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Sample records for aids care volunteers

  1. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers' care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients' experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58-71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers' valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation. PMID:20439347

  2. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers’ care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients’ experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58–71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers’ valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation. PMID:20439347

  3. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication. PMID:16849088

  4. Training Volunteers for an AIDS Buddy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanlatva, Ansa; And Others

    In 1986, the Baton Rouge Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Task Force began to implement an individual volunteer support program to provide support services through a companion, a buddy, whose functions would be either emotional support or assistance in daily activities, or both. In order to have trained volunteers, an education program…

  5. Prediction of grief and HIV/AIDS-related burnout in volunteers.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, W H; Ross, M W; Sunderland, R H; Shelp, E

    1996-04-01

    Burnout in volunteer workers in the HIV/AIDS area results in the loss of dedicated personnel, consequently straining the HIV/AIDS care delivery system. By assessing the predictors of burnout and grief this study describes the role of grief in HIV/AIDS volunteer burnout. Voluntary and anonymous questionnaires were sent to members of the Foundation for Interfaith Research and Ministry (FIRM), a multi-religious organization formed to provide volunteer work in HIV/AIDS care facilities around Houston, Texas. In 174 valid responses, grief was measured against work characteristics, burnout, rewards, stressors, and the general health questionnaire (GHQ). No significant relationship was found between grief and burnout; however, burnout in volunteers may be different from that in health care professionals for the following reasons: (1) volunteers choose to work in the HIV/AIDS area; (2) they have control over the time they spend volunteering; (3) volunteers are internally motivated to work in the HIV/AIDS area; and (4) if the volunteers do not enjoy the work, they can terminate their involvement with minimal cost. The best univariate predictors of grief are time spent as a volunteer and volunteer hours per week, where those who spend the most hours volunteering experience less grief The Reward/Stress measures most significantly associated with grief include empathy/self-knowing reward, emotional support reward, and emotional overload stress. The strongest predictors of grief in the regression analysis, which account for 21% of the variance, were time as a volunteer, emotional support, emotional overload, GHQ-somatic symptoms, and GHQ social dysfunction. The data suggest that in order to reduce grief special attention should be paid te allowing volunteers freely to express problems with emotional overload and workload adjustments, and providing clear emotional support as a reward. PMID:8861413

  6. The social construction of identity in HIV/AIDS home-based care volunteers in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Thirusha; Sliep, Yvonne; Dageid, Wenche

    2012-01-01

    Home-based care volunteer (HBCV) identity and how it is shaped was the main focus of the study. Fifteen HBCVs were interviewed about their work and personal life stories and then interviewed reflectively using a narrative interviewing style. Specific attention was paid to contextual meta-narratives and social field narratives in understanding the women's stories. Findings indicate that social field narratives of the women's stories were dominated by negative aspects of gender, poverty and socio-political factors. These were seen to coincide with the 'feminisation of responsibility' in this context effectively coercing the women into agency which manifested as their home-based care work. Meta-narratives influencing the women's lives were dominated by stories of communal motherhood, aspirations to service-oriented work and religious beliefs and commitment. The question of how it is possible for women who are seemingly constrained by oppressive narratives to voluntarily engage in community participation was answered in the women's personal life stories about being compassionate, hopeful, helpful and ambitious and having initiative. These characteristics collectively pointed to personal agency. Exploring connections between the different aspects of identity and context revealed that the women made sense of their community participation through their personal identities as strong and loving mothers. Connections between volunteer personal identity, agency and volunteer group identity were explored to make sense of the link between HBCV identity and volunteerism. The mother identity, encompassing personal agency (strength or power) and love (the meta-narrative of communal motherly love), was salient in influencing community participation of the group. PMID:23237046

  7. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  8. Volunteerism or Labor Exploitation? Harnessing the Volunteer Spirit to Sustain AIDS Treatment Programs in Urban Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper describes NGO efforts to encourage AIDS care volunteers to eschew material returns for their labor and instead reflect on the goodness of sacrificing to promote the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consensus analysis of motivational survey data collected from a sample of AIDS care volunteers (n=110) suggests that they strongly share a sacrificial and prosocial motivational model. These results may be explained by several factors, including the efforts of the organizations to shape volunteers’ motivations, the self-selection of volunteers, positive reinforcement in seeing one’s patients become healthy, and social desirability bias. In-depth interviews examining the motivations and behaviors of volunteers reveal a more complicated picture: even ostensibly devoted and altruistic volunteers strongly question their service commitments. The complexity and ambivalence of volunteers’ motivations reflect the profound uncertainty that they face in achieving improved socioeconomic status for themselves and their families amid widespread unemployment and sharply rising food prices. Their desires for economic opportunities explain why local NGOs exert so much effort to shape and sustain—and yet fail to completely control—their motivations. This recasts economically-insecure volunteers’ consent to donate their labor as a process of negotiation with their organizers. Future research should explore how models of health care volunteerism and volunteer motivations are shaped by individual and collective experiences in political-economic context. PMID:24077802

  9. The impact of volunteering in hospice palliative care.

    PubMed

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Claxton-Oldfield, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of hospice palliative care work on volunteers' lives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 direct-patient care volunteers. More than half of the volunteers became involved in hospice palliative care because of their own experiences with family members and/or friends who have died. Most of the volunteers reported that they were different now or had changed in some way since they have been volunteering (e.g., they had grown in some way, have learned how to keep things in perspective). In addition, most of the volunteers felt that their outlook on life had changed since they started volunteering (e.g., they were more accepting of death, and they learned the importance of living one day at a time). Volunteers reported doing a number of different things to prevent compassion fatigue or burnout (e.g., reading a book, listening to music, talking to others, and taking time off from volunteering). Most of the volunteers said that they would tell anyone who might be thinking of volunteering in hospice palliative care that it is a very rewarding activity and/or that they should try it. Finally, many of the volunteers offered suggestions for doing things differently in their programs. PMID:17895491

  10. Grassroots volunteers in context: rewarding and adverse experiences of local women working on HIV and AIDS in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Corbin, J Hope; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Lie, Gro T

    2016-09-01

    Many nongovernmental organizations in Africa rely on grassroots volunteers to provide critical health services. Considering context and the interplay of individual, organizational, and societal influences on the experience of volunteers, this paper addresses three questions: What do grassroots volunteers contribute? What organizational processes promote volunteer engagement? What are the positive and negative consequences of volunteering? Eighteen members and staff of the Tanzanian HIV and AIDS NGO, KIWAKKUKI, were selected from 6000+ women volunteers to be interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for themes. Within KIWAKKUKI, volunteers contributed time and local knowledge, leading to an indigenous educational approach building on local norms and customs. Volunteers' engagement was motivated by the desire to support family members, reverse stigma, and work/socialize with other women. Benefits to volunteers included skills acquisition and community recognition; yet some volunteers also reported negative experiences including burnout, conferred stigma, and domestic violence. Positive organizational processes built on cultural practices such as collective decision-making and singing. The findings point to important considerations about context, including the synergistic effect training can have on local traditions of caring, complications of gender inequity, and how community health planning processes may need to be modified in extremely poor settings. This research also suggests good utility of the research framework (the Bergen Model of Collaborative Functioning) that was used to analyze volunteer engagement for service delivery in sub-Saharan contexts. PMID:25802302

  11. Perceptions of rewards among volunteer caregivers of people living with AIDS working in faith-based organizations in South Africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Volunteer caregivers are a critical source of support for the majority of people living with HIV and AIDS in southern Africa, which has extremely high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates. While studies have shown that volunteer caregiving is associated with negative health and socio-economic outcomes, little is known about the positive experiences of volunteers in the home-based care context in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of rewards among volunteers working in home-based care settings. Methods This study uses a qualitative design. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 55 volunteer caregivers using an interview schedule containing open-ended questions. Results Volunteer caregivers derived intrinsic rewards related to self-growth and personal (emotional and psychological) development on the job; they also derived satisfaction from community members taking a liking for them and expressing a need for their services. Volunteers felt gratified by the improvements in their health behaviours, which were a direct consequence of the experiences of caring for terminally ill patients with AIDS. Extrinsic rewards came from appreciation and recognition shown by patients and community members. Extrinsic rewards also accrued to volunteers when the services they rendered made their patients happy. Perhaps the greatest sources of extrinsic rewards are skills and competencies acquired from training and experience while caring for their patients, and volunteers' ability to make a difference in the community. Conclusions Insights into volunteer caregiver rewards provide opportunities for policy makers and programme managers to develop a model of home-based care that facilitates the accrual of rewards to volunteers alongside volunteers' traditional duties of patient care. Programme managers could employ these insights in recruiting and assisting volunteers to identify and reflect on rewards in the caregiving

  12. Volunteering in dementia care – a Norwegian phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Landmark, Bjørg; Aasgaard, Live; Eide, Hilde; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The number of people suffering from dementia will increase dramatically in the future, and this will be a great challenge and concern for health care services. It is assumed that volunteers will strengthen community health care services more in the future than they do today. Aim The aim of this study was to elucidate lived experiences of working as a volunteer in an activity center with adapted activities for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia. Methods Qualitative interviews were implemented in a group of nine female volunteers from an activity center in southern Norway. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Results Volunteering in an activity center for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia was reported to provide experiences of being useful and feeling satisfied with performing a good job. It was an advantage for the volunteers to have had experiences from life in general, but also as a health professional or as being the next of kin of a dementia sufferer. It was important for the volunteers to focus on the dementia sufferer and show caring behavior, and interaction with and the appreciation of the health care professionals were also important. The volunteers were motivated by being able to have influence and participate in the planning of the work, to be a part of the social setting, and to learn. However, for some volunteers it was difficult to adjust to an appropriate role. Conclusion In order to promote volunteering in a caring context, mutual trust and freedom should be emphasized. Being conscious of important volunteer characteristics like their experiences, knowledge, and caring behavior, as well as a focus on the staff showing appreciation and providing feedback, may be the difference between success and failure. PMID:22396627

  13. Antecedents of Philanthropic Behavior of Health Care Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Siti Noormi; Ismail, Maimunah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose a conceptual model of philanthropic behavior of volunteers in the health care sector. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on an extensive review of past research on philanthropic behavior. To conduct the literature review, keywords such as philanthropy, philanthropic behavior, giving, donating,…

  14. Volunteering for Clinical Trials Can Help Improve Health Care for Everyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Volunteering for Clinical Trials Can Help Improve Health Care for Everyone Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of ... Research / Volunteering for Clinical Trials Can Help Improve Health Care for Everyone Fall 2010 Issue: Volume 5 Number ...

  15. Aids for Health and Home Extension Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This book contains various aids for Peace Corps home extension volunteers. Section I, "Culture Resource Material," contains four articles by Paul Benjamin: (1) "Values in American Culture"; (2) "The Cultural Context of Health Education"; (3) "Problems of Introducing Public Health Programs in 'Underdeveloped Areas'"; and (4) "The Role of Beliefs…

  16. Global walks teach teens to fight HIV/AIDS epidemic. Organization supported entirely by volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chittick, John

    2002-09-01

    AIDS Alert asked John Chittick, EdD, executive director of TeenAIDS-PeerCorps Inc., a nonprofit organization in Boston, to discuss the global walks he founded and an abstract he presented at the 14th International AIDS Conference in Barcelona, Spain. According to the abstract, global walks began in 1999 with Chittick spreading the word by foot about HIV/AIDS in 40 countries to teen volunteers, who, in turn, were expected to educate their peers about HIV prevention. Within two years, the global walk had reached 75,000 youth, who taught HIV prevention through such techniques as Stop Action Theater, street outreach 'AIDS Attacks,' and 'AIDS Comics,' which were drawn by teens. Also, there is a Teen Advice Column available in multiple languages on the Internet. PMID:12236197

  17. The entrepreneurial spirit and home care aides.

    PubMed

    Richman, F

    1998-04-01

    Emphasis in the home care industry is being placed on the development of private services in home care. Traditional management characteristics are necessary for this, but so are entrepreneurial ways of thinking--and those may come from all levels of an organization, even and especially home care aides. PMID:10179944

  18. KSC volunteers help paint Baxley Manor as part of Days of Caring '99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC volunteers with Days of Caring '99 share tasks while getting ready to paint at Baxley Manor, an apartment building for senior citizens on Merritt Island. Coordinated by the KSC Community Relations Council, Days of Caring provides an opportunity for employees to volunteer their services in projects such as painting, planting flowers, reading to school children, and more. Organizations accepting volunteers include The Embers, Yellow Umbrella, Serene Harbor, Domestic Violence Program, the YMCA of Brevard County, and others.

  19. KSC volunteers help paint Baxley Manor as part of Days of Caring '99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Volunteers for Days of Caring '99 set up the paint trays for painting at Baxley Manor, an apartment building for senior citizens on Merritt Island. Coordinated by the KSC Community Relations Council, Days of Caring provides an opportunity for employees to volunteer their services in projects such as painting, planting flowers, reading to school children, and more. Organizations accepting volunteers include The Embers, Yellow Umbrella, Serene Harbor, Domestic Violence Program, the YMCA of Brevard County, and others.

  20. KSC volunteers help paint Baxley Manor as part of Days of Caring '99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A volunteer for Days of Caring '99 prepares a light fixture before painting the walls in the hallway at Baxley Manor, an apartment building for senior citizens on Merritt Island. Coordinated by the KSC Community Relations Council, Days of Caring provides an opportunity for employees to volunteer their services in projects such as painting, planting flowers, reading to school children, and more. Organizations accepting volunteers include The Embers, Yellow Umbrella, Serene Harbor, Domestic Violence Program, the YMCA of Brevard County, and others.

