del Mar; Varela, Monica; Figueras, Antonio; Mulero, Víctoriano; Novoa, Beatriz; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To investigate fish innate immunity, we have conducted organ and cell immune-related transcriptomic as well as immunohistologic analysis in mutant zebra fish (Danio rerio) lacking adaptive immunity (rag1−/−) at different developmental stages (egg, larvae, and adult), before and after infection with spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). The results revealed that, compared to immunocompetent zebra fish (rag1+/+), rag1−/− acquired increased resistance to SVCV with age, correlating with elevated transcript levels of immune genes in skin/fins and lymphoid organs (head kidney and spleen). Gene sets corresponding to apoptotic functions, immune-related multigene families, and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1−/− zebra fish. Overexpression of activated CASPASE-3 in different tissues before and after infection with SVCV further confirmed increased apoptotic function in rag1−/− zebra fish. Concurrently, staining of different tissue samples with a pan-leukocyte antibody marker showed abundant leukocyte infiltrations in SVCV-infected rag1−/− fish, coinciding with increased transcript expression of genes related to NK-cells and macrophages, suggesting that these genes played a key role in the enhanced immune response of rag1−/− zebra fish to SVCV lethal infection. Overall, we present evidence that indicates that rag1−/− zebra fish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral state was characterized by (i) a more rapid response to viral infection, which resulted in increased survival, (ii) the involvement of NK-cell- and macrophage-mediated transcript responses rather than B- and/or T-cell dependent cells, and (iii) enhanced apoptosis, described here for the first time, as well as the similar modulation of multigene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived lethal viral infections. From this and other studies

  15. Morph-specific genetic and environmental variation in innate and acquired immune response in a color polymorphic raptor.

    PubMed

    Gangoso, Laura; Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Grande, Juan Manuel; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-08-01

    Genetic color polymorphism is widespread in nature. There is an increasing interest in understanding the adaptive value of heritable color variation and trade-off resolution by differently colored individuals. Melanin-based pigmentation is often associated with variation in many different life history traits. These associations have recently been suggested to be the outcome of pleiotropic effects of the melanocortin system. Although pharmacological research supports that MC1R, a gene with a major role in vertebrate pigmentation, has important immunomodulatory effects, evidence regarding pleiotropy at MC1R in natural populations is still under debate. We experimentally assessed whether MC1R-based pigmentation covaries with both inflammatory and humoral immune responses in the color polymorphic Eleonora's falcon. By means of a cross-fostering experiment, we disentangled potential genetic effects from environmental effects on the covariation between coloration and immunity. Variation in both immune responses was primarily due to genetic factors via the nestlings' MC1R-related color genotype/phenotype, although environmental effects via the color morph of the foster father also had an influence. Overall, dark nestlings had lower immune responses than pale ones. The effect of the color morph of the foster father was also high, but in the opposite direction, and nestlings raised by dark eumelanic foster fathers had higher immune responses than those raised by pale foster fathers. Although we cannot completely discard alternative explanations, our results suggest that MC1R might influence immunity in this species. Morph-specific variation in immunity as well as pathogen pressure may therefore contribute to the long-term maintenance of genetic color polymorphism in natural populations.

  16. An Interview with AIDS Vaccine Researcher Chris Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The search for an AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) vaccine is truly a global effort, with university laboratories, biotech firms, pharmaceutical companies, nonprofit research organizations, hospitals, and clinics all working together to develop an effective vaccine as quickly as possible. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI)…

  17. AIDS Awareness of High School Students: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.; Calvin, Richmond E.

    The Surgeon General's information material on the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which was mailed to every household in the United States, was used to develop an AIDS Awareness Inventory. The inventory was designed for administration to 182 high school students enrolled in schools in three districts, which have adopted an AIDS…

  18. Is AIDS a Biasing Factor in Teacher Judgment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David W.; Hulecki, Mary B.

    1989-01-01

    Regular-education, third-grade teachers (n=91) in Indiana reviewed one of two psychological reports, identical except that one reported a diagnosis of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and one reported a diagnosis of rheumatic fever. AIDS was not found to be a biasing factor in teachers' judgments regarding special education placement.…

  19. Sexually Active Students Found Failing to Take Precautions Against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1988-01-01

    College officials are finding that after three years of efforts to educate college students about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), many still don't think they are vulnerable and are not protecting themselves against the disease. More creative and personal AIDS education strategies are needed. (MSE)

  20. A "Second Generation" of Questions Hits AIDS-Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Three years after the first efforts to teach college students about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) began, established campus AIDS-education programs are grappling at increasingly sophisticated levels with old and new challenges, including homophobia, blood testing, women's role, and students' reluctance to admit they are putting…

  1. AIDS on Campus: A Medical and Legal Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Jackie R.; Matteoli, Tom E.

    1989-01-01

    Because an effective vaccine for Human Immunodeficiency Virus is unlikely to be available until late 1990s, higher education must focus on education programs to prevent spread of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and establish an HIV/AIDS policy before need arises. Legal counsel should review policies and procedures prior to their…

  2. Problems in Financing the Care of AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Notes that financing care of patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has reached crisis proportions. Discusses how components of U.S. health care financing system attempt to minimize their financial exposure to AIDS. Presents remedies that have been suggested in literature. Points out flaws in current system for dealing with…

  3. AIDS: Is Any Risk Too Great? The 1987 Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog-Rapp, Fay

    This report discusses public school legal liability in the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) controversy with regard to the right of privacy of AIDS victims who are students and employees and the concern of risk of contagion to other students and employees and the public's right to know what is going on in their schools. Several steps…

  4. Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

    1992-01-01

    At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

  5. AIDS: Are Children at Risk? ERIC Digest 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    Lack of knowledge and misinformation about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a fatal disease with no cure or vaccine, has caused widespread public concern. Education is an effective way to reduce fears and prevent the spread of the disease. Public school personnel must have accurate information about AIDS in order to make suitable…

  6. The Impact of AIDS on the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, David

    1990-01-01

    More than 25 percent of those who have the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus are African American, and, in large urban areas, the disease is a leading cause of death, especially among black women. AIDS education is vital to supplement health care efforts in the black community. (SLD)

  7. Developing an AIDS Program in a Juvenile Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelber, Seymour

    1988-01-01

    Examines what is being done and what more must be done in terms of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) testing, screening, counseling. Discusses education about AIDS for young people in juvenile detention centers, penal institutions, and residential rehabilitation programs. Dade County Juvenile Detention Center (Florida) exemplifies…

  8. Silent Casualties: Partners, Families, and Spouses of Persons with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Jane; Stafford, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Surveys the literature currently available on needs and support of partners, families, and spouses of persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Broad effects of the AIDS diagnosis are noted as well as unique effects on gay male partners, families of intravenous drug abusers, families giving in-home care to their persons with AIDS…

  9. Burnout in Hospital Social Workers Who Work with AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Julianne S.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…

  10. AIDS Education through Schools: An Address by Mary H. Futrell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Mary H.

    1988-01-01

    All school employees, including support staff, should receive preservice or inservice training about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It is important that urban minority children be alerted to the dangers of AIDS, and that all children be aware that prevention must begin before self-destructive behavior begins. (JD)

  11. Children and AIDS: A Need to Rethink Child Welfare Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jaclyn; Carlton, Thomas O.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problems of children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Questions whether society is prepared to respond to these children's needs. Asserts that the definitions of child abuse and neglect need to include the transmission of AIDS and that the foster care system will probably not be able to meet the needs of this…

  12. An Approach to Coping with Anxiety about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Irwin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a stepwise counseling approach for assisting persons with heightened anxiety about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and ways to handle fears about the sexual transmission of AIDS. Five steps discussed include getting accurate information, assessing fear prior to exposure, learning to protect oneself and others, gathering peer…

  13. An Unforgiving Enemy: AIDS. Student Reader and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Education Services, Johnstown, PA.

    These adult basic education instructional materials on the prevention of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) include a student reader and a teacher's guide. The student reader contains six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces two characters--Ricco and Francis--and focuses on the definition of AIDS, the three stages of the disease, the cause, and…

  14. Evaluation of an AIDS Prevention Program for "At Risk" Parolees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Harry K.; And Others

    Surveys of the nation's jail and prison populations suggest that about 75% have used illicit drugs at one time or another. Incidence rates for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases among prison inmates is much higher in correctional systems than in the population as a whole. In this study an AIDS prevention and education program for…

  15. HIV-AIDS Information and the American Library Community: An Overview of Responses to the HIV-AIDS Health Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukenbill, W. Bernard

    This paper presents an overview of how American libraries have responded to the health crisis caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). AIDS information dissemination practices of libraries and the social role which American librarians have articulated regarding their special responsibilities are…

  16. Humoral immune response to the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli in naturally acquired diarrhea and antitoxin determination by passive immune hemolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D J; Ruiz-Palacios, G; Evans, D E; DuPont, H L; Pickering, L K; Olarte, J

    1977-01-01

    Acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 132 students attending a university in rural Mexico were assayed for antibody against the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli by neutralization of LT activity in the Y-1 adrenal cell assay and by passive immune hemolysis of LT-sensitized sheep erythrocytes. The two titration methods produced comparable results with respect to antitoxin responses detected. An inverse relationship was found between acute geometric mean antitoxin titer and the occurrence of diarrhea associated with LT-producing E. coli, especially in newly arrived students from the U.S.A. A significant correlation (P less than 0.00 5) was found between a rise in antitoxin titer detectable by the passive immune hemolysis technique and diarrhea with LT-producing E. coli isolated. Thus, humoral antitoxin titers appear to be a useful indicator of immune status with respect to enterotoxigenic (LT) E. coli diarrhea. PMID:330395

  17. Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia with Bacteremia Caused by Herbaspirillum aquaticum or Herbaspirillum huttiense in an Immune-Competent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Joanna; Smith, L. Patrick; Salzer, William

    2015-01-01

    Herbaspirillum spp. are Gram-negative bacteria that inhabit soil and water. Infections caused by these organisms have been reported in immunocompromised hosts. We describe severe community-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia caused by Herbaspirillum aquaticum or H. huttiense in an immunocompetent adult male. PMID:26179298

  18. Illusions of Immortality: The Confrontation of Adolescence and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Health, Albany.

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a potent and a present danger for teenagers, casting a dark shadow over their lives now and in the future. A small, but significant, number of teenagers will develop Human Immune Virus (HIV)-related illness before they turn 20; a far greater number will become infected with the virus during…

  19. Evaluation of a Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and related ELISA for respective induction and assessment of acquired immunity to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea in Awassi Ewes.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Assi, Chibli A Abou; Shaib, Houssam; Hamadeh, Shadi; Murtada, Muhammad; Mahmoud, Ghassan; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Iyer, Archana; Harakeh, Steve; Kumosani, Taha

    2015-05-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an experimental Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) bacterin and an indirect ELISA system to assess quantitatively the acquired immunity in Awassi ewes to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea (EP) dried roots. Four treatments of the ewes were included in the experimental design, with 6 ewes/treatment. The first treatment (T1) had the controls that were non-vaccinated and non-treated with EP. The T2 ewes were only treated with EP. The T3 and T4 ewes were vaccinated at D1 (initiation of trial) and D10, while the T4 ewes were additionally administered the EP dried roots. Blood was collected from the jugular vein of all ewes at D1, D10, D21 and D45. The construction of the vaccine and the ELISA are detailed within the manuscript. The ELISA was able to detect quantitatively the significant acquired primary and secondary immunity to the vaccine in T3 and T4 ewes, compared to their low level of background immunities at initiation of the experiment (p<0.05). In addition, the ELISA detected the absence of seroconversion at all blood sampling times (p>0.05) in T1 control ewes, and in the T2 ewes that were given only the (EP) (p>0.05). Moreover, the ELISA was able to uncover the significant seroconversion of secondary immune response in T4 ewes at D21 compared to that at D10 (p<0.05), and the absence of significant seroconversion of secondary response in T3 ewes. This is the first work in literature that reports the need to supplement the vaccination by the experimental SE bacterin with daily oral intake of 250mg of EP-dried roots, effective the first vaccination day and up to 21 days, for obtaining a statistically significant seroconversion.

  20. Does AIDS involve some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the disarmament strategy?

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Korzybski's general semantics recommends considering living beings as organisms-as-a-whole in their environment. Our cognitive abilities, specific to the human species, have thus to be taken into account. In this framework we establish a semantic similarity between particular stressful events of the 20th century and AIDS in which the immune-deficiency-caused is semiotically seen as a biological state of disarmament of the organism. It then appears that: These observations suggest that AIDS could benefit from some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the semiotic concept of disarmament, thus making the terrain favorable to the germ in response to intense stress. The disease would then result from a conditioning process based on semiotics and involve some confusion at the level of the unconscious cognitive system between disarmament toward outside the body and disarmament toward inside the body. This hypothesis is discussed within a multidisciplinary perspective considering the specificities of our modern lifestyles, the cybernetic ability of signs to control metabolism and behavior, and the recent advances of epigenetics and cognition sciences. This hypothesis may explain the multiple cross-species transmissions of the immunodeficiency virus into humans during the 20th century. Further research is suggested for evaluating this hypothesis.

  1. Utilizing Rapid Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis Typing To Aid Control of Hospital-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection: a Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Susan; Marriott, Claire; Parsons, Helen; Waddington, Claire; Gossain, Savita; Szczepura, Ala; Stallard, Nigel; Hawkey, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The early identification of outbreaks is crucial for the control of Clostridium difficile infection. This study aimed to determine if the number of hospital-acquired C. difficile infections could be reduced by rapidly typing C. difficile strains using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) compared to typing using PCR ribotyping. A total of 16 hospitals were recruited to the study, and all periods of increased incidence (PIIs) of C. difficile infection were identified. The hospitals were randomized into two study arms, the test and the control, with all isolates typed in the test using MLVA and in the control using PCR ribotyping. Following a PII, each hospital received a structured questionnaire regarding control measures implemented or stopped prior to or following the typing results. During the study period, there were a total of 1,682 hospital-apportioned C. difficile toxin-positive cases, with 868 in the control and 814 in the test, with modeling demonstrating no differences between the two arms. A total of 245 PIIs occurred, involving 785 patients. There was a significant difference in the mean turnaround time between the ribotyping and MLVA typing (13.6 and 5.3 days, respectively [P < 0.001]). The discriminatory ability of MLVA was greater than ribotyping, with 85 outbreaks being confirmed by ribotyping and 62 by MLVA. In the test arm, 40.6% of respondents strongly agreed that the typing result had aided their management of clusters, as opposed to 9.9% in the control. The study demonstrated the utility of rapidly typing C. difficile strains, demonstrating that it aided the management of clusters, enabling effective targeting of infection control resources. PMID:22837319

  2. Histoplasmosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): multicenter study of outcomes and factors associated with relapse.

    PubMed

    Myint, Thein; Anderson, Albert M; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N; Bamberger, David M; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N; Wheat, L Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p < 0.0001) and 5% death (p = 0.28) in the PC group. Relapse occurred in 53% of the nonadherent patients but not in the adherent patients (p < 0.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients with initial central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis relapsed compared to 15% of patients without CNS involvement (p = 0.0004), which may be accounted for by nonadherence. In addition, patients with antigenuria above 2.0 ng/mL at 1-year follow-up were 12.82 times (95% confidence interval, 2.91-55.56) more likely to relapse compared to those with antigenuria below 2.0 ng/mL. Discontinuation of antifungal therapy was safe in adherent patients who completed at least 1 year of antifungal treatment, and had CD4 counts >150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis.