  1. KSC volunteers help paint Baxley Manor as part of Days of Caring '99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC volunteers for Days of Caring '99 unfold protective materials before getting ready to paint at Baxley Manor, an apartment building for senior citizens on Merritt Island. Coordinated by the KSC Community Relations Council, Days of Caring provides an opportunity for employees to volunteer their services in projects such as painting, planting flowers, reading to school children, and more. Organizations accepting volunteers include The Embers, Yellow Umbrella, Serene Harbor, Domestic Violence Program, the YMCA of Brevard County, and others.

  2. KSC volunteers help Meals on Wheels as part of Days of Caring '99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC volunteers at Miracle City Mall, Titusville, help unload containers for Meals on Wheels delivery as part of their '99 Days of Caring participation. The volunteers will also help deliver the meals. Coordinated by the KSC Community Relations Council, Days of Caring provides an opportunity for employees to volunteer their services in projects such as painting, planting flowers, reading to school children, and more. Organizations accepting volunteers include The Embers, Yellow Umbrella, Serene Harbor, Domestic Violence Program, the YMCA of Brevard County, and others.

  3. Eldercare Volunteer Corps Demonstration, A "Project Care" Initiative. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. for Social Services, Frankfort.

    The goal for this project was to recognize the volunteers at the beginning of the project and to focus on a program to increase the utilization of volunteers in essential service delivery to at-risk persons in the Big Sandy region of eastern Kentucky. A diverse committee made up of business, education, civil leaders, service providers, and…

  4. The boundaries of care work: a comparative study of professionals and volunteers in Denmark and Australia.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the manner in which two hospices--one located in Denmark and one in Australia--negotiate and determine the boundaries of volunteer workers vis-à-vis paid staff. A comparative case study approach was used to juxtapose organisations with similar activity fields located in different welfare state systems, i.e. a social democratic welfare state and a liberal welfare state. This study involved non-participant observation of volunteers at work and unstructured interviews with volunteers, staff and management in the hospices (n = 41). Data were collected between August 2012 and February 2013. Data were managed using NVivo and analysed thematically. A key finding is that volunteers in the Danish hospice were excluded from all direct care work due to the effective monopoly of the professional care providers, whereas the Australian volunteers participated in the provision of care to the extent that risk could be eliminated or mitigated to an acceptable level. The findings suggest two different models of the roles of volunteers in tension with professional care providers. Both models recognise that volunteers add to the level of care delivered by the organisations and allow for a discussion that moves away from the normative discussions of 'not taking somebody's job', while also recognising that volunteers must be more than just the 'nice extra' if they are to be of any real value to the organisation and to care receivers. PMID:25442013

  5. NIH Research: Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. NIH Research: Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge Past ... NIH Clinical Center. Photo: NIH Clinical Center Children research volunteers receive care and help advance knowledge I ...

  6. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  7. Taking Care of Young Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federlein, Anne Cairns

    This booklet provides an overview of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and guidelines for child care administrators and caregivers. It is argued that reason must overcome fear about the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in early childhood centers. Discussion addresses such questions as: (1) Can child caregivers get AIDS…

  8. Volunteer Training Manual. Bureau of Home Health and Long Term Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia.

    This manual is intended to help human services agencies to create home care volunteer programs. The manual is organized in nine sections. The first section provides initial information about volunteer programs that agencies should consider before starting a program. It is followed by two sections that provide an overview of the program's structure…

  9. 38 CFR 17.196 - Aid for hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quarters of nursing home care patients or domiciliary members, and meet such other minimum standards as the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aid for hospital care. 17... to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.196 Aid for hospital care. Aid may be paid to...

  10. 38 CFR 17.196 - Aid for hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quarters of nursing home care patients or domiciliary members, and meet such other minimum standards as the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aid for hospital care. 17... to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.196 Aid for hospital care. Aid may be paid to...

  11. 38 CFR 17.196 - Aid for hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quarters of nursing home care patients or domiciliary members, and meet such other minimum standards as the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aid for hospital care. 17... to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.196 Aid for hospital care. Aid may be paid to...

  12. 38 CFR 17.196 - Aid for hospital care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aid for hospital care. 17... to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.196 Aid for hospital care. Aid may be paid to the designated State official for hospital care furnished in a recognized State home for any veteran if: (a)...

  13. Motivation of Volunteers to Work in Palliative Care Setting: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Muckaden, MA; Pandya, Sachi Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Volunteers are an integral part of the palliative care services in the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. These volunteers are an important resource for the department. Thus, it is necessary for the department to determine what motivates these volunteers to continue to work in the setting, acknowledge them and direct efforts toward retaining them and giving them opportunities to serve to the best of their desire and abilities. Aims: The current study aimed at understanding the motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care, to identify the challenges they face and also the effect of their work on their self and relationships. Methodology: In-depth interviews were conducted using semistructured interview guide to study above mentioned aspects. Themes were identified and coding was used to analyze the data. Results: The results suggested that the basic motivation for all the volunteers to work in a palliative care setting is an inherent urge, a feeling of need to give back to the society by serving the sick and the suffering. Other motivating factors identified were team spirit, comfort shared, warm and respectful treatment by the team, satisfying nature of work, experience of cancer in the family, and aligned values and beliefs. Some intrinsic rewards mentioned by volunteers were joy of giving, personal growth, enriching experiences, and meaningful nature of work. Conclusion: The study attempted to improve opportunities of working for these volunteers. Although limited in scope, it offers insight for future research in the area of volunteerism in palliative care setup. PMID:27559267

  14. Expanding Continuous Quality Improvement Capacity in the Medical Intensive Care Unit: Prehealth Volunteers as a Solution.

    PubMed

    Priest, Kelsey C; Lobingier, Hannah; McCully, Nancy; Lombard, Jackie; Hansen, Mark; Uchiyama, Makoto; Hagg, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    Health care delivery systems are challenged to support the increasing demands for improving patient safety, satisfaction, and outcomes. Limited resources and staffing are common barriers for making significant and sustained improvements. At Oregon Health & Science University, the medical intensive care unit (MICU) leadership team faced internal capacity limitations for conducting continuous quality improvement, specifically for the implementation and evaluation of the mobility portion of an evidence-based care bundle. The MICU team successfully addressed this capacity challenge using the person power of prehealth volunteers. In the first year of the project, 52 trained volunteers executed an evidence-based mobility intervention for 305 critically ill patients, conducting more than 200 000 exercise repetitions. The volunteers contributed to real-time evaluation of the project, with the collection of approximately 26 950 process measure data points. Prehealth volunteers are an untapped resource for effectively expanding internal continuous quality improvement capacity in the MICU and beyond. PMID:27031356

  15. Are informal caregivers important in AIDS care?

    PubMed

    Decarlo, P; Folkman, S

    1997-01-01

    Informal caregivers of people with AIDS provide practical help and nursing care at home. They are often the lovers, spouses, friends, or family of someone with AIDS and are not professional care providers. They provide essential care, saving society considerable expense. Caregivers provide practical support such as shopping, housekeeping, and transportation to clinics, as well as basic assistance such as help with bathing, going to the bathroom, and feeding. As symptoms worsen, caregivers are also likely to adopt the more clinical roles of keeping track of medications, giving injections, inserting catheters, and cleaning wounds. Caregivers also often assess medical and mental conditions, being the first to notice changes in health and to decide when to seek help. Caregivers, however, can suffer considerable care-related stress, leading to numbness, compassion fatigue, or burnout. Caregivers may also fear social rejection, loss of job and/or housing and may therefore hide their caregiving status from family, friends, and co-workers. For women with HIV, being responsible for children at home may make it difficult or impossible to obtain caregiving support for themselves. Helping caregivers benefits both the caregiver and the patient. Professional clinicians can include the caregiver in the triad of care comprised of the doctor, caregiver, and patient. Participating in support groups can also help caregivers. PMID:12293155

  16. HIV/AIDS managed care program.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G

    2000-01-01

    Approximately one-half of all patients with HIV infection who are under care have Medicaid as the third party payor. Unlike Medicare, Medicaid is a state-specific program that has huge variations in reimbursement strategies. Multiple studies have shown that care for persons with AIDS is about $20,000/year, but reimbursement through various state Medicaid programs varies about $100/m/m to $2800/m/m despite the fact that expectations for care are identical. Hopkins has a major commitment to persons with HIV infection with a program that now includes 30 faculty members and a support staff of 170. With the introduction of mandatory managed care for Medicaid recipients in July, 1997, we were confronted with the issue of substantial downsizing with abandonment of over half of our patients, or learning the transition to managed care. This has been a steep learning curve involving negotiations with the state Medicaid office, reorganization of our clinic, careful scrutiny of our database regarding resource utilization and cost, education of providers, and longitudinal collection of new information and integration of the rapid changes in the field. In the process of this transition, we learned that there are precious few resources to provide guidance and that there is a perceived need for assistance by HIV providers throughout the country. Consequently, we have now established the "HIV Managed Care Network" with substantial funding from diverse sources to support education, data collection, and public policy review. It is premature to evaluate performance since most of these activities have just begun, but we expect that this Network will serve as a demonstration model for methods to deal with chronic diseases under managed care. PMID:10881336

  17. AIDS care: why and how should industry respond?

    PubMed

    Smart, R

    2000-01-01

    This article reports the AIDS care response of industries to the rising AIDS epidemic in South Africa. It has been reported that during 1993-99 the rate of hospital bed occupancy doubled to over 8/1000 and that 50% of ill-health retirements in 1998 were due to AIDS. Important issues to be considered by industries are the medical separation due to ill health, poor health care services. The focus of HIV/AIDS care should be on the patient, family, care giver, community, and health services, and must be based on the principles of decentralization and integration of sustainable and cost-effective HIV/AIDS services. The development of a care package must be based on six dimensions; namely, appropriateness, acceptability, accessibility, effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. On the other hand, identification of indicators in relation to the components of the care package must include support groups and networks of people living with HIV; the provision of home-based care; responsiveness of the health system; the existence and application of clinical guidelines; and the effectiveness of referrals. Any organization with a commitment in providing care should establish a Care Task Team to develop a care strategy. It should focus on who can have access to the care, what the care consists of, and who will cover the cost. In addition, a review of the existing HIV/AIDS services must be done to identify shortfalls and highlight priority gaps. PMID:12322484

  18. Health care voluntourism: addressing ethical concerns of undergraduate student participation in global health volunteer work.

    PubMed

    McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data. PMID:25079381

  19. APPALACHIAN VOLUNTEERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    COLLEGE STUDENT VOLUNTEERS WORKING IN THE ISOLATED AREAS OF EASTERN KENTUCKY HAVE INSTITUTED A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO AID IN THE WAR ON POVERTY. THE APPALACHIAN VOLUNTEERS WERE INITIALLY SUPPORTED BY A GRANT FROM THE AREA REDEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS, FROM PRIVATE CORPORATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS, OF MONEY AND MATERIALS. GROUNDWORK…

  20. Volunteers supporting older people in formal care settings in England: personal and local factors influencing prevalence and type of participation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill

    2014-12-01

    In the UK context of financial austerity and the promotion of the social responsibility through the concept of the "Big Society," volunteers are becoming a more important part of the labor workforce. This is particularly so in the long-term care (LTC) sector, where both shortages of staff and demands for support are particularly high. This article investigate the levels and profile of contribution of volunteers in the LTC sector using a large national data set, National Minimum Data Set for Social Care, linked to local area levels of rurality and socio-economic status. The analysis shows that volunteer activity in formal care services varies between sectors and service types, with no strong relationship between local area deprivation, unemployment levels, and levels of volunteering. However, some significant association was found with level of rurality. The contribution of volunteers is most evident in provision of counseling, support, advocacy, and advice. PMID:25332302

  1. The Language of Caring: Nurse's Aides' Use of Family Metaphors Conveys Affective Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdes, Celia; Eckert, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Using a conceptual framework from the field of care work and the theory of boundary work, we explore the use of family metaphors by nurse's aides to describe their affective care for nursing home residents. We focus on how nurse's aides can express affective care in spite of experiencing racial abuse. Methods: Using the technique of…

  2. AIDS, Alcohol & Health Care. Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains 10 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TC) that deal with a variety of health-related subjects. Papers include: (1) "AIDS among IV Drug Users: Epidemiology, Natural History & TC Experiences" (Don C. Des Jarlais, et al.); (2) "AIDS and Therapeutic Communities: Policy Implications" (Don C. Des…

  3. AIDS in Rural Areas: Challenges to Providing Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, Kathleen A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined the development and provision of social services to persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and their families in rural areas and barriers to the delivery of care. Subjects (N=15) were persons who coordinated or provided services to AIDS victims. Found structural factors, confidentiality, fear of contagion, and homophobia…

  4. Understanding the role of the volunteer in specialist palliative care: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Volunteers make a major contribution to palliative patient care, and qualitative studies have been undertaken to explore their involvement. With the aim of making connections between existing studies to derive enhanced meanings, we undertook a systematic review of these qualitative studies including synthesising the findings. We sought to uncover how the role of volunteers with direct contact with patients in specialist palliative care is understood by volunteers, patients, their families, and staff. Methods We searched for relevant literature that explored the role of the volunteer including electronic citation databases and reference lists of included studies, and also undertook handsearches of selected journals to find studies which met inclusion criteria. We quality appraised included studies, and synthesised study findings using a novel synthesis method, thematic synthesis. Results We found 12 relevant studies undertaken in both inpatient and home-care settings, with volunteers, volunteer coordinators, patients and families. Studies explored the role of general volunteers as opposed to those offering any professional skills. Three theme clusters were found: the distinctness of the volunteer role, the characteristics of the role, and the volunteer experience of the role. The first answers the question, is there a separate volunteer role? We found that to some extent the role was distinctive. The volunteer may act as a mediator between the patient and the staff. However, we also found some contradictions. Volunteers may take on temporary surrogate family-type relationship roles. They may also take on some of the characteristics of a paid professional. The second cluster helps to describe the essence of the role. Here, we found that the dominant feature was that the role is social in nature. The third helps to explain aspects of the role from the point of view of volunteers themselves. It highlighted that the role is seen by volunteers as flexible