  3. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    SciTech Connect

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup −} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup −}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed

  4. Conocimiento de Transmision de SIDA y Percepcion Hacia los Ninos con SIDA en el Salon de Clases de los Maestros de Educacion Especial (Knowledge of AIDS Transmission and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with AIDS in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez de Williams, Milka

    This Spanish-language master's thesis presents a study which measured special education teachers' knowledge of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus transmission and their attitudes toward children with AIDS in schools. Attitudes were then related to social variables such as sex, teacher's age, and knowing someone with AIDS. A survey of…

  5. Enteric pathogens, immune status and therapeutic response in diarrhea in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from north India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Arun Kumar; Uppal, Beena; Chadha, Sanjim; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Ghosh, Roumi; Dewan, Richa

    2013-06-01

    Intestinal infection causing diarrheal disease is a dominant contributor to high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This intervention study aimed to assess the response of specific anti-microbial and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on enteropathogens identified in HIV/AIDS adult subjects from northern India. Seventy five ART naive (group 1) and seventy five ART adherent (group 2) HIV/AIDS adult subjects with diarrhea were enrolled. Stool samples from all subjects were examined for enteropathogens by wet mount, staining methods, culture and ELISA. Subjects with enteropathogens were started on specific therapy as per National AIDS Control Organisation, Government of India's guidelines. Follow-up stool samples were examined after 2-4 weeks of completion of therapy for persistence/clearing of enteropathogens. CD4+ T lymphocyte count was done for all subjects. At enrollment, group 1 had 26.13% bacterial, 57.66% parasitic & 16.22% fungal pathogens while group 2 had 11.9%, 69.05% & 19.05% pathogens, respectively. Parasitic diarrhea was more common than bacterial diarrhea. The coccidian parasites (Cryptosporidium spp. & Isospora belli) were the common parasites identified. Clearance of enteric pathogens was significant after specific anti-microbial therapy (p = 0.0001). Persistence of enteropathogens was seen primarily for coccidian parasites. Clearance of enteropathogens after specific therapy and the diagnostic yield of stool specimens were influenced by the CD4+ counts. Immune competence coupled with specific anti-microbial therapy displays the best response against enteric pathogens.

  6. EXTENDING THE ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY-AIDED PROGRAMS TO SUPPORT LEISURE AND COMMUNICATION IN PEOPLE WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY AND EXTENSIVE MULTIPLE DISABILITIES.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; D'amico, Fiora; Quaranta, Sara; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Colonna, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Intervention programs for people with acquired brain injury and extensive motor and communication impairment need to be diversified according to their characteristics and environment. These two studies assessed two technology-aided programs for supporting leisure (i.e., access to songs and videos) and communication (i.e., expressing needs and feelings and making requests) in six of those people. The three people participating in Study 1 did not possess speech but were able to understand spoken and written sentences. Their program presented leisure and communication options through written phrases appearing on the computer screen. The three people participating in Study 2 did not possess any speech and were unable to understand spoken or written language. Their program presented leisure and communication options through pictorial images. All participants relied on a simple microswitch response to enter the options and activate songs, videos, and communication messages. The data showed that the participants of both studies learned to use the program available to them and to engage in leisure and communication independently. The importance of using programs adapted to the participants and their environment was discussed.

  7. Combined robotic-aided gait training and 3D gait analysis provide objective treatment and assessment of gait in children and adolescents with Acquired Hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Erika; Beretta, Elena; Altomonte, Daniele; Formica, Francesca; Strazzer, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a fully objective rehabilitative and assessment process of the gait abilities in children suffering from Acquired Hemiplegia (AH), we studied the combined employment of robotic-aided gait training (RAGT) and 3D-Gait Analysis (GA). A group of 12 patients with AH underwent 20 sessions of RAGT in addition to traditional manual physical therapy (PT). All the patients were evaluated before and after the training by using the Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM), the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), and the 6 Minutes Walk Test. They also received GA before and after RAGT+PT. Finally, results were compared with those obtained from a control group of 3 AH children who underwent PT only. After the training, the GMFM and FAQ showed significant improvement in patients receiving RAGT+PT. GA highlighted significant improvement in stance symmetry and step length of the affected limb. Moreover, pelvic tilt increased, and hip kinematics on the sagittal plane revealed statistically significant increase in the range of motion during the hip flex-extension. Our data suggest that the combined program RAGT+PT induces improvements in functional activities and gait pattern in children with AH, and it demonstrates that the combined employment of RAGT and 3D-GA ensures a fully objective rehabilitative program.

  8. Optometric Education's Challenge: AIDS in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    A national survey of schools of optometry suggests that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) needs to be more thoroughly addressed in some curricula. Suggestions are made for curriculum development in the areas of public health, basic coursework, immunology, clinical medicine, psychology, ocular manifestations, and contact lenses. (MSE)

  9. Which of These Teens Has AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Ellen

    This curriculum focuses on: (1) increasing adolescent students' knowledge of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); (2) increasing students' knowledge of prevention of HIV infection; (3) developing students' skills in recognizing risk behaviors; (4) developing students' skills in responsible decision…

  10. Counseling in the Era of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Sari H.; Pincu, Lester

    1993-01-01

    Describes counselor's role in era of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS); psychological reactions to chronic, stigmatized, and fatal illness; and specific populations (gay men, their families and friends, gay youth, significant others, people of color, heterosexual women and lesbians, college students, substance abusers, "worried…

  11. Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Kato B.

    1998-01-01

    A study assessed effectiveness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education courses required in Florida of persons engaged in professions requiring licensure. Results indicate few differences in knowledge or attitudes before and after the course. In general, course participants had good knowledge of…

  12. Taking Care of Young Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federlein, Anne Cairns

    This booklet provides an overview of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and guidelines for child care administrators and caregivers. It is argued that reason must overcome fear about the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in early childhood centers. Discussion addresses such questions as: (1) Can child caregivers get AIDS…

  13. Liability for Failure To Provide AIDS Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Constitution guarantees a right to privacy that requires deputies and jailers to avoid the unnecessary disclosure of sensitive information about a person. This privacy right especially covers Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related (AIDS) information, and it even protects the immediate family of persons infected with human…

  14. AIDS: A Catholic Educational Approach. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum guide responds to the need for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) information that is correct, developmentally appropriate, culturally sensitive, and morally consistent with Gospel values. The intended uses are described to be in Catholic schools and catechetical programs. A section providing orientation for teachers and…

  15. Psychotherapy with AIDS Patients: Countertransference Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Carole A.

    This paper provides a personal account of the process of psychotherapy for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients, as seen from both the client's and the psychotherapist's perspective, with a focus on countertransference issues found in the early phases of treatment. Based on case material, the discussion explores themes presented by…

  16. Squamous-cell carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma and Burkitt's lymphoma are consequences of impaired immune surveillance of ubiquitous viruses in acquired immune deficiency syndrome, allograft recipients and tropical African patients.

    PubMed

    Purtilo, D T; Manolov, G; Manolova, Y; Harada, S; Lipscomb, H

    1984-01-01

    The immune system has evolved under Darwinian pressures as a defence against ubiquitous viruses. Immune surveillance against viral antigens protects the normal host. Individuals with inherited or acquired immune-deficiency disorders can become vulnerable to ubiquitous viruses and neoplasms can ensue, such as B-cell lymphoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, and carcinoma of the penis and uterine cervix. Immunodeficiency permits Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B virus, papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus to induce sustained target-cell proliferation. Each virus selects specific cellular targets bearing viral receptors and the infection leads to proliferation of the target cells rather than lysis. Various co-factors, including nutrition, exposure to tumour-promoting agents, parasitic infection, and ultraviolet light, may promote carcinogenesis. Depending on the type and severity of the immune deficiency, gradual proliferation may lead to evolution of a malignant clone. Conversion of polyclonal virally infected proliferating cells to give monoclonal malignancy is probably due to specific cytogenetic rearrangements which allow oncogene activation and endow an altered tumour cell with selective growth advantages over normal diploid cells. Prevention of viral oncogenesis may be possible by treatment of immune-deficient individuals with premalignant disorders. Immunotherapy and antiviral therapy may prevent progression of viral-induced proliferation to malignancy. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and evaluate the role of immune deficiency and viruses in the induction of malignancies commonly occurring in Africans residing in sub-Saharan Africa (Purtilo, 1976). The types of malignancies commonly occurring in this region are believed to be due to ubiquitous viruses. A failure of immune surveillance mechanisms to recognize viral antigens and abrogate proliferation of infected target cells predisposes to

  17. Modeling acquired immunity as an outcome of the interaction between host-related factors and potential antigen repertoires.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mawieh; Elkarmi, Ali

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to understand why different organisms defend against potential antigens differently, the influence of possible interactions between host-related factors and respective antigen repertoires on the complexity of host defense mechanisms was investigated. A compartmental model coupling these two variables was developed and tested. Data analysis suggests that the more complex the organism, the larger the size of its antigen repertoire. The two variables seem to advance in a parallel fashion suggesting that they could reach a state of equilibrium. Therefore, host-related factors may play a role in determining the size of the antigen repertoire on the one hand; on the other hand, increased antigen repertoire size may dictate the evolution of more complex mechanisms of immunity. Although the interplay between the two variables maintains some common themes in different groups of organisms, it results in clear differences pertinent to immunologic specificity, diversity, memory and self nonself discrimination.

  18. Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Weight Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A What's in this article? Why Are Vaccinations Important? Why Do I Need Shots? Which Vaccinations Do ...

  19. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  20. Pulmonary leukocytic responses are linked to the acquired immunity of mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, R.; Coulson, P.S.; Wilson, R.A.

    1988-05-15

    Pulmonary cellular responses in C57BL/6 mice exposed to Schistosoma mansoni have been investigated by sampling cells from the respiratory airways with bronchoalveolar lavage. Mice exposed to cercariae attenuated with 20 krad gamma-radiation developed stronger and more persistent pulmonary leukocytic responses than animals exposed to equal numbers of normal parasites. Although vaccination with irradiated cercariae also stimulated T cell responses of greater magnitude and duration than normal infection, the lymphocytic infiltrate elicited by each regimen did not differ substantially in its composition, 5 wk after exposure. Studies with cercariae attenuated by different treatments established that a link exists between the recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs of vaccinated mice and resistance to reinfection. There was a strong association between pulmonary leukocytic responses and the elimination of challenge infections by vaccinated mice. Animals exposed to irradiated cercariae of S. mansoni were resistant to homologous challenge infection but were not protected against Schistosoma margrebowiei. Homologous challenge of vaccinated mice stimulated anamnestic leukocytic and T lymphocytic responses in the lungs, 2 wk postinfection, but exposure of immunized animals to the heterologous species failed to trigger an expansion in these populations of cells. Our studies indicate that pulmonary leukocytes and T lymphocytes are intimately involved in the mechanism of vaccine-induced resistance to S. mansoni. It remains unclear whether these populations of cells initiate protective inflammatory reactions against challenge parasites in the lungs, or accumulate in response to the activation of the protective mechanism by other means.

  1. Dendritic cells treated with crude Plasmodium berghei extracts acquire immune-modulatory properties and suppress the development of autoimmune neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Thomé, Rodolfo; Issayama, Luidy K; Alves da Costa, Thiago; Gangi, Rosária D; Ferreira, Isadora T; Rapôso, Catarina; Lopes, Stefanie C P; da Cruz Höfling, Maria Alice; Costa, Fábio T M; Verinaud, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells specifically targeted during Plasmodium infection. Upon infection, DCs show impaired antigen presentation and T-cell activation abilities. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether cellular extracts obtained from Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes (PbX) modulate DCs phenotypically and functionally and the potential therapeutic usage of PbX-modulated DCs in the control of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the mouse model for human multiple sclerosis). We found that PbX-treated DCs have impaired maturation and stimulated the generation of regulatory T cells when cultured with naive T lymphocytes in vitro. When adoptively transferred to C57BL/6 mice the EAE severity was reduced. Disease amelioration correlated with a diminished infiltration of cytokine-producing T cells in the central nervous system as well as the suppression of encephalitogenic T cells. Our study shows that extracts obtained from P. berghei-infected erythrocytes modulate DCs towards an immunosuppressive phenotype. In addition, the adoptive transfer of PbX-modulated DCs was able to ameliorate EAE development through the suppression of specific cellular immune responses towards neuro-antigens. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present evidence that DCs treated with P. berghei extracts are able to control autoimmune neuroinflammation. PMID:24689455

  2. [Cerebral infarction and intracranial aneurysm related to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus in a Japanese acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Chiharu; Okada, Kazumasa; Ohnari, Norihiro; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-01-01

    A 35-years-old right-handed man admitted to our hospital with a worsening of dysarthria, left facial palsy and left hemiparesis for 2 days. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed when he was 28 years old. At that time, he also was treated for syphilis. After highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was introduced at the age of 35 years old, serum level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was not detected, but the number of CD4+ T cells was still less than 200/μl. He had no risk factors of atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. He had neither coagulation abnormality nor autoimmune disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed acute ischemic infarction spreading from the right corona radiate to the right internal capsule without contrast enhancement. Stenosis and occlusion of intracranial arteries were not detected by MR angiography. Although argatroban and edaravone were administered, his neurological deficits were worsened to be difficult to walk independently. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed a mild mononuclear pleocytosis (16/μl). Oligoclonal band was positive. The titer of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG antibodies was increased, that indicated VZV reactivation in the central nervous system (CNS), although VZV DNA PCR was not detected. Therefore, acyclovir (750 mg/day for 2 weeks) and valaciclovir (3,000 mg/day for 1 month) were administered in addition to stroke therapy. He recovered to be able to walk independently 2 month after the admission.Angiography uncovered a saccular aneurysm of 3 mm at the end of branch artery of right anterior cerebral artery, Heubner artery, 28 days after the admission. We speculated that VZV vasculopathy caused by VZV reactivation in CNS was involved in the pathomechanism of cerebral infarction rather than HIV vasculopathy in the case.

  3. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2013-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of…

  4. From AIDS to parasite infection: pathogen-mediated subversion of programmed cell death as a mechanism for immune dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Ameisen, J C; Estaquier, J; Idziorek, T

    1994-12-01

    Premature cell death can result either from cell injury or degeneration, leading to necrosis, or from the activation of a physiological cell-suicide process, termed programmed cell death or apoptosis, that is regulated by intercellular signalling. This process plays an essential role in the selection of developing lymphocytes, and is also involved in the function of the mature adaptative immune system. A growing number of experimental findings during the last 4 years has provided support to our hypothesis that inappropriate HIV-mediated dysregulation of programmed T-cell death is relevant to AIDS pathogenesis. A series of recent experimental results also supports the general concept that the persistence and pathogenesis of several infectious pathogens, ranging from retroviruses to parasites, may be related to their capacity to dysregulate programmed cell death in various cell populations including lymphocytes. Subversion by pathogens of the physiological control of programmed cell death provides a paradigm for the pathogenesis of a wide range of infectious diseases that involve immune dysregulation and suggests therapeutic potential for the in vivo modulation of cell signalling.

  5. The interplay between socio-demographic variables, nutritional and immune status of HIV-positive/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Oguntibeju, O O; van den Heever, W M J; Van Schalkwyk, F E

    2007-10-15

    This study examined the association between socio-demographic factors (educational level and employment status) and the nutritional and immune status of 35 HIV-positive/AIDS patients at baseline. Assessment of selected macro-and micronutrient dietary intake was done using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Evaluation of anthropometric profiles (body mass index, waist-hip ratio and percentage of body fat) was also evaluated. A questionnaire was applied to obtain information on the educational level and employment status of the patients. The CD4+ T-cell counts and viral loads of the same patients were determined using the flow cytometry and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method respectively. An association between educational level and dietary intake was significant (p < 0.05) for total dietary fibre, selenium and vitamin C. There was no significant (p > 0.05) association between the two socio-demographic variables (education and employment) and anthropometric profiles. The association between education, employment and CD4+ T-cell count was not significant (p > 0.05). The viral load showed a significant (p < 0.05) association with employment status but not correlated with education. The sample size or certain inherent biological and social factors probably affected the outcomes of the interplay between the two selected socio-demographic factors and the nutritional and immune status. It is suggested that the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.