  5. Managing Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Beverly

    1991-01-01

    Discusses changing nature of volunteers in Peter Drucker's book "Managing the Nonprofit Corporation." Points out that most volunteers have full-time jobs, families, very little leisure; they are not willing to do such routine work as stuffing envelopes; they want carefully defined projects with beginning and end. Discusses real requirements for…

  6. A public aid clinic prototype: utilizing a dental hygiene educational facility to increase access to care.

    PubMed

    Maurizio, Sandra J; DeMattei, Ronda; Meyer, Jennifer; Cotner, Danna

    2003-01-01

    Few dentists in a rural Midwestern community participate in providing oral health care to public aid recipients. In response, faculty at a baccalaureate degree dental hygiene program located at Southern illinois University, Carbondale (SIUC) proposed, developed, and implemented the Heartland Dental Clinic to serve Medicaid participants. The unique program utilizes existing facilities, staff, and students to provide comprehensive oral health care to underserved populations. The state awarded a small grant to cover start-up costs. Two dental units were upgraded with fiber optics to allow restorative procedures. Dental hygiene students provide intake examinations and preventive care, while a staff dentist provides restorative care, dentures, and examinations. Dental technology students and faculty fabricate prostheses. A part-time clinic manager facilitates communication, patient scheduling, and billing. Two local Rotary Club members volunteer as receptionists for the clinic on the one evening per week that the clinic operates. The Rotary Club purchased educational pamphlets, a television/VCR, videotapes, and two signs for the clinic. By locating the clinic in the existing SIUC facility and utilizing dental hygiene students, a staff dentist, volunteer receptionists and dentists, student workers, and health care management interns, the clinic overhead costs have been kept to a minimum. The clinic provides a unique opportunity for dental hygiene students to experience firsthand scheduling, billing, and treating public aid patients while providing patients with an additional source for oral health care. The Heartland Dental Clinic model represents a cost effective method for increasing oral health access to underserved populations while also benefiting students in an educational program. PMID:14596165

  7. Kansas Adult Care Home Aide Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornelli, Linda K.; Bartel, Myrna J.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use by instructors whose responsibility it is to prepare persons to provide basic direct care for residents living in adult care homes. Addressed in the individual units of part I (which contains information to be covered in the first 40 hours of training) are the following topics: working in an adult care…

  8. The role of SVS volunteer vascular surgeons in the care of combat casualties: results from Landstuhl, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bush, Ruth L; Fairman, Ronald M; Flaherty, Stephen F; Gillespie, David L

    2009-01-01

    With a shortage of active duty vascular surgeons in the military, Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) members have been called upon to perform short-term rotations at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC), the US military's receiving facility for combat injuries sustained in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. From September 2007 to May 2008, 20 SVS vascular surgeons have performed 2-week rotations at LRMC through American Red Cross and US Army sponsorship. Volunteers were surveyed for previous military and/or trauma experience. In addition to reporting number and types of procedures performed, volunteers were queried on their experience and impression of the rotation. Several volunteers have had prior military experience and all have had vascular trauma experience through residency, fellowship, and current practices. With most definitive vascular repairs being done in theater, SVS members were most often called upon for clinical expertise in the care of combat casualties and evaluation of revascularization procedures. The volunteers contributed to daily rounds, patient care, and teaching conferences, as well as actively participated in surgical procedures with the most common being wound examinations under anesthesia for which intraoperative vascular consultation was occasionally requested (5-20 per volunteer). Additional procedures that volunteers performed included: inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement, thrombectomy, revision of lower and upper extremity interposition vein grafts, retroperitoneal spine exposures, diagnostic and therapeutic angiograms, iliac stenting, and duplex ultrasound scan interrogation of vascular repairs, suspected arterial injuries, and deep vein thrombosis. All volunteers described the experience as valuable and will return if needed. With a limited number of military vascular surgeons and the unpredictable need for a vascular specialist at LRMC, civilian volunteers are playing an important role in providing high-quality vascular

  9. Flexible kinship: caring for AIDS orphans in rural Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Block, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has devastated families in rural Lesotho, leaving many children orphaned. Families have adapted to the increase in the number of orphans and HIV-positive children in ways that provide children with the best possible care. Though local ideas about kinship and care are firmly rooted in patrilineal social organization, in practice, maternal caregivers, often grandmothers, are increasingly caring for orphaned children. Negotiations between affinal kin capitalize on flexible kinship practices in order to legitimate new patterns of care, which have shifted towards a model that often favours matrilocal practices of care in the context of idealized patrilineality. PMID:25866467

  10. Strategies for providing care and support to children orphaned by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Drew, R S; Makufa, C; Foster, G

    1998-04-01

    As a result of the severe HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan countries such as Zimbabwe, where between 25-30% of the adult population are estimated to be infected, there are a growing number of orphans requiring care and support. Traditionally, orphans have been absorbed within the extended family but this is becoming more difficult because of the large number of young adults dying. The burden of care and support is falling on the very young and the very old. A number of strategies have been introduced to provide this care and support. Institutions, though popular, are very expensive to run, have limited capacity and only really cater for physical needs. Interventions which simply react to those who present to them may not reach the most needy and may encourage dependency. Community-based orphan care has been identified as the best and most cost-effective way of caring for orphans. An example of a community-based orphan visiting programme is presented. In the last six months of 1996, the FOCUS programme's 88 volunteers made a total of 9,634 visits to 3,192 orphans in 798 families at an average cost of US+1.55 per visit. The key elements of such programmes have been identified. They need to be implemented by a community-based organization (CBO) within a defined community. Volunteers should be selected from within the community. They need to be trained and supported as they enumerate orphans, identify the most needy and carry out regular visits. The volunteers should keep records of all their activities. These records can then be used as a basis for monitoring the programme. In order to cope with the increasing number of orphans in resource-poor settings like Zimbabwe, it is essential that such programmes be replicated and scaled up. This not only an economic necessity but is also a way of providing appropriate and effective services to those who need them. PMID:9625890

  11. Vietnam: integrating palliative care into HIV/AIDS and cancer care.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, Eric L; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Minh; Green, Kimberly; Van Kham, Le; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2007-05-01

    Vietnam is struggling to meet the growing need for both disease-modifying and palliative care for people with life-threatening chronic diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer. Recently, Vietnam initiated rapid development of a national palliative care program for HIV/AIDS and cancer patients that builds on existing palliative care programs and experience and integrates palliative care into standard HIV/AIDS and cancer care. National palliative care guidelines have been issued by the Ministry of Health based on a rapid situation analysis. Plans now call for review and revision of opioid laws and regulations to increase availability of opioids for medical use, training in palliative care for clinicians throughout the country, and development of palliative care programs both in the community and in inpatient referral centers. PMID:17482051

  12. Willingness to care for patients with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, Maritta; Makkonen, Pekka; Blek-Vehkaluoto, Mari; Mockiene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Raid, Ulla; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Suominen, Tarja

    2008-09-01

    This study aims to describe and compare nurses' willingness to provide care for patients with HIV/AIDS and factors associated with this in three countries. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted among nurses working in medical, surgical and gynaecology units in Finland (n =427), Estonia (n =221) and Lithuania ( n =185) in early 2006. The response rates were 75% (n = 322) in Finland, 54% (n =119) in Estonia and 86% (n = 160) in Lithuania. A modified version of a scale developed in 1994 by Dubbert et al. was applied. Our findings showed a general willingness of the nurse participants to provide care for patients with HIV/AIDS. However, this willingness varied both among and within countries and was also related to specific nursing interventions. The results underline the importance of providing education on ethical issues related to HIV/AIDS care in Europe and tailoring the content of this education to meet nurses' national educational needs. PMID:18687814

  13. Psychosocial Issues in Rural AIDS Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Heather; Civic, Diane

    1989-01-01

    Examines issues in care provision by social workers to individuals affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in rural communities during each stage of HIV infection. Describes psychosocial features, client fears, and appropriate social worker responses. Considers caregivers' personal issues, including fear of contagion and exposure to…

  14. Volunteering for College? Potential Implications of Financial Aid Tax Credits Rewarding Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.

    2014-01-01

    President Obama has proposed a financial aid policy whereby students who complete 100 hours of community service would receive a tax credit of US$4,000 for college. After lawmakers cut this proposal from previous legislation, the administration was tasked with studying the feasibility of implementation. However, the implications of the policy for…

  15. At-home options. Enhancing care for AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Sibley, M R

    1993-05-01

    Mark is a 45-year-old man with advanced AIDS. His care partner, Gary, has a full-time job in the design industry. A home care aide visits Mark five days a week for 10 hours at a time to provide personal care while Gary is at work. A visiting nurse sees Mark weekly and has taught Gary how to prepare Mark's ganciclovir infusion. Every six weeks Mark meets with a nutritionist, who evaluates his dietary status and advises Gary on purchasing high-calorie foods for Mark. In May Gary must attend a conference out of town and he is worried:who will care for Mark for those three days? Gary calls the At Home Options (AHOP) nurse and explains the situation. She arranges for nighttime nursing coverage for those three days, and ensures that Mark's home care aide can stay for the weekend. Gary is able to attend his conference and concentrate on his work, secure in the knowledge that Mark will be well cared for and that scheduled respite care, although not a benefit with traditional insurance, is covered through the AHOP program. PMID:10125243

  16. Food insecurity among volunteer AIDS caregivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was highly prevalent but buffered from the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Tesfaye, Yihenew Alemu

    2009-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the validity and dependability of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), which was developed for international use, among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The HFIAS was translated into Amharic and subsequently tested for content and face validity. This was followed by a quantitative validation study based on a representative sample (n = 99) of female community volunteers (HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers), with whom the HFIAS was administered at 3 time points over the course of 2008, in the context of the local and global "food crisis." By pooling observations across data collection rounds and accounting for intra-individual correlation in repeated measures, we found that the HFIAS performed well according to standards in the field. We also observed slight amelioration in reported food insecurity (FI) status over time, which seems paradoxical given the increasing inaccessibility of food over the same time period due to inflating prices and disappearing food aid. We attempted to resolve this paradox by appealing to self-report-related phenomena that arise in the context of longitudinal study designs: 1) observation bias, in which respondents change their reports according to changing expectations of the observer-respondent relationship or change their behavior in ways that ameliorate FI after baseline self-reports; and 2) "response shift," in which respondents change their reports according to reassessment of internal standards of FI. Our results are important for the validation of FI tools and for the sustainability of community health programs reliant on volunteerism in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19640968

  17. Confronting AIDS. Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Medicine (NAS), Washington, DC.

    This book is addressed to anyone involved with or affected by the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, including legislators, researchers, health care personnel, insurance providers, educators, health officials, executives in the pharmaceutical industry, blood bank administrators, and other concerned individuals. The following…

  18. Validation of G6PD Point-of-Care Tests among Healthy Volunteers in Yangon, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Maw, Lwin Zar; Chowwiwat, Nongnud; Bansil, Pooja; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Htun, Moh Moh; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Htut, Ye; Nosten, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Primaquine and other 8-amnoquinoline based anti-malarials can cause haemolysis in subjects with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Correct diagnosis of G6PD status in patients is crucial for safe treatment of both relapsing stages of Plasmodium vivax and transmitting forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Lack of suitable point-of-care tests has hampered a much needed wide use of primaquine for malaria elimination. In this study we have assessed the performances of two qualitative tests, the fluorescent spot test (FST) and the G6PD CareStart test (CST), against the gold standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay in a population of 1000 random adult healthy volunteers living in Yangon, Myanmar. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the Bamar, Karen and in the whole sample set was 6.6% (10.1% in males), 9.2% (21.0% in males) and 6.8% (11.1% in males) respectively. The FST and CST showed comparable performances with sensitivity over 95% and specificity over 90%, however for cases with severe G6PD activity the FTS had improved performance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the CareStart test has the potential to be used in the field and, by allowing a wider use of primaquine, to help malaria elimination. PMID:27035821

  19. Validation of G6PD Point-of-Care Tests among Healthy Volunteers in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Oo, Nwe Nwe; Bancone, Germana; Maw, Lwin Zar; Chowwiwat, Nongnud; Bansil, Pooja; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Htun, Moh Moh; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Htut, Ye; Nosten, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Primaquine and other 8-amnoquinoline based anti-malarials can cause haemolysis in subjects with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Correct diagnosis of G6PD status in patients is crucial for safe treatment of both relapsing stages of Plasmodium vivax and transmitting forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Lack of suitable point-of-care tests has hampered a much needed wide use of primaquine for malaria elimination. In this study we have assessed the performances of two qualitative tests, the fluorescent spot test (FST) and the G6PD CareStart test (CST), against the gold standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay in a population of 1000 random adult healthy volunteers living in Yangon, Myanmar. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the Bamar, Karen and in the whole sample set was 6.6% (10.1% in males), 9.2% (21.0% in males) and 6.8% (11.1% in males) respectively. The FST and CST showed comparable performances with sensitivity over 95% and specificity over 90%, however for cases with severe G6PD activity the FTS had improved performance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the CareStart test has the potential to be used in the field and, by allowing a wider use of primaquine, to help malaria elimination. PMID:27035821