  6. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:3825111

  7. [The AIDS patient in anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Jalowy, A; Flesche, C W; Lorenz, C

    1997-02-01

    Treatment of a patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is very challenging, and makes great demands on the anaesthesiologist. Any of an AIDS patient's vital organ systems may be compromised, either by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself, opportunistic infections, by tumours, or as a result of AIDS-related drug therapies. Infections of the lungs (e.g., Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) are prevalent, and cardiac impairment can be found in as many as 50% of AIDS patients. In addition, disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system and water and electrolyte imbalances are often seen. Perioperatively, the AIDS patient is especially prone to infections as a result of a compromised immune system. The choice of anaesthetic procedure for the AIDS patient-aside from the type of operation-depends on the severity of the illness and progression of organ impairment. All anaesthesia personnel must be careful to avoid infection, as they frequently come in contact with the blood or body fluids of their patients. However, the risk of being infected by an AIDS patient is very low, provided hygiene regulations are followed strictly. The rate of seroconversion after accidental needle-stick injury is below 1%. If exposure does occur, regular serologic controls should be continued for one year. Prophylactic treatment with azidothymidine after exposition to HIV is recommended.

  8. Older Americans and AIDS: Transmission Risks and Primary Prevention Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, Joseph A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Growing number of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases among older Americans is of increasing concern. In context of primary prevention, reviews findings that bear on modes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (blood transfusions, sexual) among older individuals and knowledge of magnitude of the AIDS problem represented…

  9. Response by High Risk Groups to HIV/AIDS Educational Outreach: A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Nina Feldman

    Twelve focus groups were conducted to determine how various at-risk groups would respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) educational outreach approaches presented via print (posters and comic book), television, and radio media. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HIV and AIDS were also…

  10. Panel Calls for More University Research in National Effort to Stop spread of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1986-01-01

    An interagency committee recommends more university and industry involvement in efforts to stop the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and find a cure, and encourages increased federal funding and assurances that funding will be ongoing for both basic biological and AIDS research. (MSE)

  11. A Student-Health Doctor Grapples with Campus' Fears about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    1988-01-01

    Although Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a relatively simple medical problem, it is complicated by fear, ignorance, and uncertainty. Many colleges have a much bigger problem with fear than with the virus itself. Information dissemination through college AIDS-education programs is a major challenge. (MSE)

  12. HIV and AIDS among Adolescents in the United States: Increasing Risk in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Suzanne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines recent data on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) surveillance and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence; surveys on teenagers' knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to HIV/AIDS; key treatment issues; and barriers to prevention to review the problem and propose possible ways of combating it. Notes that data suggest…

  13. "It Can't Happen to Me!": True Stories about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Jon

    This brochure presents facts and information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) for teenagers and young people. A story tracing the sexual activities and exposure to AIDS of a group of teenagers is presented, interspersed with objective information about one's chances of getting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), how one…

  14. The Facts about AIDS. A Special NEA "Higher Education Advocate" Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Harold, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is presented to alert National Education Association educators to behaviors that place people at risk for AIDS. The material was prepared by the Public Health Service. Topics include: sexual transmission, transmission from injected blood, transmission during pregnancy, groups at greatest…

  15. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  16. AIDS and Child Care: A Booklet for Child Care Workers, Management Committees and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Caroline; Glasson, Mark

    This booklet provides Australians with basic information about the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents cover the definiton of AIDS, ways the disease is transmitted, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody testing for adults and children, variations among children infected with HIV, information that HIV is not transmitted…

  17. Lazarus and Group Psychotherapy: AIDS in the Era of Protease Inhibitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.; Brazaitis, Sarah J.

    2003-01-01

    A new class of medications, protease inhibitors, has dramatically improved the health of many people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This development has had a major impact on the lives of those affected by HIV/AIDS. This article considers how a group is affected by the larger systems of…

  18. Assessing Employee Attitudes in a Community-Based AIDS Service Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Kuotsai Tom; Cruise, Peter L.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-one employees of the Comprehensive Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Program of Palm Beach County (Florida) were surveyed to explore their motives and attitudes toward their jobs, clients, and the organization. Implications for management of AIDS service organizations and program quality are discussed. (SLD)

  19. Willingness of Health-Professions Students to Treat Patients with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currey, Charles J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This 1988-89 survey of 319 students in the medical, dental, nursing, and allied health-care professions revealed that over one-third had reservations about treating AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) patients. Unwillingness to treat AIDS patients was strongly associated with homophobic attitudes. Education should emphasize methods for the…

  20. Toward an Understanding of (EM)Power(Ment) for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Adolescent Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Lorraine; Oh, Hyun Joo; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    Preventing the spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among women is a national priority. In the United States, AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among young adult women, and their rate of infection is four times higher than men. This article was developed to help stimulate interest in the power dynamics of relationships and…

  1. AIDS in South Africa: Therapeutic Interventions to Strengthen Resilience among Orphans and Vulnerable Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Donald, David R.; Theron, Linda C.; Lyon, Rachel Crook

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 10% of the 34.2 million individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are under the age of 18. Additionally, 17.8 million children have experienced one or both parents dying of HIV/AIDS. In comparison to other countries, South Africa has the highest per capita of…

  2. Experiencing an Epidemic: The Development of an AIDS Education Program for Community College Students in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlin, Joyce T.

    In 1991, a project was undertaken to suggest components for an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education program for community college students. The project sought to identify AIDS programs and policies in place at the 17 community colleges in Maryland; assessed community college students' knowledge about the spread and prevention of…

  3. Safe Sex and Dangerous Poems: AIDS, Literature and the Gay and Lesbian Community College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler, Robert Klein

    Some of the denial and fear that accompanies homosexuality and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be dealt with by discussing the following three issues: the AIDS epidemic, the problems of gay and lesbian community college students, and finally, the teaching of literature--especially poetry. Exploring both poetry and the AIDS…

  4. Female Secondary School Adolescents' Sexual Behavior and School Based HIV/AIDS Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.

    2013-01-01

    Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys…

  5. Getting the Word Out: A Practical Guide to AIDS Materials Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matiella, Ana Consuelo, Ed.

    This book provides health professionals with a "how to" approach to developing culturally sensitive and effective Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education materials. It is a collection of chapters written by community AIDS educators who have specialized knowledge and skill in developing educational materials in multi-ethnic…

  6. Talking about AIDS in Hong Kong: Cultural Models in Public Health Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rodney H.

    A study explored the issues of cultural identity and interaction in public health discourse concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Hong Kong's multilingual, multicultural social context. Twenty public service announcements (PSAs) concerning AIDS awareness televised in both English and Cantonese in Hong Kong from 1987 to 1994 were…

  7. An Annotated Bibliography about AIDS for Educators of the Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Mark A.

    This study was conducted to identify information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that educators should know to effectively teach about the disease in the classroom. The references identified were divided into seven major categories: (1) current scientific research concerned with the virus that causes AIDS; (2) the effects of the…

  8. Who Are the "Innocent Victims?" Using NEXIS To Track the "New York Times'" Coverage of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Paul

    A study measured attitudes towards Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) victims by providing a qualitative content analysis of newspaper coverage of the epidemic. A search of the NEXIS database was conducted to identify every "New York Times" article on the subject of AIDS in which the word "innocent" appears. Results…

  9. Suicide Inhibitors of Reverse Transcriptase in the Therapy of AIDS and Other Retroviruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Acquired Immun Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (7-8). The most recent evaluation of the AIDS epidemic in the U.S. (4) indicates that the currer total of...are shown below. One of the first, [N-(L-3-tran carboxyxiran-2-carbonyl)-L-leucyl]-amido (4-guanido) butane was isolated from Asperg /II japonicus and...risk of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 2.4: 497- 500 (1983). 9. Kopkrowski H., De Freitas E.C., Harper M.E., Woliheim S.M

  10. Medawar's legacy to cellular immunology and clinical transplantation: a commentary on Billingham, Brent and Medawar (1956) 'Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. III. Actively acquired tolerance'.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth

    2015-04-19

    'Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. III. Actively acquired tolerance', published in Philosophical Transactions B in 1956 by Peter Medawar and his colleagues, PhD graduate Leslie Brent and postdoctoral fellow Rupert Billingham, is a full description of the concept of acquired transplantation tolerance. Their 1953 Nature paper (Billingham RE et al. 1953 Nature 172, 603-606. (doi:10.1038/172603a0)) had provided initial evidence with experimental results from a small number of neonatal mice, with mention of similar findings in chicks. The Philosophical Transactions B 1956 paper is clothed with an astonishing amount of further experimental detail. It is written in Peter Medawar's landmark style: witty, perceptive and full of images that can be recalled even when details of the supporting information have faded. Those images are provided not just by a series of 20 colour plates showing skin graft recipient mice, rats, rabbits, chickens and duck, bearing fur or plumage of donor origin, but by his choice of metaphor, simile and analogy to express the questions being addressed and the interpretation of their results, along with those of relevant published data and his prescient ideas of what the results might portend. This work influenced both immunology researchers and clinicians and helped to lay the foundations for successful transplantation programmes. It led to the award of a Nobel prize in 1960 to Medawar, and subsequently to several scientists who advanced these areas. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  11. Medawar's legacy to cellular immunology and clinical transplantation: a commentary on Billingham, Brent and Medawar (1956) ‘Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. III. Actively acquired tolerance’

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    ‘Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. III. Actively acquired tolerance’, published in Philosophical Transactions B in 1956 by Peter Medawar and his colleagues, PhD graduate Leslie Brent and postdoctoral fellow Rupert Billingham, is a full description of the concept of acquired transplantation tolerance. Their 1953 Nature paper (Billingham RE et al. 1953 Nature 172, 603–606. (doi:10.1038/172603a0)) had provided initial evidence with experimental results from a small number of neonatal mice, with mention of similar findings in chicks. The Philosophical Transactions B 1956 paper is clothed with an astonishing amount of further experimental detail. It is written in Peter Medawar's landmark style: witty, perceptive and full of images that can be recalled even when details of the supporting information have faded. Those images are provided not just by a series of 20 colour plates showing skin graft recipient mice, rats, rabbits, chickens and duck, bearing fur or plumage of donor origin, but by his choice of metaphor, simile and analogy to express the questions being addressed and the interpretation of their results, along with those of relevant published data and his prescient ideas of what the results might portend. This work influenced both immunology researchers and clinicians and helped to lay the foundations for successful transplantation programmes. It led to the award of a Nobel prize in 1960 to Medawar, and subsequently to several scientists who advanced these areas. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750245

  12. The Incorporation of HIV/AIDS Into Identity Over Time: Transformational Tales Continued.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Lisa M.

    The incorporation of human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) into identity over time was examined by collecting data from the same 11 HIV-positive individuals at 3 points in time (in 1995, early 1998, and late 1999). By the time of their semi-structured interviews in late 1999, the seven men and four women…

  13. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... remembers" the germ and can fight it again. Vaccines contain germs that have been killed or weakened. When given to a healthy person, the vaccine triggers the immune system to respond and thus ...

  14. Bacillus cereus AR156 activates PAMP-triggered immunity and induces a systemic acquired resistance through a NPR1-and SA-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dongdong; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Yanru; Song, Xiaoou; Wang, Jiansheng; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Induced resistance responses play a potent role in plant defense system against pathogen attack. Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that installs induced systemic resistance (ISR) to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that AR156 leaf infiltration enhances disease resistance in Arabidopsis through the activation of a systemic acquired resistance (SAR). PR1 protein expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst are strongly induced in plants treated with AR156 and inoculated with Pst than that in plants inoculated with Pst only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger SAR in jar1 or ein2 mutants, but not in the NahG transgenic and NPR1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced SAR depends on SA-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not JA and ET. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1 gene expression, which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). Altogether, our results indicate that AR156 can induce SAR by the SA-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components.

  15. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) / reproductive tract infections (RTI) including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) / human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among the women of reproductive age group: a review.

    PubMed

    Nahar, A; Azad, A K

    1999-06-01

    Despite great improvements in preventing and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including HIV/AIDS, infections have been increasing significantly throughout the world. The problem of STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS among women aged 15-49 years is increasing at an alarming rate. Certain biological risk factors and cultural practices enhance the vulnerability of women of reproductive age. Among these biological risks are age, gender, blood transfusion during pregnancy and childbirth, and the development of asymptomatic STDs/RTIs. These are exacerbated by cultural practices like douching with pharmaceutical products, use of intravaginal substances, and the practice of anal sex. STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS affect female reproductive health in certain ways: mother-to-child transmission, effects on pregnancy (spontaneous abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, low birth weight, ectopic pregnancy), infertility, cancer, and rise in AIDS-related mortality. On the other hand, society will experience an increase in orphans, destabilization of the family unit, and a reduction in family income. Considering the impact of these diseases on the reproductive health of women and the community, measures should be taken to prevent and control the epidemic. The paper discusses certain interventions and diagnostic and preventive strategies against STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS.

  17. AIDS Epidemic. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on Reviewing Federal Efforts Being Conducted toward Combating the AIDS Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The text of a Senate hearing called to review federal efforts combating acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is presented in this document. Opening statements reviewing the AIDS crisis are given by Senators Edward Kennedy and Lowell Weicker, Jr. Prepared statements are included by Senators Orrin Hatch and Ted Stevens. David Baltimore and…

  18. Seasons: The National Native American AIDS Prevention Center Quarterly. 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Andrea Green, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The three 1993 issues of "Seasons" (the Spring/Summer issues are combined) address various aspects of dealing with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among Native Americans. The Winter issue focuses on tuberculosis (TB) and its incidence and treatment among HIV-positive individuals.…

  19. Confronting AIDS. Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    This book is addressed to anyone involved with or affected by the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, including legislators, researchers, health care personnel, insurance providers, educators, health officials, executives in the pharmaceutical industry, blood bank administrators, and other concerned individuals. The following…

  20. Gambling with Your Health: Predictors of Risk for AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasorsa, Dominic L.; Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    To examine risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in terms of risk-related behaviors, and to investigate the factors that may be involved in putting one at risk, a study conducted telephone interviews with 493 randomly selected adults (18 years or older) in Austin, Texas in the fall of 1987. Respondents answered approximately 40…

  1. Medical Students' Perceptions and Proposed Treatment Strategies for AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladany, Nicholas; Stern, Marilyn

    Research has consistently found that health care providers report having negative attitudes and perceptions toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. This study was conducted to examine the independent and joint influences of a patient's mode of acquisition of illness (blood transfusion versus sexual promiscuity), patient blame…

  2. AIDS/HIV Infection and the Workplace: NIDA Workgroup Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    In October 1989, the Division of Applied Research of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) convened a panel of experts to assess whether the basic principles and approaches that have been used in the development of workplace drug abuse programs and community acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education programs can be applied to…

  3. Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation of AIDS Education Programs for Dentists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbert, Barbara; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An office-based continuing education program on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) for dentists is described, including needs assessment, model development, local piloting, national implementation with 119 dentists, and evaluation phases. Program evaluation indicated an improvement in risk perception, knowledge, and practice resulted, but…

  4. AIDS: New Challenge to the Counseling Psychologist in Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fradkin, Howard R.

    Counseling psychologists, especially those who work with homosexual men, may find that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a major focus of their work. Therapists must be comfortable talking explicitly with these clients about sex, and must be able to help clients talk explicitly about their behavior. Clients often feel ambivalent about…

  5. Psychological Interventions with AIDS and HIV: Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Debra A.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that research to date has yielded important findings for primary prevention efforts for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and has identified psychological dimensions relevant to mental health interventions for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sees pressing need for more systematic intervention outcome research in…

  6. Are Victims of AIDS 'Handicapped' under Federal Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses whether the disease AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) could be considered a "handicap." Describes a recent court decision, "Arline vs. School Board of Nassau County," in which the court found that a teacher with tuberculosis could be defined as handicapped and that her dismissal was in violation of Section…

  7. AIDS on Campus: Emerging Issues for College and University Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot

    Legal information concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that college presidents may find helpful in establishing policies and procedures is provided in a paper by the general counsel of the American Council on Education. Sources of medical information, including the American College Health Association, hotlines, and federal…

  8. Selected Bibliography on AIDS for Health Services Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Joyce V., Comp.; Ball, Judy K., Comp.