  20. Burnout and connectedness in the job demands-resources model: studying palliative care volunteers and their families.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Jasmine-Yan; Winefield, Anthony H; Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Metzer, Jacques C

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the role of burnout and connectedness in the job demands-resources (JD-R) model among palliative care volunteers. It was hypothesized that (a) exhaustion mediates the relationship between demands and depression, and between demands and retention; (b) cynicism mediates the relationship between resources and retention; and (c) connectedness mediates the relationship between resources and retention. Hypotheses were tested in 2 separate analyses: structural equation modeling (SEM) and path analyses. The first was based on volunteer self-reports (N = 204), while the second analysis concerned matched data from volunteers and their family members (N = 99). While strong support was found for cynicism and connectedness as mediators in both types of analyses, this was not altogether the case for exhaustion. Implications of these findings for the JD-R model and volunteer organizations are discussed. PMID:22207713

  1. Home-based care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Plateau State, Nigeria: findings from qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Agbonyitor, M

    2009-01-01

    As health-care services in Nigeria and other African countries are becoming overstrained with patients, home-based care has increasingly been touted as a possible solution. The faith-based organisation, Gospel Health and Development Services, provides a home-based care programme for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) residing in Plateau State, Nigeria. This paper assesses the challenges that PLWHA in the programme faced while maintaining their health and livelihoods. The frustrations that volunteers endured in performing their work are also described, as well as the benefits and weaknesses of the programme from the perspective of PLWHA and their volunteer caregivers. Focus groups and interviews were done with 30 PLWHA and 22 volunteers to learn about their experiences with the home-based care programme and possible areas for its improvement. From these discussions three major challenges facing PLWHA emerged: discrimination towards PLWHA; the lack of money, food, and transport to health-care centres; and the desire for closer antiretroviral drug access. PMID:19437217

  2. Recruiting qualified home care aides: new candidate pools.

    PubMed

    Wilner, M A

    1999-04-01

    With the demographic surge of baby boomers and the number of women aged 25-45 projected to decline, the coming decades will see a shortage of workers to care for the elderly. Home care aide agencies will only be able to retain their competitive edge if they widen the pool of candidates from which they recruit and create an attractive and decent job. Creating a decent job with adequate pay, benefits, and support is a business strategy that will attract a wider range of workers, including those with minimal experience, and have positive ramifications for health care in the future--and now. PMID:10537510

  3. School Nutrition and Food Service Techniques for Children with Exceptional Needs: Guidelines for Food Service Personnel, Teachers, Aides, Volunteers, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Margaret L.; Troftgruben, Judith A.

    Designed to help school food service personnel, teachers, aides, and volunteers extend the benefits of the school meal program to handicapped children, this manual discusses eating problems resulting from such conditions as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, blindness, orthopedic handicaps, and other health impairments. Specific recommendations…

  4. Continuing Professional Development for Volunteers Working in Palliative Care in a Tertiary Care Cancer Institute in India: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study of Educational Needs

    PubMed Central

    Deodhar, Jayita Kedar; Muckaden, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Training programs for volunteers prior to their working in palliative care are well-established in India. However, few studies report on continuing professional development programs for this group. Aims: To conduct a preliminary assessment of educational needs of volunteers working in palliative care for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program for this group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Department of Palliative Medicine of a tertiary care cancer institute in India. Materials and Methods: Participant volunteers completed a questionnaire, noting previous training, years of experience, and a comprehensive list of topics for inclusion in this program, rated in order of importance according to them. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics for overall data and Chi-square tests for categorical variables for group comparisons were applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 18. Results: Fourteen out of 17 volunteers completed the questionnaire, seven having 5–10-years experience in working in palliative care. A need for continuing professional development program was felt by all participants. Communication skills, more for children and elderly specific issues were given highest priority. Spiritual-existential aspects and self-care were rated lower in importance than psychological, physical, and social aspects in palliative care. More experienced volunteers (>5 years of experience) felt the need for self-care as a topic in the program than those with less (<5-years experience) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Understanding palliative care volunteers’ educational needs is essential for developing a structured formal continuing professional development program and should include self-care as a significant component. PMID:26009668

  5. Health Care Aides' Struggle to Build and Maintain Relationships with Families in Complex Continuing Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGilton, Katherine S.; Guruge, Sepali; Librado, Ruby; Bloch, Lois; Boscart, Veronique

    2008-01-01

    Research on the relationships between health care aides (HCAs) and families of clients has been situated mainly in long-term care settings and includes scant findings about the perceptions of HCAs. Based on the findings of a larger qualitative study using a grounded theory approach, this paper addresses the topic of HCA-family relationships in…

  6. Battling AIDS through home care in Uganda and Zambia.

    PubMed

    1992-10-01

    Innovative home care programs, providing a variety of services to persons with HIV infection and their families and reflecting different health, political, cultural, social, and philosophical concepts, have been developed in Africa, starting in 1987. In 1989 the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on AIDS conducted a descriptive study of some of these programs. It is hoped that these experiences will assist planners and health care providers in their decision making and thereby benefit persons with HIV infection and their families. The lessons learned about the context, backgrounds, structure, process, and outcome of the six selected home care programs can be used and adapted by policymakers and program planners in their own settings when deciding on "their" model of home care. PMID:10121240

  7. Making risk meaningful: developing caring relationships with AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Reutter, L I; Northcott, H C

    1993-09-01

    A qualitative study was conducted in order to understand how nurses cope with the risk of contagion while providing care to persons with AIDS (PWAs). Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 nurses who had cared for PWAs in an acute-care hospital in a western Canadian city. The data were analysed using the constant comparative methodology of grounded theory. The analysis revealed that caring for PWAs involved achieving a sense of control over uncertainty. One aspect of this process, making risk meaningful, centred on efforts to justify caring for PWAs in the face of risk. The purpose of this paper is to describe how nurses make risk meaningful. A sense of meaning was found to be related to three major factors: accepting the patient as a person who needs and deserves care, finding work enjoyable and worthwhile, and professional commitment to care for all patients. Attaining a sense of meaning led to a reappraisal of the risk situation as worthy of investment and provided the motivation to care for patients in spite of risk. The paper concludes with implications for practice and suggestions for further research. PMID:8258595

  8. Volunteers Help Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Isolde Chapin

    A discussion of ways in which both adult and young Americans are volunteering to aid in the positive development of young people is presented in this booklet. The wide variety of programs that are designed to use volunteers and the need for additional volunteers are described. These programs are discussed under the following topic headings: School…

  9. Current ethical issues in HIV/AIDS research and HIV/AIDS care.

    PubMed

    Hlongwa, P

    2016-04-01

    HIV/AIDS is a global public health concern with more than 30 million deaths having been reported. Over 70% of the 35 million people with HIV/AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. The current available antiretroviral treatments are limited because they do not cure but slow the progression of disease. Therefore, care and treatment for HIV/AIDS and its related research, especially in HIV-preventive vaccine trials, require stringent ethical guidelines because of the vulnerability of the affected individuals as it with all clinical trials. These guidelines should incorporate the basic principles in ethics which include autonomy of individuals, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice in the care and participation of individuals in research. With at least one in five African adults infected with the disease living in sub-Saharan Africa, this review will discuss the current ethical issues in HIV care and HIV research based on the South African context as well as exploring some of the issues globally. PMID:27109274

  10. Occupational health of home care aides: results of the safe home care survey

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Margaret M; Markkanen, Pia K; Galligan, Catherine J; Sama, Susan R; Kriebel, David; Gore, Rebecca J; Brouillette, Natalie M; Okyere, Daniel; Sun, Chuan; Punnett, Laura; Laramie, Angela K; Davis, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In countries with ageing populations, home care (HC) aides are among the fastest growing jobs. There are few quantitative studies of HC occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess quantitatively the OSH hazards and benefits for a wide range of HC working conditions, and (2) compare OSH experiences of HC aides who are employed via different medical and social services systems in Massachusetts, USA. Methods HC aides were recruited for a survey via agencies that employ aides and schedule their visits with clients, and through a labour union of aides employed directly by clients or their families. The questionnaire included detailed questions about the most recent HC visits, as well as about individual aides’ OSH experiences. Results The study population included 1249 HC aides (634 agency-employed, 615 client-employed) contributing information on 3484 HC visits. Hazards occurring most frequently related to musculoskeletal strain, exposure to potentially infectious agents and cleaning chemicals for infection prevention and experience of violence. Client-hired and agency-hired aides had similar OSH experiences with a few exceptions, including use of sharps and experience of verbal violence. Conclusions The OSH experience of HC aides is similar to that of aides in institutional healthcare settings. Despite OSH challenges, HC aides enjoy caring for others and the benefits of HC work should be enhanced. Quantification of HC hazards and benefits is useful to prioritise resources for the development of preventive interventions and to provide an evidence base for policy-setting. PMID:26209318

  11. A national survey of health professionals and volunteers working in voluntary hospice services in the UK. I. Attitudes to current issues affecting hospices and palliative care.

    PubMed

    Addington-Hall, Julia M; Karlsen, Saffron

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports results from a national survey in 1999 of voluntary hospice services in the UK. It focuses on volunteer and staff views of the purposes of hospice care, and on current debates within palliative care. Twenty-five hospice services, stratified by region, services provided (inpatient care, day care and/or home care) and number of beds were randomly sampled from amongst 175 voluntary hospices in the UK. Nineteen participated. Seventy per cent of a random sample of professional and voluntary staff within these hospices returned a postal questionnaire. Both volunteers and professionals considered care of the whole person, pain and symptom control, quality of life and dying peacefully to be important aspects of hospice care. Most doctors chose care of the whole person as the most important aspect, and they were more likely to choose this option than other staff. Hospice volunteers were less positive than hospice staff (particularly doctors and nurses) in their attitudes to extending hospice care to noncancer patients (where many volunteers held no strong view), to restricting care to patients with specialist palliative care needs, and less negative about euthanasia. These findings illustrate the importance of including hospice volunteers and the general public, as well as hospice staff, in debates about the future of hospice and palliative care in the UK. Further research is needed into lay and professional views of the role of hospices and palliative care services. PMID:15690867

  12. Challenges Experienced by Rural Women in India Living with AIDS and Implications for the Delivery of HIV/AIDS Care

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K.; William, Ravi Raj; Heravian, Anisa; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Greengold, Barbara; Ekstrand, Maria; Rao, Pantangi Venkata Rama

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the barriers to AIDS care for rural women living with AIDS, and investigated alternative delivery models to increase the women’s adherence to anti-retroviral therapy. Community-based participatory research focus groups were conducted by the researchers with a convenience sample of 39 women living with AIDS from a Primary Health Center near Chennai, India and with nurses, physicians and Accredited Social Health Activists (Ashas), lay health care workers. The most prevalent barriers expressed by the women were sickness-related, psychological, financial issues with childcare, and distance and/or transportation to the site. Women living with AIDS reviewed Ashas favorably. PMID:21409663

  13. Promoting perioperative advance care planning: a systematic review of advance care planning decision aids.

    PubMed

    Aslakson, Rebecca A; Schuster, Anne L R; Reardon, Jessica; Lynch, Thomas; Suarez-Cuervo, Catalina; Miller, Judith A; Moldovan, Rita; Johnston, Fabian; Anton, Blair; Weiss, Matthew; Bridges, John F P

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review identifies possible decision aids that promote perioperative advance care planning (ACP) and synthesizes the available evidence regarding their use. Using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, SCOPUS, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Sociological Abstracts, researchers identified and screened articles for eligibility. Data were abstracted and risk of bias assessed for included articles. Thirty-nine of 5327 articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. Primarily completed in outpatient ambulatory populations, studies evaluated a variety of ACP decision aids. None were evaluated in a perioperative population. Fifty unique outcomes were reported with no head-to-head comparisons conducted. Findings are likely generalizable to a perioperative population and can inform development of a perioperative ACP decision aid. Future studies should compare the effectiveness of ACP decision aids. PMID:26346494

  14. Smart Use of Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Volunteers pose a special area of concern for child care centers. On one hand, they are indispensable as they donate countless hours of time, energy, and resources. On the other hand, there are challenges to coordinating the efforts of volunteering parents. The use of volunteers has incredible potential for benefit from the center, child, and…

  15. Linguistic Stereotyping in Older Adults' Perceptions of Health Care Aides.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Donald; Coles, Valerie Berenice; Barnett, Joshua Trey

    2016-07-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. health care provider workforce is expanding. Diversity among health care personnel such as paraprofessional health care assistants (HCAs)-many of whom are immigrants-means that intimate, high-stakes cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contact characterizes many health interactions. In particular, nonmainstream HCAs may face negative patient expectations because of patients' language stereotypes. In other contexts, reverse linguistic stereotyping has been shown to result in negative speaker evaluations and even reduced listening comprehension quite independently of the actual language performance of the speaker. The present study extends the language and attitude paradigm to older adults' perceptions of HCAs. Listeners heard the identical speaker of Standard American English as they watched interactions between an HCA and an older patient. Ethnolinguistic identities-either an Anglo native speaker of English or a Mexican nonnative speaker-were ascribed to HCAs by means of fabricated personnel files. Dependent variables included measures of perceived HCA language proficiency, personal characteristics, and professional competence, as well as listeners' comprehension of a health message delivered by the putative HCA. For most of these outcomes, moderate effect sizes were found such that the HCA with an ascribed Anglo identity-relative to the Mexican guise-was judged more proficient in English, socially superior, interpersonally more attractive, more dynamic, and a more satisfactory home health aide. No difference in listening comprehension emerged, but the Anglo guise tended to engender a more compliant listening mind set. Results of this study can inform both provider-directed and patient-directed efforts to improve health care services for members of all linguistic and cultural groups. PMID:26606170

  16. Aides' Involvement in Decision-Making and the Quality of Care in Institutional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynes, Norma V.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The degree of participation in decision making by direct care staff aides, and its effect on the quality of care for mentally handicapped persons, was assessed among 125 staff of 3 state institutions averaging 1080 patients. (BB)

  17. Endangered species: volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fitch, J J

    1994-11-01

    Volunteerism in America is changing. To continue to be an effective force in EMS, volunteers need to embrace rather than resist enhanced levels of care and other advances in providing service. Special care must be taken by medical directors to recognize the strengths and limitations of volunteer squads. In many suburban and rural areas, volunteers are strategically located to work with the EMS system and the medical director to bridge geographic or organizational service gaps. PMID:10137716

  18. Hospice Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... a medical director, a home health aide, a social worker, a spiritual care coordinator, a volunteer and your attending physician, if he or she remains involved in your care. Other team members may include a music therapist, physical therapist, speech therapist or occupational therapist. ...