    This bibliography cites 355 references to journal articles and other reports dealing with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and how it is being addressed through the health services delivery system. Annotations are arranged alphabetically by principal author within the following major categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) classification and…

  9. Teaching about AIDS/HIV Disease to College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Joseph R.

    This paper presents a psychology professor's account of his experiences teaching a course on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) to college students. The first section discusses how to introduce and market the course on campus, and anticipate students' and colleagues' questions about one's motivations for…

  10. Facilitating Support Groups for Professionals Working with People with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Silverstein, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Describes support groups for health care professionals who work with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and who are experiencing burnout from excessive demands on their energy, strength, and resources. Discusses group administration, effective intervention techniques, and issues of health…

  11. Victims of AIDS: Family, Society, Cost and Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Doris F.

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become an increasing problem throughout the nation. Experts predict that there will have been 270,000 cases, including 179,000 deaths, by 1991. The disease has devastating psychosocial as well as physical effects. Neither preventive medicine nor a cure is anywhere in sight. Everyone needs to be…

  12. HIV/AIDS Guidelines for Special Education Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe.

    This report presents guidelines for implementing human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) curriculum with New Mexico students receiving special education services. The guidelines are organized by grade level, noting content themes, objectives, disciplines/subjects, and resources available. The guidelines are intended…

  13. Guidelines on AIDS in Europe. First Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoffmann, H.; And Others

    The problem of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Europe and public health measures that can be taken to reduce the spread of infection are discussed. These guidelines cover: the magnitude of the problem in Europe, the virus and its mode of transmission, major clinical features of the disease, laboratory tests, possibilities of…

  14. AIDS Resource Directory and Repertoire de ressources sur le SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This set of documents presents directories of resources on the topic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) available in Canada in English and in French. The first section in each directory contains a list of names, addresses, and telephone numbers of organizations from which readers may obtain the listed resources. Resources are then…

  15. Establishment of adult Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, patent infections, and acquired immunity after experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael S; Greaves, Trent A; Burt, Michael D B

    2004-04-01

    Experimental Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infections were established in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and an atypical host, red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus). Groups of deer were fed 10, 25, or 100 third-stage larvae (L3) of P. tenuis and received a single equivalent challenge exposure at varying intervals. Infections were monitored up to 6 yr in white-tailed deer and up to 2.8 yr in red deer. The prepatent period in white-tailed deer varied from 91 to 1,072 days (381 +/- 374) and in red deer from 105 to 358 days (167 +/- 77). Adult worms lived for up to 6 yr in white-tailed deer. Although most had patent infections until necropsy, latent periods were observed regardless of season. Adult worms lived for up to 2.8 yr in red deer, and patent infections persisted for 20-363 days (152 +/- 106). Patent infections were correlated with the presence of adult worms in blood vessels and sinuses of both deer species. Worms were restricted to the subdural space in all deer with latent and occult infections. Adult worm recovery in white-tailed deer fed 10 or 25 L3 corresponded to the mean intensities reported in natural infections of white-tailed deer Recovery from deer fed 100 L3 was not typical of natural infection intensities. Adult P. tenuis established in all groups of red deer, but neurologic disease was restricted to animals fed 100 L3. Acute neurologic disease was associated with subdural hemorrhage and occurred at 11 mo postinfection in 2 red deer. The absence of postchallenge patent periods and the persistence of occult infections indicated that challenge exposures did not establish. These data indicate that acquired immunity to P. tenuis was established by 6 mo postinfection in both white-tailed and red deer. Latent periods in white-tailed deer and latent infections in red deer reinforce the need for a reliable diagnostic assay.

  16. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: Implications for HIV Education and AIDS Risk Education Programs in the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in black males caused distrust by blacks of the public health system that has implications for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) studies. AIDS prevention among blacks may require openness about the Tuskegee study to allay fears of repetition. (SLD)

  17. Relationships between Time Orientation, Knowledge of AIDS, and Self-Reported Sexual Behavioral Changes in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Andrew S.

    College students as young adults are sexually active. Authorities on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are concerned about the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in college students since students are sexually active but do not perceive precautions against AIDS as necessary for themselves. This study examined what college…

  18. A Study of the Attitudes of Nursing Students toward Caring for AIDS Patients. Law, Politics, and Economics of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Suzanne E.

    This study examined the attitudes of undergraduate and graduate nursing students (N=282) towards caring for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. A 57-item Likert type AIDS attitude questionnaire focused on the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in the comfort level of juniors, seniors, or graduate students caring for…

  19. Problems in the Workplace: AIDS, Drug Testing, Sexual Harassment, and Smoking Restrictions. LERC Monograph Series No. 7. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Robert; And Others

    This document presents discussions of four problems that may be found in the workplace. "AIDS in the Workplace: Employee Safety and Rights" (Robert Durham and Burton White) explores issues of employee/employer relationship and the issue of Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace. It concludes that the management of the AIDS…

  20. An Exploration of Medical Care: A Content Analysis of the Views of People with the AIDS Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Patricia F.; And Others

    Perceptions of the quality of medical care and the attitudes of medical personnel experienced by people infected with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus were studied using subjects known to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. Ten infected subjects participated in the study. Their interview…

  1. Health Care and the Social Construction of AIDS: Impact of Disease Definitions on Psychosocial Adaptation and Economic Circumstances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, Stephen; Jackson, Marguerite

    As with other illnesses, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a socially constructed phenomenon, not simply a biological entity. Biologically, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes immunosuppression, which in turn causes a spectrum of disease states. The official definition of AIDS by the Centers for Disease Control requires…

  2. Electroporation-aided DNA immunization generates polyclonal antibodies against the native conformation of human endothelin B receptor.

    PubMed

    Allard, Bertrand; Priam, Fabienne; Deshayes, Frédérique; Ducancel, Frédéric; Boquet, Didier; Wijkhuisen, Anne; Couraud, Jean-Yves

    2011-09-01

    Endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) specific for endothelin peptides (including endothelin-1, ET1), which mediates a variety of key physiological functions in normal tissues, such as modulation of vasomotor tone, tissue differentiation, or cell proliferation. Moreover, ET(B)R, overexpressed in various cancer cells including melanoma, has been implicated in the growth and progression of tumors, as well as in controlling T cell homing to tumors. To gather information on receptor structure and function, antibodies are generally considered choice molecular probes, but generation of such reagents against the native conformation of GPCRs is a real technical challenge. Here, we show that electroporation-aided genetic immunization, coupled to cardiotoxin pretreatment, is a simple and very efficient method to raise large amounts of polyclonal antibodies highly specific for native human ET(B)R (hET(B)R), as assessed by both flow cytometry analysis of different stably transfected cell lines and a new and rapid cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that we also describe. The antibodies recognized two major epitopes on hET(B)R, mapped within the N-terminal extracellular domain. They were used to reveal hET(B)R on membranes of three different human melanoma cell lines, by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, a method that we show is more relevant than mRNA polymerase chain reaction in assessing receptor expression. In addition, ET-1 partially competed with antibodies for receptor binding. The strategy described here, thus, efficiently generated new immunological tools to further analyze the role of ET(B)R under both normal and pathological conditions, including cancers. Above all, it can now be used to raise monoclonal antibodies against hET(B)R and, more generally, against GPCRs that constitute, by far, the largest reservoir of potential pharmacological targets.

  3. Antiviral CD8+ T cells in the genital tract control viral replication and delay progression to AIDS after vaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaques immunized with virulence attenuated SHIV 89.6.

    PubMed

    Genescà, M; McChesney, M B; Miller, C J

    2009-01-01

    The recently failed clinical efficacy trial of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine that elicits antiviral CD8(+) T-cell responses has emphasized the challenge of producing an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/ rhesus monkey model of AIDS, live-attenuated lentivirus 'vaccines' provide the best protection from uncontrolled viral replication and clinical disease after pathogenic SIV challenge. This review summarizes a recent series of studies in which we show that after vaginal SIV challenge of rhesus macaques immunized with an attenuated lentivirus protection from uncontrolled viral replication is primarily mediated by CD8(+) T cells in the vaginal mucosa. Immunization with a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) results in a systemic infection that induces a moderate population of SIV-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells with cytolytic potential in the vaginal mucosa. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells at the time of SIV challenge completely abrogates the protection mediated by prior infection with attenuated SHIV. Further after vaginal SIV challenge, the only significant expansion of SIV-specific T cells occurs in the vagina in these animals. No significant expansion of T-cell responses was observed in systemic lymphoid tissues. Thus, the presence of SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in the vagina on the day of vaginal SIV challenge and a modest expansion of local effector T cells is sufficient to stop uncontrolled SIV replication. It seems that T-cell based vaccine strategies that can elicit mucosal effector CD8(+) T-cell populations and avoid inducing systemic T-cell proliferation upon exposure to HIV have the greatest potential for mimicking the success of live-attenuated lentiviral vaccines.

  4. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis.

  5. The Role of Language and Education in Eradicating HIV/AIDS in Africa: Evidence from Parents, Teachers, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okebukola, Foluso O.; Adegbite, Hassan H.; Owolabi, Tunde

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on the eradication and reversal of the spread of HIV/AIDS (human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome) as one of the main thrusts of Africa's 21st Century Development Goals. It investigates the significant role which language and education can play in fast tracking the attainment of this goal using a three-pronged…

  6. Eradication of HIV and Cure of AIDS, Now and How?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde

    2013-10-18

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART or combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART)] remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, memory CD4 T-cells are indisputably the key cells organizing all immune actions against HIV while being the targets of HIV. Here we present a view and multidisciplinary approaches to HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. We aim at memory CD4 T-cells, utilizing the stem cell properties of these cells to reprogram an anti-HIV memory repertoire to eliminate the viral reservoir, toward achieving an AIDS-free world.

  7. Eradication of HIV and Cure of AIDS, Now and How?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART or combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART)] remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, memory CD4 T-cells are indisputably the key cells organizing all immune actions against HIV while being the targets of HIV. Here we present a view and multidisciplinary approaches to HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. We aim at memory CD4 T-cells, utilizing the stem cell properties of these cells to reprogram an anti-HIV memory repertoire to eliminate the viral reservoir, toward achieving an AIDS-free world. PMID:24151495

  8. Independent Auditor’s Report of FY 2011 Department of State Funds Transferred to DoD for Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-09

    Laws Public Law 108-25, “United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis , and Malaria Act, 2003,” May 27, 2003, establishes a 5-year emergency...people suffering from HIV/AIDS. Public Law 110-293, “Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis ...that address the causes of the HIV/AIDS military epidemic in select countries. DHAPP is under the command of NHRC in San Diego, California. In

  9. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  10. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, T W; Doran, R M; Rowlands, P L; Curry, A; Lacey, C J

    1992-01-01

    A male patient is described with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed chronic keratoconjunctivitis and chronic sinusitis due to infection with the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopic examination of conjunctival epithelial cells and nasal polypectomy specimens. Treatment with propamidine isethionate 0.1% (Brolene) eye drops six times daily led to a prompt resolution of the keratoconjunctivitis. Images PMID:1540567

  11. The Role of Age and Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum in the Rate of Acquisition of Naturally Acquired Immunity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Guinovart, Caterina; Dobaño, Carlota; Bassat, Quique; Nhabomba, Augusto; Quintó, Llorenç; Manaca, Maria Nélia; Aguilar, Ruth; Rodríguez, Mauricio H.; Barbosa, Arnoldo; Aponte, John J.; Mayor, Alfredo G.; Renom, Montse; Moraleda, Cinta; Roberts, David J.; Schwarzer, Evelin; Le Souëf, Peter N.; Schofield, Louis; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Doolan, Denise L.; Alonso, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The rate of acquisition of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) against malaria predominantly depends on transmission intensity and age, although disentangling the effects of these is difficult. We used chemoprophylaxis to selectively control exposure to P. falciparum during different periods in infancy and explore the effect of age in the build-up of NAI, measured as risk of clinical malaria. Methods and Findings A three-arm double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 349 infants born to Mozambican HIV-negative women. The late exposure group (LEG) received monthly Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) plus Artesunate (AS) from 2.5–4.5 months of age and monthly placebo from 5.5–9.5 months; the early exposure group (EEG) received placebo from 2.5–4.5 months and SP+AS from 5.5–9.5 months; and the control group (CG) received placebo from 2.5–9.5 months. Active and passive case detection (PCD) were conducted from birth to 10.5 and 24 months respectively. The primary endpoint was time to first or only episode of malaria in the second year detected by PCD. The incidence of malaria during the second year was of 0.50, 0.51 and 0.35 episodes/PYAR in the LEG, EEG and CG respectively (p = 0.379 for the adjusted comparison of the 3 groups). The hazard ratio of the adjusted comparison between the LEG and the CG was 1.38 (0.83–2.28, p = 0.642) and that between the EEG and the CG was 1.35 (0.81–2.24, p = 0.743). Conclusions After considerably interfering with exposure during the first year of life, there was a trend towards a higher risk of malaria in the second year in children who had received chemoprophylaxis, but there was no significant rebound. No evidence was found that the age of first exposure to malaria affects the rate of acquisition of NAI. Thus, the timing of administration of antimalarial interventions like malaria vaccines during infancy does not appear to be a critical determinant. Trial Registration Clinical

  12. Plasmodium vivax Cell-Traversal Protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites: Naturally Acquired Humoral Immune Response and B-Cell Epitope Mapping in Brazilian Amazon Inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-da-Silva, Rodrigo Nunes; Soares, Isabela Ferreira; Lopez-Camacho, Cesar; Martins da Silva, João Hermínio; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana de Souza; Têva, Antônio; Ramos Franco, Antônia Maria; Pinheiro, Francimeire Gomes; Chaves, Lana Bitencourt; Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo; Banic, Dalma Maria; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa

    2017-01-01

    The cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS), a highly conserved antigen involved in sporozoite motility, plays an important role in the traversal of host cells during the preerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium species. Recently, it has been considered an alternative target when designing novel antimalarial vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum. However, the potential of Plasmodium vivax CelTOS as a vaccine target is yet to be explored. This study evaluated the naturally acquired immune response against a recombinant P. vivax CelTOS (PvCelTOS) (IgG and IgG subclass) in 528 individuals from Brazilian Amazon, as well as the screening of B-cell epitopes in silico and peptide assays to associate the breadth of antibody responses of those individuals with exposition and/or protection correlates. We show that PvCelTOS is naturally immunogenic in Amazon inhabitants with 94 individuals (17.8%) showing specific IgG antibodies against the recombinant protein. Among responders, the IgG reactivity indexes (RIs) presented a direct correlation with the number of previous malaria episodes (p = 0.003; r = 0.315) and inverse correlation with the time elapsed from the last malaria episode (p = 0.031; r = -0.258). Interestingly, high responders to PvCelTOS (RI > 2) presented higher number of previous malaria episodes, frequency of recent malaria episodes, and ratio of cytophilic/non-cytophilic antibodies than low responders (RI < 2) and non-responders (RI < 1). Moreover, a high prevalence of the cytophilic antibody IgG1 over all other IgG subclasses (p < 0.0001) was observed. B-cell epitope mapping revealed five immunogenic regions in PvCelTOS, but no associations between the specific IgG response to peptides and exposure/protection parameters were found. However, the epitope (PvCelTOSI136-E143) was validated as a main linear B-cell epitope, as 92% of IgG responders to PvCelTOS were also responders to this peptide sequence. This

  13. Plasmodium vivax Cell-Traversal Protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites: Naturally Acquired Humoral Immune Response and B-Cell Epitope Mapping in Brazilian Amazon Inhabitants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-da-Silva, Rodrigo Nunes; Soares, Isabela Ferreira; Lopez-Camacho, Cesar; Martins da Silva, João Hermínio; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana de Souza; Têva, Antônio; Ramos Franco, Antônia Maria; Pinheiro, Francimeire Gomes; Chaves, Lana Bitencourt; Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo; Banic, Dalma Maria; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa

    2017-01-01

    The cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS), a highly conserved antigen involved in sporozoite motility, plays an important role in the traversal of host cells during the preerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium species. Recently, it has been considered an alternative target when designing novel antimalarial vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum. However, the potential of Plasmodium vivax CelTOS as a vaccine target is yet to be explored. This study evaluated the naturally acquired immune response against a recombinant P. vivax CelTOS (PvCelTOS) (IgG and IgG subclass) in 528 individuals from Brazilian Amazon, as well as the screening of B-cell epitopes in silico and peptide assays to associate the breadth of antibody responses of those individuals with exposition and/or protection correlates. We show that PvCelTOS is naturally immunogenic in Amazon inhabitants with 94 individuals (17.8%) showing specific IgG antibodies against the recombinant protein. Among responders, the IgG reactivity indexes (RIs) presented a direct correlation with the number of previous malaria episodes (p = 0.003; r = 0.315) and inverse correlation with the time elapsed from the last malaria episode (p = 0.031; r = −0.258). Interestingly, high responders to PvCelTOS (RI > 2) presented higher number of previous malaria episodes, frequency of recent malaria episodes, and ratio of cytophilic/non-cytophilic antibodies than low responders (RI < 2) and non-responders (RI < 1). Moreover, a high prevalence of the cytophilic antibody IgG1 over all other IgG subclasses (p < 0.0001) was observed. B-cell epitope mapping revealed five immunogenic regions in PvCelTOS, but no associations between the specific IgG response to peptides and exposure/protection parameters were found. However, the epitope (PvCelTOSI136-E143) was validated as a main linear B-cell epitope, as 92% of IgG responders to PvCelTOS were also responders to this peptide sequence. This

  14. Immunization of Newborn Mice Accelerates the Architectural Maturation of Lymph Nodes, But AID-Dependent IgG Responses Are Still Delayed Compared to the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Munguía-Fuentes, Rosario; Yam-Puc, Juan Carlos; Silva-Sánchez, Aarón; Marcial-Juárez, Edith; Gallegos-Hernández, Isis Amara; Calderón-Amador, Juana; Randall, Troy D.; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2017-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) have evolved to maximize antigen (Ag) collection and presentation as well as lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation—processes that are spatially regulated by stromal cell subsets, including fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Here, we showed that naïve neonatal mice have poorly organized LNs with few B and T cells and undetectable FDCs, whereas adult LNs have numerous B cells and large FDC networks. Interestingly, immunization on the day of birth accelerated B cell accumulation and T cell recruitment into follicles as well as FDC maturation and FRC organization in neonatal LNs. However, compared to adults, the formation of germinal centers was both delayed and reduced following immunization of neonatal mice. Although immunized neonates poorly expressed activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), they were able to produce Ag-specific IgGs, but with lower titers than adults. Interestingly, the Ag-specific IgM response in neonates was similar to that in adults. These results suggest that despite an accelerated structural maturation of LNs in neonates following vaccination, the B cell response is still delayed and reduced in its ability to isotype switch most likely due to poor AID expression. Of note, naïve pups born to Ag-immunized mothers had high titers of Ag-specific IgGs from day 0 (at birth). These transferred antibodies confirm a mother-derived coverage to neonates for Ags to which mothers (and most likely neonates) are exposed, thus protecting the neonates while they produce their own antibodies. Finally, the type of Ag used in this study and the results obtained also indicate that T cell help would be operating at this stage of life. Thus, neonatal immune system might not be intrinsically immature but rather evolutionary adapted to cope with Ags at birth. PMID:28154564

  15. Conference Summary on Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Held in Washington, DC on 11-12 September 1989: Surrogate Endpoints in Evaluating the Effectiveness of Drugs against HIV Infection and AIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    overall well-being in evaluations of interventions for patients with cystic fibrosis . Any discussion of treatment for pediatric AIDS would be incomplete...because they also proceed rapidly, changes can be detected early. Loss of appetite , wasting, and neuropsychological impairment (detectable in 40 to 95

  16. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAID). /* // ** // */ Prevention Research Vaccines Microbicides Related Topics on AIDS.gov Clinical Trials Immune System 101 HIV Vaccine ... Be the Generation Last revised: 12/09/2016 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  17. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  18. [Epidemiological surveillance of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in French Polynesia in 1991].

    PubMed

    Gras, C; Gendron, Y; Philippon, G; Chungue, E; Laudon, F; Sirven, D; Renaud, A; Lebras, J; Cardines, D; Prigent, D

    1992-01-01

    The authors make out a statement about HIV infection in French Polynesia at the date of 1991 December 31. 96 cases all together of seropositive and AIDS infected people were recorded. These patients are young generally (78 p.c. between 21 and 40 years old) sexually contaminated (72 out of 96) and live in Tahiti island (94 p.c.). Sex-ratio is 2.8 male/1 female. Among them, we noted 55 p.c. of Europeans, 38 p.c. of Polynesians and 7 p.c. of Asiatic people. Epidemiological monitoring of the infection was made easy because of a set of laws and possibilities of detection highly favourable. Progress of the infection is constant, with 20 new cases detected each year with a prevalence of 150 cases of AIDS per 1 million of inhabitants, French Polynesia could be classified as the 5th or 6th region of France as far as the importance of the disease. Clinical, biological and epidemiological taking of charge of patients is detailed as well as the prevention campaign.

  19. Scarcity of HIV-AIDS Risk-Reduction Materials Targeting the Needs of Older Adults among State Departments of Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orel, Nancy A.; Wright, Jeanne M.; Wagner, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the availability of printed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education/prevention materials from state departments of public health within the United States, which specifically targeted the older adult population. Information on HIV/AIDS from public health departments in each of…

  20. Condom Advertising and AIDS. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document present witnesses' testimonies from the Congressional hearing called to examine condom advertising and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Opening statements are included by Congressmen Henry Waxman, William Dannemeyer, and Jim Bates. C. Everett Koop, United States Surgeon General, and Gary Noble, AIDS coordinator for the…

  1. The analysis of HIV/AIDS drug-resistant on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Maoxing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) drug-resistant model using an ordinary differential equation (ODE) model on scale-free networks. We derive the threshold for the epidemic to be zero in infinite scale-free network. We also prove the stability of disease-free equilibrium (DFE) and persistence of HIV/AIDS infection. The effects of two immunization schemes, including proportional scheme and targeted vaccination, are studied and compared. We find that targeted strategy compare favorably to a proportional condom using has prominent effect to control HIV/AIDS spread on scale-free networks.

  2. Enteric spore-forming opportunistic parasites in HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rohit; Ichhpujani, R L

    2011-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes progressive damage to both limbs of the immune system, which results in a plethora of opportunistic infections. Among the various opportunistic infections, gastrointestinal infections are very common in HIV / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Opportunistic spore-forming protozoal parasites, namely, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Microsporidia, play a major role in causing chronic diarrhea, accompanied with weight loss, in patients with HIV / AIDS. The purpose of this review is to discuss the salient microbiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of important enteric spore-forming opportunistic parasites in HIV / AIDS.

  3. Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

    1987-12-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

  4. Predictive value of cytokines and immune activation biomarkers in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with rituximab plus infusional EPOCH (AMC-034 trial)

    PubMed Central

    Epeldegui, Marta; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Martínez, Anna C.; Widney, Daniel P.; Magpantay, Larry I.; Regidor, Deborah; Mitsuyasu, Ronald; Sparano, Joseph A.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to determine if pre-treatment plasma levels of cytokines and immune activation-associated molecules changed following treatment for AIDS-NHL with rituximab plus infusional EPOCH, and to determine if pre-treatment levels of these molecules were associated with response to treatment and/or survival. Experimental design We quantified plasma levels of B cell activation-associated molecules (sCD27, sCD30, sCD23) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, CXCL13) prior to and after the initiation of treatment in persons with AIDS-NHL (n=69) in the AIDS Malignancies Consortium (AMC) 034 study, which evaluated treatment of AIDS-NHL with EPOCH chemotherapy and rituximab. Results Treatment resulted in decreased plasma levels of some of these molecules (CXCL13, sCD27, sCD30), with decreased levels persisting for one year following the completion of treatment. Lower levels of CXCL13 before treatment were associated with complete responses following lymphoma therapy. Elevated levels of IL-6 pre-treatment were associated with decreased overall survival, while higher IL-10 levels were associated with shorter progression-free survival, in multivariate analyses. Furthermore, patients with CXCL13 or IL-6 levels higher than the median levels for the NHL group, as well as those who had detectable IL-10, had lower overall survival and PFS, in Kaplan Meier analyses. Conclusions These results indicate that CXCL13, IL-6 and IL-10 have significant potential as prognostic biomarkers for AIDS-NHL. PMID:26384320

  5. Knowing Both: Towards Integrating Two Main Approaches to the Tertiary Education of Health Care Workers Involved in Caring for People Living with HIV/AIDS. A Needs Assessment of HIV/AIDS Tertiary Education for Health Care Workers in Metropolitan South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Mills, Patricia

    The need for continuing education about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) was assessed for health care workers in metropolitan South Australia. Seventeen focus group discussions were held to solicit the views and experiences of various persons regarding HIV/AIDS tertiary education. Included in the…

  6. Molecular and Cellular Interactions of Allogenic and Autologus Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Innate and Acquired Immunity and Their Role in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinikia, Roghayeh; Nikbakht, Mohammad Reza; Moghaddam, Ali Asghar; Tajehmiri, Ahmad; Hosseinikia, Mahboobe; Oubari, Farhad; Nikougoftar Zarif, Mahin; Pasdar, Yahya; Mansouri, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as major stem cells for cell therapy, have been studied from different aspects in preclinical and clinical settings for more than a decade. These cells modulate the immune system (humoral and cellular immune responses) in vitro by producing soluble factors (anti-inflammatory molecules) and/or making cell-cell contacts. Hence, they could be used in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and immune therapy. MSCs-based therapy have been recently used for treatment of cancer regarding the migratory potential of these cells towards tumor cells which makes them considerable candidates, also for cell therapy in both allogeneic and autologous settings. So, this review attempts to focus on the factors secreted by MSCs such as cytokines, their functional role in mounting and controlling immune responses mediated by different immune cell subpopulations and their significance in regenerative medicine in clinical trials. Although, further studies remain to be done to increase our knowledge of regulating development mechanisms, homeostasis and tissue repair in order to provide new tools to implement the efficacy of cell therapy trials. Although MSCs have been proved safe and effective for cell therapy, there are still challenges to overcome before widely applying MSCs in clinic. PMID:28286618

  7. Targeted next generation sequencing of endoscopic ultrasound acquired cytology from ampullary and pancreatic adenocarcinoma has the potential to aid patient stratification for optimal therapy selection

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, Ferga C.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Kipp, Benjamin R.; Voss, Jesse S.; Minot, Douglas M.; Tu, Zheng Jin; Henry, Michael R.; Graham, Rondell P.; Vasmatzis, George; Cheville, John C.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Levy, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Less than 10% of registered drug intervention trials for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) include a biomarker stratification strategy. The ability to identify distinct mutation subsets via endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS FNA) molecular cytology could greatly aid clinical trial patient stratification and offer predictive markers. We identified chemotherapy treatment naïve ampullary adenocarcinoma and PDAC patients who underwent EUS FNA to assess multigene mutational frequency and diversity with a surgical resection concordance assessment, where available. Methods Following strict cytology smear screening criteria, targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) using a 160 cancer gene panel was performed. Results Complete sequencing was achieved in 29 patients, whereby 83 pathogenic alterations were identified in 21 genes. Cytology genotyping revealed that the majority of mutations were identified in KRAS (93%), TP53 (72%), SMAD4 (31%), and GNAS (10%). There was 100% concordance for the following pathogenic alterations: KRAS, TP53, SMAD4, KMT2D, NOTCH2, MSH2, RB1, SMARCA4, PPP2R1A, PIK3R1, SCL7A8, ATM, and FANCD2. Absolute multigene mutational concordance was 83%. Incremental cytology smear mutations in GRIN2A, GATA3 and KDM6A were identified despite re-examination of raw sequence reads in the corresponding resection specimens. Conclusions EUS FNA cytology genotyping using a 160 cancer gene NGS panel revealed a broad spectrum of pathogenic alterations. The fidelity of cytology genotyping to that of paired surgical resection specimens suggests that EUS FNA represents a suitable surrogate and may complement the conventional stratification criteria in decision making for therapies and may guide future biomarker driven therapeutic development. PMID:27203738

  8. Detection of AIDS Virus in Macrophages in Brain Tissue from AIDS Patients with Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Scott; Gendelman, Howard E.; Orenstein, Jan M.; Canto, Mauro C.; Pezeshkpour, Gholam H.; Yungbluth, Margaret; Janotta, Frank; Aksamit, Allen; Martin, Malcolm A.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    1986-09-01

    One of the common neurological complications in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a subacute encephalopathy with progressive dementia. By using the techniques of cocultivation for virus isolation, in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy, the identity of an important cell type that supports replication of the AIDS retrovirus in brain tissue was determined in two affected individuals. These cells were mononucleated and multinucleated macrophages that actively synthesized viral RNA and produced progeny virions in the brains of the patients. Infected brain macrophages may serve as a reservoir for virus and as a vehicle for viral dissemination in the infected host.

  9. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Chris G.; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the ‘docking’, first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one ‘final’ probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial ‘orientation’ of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the ‘final’ AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  10. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A What's in this article? ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  11. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal cell-mediated immunity regulation in the Immune Restoration Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khakshooy, Allen; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Over one third of the patients sero-positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with signs of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and under treatment with anti-retroviral therapy (ART), develop the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). It is not clear what variables are that determine whether a patient with HIV/AIDS will develop ART-related IRIS, but the best evidence base thus far indicates that HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 cell count, and HIV/AIDS patients whose CD4 count recovery shows a sharp slope, suggesting a particularly fast "immune reconstitution", are at greater risk of developing IRIS. Here, we propose the hypothesis that one important variable that can contribute to low CD4 cell count number and function in ART-treated HIV/AIDS patients is altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cell-mediated immune (CMI) regulation. We discuss HPA-CMI deregulation in IRIS as the new frontier in comparative effectiveness research (CRE) for obtaining and utilizing the best evidence base for treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in specific clinical settings. We propose that our hypothesis about altered HPA-CMI may extend to the pathologies observed in related viral infection, including Zika PMID:27212842

  12. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  13. Transcriptomic Characterization of Innate and Acquired Immune Responses in Red-Legged Partridges (Alectoris rufa): A Resource for Immunoecology and Robustness Selection.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Cañon, Javier; Gil, Ignacio; Dunner, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Present and future challenges for wild partridge populations include the resistance against possible disease transmission after restocking with captive-reared individuals, and the need to cope with the stress prompted by new dynamic and challenging scenarios. Selection of individuals with the best immune ability may be a good strategy to improve general immunity, and hence adaptation to stress. In this study, non-infectious challenges with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and sheep red blood cells allowed the classification of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) according to their overall immune responses (IR). Skin from the area of injection of PHA and spleen, both from animals showing extreme high and low IR, were selected to investigate the transcriptional profiles underlying the different ability to cope with pathogens and external aggressions. RNA-seq yielded 97 million raw reads from eight sequencing libraries and approximately 84% of the processed reads were mapped to the reference chicken genome. Differential expression analysis identified 1488 up- and 107 down-regulated loci in individuals with high IR versus low IR. Partridges displaying higher innate IR show an enhanced activation of host defence gene pathways complemented with a tightly controlled desensitization that facilitates the return to cellular homeostasis. These findings indicate that the immune system ability to respond to aggressions (either diseases or stress produced by environmental changes) involves extensive transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations, and expand our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of the avian immune system, opening the possibility of improving disease resistance or robustness using genome assisted selection (GAS) approaches for increased IR in partridges by using genes such as AVN or BF2 as markers. This study provides the first transcriptome sequencing data of the Alectoris genus, a resource for molecular ecology that enables integration of genomic tools

  14. Transcriptomic Characterization of Innate and Acquired Immune Responses in Red-Legged Partridges (Alectoris rufa): A Resource for Immunoecology and Robustness Selection

    PubMed Central

    Sevane, Natalia; Cañon, Javier; Gil, Ignacio; Dunner, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Present and future challenges for wild partridge populations include the resistance against possible disease transmission after restocking with captive-reared individuals, and the need to cope with the stress prompted by new dynamic and challenging scenarios. Selection of individuals with the best immune ability may be a good strategy to improve general immunity, and hence adaptation to stress. In this study, non-infectious challenges with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and sheep red blood cells allowed the classification of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) according to their overall immune responses (IR). Skin from the area of injection of PHA and spleen, both from animals showing extreme high and low IR, were selected to investigate the transcriptional profiles underlying the different ability to cope with pathogens and external aggressions. RNA-seq yielded 97 million raw reads from eight sequencing libraries and approximately 84% of the processed reads were mapped to the reference chicken genome. Differential expression analysis identified 1488 up- and 107 down-regulated loci in individuals with high IR versus low IR. Partridges displaying higher innate IR show an enhanced activation of host defence gene pathways complemented with a tightly controlled desensitization that facilitates the return to cellular homeostasis. These findings indicate that the immune system ability to respond to aggressions (either diseases or stress produced by environmental changes) involves extensive transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations, and expand our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of the avian immune system, opening the possibility of improving disease resistance or robustness using genome assisted selection (GAS) approaches for increased IR in partridges by using genes such as AVN or BF2 as markers. This study provides the first transcriptome sequencing data of the Alectoris genus, a resource for molecular ecology that enables integration of genomic tools

  15. Community-Acquired urinary tract infection by pseudomonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    Bhatawadekar, Sunita M

    2013-04-01

    Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Chrysomonas luteola has been placed in CDC group Ve2 and Ve1 respectively. These bacteria appear to be emerging pathogens. P. oryzihabitans was isolated from cases of bacteremia, CNS infections, wound infections, peritonitis, sinusitis, catheter associated infections in AIDS patient, and pneumonia. Most of the reports of P. oryzihabitans infection were of nosocomial origin in individuals with some predisposing factors. We report here a case of community acquired UTI by P. oryzihabitans in an immune-competent patient with stricture of urethra.