  19. Development of a hospital reiki training program: training volunteers to provide reiki to patients, families, and staff in the acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Julie; Reilly, Patricia M; Buchanan, Teresa M

    2014-01-01

    Creating a healing and healthy environment for patients, families, and staff is an ongoing challenge. As part of our hospital's Integrative Care Program, a Reiki Volunteer Program has helped to foster a caring and healing environment, providing a means for patients, family, and staff to reduce pain and anxiety and improve their ability to relax and be present. Because direct care providers manage multiple and competing needs at any given time, they may not be available to provide Reiki when it is needed. This program demonstrates that a volunteer-based program can successfully support nurses in meeting patient, family, and staff demand for Reiki services. PMID:24310710

  20. Students' perceptions of their preparation for AIDS patient care: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hurley, P M; McGriff, E P

    1996-06-01

    A survey of undergraduate students (n = 1,390) was conducted to determine their self-perceptions of their educational preparation to care of persons with HIV disease. HIV/AIDS content was included in the curricula of 97% of the respondents, with hours of instruction ranging from 0 to 18 with a mean of five. School policies regarding HIV clinical experiences varied from requiring all students to care for at least one AIDS patient to considering student preferences. Students (n = 944) perceived that faculty were willing to assign and supervise students in the care of HIV/AIDS patients. The majority of students (73%) believed that their preparation to care for AIDS patients was excellent or good. A genuine feeling of compassion was apparent in the responses of most students, and it was evident that faculty had taught students to care for HIV/AIDS patients without prejudice, and with respect for human life. PMID:11361619

  1. RYAN WHITE COMPREHENSIVE AIDS RESOURCES EMERGENCY (CARE) ACT OF 1990 OR CARE ACT DATA REPORT (CADR) SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act is Federal legislation that addresses the unmet health needs of persons living with HIV disease (PLWH) by funding primary health care and support services that enhance access to and retention in care.

  2. Effect of Alzheimer's training on multicultural personal care aides.

    PubMed

    Fenley, Robin C; Bober, Sarah J; Powell, Mebane E; Berman, Jacquelin; Altman, Barbara N

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the first 2 years of an ongoing project that examined the efficacy of a 10-hour dementia training provided to entry-level personal care aide (PCA) trainees from the Hispanic, White, African American, and Asian communities in New York City. Participants were enrolled in a 90-hour PCA training program offered by the New York City Department for the Aging and were either recipients of public assistance, displaced employees from September 11, or recent immigrants to the United States from China. Classes were conducted in Spanish, English, and Mandarin/ Cantonese. An 11-item Knowledge of Alzheimer's Disease instrument was developed for the purposes of this project and administered before and after the dementia training and at 3 months following graduation. All groups, regardless of language, showed a significant increase in knowledge of Alzheimer's disease at the conclusion of the training and retention of this knowledge at 3 months follow-up. Age was strongly correlated with an increase in knowledge, while gender and education were not. PMID:18402152

  3. Health Care Assisting Lesson Planning Guide for Long-Term Care Aide Certification. South Carolina Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Occupational Education.

    This document consists of 13 competency outlines/lesson plans that have been developed for use in preparing students for certification as long-term care aides through South Carolina's health occupations education program. The following competencies are covered in the individual lessons: identify the function and responsibilities of nurses aides;…

  4. Occupational Risk of HIV, HBV and HSV-2 Infections in Health Care Personnel Caring for AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhls, Thomas L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Female health care workers with exposure to AIDS patients were studied. Two of the 246 workers showed evidence of opportunistic infections. This analysis confirms the low risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection when hospital infection control practices are employed around AIDS patients. (Author/VM)

  5. Adverse events among nurse aides in long-term care facilities in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yu, Man-Ling; Perng, Shoa-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between the incidence of adverse events and related factors among nurse aides in long-term settings in Taiwan. Of 213 nurse aides, 54.93% experienced an adverse event during the previous year. Four variables, including institution type, certification, years of work experience as a nurse aide, and job type, were found to be associated with the occurrence of adverse events. Findings suggested that health care managers provide training to nurse aides with a specific focus on maintaining quality care. PMID:24375108

  6. Perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS regarding access to health care.

    PubMed

    Vaswani, Vina; Vaswani, Ravi

    2014-04-01

    Although the health care is replete with technology in the present day, it is not freely accessible in a developing country. The situation could be even more compromised in the case of people living with HIV/AIDS, with the added dimension of stigma and discrimination. What are the factors that act as barriers to health care? This study was conducted to look into perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS with regard to access to health care. The study looked into accessibility of general health vis-à-vis access to antiretroviral therapy. Demographic variables like age, gender, income were studied in relation to factors such as counseling, confidentiality, stigma and discrimination, which are known to influence access to health care. People living with HIV/AIDS perceive general health care as more accessible than care for HIV treatment. Discrimination by health care workers causes a barrier to accessibility. PMID:24946513

  7. Family-based care and psychological problems of AIDS orphans: does it matter who was the care-giver?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Qun; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Liying

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare psychological symptoms among double AIDS orphans (i.e. children who lost both of their parents to HIV/AIDS) who were in the care of different family-based caregivers (i.e. surviving parent, grandparents, other relatives, and non-relatives) before they were replaced in orphanages. The participants include 176 double AIDS orphans from four AIDS orphanages in rural China. Prior to being replaced in AIDS orphanages, these children had received family-based care by different caregivers, which included surviving parent (38%), grandparents (22%), other relatives (19%), and non-relatives (22%). The psychological measures include traumatic symptoms, depression, and loneliness. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses suggested that children who were previously cared for by non-relatives scored significantly higher in traumatic symptoms, depression, and loneliness scales than children who were previously cared for by their surviving parent, grandparents, and other relatives. Children in the care of grandparents reported the best scores on all psychological measures among children in the care of non-parent relatives. Multivariate analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, length in orphanages, number of household replacements, and total duration of replacement, revealed that the type of caregivers was significantly associated with psychological problems. Results in the current study suggest that children under the care of their grandparents reported the best psychological outcomes when their parents were unable to care for them because of AIDS. Appropriate psychological support and counseling services are needed for AIDS orphans who were either currently or previously under non-relative family-based care in China. PMID:20480436

  8. Connecting the disconnected: adult day care for people with AIDS in New York City.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Y; Knickman, J R; Oppenheimer, L M

    1992-11-01

    Despite pressing need, the development of a continuum of long-term-care services for people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been hampered by the dearth of information on the characteristics and service needs of patients eligible for such care. This article presents findings from a process evaluation of an outpatient day care program for people with AIDS in New York City. The AIDS clients were highly functional but had a diverse range of needs and problems related to housing, substance abuse, medical care, and social support. The majority of clients reported being very satisfied with the level of staff support and with the overall program. The findings of the study suggest that day care is a valuable addition to the continuum of services and that the creative dissemination of this program may improve the delivery of services to people with AIDS. PMID:1478553

  9. The Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Paul C., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    This journal answers several questions concerning the use of volunteers in the classroom. The contents include: "Editor's Page," which discusses the growth of volunteer programs; "An Overview: Volunteer Use in Public Schools," which discusses the general aims of a volunteer program (e.g., to teachers in providing a more individualized approach, to…

  10. Call to volunteer.

    PubMed

    Pati, Anita

    Volunteers can contribute a great deal to people receiving health or social care. Some of the quirky activities they offer are contact with owls and the provision of arts and crafts materials. PMID:19323106

  11. TexiCare: an innovative embedded device for pressure ulcer prevention. Preliminary results with a paraplegic volunteer.

    PubMed

    Chenu, Olivier; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Bucki, Marek; Diot, Bruno; Cannard, Francis; Payan, Yohan

    2013-08-01

    This paper introduces the recently developed TexiCare device that aims at preventing pressure ulcers for people with spinal cord injury. This embedded device is aimed to be mounted on the user wheelchair. Its sensor is 100% textile and allows the measurement of pressures at the interface between the cushion and the buttocks. It is comfortable, washable and low cost. It is connected to a cigarette-box sized unit that (i) measures the pressures in real time, (ii) estimates the risk for internal over-strains, and (iii) alerts the wheelchair user whenever necessary. The alert method has been defined as a result of a utility/usability/acceptability study conducted with representative end users. It is based on a tactile-visual feedback (via a watch or a smartphone for example): the tactile modality is used to discreetly alarm the person while the visual modality conveys an informative message. In order to evaluate the usability of the TexiCare device, a paraplegic volunteer equipped his wheelchair at home during a six months period. Interestingly, the first results revealed bad habits such as an inadequate posture when watching TV, rare relief maneuvers, and the occurrence of abnormal high pressures. PMID:23791763

  12. Creating an advance-care-planning decision aid for high-risk surgery: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-risk surgery patients may lose decision-making capacity as a result of surgical complications. Advance care planning prior to surgery may be beneficial, but remains controversial and is hindered by a lack of appropriate decision aids. This study sought to examine stakeholders’ views on the appropriateness of using decision aids, in general, to support advance care planning among high-risk surgery populations and the design of such a decision aid. Methods Key informants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone until data collected reached theoretical saturation. Key informants were asked to discuss their thoughts about advance care planning and interventions to support advance care planning, particularly for this population. Researchers took de-identified notes that were analyzed for emerging concordant, discordant, and recurrent themes using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results Key informants described the importance of initiating advance care planning preoperatively, despite potential challenges present in surgical settings. In general, decision aids were viewed as an appropriate approach to support advance care planning for this population. A recipe emerged from the data that outlines tools, ingredients, and tips for success that are needed to design an advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgical settings. Conclusions Stakeholders supported incorporating advance care planning in high-risk surgical settings and endorsed the appropriateness of using decision aids to do so. Findings will inform the next stages of developing the first advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgery patients. PMID:25067908

  13. AIDS-related experiences of primary care physicians in rural California, 1995.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, C E

    1996-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted of primary care physicians in nonmetropolitan counties of California. In a random sample of those counties reporting fewer than 30 cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as of December 1994, all physicians in practice were called; in counties reporting from 31 to 150 cases of AIDS as of the same date, a 30% random sample was selected for interviewing. Completion rates were 82% in the smallest counties and 70% in the larger counties (overall 72%). Two thirds of physicians reported that they had seen a patient positive for the human immunodeficiency virus and were providing continuing care for the disease. In all, 60% of physicians had seen a patient with AIDS. In these counties, there were 653 primary care physicians and 873 patients living with AIDS. The proportion of physicians providing care to persons with AIDS was twice that reported in previous surveys done in Los Angeles, California. In the interval (1985-1994), there was a 20-fold increase in the number of AIDS cases in California. In the nonmetropolitan areas, the number of AIDS cases in late 1994 was 290 times that reported in 1985. PMID:8686298

  14. Children with HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook for Caring. A Guide for Establishing Programs for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allbritten, Dorothy J.