  16. Immune System 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infectious Diseases - The Immune System Related Topics on AIDS.gov CD4 Count Viral Load Cancer Opportunistic Infections ... Immune Response (video) Last revised: 08/22/2011 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  17. AIDS/HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Behavior. Minnesota Student Survey Report, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    The Minnesota Student Survey, including questions on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus transmission and sexual activity, was completed by approximately 88,000 6th-, 9th-, and 12th-graders during the 1988-89 school year. Sexual activity questions were not asked of sixth graders. Over 90% of high school students knew about sharing…

  18. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff…

  19. Health Educators in the Workplace: Helping Companies Respond to the AIDS Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Laurie J.; Aberth, John

    1986-01-01

    This article identifies various dimensions of the AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)-related issues emerging in corporations nationwide, including confidentiality, the right of patients to work, benefits and insurance, HTLV-III (Human T-Lymphotropic Type III) screening, fears of contagion among workers, needs of companies to avoid…

  20. Assessing Riverside Community College Nursing Student Attitudes toward Exposure to AIDS/HIV-Positive Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kross, Carolyn Sue

    In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…

  1. Guidelines for Counselling about HIV Infection and Disease. WHO AIDS Series 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The present guidelines have been prepared to provide counselors, health care workers, and others with a model for use in counseling people affected directly or indirectly by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The guidelines describe the nature, role, and principles of counseling, the…

  2. Level of Interactivity of Videodisc Instruction on College Students' Recall of AIDS Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritch, Kale M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments confirmed the greater effectiveness of constructed-response interactive videodisc instruction when compared to a click-to-continue or passive viewing formats on posttest recall of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) information by 101 college students. The necessity of constructing answers appears to be an important factor…

  3. Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population with Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Information and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Vega, Ernesto

    1990-01-01

    Latino and Latina sexual attitudes and behaviors must be understood if educators and counselors hope to reach this population with effective sexuality and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) information and education. The general U.S. Latino population is mostly sexually conservative; direct talk in public…

  4. The Save-Your-Life Glossary of Alcohol, AIDS, Drug, & Tobacco Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Deborah

    This document presents the Save-Your-Life Glossary, which consists of four parts: (1) the glossary itself, which defines alcohol, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), drug, and tobacco-related terms; (2) the alerts sections, which focus on popular drugs or issues that concern young people; (3) the focus sections, which categorize and…

  5. Issues in the Development of Undergraduate Courses on the Psychosocial Implications of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Steven R.

    This paper discusses the issues that should be addressed in an undergraduate course dealing with the psychosocial implications of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). These issues are: (1) the medical aspects of HIV infection and transmission; (2) death and dying versus life and living; (3) homosexuality; (4) intravenous drug use; (5)…

  6. Children with HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook for Caring. A Guide for Establishing Programs for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allbritten, Dorothy J.

    This manual is intended for administrators and professional caregivers who wish to provide comprehensive health care to children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Chapter 1, an overview, examines the societal and economic issues that affect care and treatment of children…

  7. Nebraska Adolescents' HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Knowledge and Related Practices: 1989. Technical Report 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; And Others

    This report presents information from a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Nebraska adolescents (N=1,240) in grades 9-12 related to the Human-Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Schools were selected at random from each of the six classifications of Nebraska schools, and two or three…

  8. Gender Differences in AIDS-Relevant Condom Attitudes and Condom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacco, William P.; And Others

    Many heterosexuals have not altered their sexual practices in response to the threat of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Knowledge of risk alone appears to have little effect on altering sexual behavior; more complex psychological factors seem to be involved. Condom use to prevent the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a unique…

  9. HIV Education for Persons with Mental Disabilities. AIDS Technical Report, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David C.; Trivelli, Lucy U.

    This technical report is part of a series on AIDS/HIV (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and is intended to help link various legal advocacy organizations providing services to persons with mental illness or developmental disabilities. Such persons, especially adolescents, are at risk for exposure to HIV because…

  10. A Disease Called AIDS. For Grades 5 through 7. Instructor's Guide and Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Betty M.

    The introductory section of the first of two related guides provides information that describes and assists in teaching a curriculum on HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). The introduction discusses the scope of the problem and includes an overview of the curriculum, a review of teaching strategies,…

  11. If Your Child Had AIDS...: Responses of Parents with Homosexual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Peggy H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assessed the attitudes of parents of homosexual children, primarily members of support groups for parents of lesbians/gays, were they to discover their child(ren) had Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Responses indicated devastation at the thought, with persistence of a bond between parent and child, though parents felt ambivalent…

  12. Grassroots AIDS Knowledge: Implications for the Boundaries of Science and Collective Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indyk, Debbie; Rier, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses grassroots AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) groups and their creation, dissemination, and interpretation of knowledge; and considers whether their knowledge production model applies to other public policy issues, using toxic exposure and women's health research as examples. Theoretical implications are considered, and the…

  13. Health through Knowledge: An ESL Curriculum with a Special Focus on AIDS Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Network of California Community Coll. Foundations, Rancho Cucamonga, CA.

    Health concerns that refugees and immigrants might have are discussed in a culturally relevant and sensitive way, and information on sensitive topics, such as drugs, sexuality, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is provided so that refugee and immigrant parents can protect themselves as well as teach their children to protect…

  14. Assessment of Discharge Planning Referral to Nursing Homes for People with AIDS and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, Nathan L.; Marder, Reggi E.

    This study was conducted to identify efforts by hospital discharge planners to refer clients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) to nursing homes; to determine the responses of the facilities contacted; and to identify gaps in services, discharge planner practices, and relationships between…

  15. Hispanic Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs about AIDS: A Survey in Four Southwestern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latin American Research and Service Agency, Denver, CO.

    This document comprises a report on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) of Hispanic Americans residing in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. A total of 2,400 people (600 per state) were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and January 1989. The following sample characteristics are…

  16. AIDS at the Medical College of Georgia--A Study in Institutional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koelbl, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The article addresses issues arising when a dental student is positive for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or has AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Considered are the student's right to confidentiality, the duty to warn, the patient's right to informed consent, guidelines of the American Dental Association, possible alternatives…

  17. AIDS and HIV. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The report is designed to inform members of college and university and administration governing boards about facts and issues surrounding acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) so that they may develop education and prevention programs for their institutions and ensure protection from accidental…

  18. AIDS Preventive Education and Life Skills Training Programme for Secondary Schools: Development and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Weitz, A.; Steyn, M.

    This publication reports on a pilot program on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and life skills training implemented in 12 schools in Pretoria, Laudium, Cape Town, and Soweto (South Africa). Data were collected through pre- and post-questionnaires and focus group interviews. The purpose of the program was to provide adolescents with…

  19. AIDS/HIV Infection Policies for Early Childhood and School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This volume of policies related to children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) describes appropriate ways to guarantee students' rights while maintaining public health, and answers questions for parents, educators, and caregivers. Section 1 presents policy guidelines for infants, toddlers, and…

  20. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  1. AIDS and Young Children in South Florida. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session (Miami, FL, August 7, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document is a record of a hearing on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and young children in South Florida. Opening statements are provided by Congressmen George Miller, William Lehman, and Richard Durbin; a fact sheet on AIDS and young children in South Florida is also presented. Testimony is presented by the following: (1) Ana…

  2. Radiology of AIDS in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Grattan-Smith, D; Harrison, L F; Singleton, E B

    1992-01-01

    The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has involved the pediatric age group and is especially prevalent in babies born of mothers who are intravenous drug abusers or prostitutes. Approximately 30% of children born to mothers who are seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will develop HIV infection. There are several important differences in children and adults with AIDS. The incubation period of the disease is shorter, and initial clinical manifestations occur earlier in children. In addition, certain infections are more common in children, and the different types of malignancy, especially Kaposi's sarcoma, are unusual in the pediatric age group. The altered immune system involves both T cells and humoral immunity and increases susceptibility to a variety of infections, particularly opportunistic organisms. In this publication the complications of pediatric AIDS involving the lungs, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, and neurological system are described. The most common pulmonary complications in our experience are Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia. The spectrum of cardiovascular involvement in pediatric AIDS includes myocarditis, pericarditis, and infectious endocarditis. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is usually due to opportunistic organisms that produce esophagitis, gastritis, and colitis. Abdominal lymphadenopathy is a common finding either due to disseminating Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection or nonspecific lymphadenopathy. Although cholangitis is more commonly seen in adults, it may occur in children with AIDS and, in most cases, is due to related opportunistic infections. Genitourinary infections may be the first evidence of HIV disease. Cystitis, pyelonephritis, renal abscesses, and nephropathy with renal insufficiency are complications of pediatric AIDS. A variety of neurological abnormalities may occur in pediatric AIDS. The most common cause of

  3. A case report of small bowel perforation secondary to cytomegalovirus related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Delgado, Eva María; Villanueva-Lozano, Hiram; García Rojas-Acosta, Miguel J; Miranda-Maldonado, Ivett C; Ramos-Jiménez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Non-traumatic small bowel perforation is rare in adults but carries a high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is made on clinical suspicion, and the most common causes in developing countries are infectious diseases, being cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompromised patients the main etiology. We describe a patient with a recently diagnosed advanced stage HIV infection and an intestinal perforation associated with cytomegalovirus immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation.

  4. Mycobacterium shigaense Causes Lymph Node and Cutaneous Lesions as Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in an AIDS Patient: The Third Case Report of a Novel Strain Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Kaoru; Shigeta, Masayo; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Hodohara, Keiko; Andoh, Akira; Tanaka, Toshihide; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Mitarai, Satoshi; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old man complaining of progressive body weight loss was diagnosed to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Within 2 weeks after the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy, he developed fever, massive cervical lymphadenopathy and a protruding subcutaneous abscess. A lymph node biopsy and abscess drainage revealed non-caseous granuloma and mycobacterium. The mycobacterium belonged to Runyon II group, but it showed no matches to any previously reported species. According to sequence analyses, the strain was identified as Mycobacterium shigaense. After six months of antimycobacterial treatment, the lesions were all successfully cured. This is the third case report of the novel mycobacterium, M. shigaense, presenting in associatioin with immune reconstitution syndrome. PMID:27853087

  5. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor and Substance P Antagonist Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Innate Immunity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Dwight L.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Benton, Tami; Dubé, Benoit; Gettes, David R.; Tustin, Nancy B.; Lai, Jian Ping; Metzger, David; Douglas, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immunity and are involved in the host defense against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study examines the potential role of three underlying regulatory systems that have been under investigation in central nervous system research as well as immune and viral research: serotonin, neurokinin, and glucocorticoid systems. Methods Fifty-one HIV-seropositive subjects were recruited to achieve a representative sample of depressed and nondepressed women. The effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), a substance P (SP) antagonist, and a glucocorticoid antagonist on NK cell function were assessed in a series of ex vivo experiments of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from each HIV-seropositive subject. Results Natural killer cell cytolytic activity was significantly increased by the SSRI citalopram and by the substance P antagonist CP-96345 relative to control conditions; the glucocorticoid antagonist, RU486, showed no effect on NK cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that the effects of the three agents did not differ as a function of depression. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that NK cell function in HIV infection may be enhanced by serotonin reuptake inhibition and by substance P antagonism. It remains to be determined if HIV-related impairment in not only NK cytolytic activity but also NK noncytolytic activity can be improved by an SSRI or an SP antagonist. Clinical studies are warranted to address these questions and the potential roles of serotonergic agents and SP antagonists in improving NK cell immunity, delaying HIV disease progression, and extending survival with HIV infection. PMID:17945197

  6. Systems analysis of MVA-C induced immune response reveals its significance as a vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS of clade C.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Carmen Elena; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Jiménez, Victoria; Filali-Mouhim, Abdelali; Ghneim, Khader; Haddad, Elias K; Quakkelaar, Esther D; Quakkerlaar, Esther D; Delaloye, Julie; Harari, Alexandre; Roger, Thierry; Duhen, Thomas; Dunhen, Thomas; Sékaly, Rafick P; Melief, Cornelis J M; Calandra, Thierry; Sallusto, Federica; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Wagner, Ralf; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Esteban, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Based on the partial efficacy of the HIV/AIDS Thai trial (RV144) with a canarypox vector prime and protein boost, attenuated poxvirus recombinants expressing HIV-1 antigens are increasingly sought as vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Here we describe using systems analysis the biological and immunological characteristics of the attenuated vaccinia virus Ankara strain expressing the HIV-1 antigens Env/Gag-Pol-Nef of HIV-1 of clade C (referred as MVA-C). MVA-C infection of human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) induced the expression of HIV-1 antigens at high levels from 2 to 8 hpi and triggered moDCs maturation as revealed by enhanced expression of HLA-DR, CD86, CD40, HLA-A2, and CD80 molecules. Infection ex vivo of purified mDC and pDC with MVA-C induced the expression of immunoregulatory pathways associated with antiviral responses, antigen presentation, T cell and B cell responses. Similarly, human whole blood or primary macrophages infected with MVA-C express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines involved with T cell activation. The vector MVA-C has the ability to cross-present antigens to HIV-specific CD8 T cells in vitro and to increase CD8 T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The immunogenic profiling in mice after DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost combination revealed activation of HIV-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell memory responses that are polyfunctional and with effector memory phenotype. Env-specific IgG binding antibodies were also produced in animals receiving DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost. Our systems analysis of profiling immune response to MVA-C infection highlights the potential benefit of MVA-C as vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS for clade C, the prevalent subtype virus in the most affected areas of the world.

  7. Vibrio vulnificus infection after raw oyster ingestion in a patient with liver disease and acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related complex.