    This manual is intended for administrators and professional caregivers who wish to provide comprehensive health care to children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Chapter 1, an overview, examines the societal and economic issues that affect care and treatment of children…

  15. The Family Context of Care in HIV/AIDS: A Study of Mumbai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Cruz, Premilla

    2004-01-01

    Though the continuum of care model has been adopted in HIV/AIDS intervention, there is little empirical work documenting the experiences of caregiving families. Addressing this gap, a study on family caregiving and care receiving was undertaken in Mumbai, India. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven seropositive caregivers, seven…

  16. Specialized care for people with AIDS in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Santos, Vanessa da Frota; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the distribution of specialized care services for HIV/AIDS is associated with AIDS rates. METHODS Ecological study, for which the distribution of 10 specialized care services in the Ceara state, Northeastern Brazil, was obtained, and the mean rates of the disease were estimated per mesoregion. We evaluated 7,896 individuals who had been diagnosed with AIDS, were aged 13 years or older, lived in Ceara, and had been informed of their condition between 2001 and 2011. Maps were constructed to verify the relationship between the distribution of AIDS cases and institutionalized support networks in the 2001-2006 and 2007-2011 periods. BoxMap and LisaMap were used for data analysis. The Voronoi diagram was applied for the distribution of the studied services. RESULTS Specialized care services concentrated in AIDS clusters in the metropolitan area. The Noroeste Cearense and west of the Sertoes Cearenses had high AIDS rates, but a low number of specialized care services over time. Two of these services were implemented where clusters of the disease exist in the second period. The application of the Voronoi diagram showed that the specialized care services located outside the metropolitan area covered a large territory. We identified one polygon that had no services. CONCLUSIONS The scenario of AIDS cases spread away from major urban areas demands the creation of social support services in areas other than the capital and the metropolitan area of the state; this can reduce access barriers to these institutions. It is necessary to create specialized care services for HIV/AIDS in the Noroeste Cearense and north of Jaguaribe. PMID:26487292

  17. Impact of court rulings on health care coverage: the case of HIV/AIDS in Colombia.

    PubMed

    González, Ana Cristina; Durán, Juanita

    2011-07-01

    This article addresses an emerging issue in health care systems: the impact of judicial rulings on public policy regarding financing and delivery of health care services, and the attendant tensions, contradictions and questions. In Colombia, HIV/AIDS patients' use of a legal instrument called tutela, or writ of protection, has produced abundant jurisprudence and prompted health authorities to respond with decisions about HIV/AIDS service coverage that do not consider epidemiologic criteria and sustainability, introducing distortions in the health care system with respect to financing, priority-setting and universality. PMID:21778962

  18. Campuses Confront AIDS: Tapping the Vitality of Caring and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    In response to needs created by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, colleges and universities have struggled to develop or redesign policies and services to promote behavioral change. Effective institutional response requires comprehensive policy, services and referral, and education and prevention focusing on identity and…

  19. Research report--Volunteer infant feeding and care counselors: a health education intervention to improve mother and child health and reduce mortality in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Mikey; Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Chapota, Hilda; Vergnano, Stefania; Newell, Marie-Louise; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this report is to describe a health education intervention involving volunteer infant feeding and care counselors being implemented in Mchinji district, Malawi. The intervention was established in January 2004 and involves 72 volunteer infant feeding and care counselors, supervised by 24 government Health Surveillance Assistants, covering 355 villages in Mchinji district. It aims to change the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of women to promote exclusive breastfeeding and other infant care practices. The main target population are women of child bearing age who are visited at five key points during pregnancy and after birth. Where possible, their partners are also involved. The visits cover exclusive breastfeeding and other important neonatal and infant care practices. Volunteers are provided with an intervention manual and picture book. Resource inputs are low and include training allowances and equipment for counselors and supervisors, and a salary, equipment and materials for a coordinator. It is hypothesized that the counselors will encourage informational and attitudinal change to enhance motivation and risk reduction skills and self-efficacy to promote exclusive breastfeeding and other infant care practices and reduce infant mortality. The impact is being evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial and results will be reported in 2012. PMID:23638270

  20. Co-learning with home care aides and their clients: collaboratively increasing individual and organizational capacities.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Madrigal, Jessica; Berbaum, Michael L; Henderson, Vida A; Jurivich, Donald A; Zanoni, Joseph; Marquez, David X; Cruz Madrid, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Changes in health care provide unprecedented opportunities for collaboration across research, education, and practice for the common goal of enhancing the well-being of older adults and their caregivers. This article describes how a pilot project, Promoting Seniors' Health with Home Care Aides, has synergistic education, research, and practice effects that enhance individual and organizational capacities. This pilot is an innovative partnership with home care aides to deliver a safe physical activity program appropriate for frail seniors in a real-life public home care program. The intervention and research occur in older adults' homes and thus provide rare opportunities for the research team and partners to learn from each other about dynamics of home care in older adults' life contexts. Co-learning is essential for continuous quality improvement in education, research and practice. The authors propose to establish "teaching home care" to ensure ongoing co-learning in gerontology and geriatrics. PMID:25671492

  1. International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Vincent K L; Lee, Seng-Teik T; Lambrecht, Thomas J; Barnett, John; Gorney, Mark; Hardjowasito, Widanto; Lemperle, Gottfried; McComb, Harold; Natsume, Nagato; Stranc, Mirek; Wilson, Libby

    2002-01-01

    The International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions was set up to provide a report to be presented at the Eighth International Congress of Cleft Palate and Associated Craniofacial Anomalies on September 12, 1997, in Singapore. The aim of the report was to provide data from a wide range of different international teams performing volunteer cleft missions and, thereafter, based on the collected data, to identify common goals and aims of such missions. Thirteen different groups actively participating in volunteer cleft missions worldwide were selected from the International Confederation of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery's list of teams actively participating in volunteer cleft missions. Because of the time frame within which the committee had to work, three groups that did not respond by the stipulated deadline were omitted from the committee. The represented members and their respective institutions have undertaken more than 50 volunteer cleft missions to underdeveloped nations worldwide within the last 3 years. They have visited over 20 different countries, treating more than 3,500 patients worldwide. Based on the data collected and by consensus, the committee outlined recommendations for future volunteer cleft missions based on 1) mission objectives, 2) organization, 3) personal health and liability, 4) funding, 5) trainees in volunteer cleft missions, and 6) public relations. The task force believed that all volunteer cleft missions should have well-defined objectives, preferably with long-term plans. The task force also decided that it was impossible to achieve a successful mission without good organization and close coordination. All efforts should be made, and care taken, to ensure that there is minimal morbidity and no mortality. Finally, as ambassadors of goodwill and humanitarian aid, the participants must make every effort to understand and respect local customs and protocol. The main aims are to provide top-quality surgical service, train local

  2. Confidentiality or continuity? Family caregivers' experiences with care for HIV/AIDS patients in home-based care in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Makoae, Mokhantso G; Jubber, Ken

    2008-04-01

    In the context of poor access to antiretroviral therapies in sub-Saharan Africa, the minimum treatment package intended to treat opportunistic infections common with HIV infection is inadequate but appealing, since it presumes universal coverage of medical care for patients living with HIV and AIDS. The overall objective of this study was to analyse the challenges which family caregivers encountered in home-based care when they tried to access medical treatment for home-based AIDS patients in the context of confidentiality and limited medical care. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews with a sample of 21 family caregivers -16 females and 5 males aged between 23 and 85 years was conducted with the assistance of health personnel in two hospitals in Lesotho. Using the concept of continuity of care, this article discusses the experiences of family caregivers about home care, including their experiences of adherence to confidentiality by health care professionals and non-disclosure of AIDS as the context of illness, the circumstances under which the caregivers initiated caregiving and sought medical care, and how these factors could be stressors in caregiving. There was continuity of care where the caregivers obtained hospital support. However, when confidentiality was adhered to the caregivers were frustrated by lack of information, disrupted treatment, exclusion of their perspectives in medical care, failure to secure hospitalisation, ambiguous goals and non-responsiveness, so that continuity of care was jeopardised. Thus it can be concluded that professional-assisted disclosure benefited the patients because it facilitated continuity of care through the caregivers. PMID:18496618

  3. Essential drugs in AIDS care: issues of availability and affordability.

    PubMed

    Kaur, S R

    1996-01-01

    Several antiretroviral drugs against HIV/AIDS have been developed in recent years. These drugs, reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, inhibit the reproduction of HIV, but do not eliminate the presence of HIV in the body. The cost of drugs to treat one person with HIV/AIDS easily runs into the thousands of US dollars per year. These new drugs are therefore routinely used in developed countries, but not among the masses in developing countries. Many of the drugs needed to treat the opportunistic infections present during advanced HIV infection and AIDS are also prohibitively expensive for both developing countries and most individuals in those countries. The imposition of World Bank and International Monetary Fund structural adjustment programs together with decreased household purchasing power during the 1990s has led to increased demand for public sector services amid reduced public expenditure. The private sector is increasingly taking over the drug supply in developing countries, driving the cost of drugs out of the range of affordability for the vast majority of the poor. One strategy to contain the cost of drugs is for governments to develop and implement an integrated national drug policy based upon the concept of essential drugs and their rational use. PMID:12292110

  4. Teaching Advance Care Planning to Medical Students with a Computer-Based Decision Aid

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Benjamin H.

    2013-01-01

    Discussing end-of-life decisions with cancer patients is a crucial skill for physicians. This article reports findings from a pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of a computer-based decision aid for teaching medical students about advance care planning. Second-year medical students at a single medical school were randomized to use a standard advance directive or a computer-based decision aid to help patients with advance care planning. Students' knowledge, skills, and satisfaction were measured by self-report; their performance was rated by patients. 121/133 (91%) of students participated. The Decision-Aid Group (n=60) outperformed the Standard Group (n=61) in terms of students´ knowledge (p<0.01), confidence in helping patients with advance care planning (p<0.01), knowledge of what matters to patients (p=0.05), and satisfaction with their learning experience (p<0.01). Likewise, patients in the Decision Aid Group were more satisfied with the advance care planning method (p<0.01) and with several aspects of student performance. Use of a computer-based decision aid may be an effective way to teach medical students how to discuss advance care planning with cancer patients. PMID:20632222

  5. Decision aids for advance care planning: an overview of the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mary; Ratner, Edward; McCreedy, Ellen; Shippee, Nathan; Kane, Robert L

    2014-09-16

    Advance care planning honors patients' goals and preferences for future care by creating a plan for when illness or injury impedes the ability to think or communicate about health decisions. Fewer than 50% of severely or terminally ill patients have an advance directive in their medical record, and physicians are accurate only about 65% of the time when predicting patient preferences for intensive care. Decision aids can support the advance care planning process by providing a structured approach to informing patients about care options and prompting them to document and communicate their preferences. This review, commissioned as a technical brief by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program, provides a broad overview of current use of and research related to decision aids for adult advance care planning. Using interviews of key informants and a search of the gray and published literature from January 1990 to May 2014, the authors found that many decision aids are widely available but are not assessed in the empirical literature. The 16 published studies testing decision aids as interventions for adult advance care planning found that most are proprietary or not publicly available. Some are constructed for the general population, whereas others address disease-specific conditions that have more predictable end-of-life scenarios and, therefore, more discrete choices. New decision aids should be designed that are responsive to diverse philosophical perspectives and flexible enough to change as patients gain experience with their personal illness courses. Future efforts should include further research, training of advance care planning facilitators, dissemination and access, and tapping potential opportunities in social media or other technologies. PMID:25069709

  6. Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech (STEPS): No. 5--How to Take Care of a Hearing Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Eugene C.; McQuiddy, Doris

    The booklet, one of a series of guides for parents of deaf-blind children developed by Project STEPS (Steps Toward Effective Production of Speech), gives parents practical suggestions for caring for their deaf-blind child's hearing aid. An initial section provides basic information on hearing aid function and care. Specific care ideas are provided…

  7. AIDS: responding to the crisis. Pastoral care: helping patients on an inward journey.

    PubMed

    Tibesar, L J

    1986-05-01

    AIDS is unique in that it is terminal, transmissible, and surrounded by stigma. AIDS patients are often ostracized by those close to them and frequently they are alienated from religion. The pastoral care giver must provide a special ministry to AIDS patients, a ministry in which he or she accompanies the patient on a journey inward. This journey involves a broad range of feelings related to such concerns as social alienation, emotional isolation, and preparation for death. Its final destination, however, lies in the ultimate issues such as self-identity, the meaning of life, and individual destiny. To help the patient confront these issues, the pastoral care giver may first have to break through negative images held by many alienated persons with AIDS. These include the image of God as judge; the image of the Catholic minister as a celibate upholder of a rigid sexual code; and the perception that spirituality is the special preserve of "religious" persons. PMID:10276809

  8. Co-Learning With Home Care Aides and Their Clients: Collaboratively Increasing Individual and Organizational Capacities

    PubMed Central

    MURAMATSU, NAOKO; MADRIGAL, JESSICA; BERBAUM, MICHAEL L.; HENDERSON, VIDA A.; JURIVICH, DONALD A.; ZANONI, JOSEPH; MARQUEZ, DAVID X.; MADRID, KATYA CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    Changes in health care provide unprecedented opportunities for collaboration across research, education, and practice for the common goal of enhancing the well-being of older adults and their caregivers. This article describes how a pilot project, “Promoting Seniors’ Health with Home Care Aides,” has synergistic education, research and practice effects that enhance individual and organizational capacities. This pilot is an innovative partnership with home care aides to deliver a safe physical activity program appropriate for frail seniors in a real-life public home care program. The intervention and research occur in older adults’ homes and thus provide rare opportunities for the research team and partners to learn from each other about dynamics of home care in older adults’ life contexts. Co-learning is essential for continuous quality improvement in education, research and practice. We propose to establish “Teaching Home Care” to ensure ongoing co-learning in gerontology and geriatrics. PMID:25671492

  9. "Volunteers are not paid because they are priceless": community health worker capacities and values in an AIDS treatment intervention in urban Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    This article analyzes community health workers' (CHW) capacities for empathic service within an AIDS treatment program in Addis Ababa. I show how CHWs' capacities to build relationships with stigmatized people, reconcile family disputes, and confront death draw on a constellation of values, desires, and emotions encouraged by CHWs' families and religious teachings. I then examine the ways in which the capacities of CHWs were valued by the institutions that deployed them. NGO and government officials recognized that empathic care was crucial to both saving and improving the quality of people's lives. These institutional actors also defended a policy of not financially remunerating CHWs, partly by constructing their capacities as so valuable that they become "priceless" and therefore only remunerable with immaterial satisfaction. Positive change within CHW programs requires ethnographic analysis of how CHWs exercise capacities for empathic care as well as consideration of how global health institutions value these capacities. PMID:25257547

  10. Parental Care Aids, but Parental Overprotection Hinders, College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…

  11. Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS?