    PubMed

    Chin, K P; Lowe, M A; Tong, M J; Koehler, A L

    1987-03-01

    Sepsis, peritonitis, and gastroenteritis developed in a 45-yr-old homosexual man 1 day after ingestion of raw oysters. The patient had chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis with hepatitis B virus and delta-infection. He also had persistent generalized lymphadenopathy associated with HTLV-III antibody positivity. Vibrio vulnificus was isolated from the patient's blood and peritoneal fluid as well as from the same batch of oysters at the restaurant where the patient had visited. To our knowledge, this is the first report relating direct microbiologic and clinical evidence that the infection is acquired through the gastrointestinal tract by consuming raw seafood containing the pathogen. This is also the first reported case of peritonitis associated with sepsis and gastroenteritis from this organism. Patients with liver disease and other immunocompromised states should be warned about such life-threatening infections and complications associated with the consumption of raw oysters or other undercooked seafoods.

  8. Hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Christine M; Cuker, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The development of thrombocytopenia is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with increased mortality. Frequent and important causes of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients include etiologies related to the underlying illness for which the patient is admitted, such as infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and iatrogenic etiologies such as drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, hemodilution, major surgery, and extracorporeal circuitry. This review presents a brief discussion of the pathophysiology, distinguishing clinical features, and management of these etiologies, and provides a diagnostic approach to hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia that considers the timing and severity of the platelet count fall, the presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis, the clinical context, and the peripheral blood smear. This approach may offer guidance to clinicians in distinguishing among the various causes of hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia and providing management appropriate to the etiology.

  9. Plasmodium vivax VIR Proteins Are Targets of Naturally-Acquired Antibody and T Cell Immune Responses to Malaria in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Pilar; Rui, Edmilson; Padilla, Norma; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor E.; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Malheiro, Adriana; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Kochar, Swati; Kochar, Sanjay K.; Kochar, Dhanpat K.; Umbers, Alexandra J.; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Wangnapi, Regina; Hans, Dhiraj; Menegon, Michela; Mateo, Francesca; Sanz, Sergi; Desai, Meghna; Mayor, Alfredo; Chitnis, Chetan C.; Bardají, Azucena; Mueller, Ivo; Rogerson, Stephen; Severini, Carlo; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Menéndez, Clara

    2016-01-01

    P. vivax infection during pregnancy has been associated with poor outcomes such as anemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria, thus representing an important global health problem. However, no vaccine is currently available for its prevention. Vir genes were the first putative virulent factors associated with P. vivax infections, yet very few studies have examined their potential role as targets of immunity. We investigated the immunogenic properties of five VIR proteins and two long synthetic peptides containing conserved VIR sequences (PvLP1 and PvLP2) in the context of the PregVax cohort study including women from five malaria endemic countries: Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, India and Papua New Guinea (PNG) at different timepoints during and after pregnancy. Antibody responses against all antigens were detected in all populations, with PNG women presenting the highest levels overall. P. vivax infection at sample collection time was positively associated with antibody levels against PvLP1 (fold-increase: 1.60 at recruitment -first antenatal visit-) and PvLP2 (fold-increase: 1.63 at delivery), and P. falciparum co-infection was found to increase those responses (for PvLP1 at recruitment, fold-increase: 2.25). Levels of IgG against two VIR proteins at delivery were associated with higher birth weight (27 g increase per duplicating antibody levels, p<0.05). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from PNG uninfected pregnant women had significantly higher antigen-specific IFN-γ TH1 responses (p=0.006) and secreted less pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 after PvLP2 stimulation than P. vivax-infected women (p<0.05). These data demonstrate that VIR antigens induce the natural acquisition of antibody and T cell memory responses that might be important in immunity to P. vivax during pregnancy in very diverse geographical settings. PMID:27711158

  10. Plasmodium vivax VIR Proteins Are Targets of Naturally-Acquired Antibody and T Cell Immune Responses to Malaria in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Requena, Pilar; Rui, Edmilson; Padilla, Norma; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor E; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Malheiro, Adriana; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Kochar, Swati; Kochar, Sanjay K; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Umbers, Alexandra J; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Wangnapi, Regina; Hans, Dhiraj; Menegon, Michela; Mateo, Francesca; Sanz, Sergi; Desai, Meghna; Mayor, Alfredo; Chitnis, Chetan C; Bardají, Azucena; Mueller, Ivo; Rogerson, Stephen; Severini, Carlo; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Menéndez, Clara; Del Portillo, Hernando; Dobaño, Carlota

    2016-10-01

    P. vivax infection during pregnancy has been associated with poor outcomes such as anemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria, thus representing an important global health problem. However, no vaccine is currently available for its prevention. Vir genes were the first putative virulent factors associated with P. vivax infections, yet very few studies have examined their potential role as targets of immunity. We investigated the immunogenic properties of five VIR proteins and two long synthetic peptides containing conserved VIR sequences (PvLP1 and PvLP2) in the context of the PregVax cohort study including women from five malaria endemic countries: Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, India and Papua New Guinea (PNG) at different timepoints during and after pregnancy. Antibody responses against all antigens were detected in all populations, with PNG women presenting the highest levels overall. P. vivax infection at sample collection time was positively associated with antibody levels against PvLP1 (fold-increase: 1.60 at recruitment -first antenatal visit-) and PvLP2 (fold-increase: 1.63 at delivery), and P. falciparum co-infection was found to increase those responses (for PvLP1 at recruitment, fold-increase: 2.25). Levels of IgG against two VIR proteins at delivery were associated with higher birth weight (27 g increase per duplicating antibody levels, p<0.05). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from PNG uninfected pregnant women had significantly higher antigen-specific IFN-γ TH1 responses (p=0.006) and secreted less pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 after PvLP2 stimulation than P. vivax-infected women (p<0.05). These data demonstrate that VIR antigens induce the natural acquisition of antibody and T cell memory responses that might be important in immunity to P. vivax during pregnancy in very diverse geographical settings.

  11. Treatment of infectious complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Furio, M M; Wordell, C J

    1985-01-01

    The infectious complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are discussed, and the conventional and nonconventional therapies used for these infections are reviewed. The infections most commonly encountered in patients with AIDS are Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (58%), Candida esophagitis (31%), toxoplasmosis (21%), cytomegalovirus infections (15%), and herpes-simplex virus infections (12%). Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common life-threatening process in these patients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is considered the drug of choice for its treatment. Oral candidiasis often indicates the progression to AIDS in the high-risk populations of homosexual or bisexual men, intravenous drug abusers, and individuals with hemophilia. Nystatin suspension is commonly used to treat oral candidiasis, while Candida esophagitis demands systemic therapy with ketoconazole. Toxoplasmosis most commonly manifests itself in patients with AIDS as a cerebral mass lesion. The recommended therapy includes sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. AIDS patients frequently experience protozoal invasion of the intestinal tract with Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli, and Cryptosporidium muris. Various drugs have been tried for these infections, including quinacrine hydrochloride, metronidazole, TMP-SMZ, and spiramycin. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections commonly involve the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, brain, and nervous system. Attempts to treat these disseminated CMV infections with antiviral agents, including acyclovir, have not been successful. However, acyclovir has been found beneficial in the treatment of herpes-simplex virus infections. Multiple infectious complications may occur in patients with AIDS as a result of the cellular-immune deficiency associated with this disease. Until more research is done with AIDS patients, therapy must be based on the data available from the treatment of these infections in immunosuppressed patients without AIDS.

  12. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Heather D; Macgregor, Jennifer L; Nord, Kristin M; Tyring, Stephen; Rady, Peter; Engler, Danielle E; Grossman, Marc E

    2009-02-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis with an increased susceptibility to specific human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. Classically, this viral infection leads to the development of tinea versicolor-like macules on the trunk, neck, arms, and face during childhood, and over time, these lesions can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. More recently, an EV-like syndrome has been described in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. We describe two cases of EV-like syndrome in HIV-positive patients, review all previously reported cases of EV in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity, introduce the term "acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis" to describe EV developing in the immunocompromised host and examine the limited treatment options for these patients.

  13. AIDS-related primary Kaposi sarcoma of the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Çelenk, Fatih; Yilmaz, Metin; Asal, Korhan; Ekinci, Özgür; Tokgöz, Nil

    2011-06-01

    Primary nasopharyngeal Kaposi sarcoma is extremely rare, as only 1 case has been previously reported in the literature. We report a new case, which occurred in a 37-year-old man with a known history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The patient presented with complaints of recurrent epistaxis and postnasal hemorrhage. Endoscopic examination detected a bluish, smooth, firm, nonpulsatile mass in the nasopharyngeal wall. Histopathologic findings on biopsy were consistent with Kaposi sarcoma. The tumor was successfully treated with radiotherapy. Kaposi sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any AIDS patient who presents with recurrent unilateral nasal bleeding.

  14. Medical Students and AIDS: A Few Avoid the Victims; Some Volunteer to Help, and All Are Very Careful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Future physicians say they view acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) as an unfortunate reality that must be addressed, but with great care. The epidemic has not changed medical students' specialties. Fear of contagion, lack of a cure, unpleasant symptoms, and the youth of many victims are difficult realities for students. (MSE)

  15. The Language Arts Link: A Sourcebook for HIV/AIDS Education in the English Classroom, Grades 11-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBonte, Karen

    Since exploration of thoughts, feelings, attitudes, opinions, and beliefs about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is crucial to teenagers' ability to develop healthy attitudes and behaviors, and since the language arts classroom is a natural arena for such exploration, this sourcebook presents ideas on how to bring this kind of discussion…

  16. AIDS Education: Reaching Populations at Higher Risk. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

    At the request of the United States Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) assessed ways in which education might help to prevent Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among three populations at relatively high risk: intravenous drug users, minority communities, and youth. GAO identified lessons learned…

  17. AIDS-Related Stigmas and Safe-Sex Practices of African-American College Students: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    This study examined the safe-sex practices of African-American colleges students in light of culturally-specific beliefs that stigmatize Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the African-American community. A total of 21 self-selected, sexually-active African-American students (15 females and 6 males) aged 18-22 completed the AIDS…

  18. Out of the Shadows: Building an Agenda and Strategies for Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS among Street and Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes the findings of a conference that examined the problem of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among street and homeless youth. Street and homeless youth, by virtue of their circumstances and the behaviors they engage in, are at great risk of becoming infected with HIV,…

  19. AIDS: A Catholic Educational Approach to HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus): Teacher's Manual and Implementation Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum guide aims to help teachers and students in Catholic schools and parish religious education programs to: (1) become more deeply rooted in Gospel values and Catholic moral teaching; (2) understand the HIV virus and the disease which it causes, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS); and (3) develop decision-making and leadership…

  20. Implementation and Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS Intervention Program To Improve Student Attitudes Toward Providing Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; Ricci, Jean-Francois; Taylor, A. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A University of Georgia study investigated the effectiveness of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) intervention program on pharmacy student attitudes toward providing care for infected patients. Results of pre- and posttests with 290 students indicated that the program was successful in improving student…

  1. Reconstruction of a Situational Theory of Communication: Internal and External Concepts as Identifiers of Publics for AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.; Childers, Linda

    A study by James E. Grunig and his students at the University of Maryland tested a refined version of Grunig's situational theory of communication behavior (1968) by surveying the attitudes of the public regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In preparation for the study, 20 years of research conducted by Grunig and his students was…

  2. AIDS Issues (Part 1). Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (March 10 1987--Cost and Availability of AZT; April 27, 1987--AIDS and Minorities; September 22, 1987--AIDS Research and Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    The texts of three hearings on issues connected with AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) are recorded in this document. The first hearing concerned the availability and cost of the drug azidothymidine (AZT) for victims of the disease and considered such questions as what a fair price for AZT is, who will pay for people currently being…

  3. [Guidelines for chagas disease: Part IV. Chagas disease in immune compromised patients].

    PubMed

    Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C Del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés

    2008-08-01

    A summary of different kind of immune suppressed hosts and the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this group of patients is presented. Then, most relevant aspects of immune compromised host-parasite interaction are analyzed such as the moment of acquiring the infection, immune compromise level, mechanisms of acquisition the infection and geographic region. Clinical features of primary infection and reactivation of infection in chronic Chagasic patients are described making special emphasis in solid organ transplant and BMT. Chagas disease in AIDS patients is discussed including its treatment, follow up, monitoring the immune compromise level and prophylaxis.

  4. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type of defense cell in the body called a CD4 helper ... are part of the body's immune system , the defense system that fights infections. When HIV destroys these ...

  5. Prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients across pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras: a combined study of two cohorts.

    PubMed

    Cysique, Lucette A; Maruff, Paul; Brew, Bruce J

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in cohorts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals across pre- and post-HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) eras. Two cohorts of HIV-infected individuals attending tertiary referral hospital outpatient clinics were studied. The cohorts represented two eras of antiretroviral medication: monotherapy (n = 51) and HAART (n = 90). Each was compared in nine neuropsychological domains in regard to the prevalence as well as pattern of neuropsychological impairment. Because the authors intended to characterize the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological deficits in nondemented advanced HIV-infected individuals, patients with a current diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex were not included. The prevalence of impairment was not significantly different across pre-HAART and HAART eras using a standard criterion to define impairment: -2 SD in two neuropsychological measures (41.1%/38.8%). Prevalence of deficits was not significantly reduced in patients with undetectable plasma viral load. The pattern of neuropsychological impairment was different across pre-HAART and HAART eras, with an improvement in attention, verbal fluency, visuoconstruction deficits, but a deterioration in learning efficiency and complex attention. This change remained even in patients with an undetectable plasma viral load, although the severity was partially diminished. Neuropsychological deficits remain common in the HAART era, essentially uninfluenced by HAART. The finding that some neuropsychological functions are improving while other are deteriorating indicates that these deficits do not reflect "burnt out" damage but rather that there is an active intracerebral process occurring, the nature of which is still to be determined.

  6. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  7. Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells and Cytokines Gene Expression of the T Cells in AIDS Patients with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome during Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heling; Xie, Yirui; Su, Junwei; Huang, Ying; Xu, Lijun; Yin, Michael; Zhou, Qihui

    2017-01-01

    Background. The etiology of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in AIDS patients after the initiation of HAART remains unknown. Several researches indicated that the development of IRIS is associated with the production and variation of cytokines, whose gene expression are closely related to the Ca2+/CN-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway. Methods. We studied the expression of NFAT isoforms and their major target cytokines genes in peripheral blood CD3+ T cells of subjects through fluorescence quantitative PCR and explored the expression changes of these genes before and after HAART. Results. After the initiation of HARRT, NFAT1, IL-6, and IL-8 gene expression showed a reversal trend in the CD3+ T cells of the IRIS group and changed from low expression before HARRT to high expression after HARRT. In particular, the relative gene expression of NFAT1 was markedly higher compared with the other three isoforms. The IRIS group also showed higher NFAT4, NFAT2, NFAT1, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-2, IL-18, and TNF-α gene expression than the non-IRIS group. Conclusion. This study suggested that high expression levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18 can predict the risk of IRIS. The increased expression of NFAT1 and NFAT4 may promote the expression of cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, which may promote the occurrence of IRIS. PMID:28316373

  8. Innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Revillard, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    For more than half a century immunological research has been almost exclusively orientated towards the acquired immune response and the mechanisms of immune tolerance. Major discoveries have enabled us to better understand the functioning of the specific immune system: the structure of antibody molecules, the genetic mechanisms leading to the molecular diversity of B (BCR) and T (TCR) lymphocyte antigen receptors, the biological function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the presentation of peptides to alpha/beta receptor bearing T lymphocytes, the processes of positive and negative selection of lymphocytes during the course of their differentiation. The major role of specific or acquired immunity has been shown by the rapidly lethal character of severe combined immune deficiency diseases and various alterations in the mechanisms of tolerance have been proposed to explain the chronic inflammatory illnesses which are considered to be auto-immune. Natural or innate immunity has been known since the first description of an inflammatory reaction attributed to Cornelius Celsus. It entered into the scientific era at the end of the 19th century with the discovery of phagocytes by Metchnikoff and of the properties of the complement system by Bordet [1] but due to the vastness of the field and its lack of clear definition, it failed to excite the interest of researchers. The discovery of cytokines and progress in knowledge of the mechanisms of the inflammatory reaction have certainly helped to banish preconceived ideas about natural immunity, which was wrongly labelled as non-specific. This has led to the proposition of a wider role for immune functions beyond the level of the cell or the organism [2] and to a better understanding of the importance of the immediate defence mechanisms and their role in the later orientation of the acquired response.

  9. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  10. Migrant labor and sexually transmitted disease: AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hunt, C W

    1989-12-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is worldwide, but the clinical and epidemiological pattern of the disease in Africa is different from that in developed areas. "Type 1 AIDS" occurs in industrialized North America and Europe; it has a distinctive sex ratio (16:1) and risk pattern of IV drug use and sexual practices. "Type 2 AIDS" occurs in Third World countries, particularly in eastern, southern, and central Africa. It is characterized by an entirely different sex ratio (1:1) and by distinctively different risk patterns. Both epidemics are caused by the HIV-1 virus. The key concept for understanding the origins of the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 AIDS is the migratory labor system in eastern, central, and southern Africa. This system causes long absences, increased family breakdown, and increased numbers of sexual partners. Historically the organization of this labor market has created a population which suffers from epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases. These historical patterns are presented as evidence for the contemporary transmission of AIDS. When contemporary AIDS and HIV-1 seropositivity prevalence data are examined, a systematic temporal and geographic pattern emerges for the AIDS epidemic in Africa. Despite a paucity of good data, the prevalence data from eastern, central, and southern Africa support the thesis of migrant labor's role in the transmission of AIDS.

  11. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    PubMed

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  12. HIV/AIDS: impact on healing.

    PubMed

    Burns, J; Pieper, B

    2000-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are leading chronic illnesses in many major cities worldwide. Frequently, people with HIV infection require surgery or develop chronic wounds. This paper summarizes the impact of HIV infection on body organs and systems and the effect of antiretroviral therapy as a basis for potential complications with wound care and healing. The authors also present research on wound healing in HIV-positive people undergoing operative procedures. Besides the physical effect of HIV infection on the person, clinicians must also realize psychosocial and economic effects of the disease when considering wound care. This paper also addresses care considerations for patients with HIV/AIDS in the inpatient, outpatient, and home care settings.

  13. Treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in China: opportunity, advancement and challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Hui-Juan; Jin, Yan-Tao; Guo, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Zi-Qiang; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran

    2013-08-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has been used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 30 years and the demonstrated therapeutic effects of CM, such as reducing plasma HIV viral load, increasing CD4(+)T cell counts, promoting immunity reconstitution, ameliorating symptoms and signs, improving the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and counteracting against the effects of anti-retroviral drugs, were summarized and reviewed in this article. The authors point out that it had been a good opportunity to use CM for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS in the past and also there are huge challenges ahead for CM research and clinicians to discover more effective CM and its underlying mechanisms for treatment of AIDS.

  14. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  15. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been an African and Western concern due to its epidemic nature. Although nearly 99% of all reported cases occurred in these regions, Asia has reported cases, and the potential for devastation of Asia's already strained health care reserves are undeniable. This review compiled by analysis of 1986-88 articles on AIDS research, demographics, official statements from government and health organizations, news reports, and public statements describe how AIDS has spread in well documented regions like America, Europe, and Africa, and how the Asian regions have attempted to handle the AIDS epidemic before it becomes as serious as in the West. The topics covered include a clinical overview of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it is transmitted, and what are the primary forms of transmission in well documented regions. The report briefly documents what policies China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand have individually instituted to stem the flow of AIDS into their country, and/or stop the spread of AIDS already found there. The efforts to combat AIDS globally by the World Health Organization/United Nations Development Program alliance (WHO-UNDP) along with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and UNICEF are highlighted. The available research and aid programs are contrasted with how the Asian nations are preparing to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 1) AIDS has an incubation time wherein an infected individual is not AIDS symptomatic, but is capable of infecting others, and this hidden infected population makes it essential that containment policies are also enforced in countries with few reported cases. 2) A committee should be established in all Asian countries to coordinate education on safe sexual behaviors with specific programs for prostitutes

  16. [Acquired coagulant factor inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Nogami, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    Acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are an autoimmune disease causing bleeding symptoms due to decreases in the corresponding factor (s) which result from the appearance of autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitor). This disease is quite different from congenital coagulation factor deficiencies based on genetic abnormalities. In recent years, cases with this disease have been increasing, and most have anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The breakdown of the immune control mechanism is speculated to cause this disease since it is common in the elderly, but the pathology and pathogenesis are presently unclear. We herein describe the pathology and pathogenesis of factor VIII and factor V inhibitors. Characterization of these inhibitors leads to further analysis of the coagulation process and the activation mechanisms of clotting factors. In the future, with the development of new clotting examination method (s), we anticipate that further novel findings will be obtained in this field through inhibitor analysis. In addition, detailed elucidation of the coagulation inhibitory mechanism possibly leading to hemostatic treatment strategies for acquired coagulation factor disorders will be developed.

  17. Summary of the National Forum on HIV/AIDS Prevention Education for Children and Youth with Special Education Needs (Reston, Virginia, January 31-February 2, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    Representatives from more than 25 national organizations and governmental offices assessed the state of education for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in light of the needs of special education students. This forum report provides presentation highlights and summarizes small group…

  18. Relationship Between Health Literacy, Knowledge of Health Status, and Beliefs about HIV/AIDS Transmission among Ryan White Clients in Miami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooss, Angela; Brock-Getz, Petra; Ladner, Robert; Fiano, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between health literacy, knowledge of health status, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) transmission beliefs among recipients of Ryan White care. Design: Quota and convenience sampled, quantitative analysis captured with closed and…

  19. Psychological Correlates of the Transmission and Acceptance of Rumors about AIDS = Correlates Psychologiques Entre la Transmission et l'Acceptation des Rumeurs sur le SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Allan J.

    Public reactions to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis are accompanied by the sorts of emotional and cognitive factors that have been identified by researchers as predictors of rumor generation and transmission. The present investigation attempted to ascertain the extent that various subjective factors (including anxiety,…

  20. HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africa: scientific opportunities, challenges and strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Ruhanya, Vurayai

    2015-01-01

    More than decades have already elapsed since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was identified as the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The HIV has since spread to all parts of the world with devastating effects. In sub-saharan Africa, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has reached unprecedented proportions. Safe, effective and affordable HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africans are therefore urgently needed to contain this public health problem. Although, there are challenges, there are also scientific opportunities and strategies that can be exploited in the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africa. The recent RV144 Phase III trial in Thailand has demonstrated that it is possible to develop a vaccine that can potentially elicit modest protective immunity against HIV infection. The main objective of this review is to outline the key scientific opportunities, challenges and strategies in HIV/AIDS vaccine development in Africa. PMID:26185576

  1. HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africa: scientific opportunities, challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Ruhanya, Vurayai

    2015-01-01

    More than decades have already elapsed since human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was identified as the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The HIV has since spread to all parts of the world with devastating effects. In sub-saharan Africa, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has reached unprecedented proportions. Safe, effective and affordable HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africans are therefore urgently needed to contain this public health problem. Although, there are challenges, there are also scientific opportunities and strategies that can be exploited in the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines for Africa. The recent RV144 Phase III trial in Thailand has demonstrated that it is possible to develop a vaccine that can potentially elicit modest protective immunity against HIV infection. The main objective of this review is to outline the key scientific opportunities, challenges and strategies in HIV/AIDS vaccine development in Africa.

  2. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... They Work Kidney Disease A-Z Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease What is acquired cystic kidney disease? Acquired cystic kidney disease happens when a ... cysts. What are the differences between acquired cystic kidney disease and polycystic kidney disease? Acquired cystic kidney ...

  3. The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shongkour

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects economic growths by reducing the human capitals are among the most poorly understood aspect of the AIDS epidemic. This article analyzes the effects of the prevalence of HIV and full-blown AIDS on a country's human capitals and economic growths. Using a fixed effect model for panel data 1990-2010 from the Asia, I explored the dynamic relationships among HIV/AIDS, economic growths, and human capitals within countries over time. The econometric effects concerned that HIV/AIDS plays an important role in the field of economic growths and it is measured as a change in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and human capitals. The modeling results for the Asian countries indicates HIV/AIDS prevalence that has a hurtful effect on GDP per capita by reducing human capitals within countries over time.

  4. Effect of Recombination in the Evolutionary Dynamics of HIV under the Surveillance of Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiqun; Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Guanyu

    2009-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has become one of the most destructive pandemics in history. The fact that HIV virus evolves very fast plays a central role in AIDS immunopathogenesis and the difficulty we face in finding a cure or a vaccine for AIDS. A distinguishing feature of HIV is its high frequency of recombination. The effect of recombination in the HIV evolution is not clear. We establish a mathematical model of the evolutionary dynamics. This model incorporates both point mutation and recombination for genetic diversity, and employs a fitness function developed by Wang and Deem (PRL 97, 188106, 2006) that accounts for the effect of immune system. Using this model, we explore the role of recombination in the battle between the virus population and the immune system, with a special focus on the condition under which recombination helps the virus population to escape from the immune system.

  5. Health Concerns (excluding AIDS) for Male Homosexual Patients

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brian C.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1981, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the major infectious epidemic of our time and has focused much attention on the male homosexual community. While AIDS is the most serious of gay-related health concerns, it is only one of several infectious diseases that have particular relevance for this group of patients. In addition, the mere acknowledgement of homosexuality by a male patient evokes unique psychosocial concerns that are important considerations for the primary health-care provider. The author of this article describes an approach to gay male patients for those who provide health care to such men and provides a review of specific infectious diseases (excluding AIDS) for which they are at risk. PMID:21253077

  6. An evolutionary view of the mechanism for immune and genome diversity.

    PubMed

    Kato, Lucia; Stanlie, Andre; Begum, Nasim A; Kobayashi, Maki; Aida, Masatoshi; Honjo, Tasuku

    2012-04-15

    An ortholog of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was, evolutionarily, the first enzyme to generate acquired immune diversity by catalyzing gene conversion and probably somatic hypermutation (SHM). AID began to mediate class switch recombination (CSR) only after the evolution of frogs. Recent studies revealed that the mechanisms for generating immune and genetic diversity share several critical features. Meiotic recombination, V(D)J recombination, CSR, and SHM all require H3K4 trimethyl histone modification to specify the target DNA. Genetic instability related to dinucleotide or triplet repeats depends on DNA cleavage by topoisomerase 1, which also initiates DNA cleavage in both SHM and CSR. These similarities suggest that AID hijacked the basic mechanism for genome instability when AID evolved in jawless fish. Thus, the risk of introducing genome instability into nonimmunoglobulin loci is unavoidable but tolerable compared with the advantage conferred on the host of being protected against pathogens by the enormous Ig diversification.

  7. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? ... the ear through a speaker. How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

  8. Immune System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... teens. Environmental allergies (to dust mites, for example), seasonal allergies (such as hay fever), drug allergies (reactions to ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Definition: ... Allergies Activity: Immune System Word! Autoimmunity HIV and AIDS ...

  9. Teaching AIDS.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  10. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  11. [Reflection on treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni

    2012-02-01

    The current situation of Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has made the integrative medicine treatment of AIDS an important treatment strategy. Integrative medicine treatment of AIDS has made certain achievements in clinical research, basic research, and other aspects. It has good mass foundation and curative efficacy, as well as insufficiency. I hope integrative medicine can be brought into full play in the treatment of AIDS and make breakthrough progress.

  12. A Decade of Denial: Teens and AIDS in America. A Report of the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. Together with Additional Views and Dissenting Minority Views. House of Representatives, 102d Congress, 2nd Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    Based on hearings, current research, and interviews with experts, including researchers, medical and service providers, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educators, this Select Committee report assesses the impact of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic on youth and identifies strategies policymakers and program planners…

  13. Nonhospital Care for AIDS Victims. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (March 5, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document presents the text of the Congressional hearing called to discuss the provision of health care services to people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) outside of hospitals, including home health care, hospice care, nursing home care, personal care and counseling, and other support services for patients and their families.…

  14. The Federal Response to the AIDS Epidemic: Information and Public Education. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    The text of the seventh Congressional hearing on the federal response to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, focusing on federal efforts to devise and implement a massive public education campaign, is presented in this document. A statement by Representative Ted Weiss providing a brief overview of the problem opens the…

  15. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Duesberg, Peter; Koehnlein, Claus; Rasnick, David

    2003-06-01

    In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981-1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7-9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1.4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by malnutrition

  16. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  17. Integrating Social Marketing Into Fijian HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs: Lessons From Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sewak, Aarti; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-01-01

    Social marketing techniques have been tested and proven useful within the health sector worldwide. In Fiji, social marketing was introduced in the early 1990s, and more rapidly during the last decade to improve national response to an increasing incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Given the limited amount of research in the area of program evaluation in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), this study systematically analyzes five Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs through Andreasen's benchmark criteria, in order to identify gaps in program design that ultimately impact program effectiveness. Assessment results unveil some interesting trends regarding the focus and applications of past Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs in the past decade. This article discusses these findings and other valuable lessons for future HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Fiji and elsewhere.

  18. Limited usefulness of lymphocytopenia in screening for AIDS in hospital patients.

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Constance, P; Nitz, R

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytopenia is often present in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and has been suggested as a useful screening test for AIDS. Of 625 patients consecutively admitted to an acute care university teaching hospital 91 (15%) were found to have a lymphocyte count of less than 1 X 10(9)/L, and 25 (4%) had a count of less than 0.5 X 10(9)/L. The corresponding figures for 32 patients at the hospital in whom AIDS had been diagnosed were 13 (41%) and 4 (13%). Absolute lymphocyte counts in hospitalized patients should not be used as the sole means of identifying patients at high risk for AIDS. PMID:4016638

  19. Connecting the disconnected: adult day care for people with AIDS in New York City.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Y; Knickman, J R; Oppenheimer, L M

    1992-11-01

    Despite pressing need, the development of a continuum of long-term-care services for people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been hampered by the dearth of information on the characteristics and service needs of patients eligible for such care. This article presents findings from a process evaluation of an outpatient day care program for people with AIDS in New York City. The AIDS clients were highly functional but had a diverse range of needs and problems related to housing, substance abuse, medical care, and social support. The majority of clients reported being very satisfied with the level of staff support and with the overall program. The findings of the study suggest that day care is a valuable addition to the continuum of services and that the creative dissemination of this program may improve the delivery of services to people with AIDS.

  20. Sera from patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome inhibit production of interleukin-2 by normal lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, J P; Djeu, J Y; Stocks, N I; Masur, H; Gelmann, E P; Quinnan, G V

    1985-01-01

    We studied the effects of sera from patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on interleukin-2 (IL-2) production to help elucidate the mechanism of immunodeficiency. Compared with sera from healthy controls, sera from AIDS patients suppressed phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced IL-2 production by normal blood mononuclear cells. Sera from homosexual contacts of AIDS patients and from adults with acute cytomegalovirus infection generally lacked this suppressive activity. The effect of the AIDS sera could not be attributed to absence of a stimulatory or nutritive factor, to inactivation of IL-2, to inhibition of the IL-2 assay, nor to increased turnover of IL-2. The suppressive effect of the sera was not mediated by radiosensitive or T8 antigen-bearing suppressor cells or by increased prostaglandin production or decreased interleukin-1 production. The sera acted directly on the groups of cells that produce IL-2, T cells and large granular lymphocytes; suppression occurred at an early, probably pretranslational, stage. When cells were incubated with AIDS sera and then washed, the suppressive effect persisted. The sera did not cause direct or complement-mediated cytotoxic effects on normal mononuclear cells nor did they suppress PHA-induced interferon production, nor proliferation of T lymphoblasts or lymphocyte lines. The suppressive effect was not mediated by interferon, cortisol, immunoglobulin G or M, or immune complexes. The activity was stable at pH 3, pH 10, and 60 degrees C; inactivated at 100 degrees C; and not ether extractable. Because IL-2 plays a central role in the development of many immune responses, the serum factor(s) that inhibits IL-2 production could contribute significantly to the immunodeficiency of AIDS. PMID:2989337