    PubMed Central

    Angoff, N. R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper responds to the question: Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)? First, the social and political milieu in which this question arises is sampled. Here physicians as well as other members of the community are found declaring an unwillingness to be exposed to people with AIDS. Next, laws, regulations, ethical codes and principles, and the history of the practice of medicine are examined, and the literature as it pertains to these areas is reviewed. The obligation to care for patients with AIDS, however, cannot be located in an orientation to morality defined in rules and codes and an appeal to legalistic fairness. By turning to the orientation to morality that emerges naturally from connection and is defined in caring, the physicians' ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS is found. Through an exploration of the writings of modern medical ethicists, it is clear that the purpose of the practice of medicine is healing, which can only be accomplished in relationship to the patient. It is in relationship to patients that the physician has the opportunity for self-realization. In fact, the physician is physician in relationship to patients and only to the extent that he or she acts virtuously by being morally responsible for and to those patients. Not to do so diminishes the physician's ethical ideal, a vision of the physician as good physician, which has consequences for the physician's capacity to care and for the practice of medicine. PMID:1788990

  12. Development and Testing of a Decision Aid on Goals of Care for Advanced Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Einterz, Seth F.; Gilliam, Robin; Lin, Feng Chang; McBride, J. Marvin; Hanson, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Decision aids are effective to improve decision-making, yet they are rarely tested in nursing homes (NHs). Study objectives were to 1) examine the feasibility of a Goals of Care (GOC) decision aid for surrogate decision-makers (SDMs)of persons with dementia; and 2) test its effect on quality of communication and decision-making. Design Pre-post intervention to test a GOC decision aid intervention for SDMs for persons with dementia in NHs. Investigators collected data from reviews of resident health records and interviews with SDMs at baseline and 3-month follow up. Setting Two NHs in North Carolina. Participants 18 residents who were over 65 years of age, had moderate to severe dementia on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS=5,6,7), and an English-speaking surrogate decision-maker. Intervention 1) GOC Decision Aid video viewed by the SDM, and 2) a structured care plan meeting between the SDM and interdisciplinary NH team Measurements Surrogate knowledge, quality of communication with health care providers, surrogate-provider concordance on goals of care, and palliative care domains addressed in the care plan. Results 89% of the SDMs thought the decision aid was relevant to their needs. After viewing the video decision aid, SDMs increased the number of correct responses on knowledge-based questions (12.5 vs 14.2, P<.001). At 3 months they reported improved quality of communication scores (6.1 vs 6.8, P=.01) and improved concordance on primary goal of care with nursing home team (50% vs 78%, P=.003). The number of palliative care domains addressed in the care plan increased (1.8 vs 4.3, P<.001). Conclusion The decision-support intervention piloted in this study was feasible and relevant for surrogate decision-makers of persons with advanced dementia in nursing homes, and it improved quality of communication between SDM and NH providers. A larger randomized clinical trial is underway to provide further evidence of the effects of this decision aid

  13. Correcting deficiencies in HIV/AIDS care for transgendered individuals.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, E L; van Servellen, G

    2000-01-01

    Studies suggest that transgendered individuals are at high risk for acquiring HIV through injection drug use and sexual risk behaviors. Beginning efforts are being directed to identify the unique needs and concerns of these individuals and to develop culturally sensitive programs that will be successful in recruiting and retaining these individuals in drug abuse and HIV treatment services. These efforts include examining the available and needed services from the perspectives of both the transgendered community and health care professionals. This article reviews the phenomenon of transgenderism and the social context that places these individuals at risk for HIV. Additionally, this article proposes some guidelines for those who are in positions responsible for designing, evaluating, and implementing existing health care services to transgendered populations. PMID:11022332

  14. Knowledge of Rural Nurses' Aides About End-of-Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Denham, Sharon A.; Meyer, Michael G.; Rathbun, Ann; Toborg, Mary A.; Thornton, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Currently, little is known about the role of nurses' aides (NAs) in rural long-term care facilities or their impact on the process of death and dying in rural healthcare environments. Focus groups with NAs were held in 6 rural counties located in 5 states to assess attitudes and perceptions about end-of-life care and training needs. Key informants from 8 states and the District of Columbia added to the understandings. Nurses' aides (N = 63) and key informans (N = 21) worked in a variety of rural settings that provide end-of-life care (ie, nursing homes, hospitals, hospices, home healthcare agencies). Five themes about the needs of rural NAs around end-of-life care were identified in the focus groups, and 4 themes emerged from key informant interviews. A prototype computer-based training module on communication about end-of-life issues was developed, tested, and found useful and compelling. PMID:16775473

  15. [Implementation of a continuum of care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Hanoi (Vietnam)].

    PubMed

    de Loenzien, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) encompasses various tasks, from prevention to palliative care. It involves a set of consistent and coordinated actions. This article presents the first free-of-charge management programme including antiretroviral treatment in Vietnam (as opposed to research and evaluation programmes). It was launched in 2004 in Hanoi. Our study was conducted in 2003-2004 as part of a collaborative research programme led by IRD (Research Institute for Development) and the National Economic University in Hanoi and was funded by ESTHER (Together for a Therapeutic Solidarity in Hospital Network) group. Data collection included 68 qualitative interviews with patients, members of their families and members of the hospital staff, observations of outpatient consultations, and analysis of inpatient files. The results show that patients, their families and hospital staff members all perceive a comprehensive care and treatment programme as very important and consider that it should include social and psychological care as well as an integrated set of actions involving various types of participants. Outpatient and inpatient care are closely linked: they take place in the same hospital department, they involve patients with similar social and demographic characteristics marked by multiple risk behaviours and recourse to several kinds of healthcare services. The observation of outpatient consultations showed the limitations of strictly biomedical care to which social and psychological care were added only lately. One of the principal difficulties is patients' difficulties in keeping their outpatient appointments. Overall, patients consider themselves lucky to able to receive care and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. They nevertheless complain about the lack of social and psychological support, which they expect should help them to tolerate and adapt to their biomedical treatment and to include counselling and information about this treatment and

  16. Care arrangements of AIDS orphans and their relationship with children's psychosocial well-being in rural China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Qun; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-03-01

    There is an estimated 100,000 children orphaned by AIDS in China, but data on the care arrangement of these orphans are limited. In this study, we examine the relationship between AIDS orphans' care arrangement and their psychosocial well-being among a sample of AIDS orphans in rural China. A total of 296 children who lost both parents to AIDS participated in the study, including 176 in orphanages, 90 in kinship care and 30 in community-based group homes. All participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their traumatic symptoms, physical health and schooling. Data reveal that the AIDS orphans in group homes reported the best outcomes in three domains of psychosocial well-being, followed by those in the orphanages and then the kinship care. The differences in psychosocial well-being among the three groups of children persist after controlling for key demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that the appropriate care arrangement for AIDS orphans should be evaluated within the specific social and cultural context where the orphans live. In resource-poor regions or areas stricken hardest by the AIDS epidemic, kinship care may not sufficiently serve the needs of AIDS orphans. Community-based care models, with appropriate government and community support preserving the family style and low child-to-caregiver ratio may constitute an effective and sustainable care model for the best interest of the AIDS orphans in developing countries. PMID:20587602

  17. AIDS and Child Care: A Booklet for Child Care Workers, Management Committees and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Caroline; Glasson, Mark

    This booklet provides Australians with basic information about the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents cover the definiton of AIDS, ways the disease is transmitted, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody testing for adults and children, variations among children infected with HIV, information that HIV is not transmitted…

  18. Care arrangement, grief, and psychological problems among children orphaned by AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Yang, Hongmei; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-01-01

    The China Ministry of Health has estimated that there are at least 100,000 AIDS orphans in China. The UNICEF China Office estimates that between 150,000 and 250,000 additional children will be orphaned by AIDS over the next five years. However, limited data are available regarding the socio-demographic characteristics, care arrangement, barriers to appropriate grief resolution and psychological problems among AIDS orphans in China. In this article, we review secondary data and reports from scientific literature, government, non-governmental organizations, and public media regarding children orphaned by AIDS in China to address their living situation, bereavement process, and psychological problems. Our review suggests that AIDS orphans in China are living in a stressful environment with many orphans struggling with psychological problems and unmet basic needs such as food, shelter, education, and medical care. Based on our review, we suggest that future studies should address the psychosocial needs of AIDS orphans in China and develop health promotion programs to mitigate the negative impact of parental death on the physical and psychosocial well-being of these orphans. PMID:18058390

  19. School Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Service Bureau, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Intended as a guide for school administrators, this publication describes and discusses "The Varying Role of the School Volunteer,""A Tutorial Program in Operation,""A Volunteer Resource Program in Operation,""An Inner-City Extended School-Day Program,""Essential Ingredients of a Successful Program," and "How to Recruit, Screen, and Retain."…

  20. Epidemiological Criminology: Contextualization of HIV/AIDS Health Care for Female Inmates.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Mark M; Zaitzow, Barbara H; Farrell, C Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, women are increasingly being incarcerated. One unintended consequence is the increase in unhealthy female offenders. Among the more serious health concerns are HIV and AIDS. Challenges associated with caring for women with HIV/AIDS impacts not only disease management and infection control within correctional facilities but also the prisoners' home communities where they will need health care, drug and alcohol rehabilitation, housing assistance, and employment opportunities. No bridging theory has been presented that links prison and community health concerns with criminal justice policy. This article not only presents recommendations for effective HIV/AIDS policy but also suggests epidemiological criminology as a means of explicit merging of health with justice issues and consequently provides a bridging framework. PMID:25788610

  1. Updated forecasts of the costs of medical care for persons with AIDS, 1989-93.

    PubMed Central

    Hellinger, F J

    1990-01-01

    Data on the number of AIDS cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) from January 1984 to June 1989 are used to predict the number of AIDS cases that will be diagnosed during the years 1989 through 1993. Using quadratic and linear models with the most recent data, it is projected that about 44,000 cases will be diagnosed in 1989, 56,000 in 1990, 70,000 in 1991, 87,000 in 1992, and 104,000 in 1993. These projections are lower than estimates derived using data from January 1984 to June 1988, and they are similar to estimates derived by the CDC. The lifetime medical care cost of treating a person with AIDS is estimated to be about $75,000 (all estimates are in 1988 dollars) assuming that the average length of survival is 15 months and that the intensity of care (that is, the cost of medical care per month) does not fall as longevity rises. This total, $75,000, reflects recent increases in the length of survival and the diffusion of costly drug therapies (for example, AZT and aerosol pentamidine). This study forecasts that the cumulative lifetime medical care costs of treating all people diagnosed with AIDS during a given year to be about $3.3 billion in 1989, $4.3 billion in 1990, $5.3 billion in 1991, $6.5 billion in 1992, and $7.8 billion in 1993. PMID:2106697

  2. Sharps Injuries and Other Blood and Body Fluid Exposures Among Home Health Care Nurses and Aides

    PubMed Central

    Markkanen, Pia K.; Galligan, Catherine J.; Kriebel, David; Chalupka, Stephanie M.; Kim, Hyun; Gore, Rebecca J.; Sama, Susan R.; Laramie, Angela K.; Davis, Letitia

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified risks of sharp medical device (sharps) injuries and other blood and body fluid exposures among home health care nurses and aides, identified risk factors, assessed the use of sharps with safety features, and evaluated underreporting in workplace-based surveillance. Methods. We conducted a questionnaire survey and workplace-based surveillance, collaborating with 9 home health care agencies and 2 labor unions from 2006 to 2007. Results. Approximately 35% of nurses and 6.4% of aides had experienced at least 1 sharps injury during their home health care career; corresponding figures for other blood and body fluid exposures were 15.1% and 6.7%, respectively. Annual sharps injuries incidence rates were 5.1 per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE) nurses and 1.0 per 100 FTE aides. Medical procedures contributing to sharps injuries were injecting medications, administering fingersticks and heelsticks, and drawing blood. Other contributing factors were sharps disposal, contact with waste, and patient handling. Sharps with safety features frequently were not used. Underreporting of sharps injuries to the workplace-based surveillance system was estimated to be about 50%. Conclusions. Sharps injuries and other blood and body fluid exposures are serious hazards for home health care nurses and aides. Improvements in hazard intervention are needed. PMID:19890177

  3. Articulation Matrix for Home Health Aide, Nursing Assistant, Patient Care Assistant, Practical Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This document demonstrates the relationships among four Florida nursing education programs (home health aide, nursing assistant, patient care assistant, and practical nursing) by listing student performance standards and indicating which ones are required in each program. The 268 student performance standards are arranged in 23 areas of…

  4. Increasing access to oral health care for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Oregon.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jill; Mofidi, Mahyar; Bednarsh, Helene; Gambrell, Alan; Tobias, Carol R

    2012-05-01

    Access to oral health care for people living with HIV/AIDS is a severe problem. This article describes the design and impact of an Innovations in Oral Health Care Initiative program, funded through the Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) program, that expanded oral health-care services for these individuals in rural Oregon. From April 2007 to August 2010, 473 patients received dental care (exceeding the target goal of 410 patients) and 153 dental hygiene students were trained to deliver oral health care to HIV-positive patients. The proportion of patients receiving oral health care increased from 10% to 65%, while the no-show rate declined from 40% to 10%. Key implementation components were leveraging SPNS funding and services to create an integrated delivery system, collaborations that resulted in improved service delivery systems, using dental hygiene students to deliver oral health care, enhanced care coordination through the services of a dental case manager, and program capacity to adjust to unanticipated needs. PMID:22547878

  5. Ideologies of aid, practices of power: lessons for Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nancy L

    2005-03-01

    The articles in this special issue teach valuable lessons based on what happened in New Mexico with the shift to Medicaid managed care. By reframing these lessons in broader historical and cultural terms with reference to aid programs, we have the opportunity to learn a great deal more about the relationship between poverty, public policy, and ideology. Medicaid as a state and federal aid program in the United States and economic development programs as foreign aid provide useful analogies specifically because they exhibit a variety of parallel patterns. The increasing concatenation of corporate interests with state and nongovernmental interests in aid programs is ultimately producing a less centralized system of power and responsibility. This process of decentralization, however, is not undermining the sources of power behind aid efforts, although it does make the connections between intent, planning, and outcome less direct. Ultimately, the devolution of power produces many unintended consequences for aid policy. But it also reinforces the perspective that aid and the need for it are nonpolitical issues. PMID:15789629

  6. Migration Patterns among Floridians with AIDS, 1993–2007: Implications for HIV Prevention and Care

    PubMed Central

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Pelletier, Valerie; Lutfi, Khaleeq; Lieb, Spencer; Maddox, Lorene M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize migration patterns among people diagnosed as having and who died of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from 1993 to 2007 because migrating to a new community can disrupt human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS care delivery and patients’ adherence to care and affect migrants’ social services and healthcare needs. Methods Florida AIDS surveillance data were used to describe patterns of migration among people diagnosed as having and who died of AIDS from 1993 to 2007. Individual and community characteristics were compared between residence at the time of AIDS diagnosis and residence at the time of death by type of migration. Results Of 31,816 people in the cohort, 2510 (7.9%) migrated to another county in Florida and 1306 (4.1%) migrated to another state. Interstate migrants were more likely to be men, 20 to 39 years old, non-Hispanic white, and born in the United States, to have had a transmission mode of injection drug use (IDU) or men who have sex with men with IDU (MSM&IDU), and to have been diagnosed before 1999. Intercounty migrants were more likely to be non-Hispanic white, younger than 60 years, have had a transmission mode of MSM, IDU, or MSM&IDU, have higher CD4 counts/percentages, and to have lived in areas with low levels of poverty or low physician density. There was a small net movement from urban to rural areas within the state. Conclusions A sizable percentage of people, particularly younger people and people with a transmission mode of IDU and IDU&MSM, migrated at least once between the time of their AIDS diagnosis and death. This has important implications for care and treatment, as well as efforts to prevent the disease. Further research is needed to explore barriers and facilitators to access to care upon migration and to assess the need for programs to help people transfer their human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS care, ensuring continuity of care and adherence. PMID:25188615

  7. Care Groups II: A Summary of the Child Survival Outcomes Achieved Using Volunteer Community Health Workers in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Melanie; Davis, Thomas; Borger, Sarah; Weiss, Jennifer; DeCoster, Mary; Ricca, Jim; Ernst, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The Care Group approach, described in detail in a companion paper in this journal, uses volunteers to convey health promotion messages to their neighbors. This article summarizes the available evidence on the effectiveness of the Care Group approach, drawing on articles published in the peer-reviewed literature as well as data from unpublished but publicly available project evaluations and summary analyses of these evaluations. When implemented by strong international NGOs with adequate funding, Care Groups have been remarkably effective in increasing population coverage of key child survival interventions. There is strong evidence that Care Groups can reduce childhood undernutrition and reduce the prevalence of diarrhea. Finally, evidence from multiple sources, comprising independent assessments of mortality impact, vital events collected by Care Group Volunteers themselves, and analyses using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), that Care Groups are effective in reducing under-5 mortality. For example, the average decline in under-5 mortality, estimated using LiST, among 8 Care Group projects was 32%. In comparison, among 12 non-Care Group child survival projects, the under-5 mortality declined, on average, by an estimated 11%. Care Group projects cost in the range of US$3–$8 per beneficiary per year. The cost per life saved is in the range of $441–$3,773, and the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted is in the range of $15–$126. The Care Group approach, when implemented as described, appears to be highly cost-effective based on internationally accepted criteria. Care Groups represent an important and promising innovative, low-cost approach to increasing the coverage of key child survival interventions in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. Next steps include further specifying the adjustments needed in government health systems to successfully incorporate the Care Group approach, testing the feasibility of these adjustments and of the

  8. Promoting vision and hearing aids use in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiaoling; Faure Walker, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Vision and hearing impairments have long been recognised as modifiable risk factors for delirium.[1,2,3] Delirium in critically ill patients is a frequent complication (reported as high as 60% to 80% of intensive care patients), and is associated with a three-fold increase in mortality and prolonged hospital stay.[1] Guidelines by the UK Clinical Pharmacy Association recommend minimising risk factors to prevent delirium, rather than to treat it with pharmacological agents which may themselves cause delirium.[4] To address risk factors is a measure of multi-system management, such as sleep-wake cycle correction, orientation and use of vision and hearing aids, etc.[5] We designed an audit to survey the prevalence and availability of vision and hearing aids use in the intensive care unit (ICU) of one university hospital. The baseline data demonstrated a high level of prevalence and low level of availability of vision /hearing aid use. We implemented changes to the ICU Innovian assessment system, which serves to remind nursing staff performing daily checks on delirium reduction measures. This has improved practice in promoting vision and hearing aids use in ICU as shown by re-audit at six month. Further amendments to the Innovian risk assessments have increased the rate of assessment to 100% and vision aid use to near 100%. PMID:26734348

  9. Promoting vision and hearing aids use in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiaoling; Faure Walker, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Vision and hearing impairments have long been recognised as modifiable risk factors for delirium.[1,2,3] Delirium in critically ill patients is a frequent complication (reported as high as 60% to 80% of intensive care patients), and is associated with a three-fold increase in mortality and prolonged hospital stay.[1] Guidelines by the UK Clinical Pharmacy Association recommend minimising risk factors to prevent delirium, rather than to treat it with pharmacological agents which may themselves cause delirium.[4] To address risk factors is a measure of multi-system management, such as sleep-wake cycle correction, orientation and use of vision and hearing aids, etc.[5] We designed an audit to survey the prevalence and availability of vision and hearing aids use in the intensive care unit (ICU) of one university hospital. The baseline data demonstrated a high level of prevalence and low level of availability of vision /hearing aid use. We implemented changes to the ICU Innovian assessment system, which serves to remind nursing staff performing daily checks on delirium reduction measures. This has improved practice in promoting vision and hearing aids use in ICU as shown by re-audit at six month. Further amendments to the Innovian risk assessments have increased the rate of assessment to 100% and vision aid use to near 100%. PMID:26734348

  10. Volunteering for Clinical Trials Can Help Improve Health Care for Everyone | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... role to play in helping find new, more effective treatments that can save lives." Photo: Fran Sandridge For Melanie Modlin, volunteering to take part in a clinical trial was a gift she was happy to give. Modlin, who is Deputy Director of Communications and Public Liaison at the National Library of ...

  11. Video decision aids to assist with advance care planning: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashu; Corriveau, Sophie; Quinn, Kathleen; Gardhouse, Amanda; Vegas, Daniel Brandt; You, John J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Advance care planning (ACP) can result in end-of-life care that is more congruent with patients’ values and preferences. There is increasing interest in video decision aids to assist with ACP. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of video decision aids on patients’ preferences regarding life-sustaining treatments (primary outcome). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, AMED and CENTRAL, between 1980 and February 2014, and correspondence with authors. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials of adult patients that compared a video decision aid to a non-video-based intervention to assist with choices about use of life-sustaining treatments and reported at least one ACP-related outcome. Data extraction Reviewers worked independently and in pairs to screen potentially eligible articles, and to extract data regarding risk of bias, population, intervention, comparator and outcomes. Reviewers assessed quality of evidence (confidence in effect estimates) for each outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Results 10 trials enrolling 2220 patients were included. Low-quality evidence suggests that patients who use a video decision aid are less likely to indicate a preference for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (pooled risk ratio, 0.50 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.95); I2=65%). Moderate-quality evidence suggests that video decision aids result in greater knowledge related to ACP (standardised mean difference, 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.77); I2=0%). No study reported on the congruence of end-of-life treatments with patients’ wishes. No study evaluated the effect of video decision aids when integrated into clinical care. Conclusions Video decision aids may improve some ACP-related outcomes. Before recommending their use in clinical practice, more evidence is needed to confirm these findings and

  12. Put a Face to a Name (Part A): The Effects of Photographic Aids on Patient Satisfaction, Clinician Communication, and Quality of Care

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-04

    Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Patient Recall of Their Clinical Care Team; Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Clinician-patient Communication; Effects of Photographic Aids (Photos of Faces) on Overall Patient Satisfaction

  13. Investigating attitudes towards caring for people with HIV/AIDS among hospital care workers in Ibadan, Nigeria: the role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Olley, B O

    2003-01-01

    Fear of HIV infection and its consequences may affect the willingness and capacity of health care workers to provide good quality care for people with HIV/AIDS (PWHAs). The study was founded on the proposition that self-efficacy may mediate the attitudinal disposition of health care workers related to provision of care to PWHAs. Two hundred and ten physicians (n = 103) and nurses (n = 107) sampled from the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, responded (48% response rate) to a questionnaire which addressed self-efficacy relating to HIV/AIDS, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and treatment of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients. Attitude questions included items on fear of HIV infection, futility in providing care for HIV patients, distress in caring for the patient who is likely to die and willingness to care for PWHAs. The major finding was a significant association between reported high selfefficacy and less fear of acquiring HIV, less futility in providing care for PWHAs and increased willingness to provide such care. More years of education was associated with higher willingness to care, less fear associated with care as well as lower perceived futility related to the care of PWHAs. Female gender was significantly related to the perception of futility related to the care of PWHAs. There was no significant relationship between self-efficacy and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The findings have significant implications for hospital care for PWHAs and suggest that self-efficacy, rather than knowledge about HIV/AIDS may be important in mediating attitudes towards PWHAs and also in developing intervention programmes aimed at helping health care providers to reframe their attitudes. PMID:25871939

  14. Pediatric palliative care for youth with HIV/AIDS: systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Megan L; Dallas, Ronald H; Fanone, Kathleen E; Lyon, Maureen E

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in treatment has led to decreased death in youth with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries. Despite this, youth with HIV are still at risk for increased mortality and morbidity compared with their uninfected counterparts. In developing countries, high numbers of youth die from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses due to lack of access to consistent antiretroviral treatment. As a result, pediatric palliative care is a relevant topic for those providing care to youth with HIV. A systematic review was conducted to gather information regarding the status of the literature related to pediatric palliative care and medical decision-making for youth with HIV. The relevant literature published between January 2002 and June 2012 was identified through searches conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and PSYCInfo databases and a series of key words. Articles were reviewed by thematic analysis using the pillars of palliative care set out by the National Consensus Project. Twenty-one articles were retained after review and are summarized by theme. In general, few empirically based studies evaluating palliative care and medical decision-making in youth with HIV were identified. Articles identified focused primarily on physical aspects of care, with less attention paid to psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care. We recommend that future research focuses on broadening the evaluation of pediatric palliative care among youth with HIV by directly evaluating the psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care and investigating the needs of all involved stakeholders. PMID:23930080

  15. Pediatric palliative care for youth with HIV/AIDS: systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Megan L; Dallas, Ronald H; Fanone, Kathleen E; Lyon, Maureen E

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in treatment has led to decreased death in youth with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries. Despite this, youth with HIV are still at risk for increased mortality and morbidity compared with their uninfected counterparts. In developing countries, high numbers of youth die from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses due to lack of access to consistent antiretroviral treatment. As a result, pediatric palliative care is a relevant topic for those providing care to youth with HIV. A systematic review was conducted to gather information regarding the status of the literature related to pediatric palliative care and medical decision-making for youth with HIV. The relevant literature published between January 2002 and June 2012 was identified through searches conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and PSYCInfo databases and a series of key words. Articles were reviewed by thematic analysis using the pillars of palliative care set out by the National Consensus Project. Twenty-one articles were retained after review and are summarized by theme. In general, few empirically based studies evaluating palliative care and medical decision-making in youth with HIV were identified. Articles identified focused primarily on physical aspects of care, with less attention paid to psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care. We recommend that future research focuses on broadening the evaluation of pediatric palliative care among youth with HIV by directly evaluating the psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care and investigating the needs of all involved stakeholders. PMID:23930080

  16. Cognitive aid use improves transition of care by graduating medical students during a simulated crisis

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Brooke; Rebel, Annette; Dilorenzo, Amy; Schell, Randall M.; Dority, Jeremy S.; Lukens, Faith; Sloan, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Residents are expected to have transition of care (ToC) skills upon entering graduate medical education. It is unclear whether experience and training during medical school is adequate. Objective The aim of the project was to assess: 1) graduating medical students’ ability to perform ToC in a crisis situation, and 2) whether using a cognitive aid improves the ToC quality. Methods The authors developed simulation scenarios for rapid response teams and a cognitive aid to assist in the ToC during crisis situations. Graduating medical students were enrolled and randomly divided into teams of three students, randomly assigned into one of two groups: teams using a cognitive aid for ToC (CA), or not using a cognitive aid (nCA). In the scenario, teams respond to a deteriorating patient and then transfer care to the next provider after stabilization. Three faculty reviewed the recording to assess completeness of the ToC and the overall quality. A completeness score was expressed as a fraction of the maximum score. Statistical analysis was performed using a t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results A total of 112 senior medical students participated: CA n=19, nCA n=17. The completeness score of the ToC and overall quality improved when using the cognitive aid (completeness score: CA 0.80±0.06 vs. nCA 0.52±0.07, p<0.01; ToC quality: CA 3.16±0.65 vs. nCA 1.92±0.56, p<0.01). Participants’ rating of knowledge and comfort with the ToC process increased after the simulation. Conclusion The completeness of information transfer during the ToC process by graduating medical students improved by using a cognitive aid in a simulated patient crisis. PMID:27435838

  17. Quebec proposition of Medical Aid in Dying: a palliative care perspective.

    PubMed

    Vachon, Mélanie

    2013-01-01

    The government of Quebec (Canada) is poised to adopt a proposition to legalize euthanasia in the form of "Medical Aid in Dying," which presents a new option for end-of-life care. This proposition arouses concerns among palliative care providers. The aim of this article is to provide a palliative care perspective on Quebec's proposition to legalize euthanasia. Based on the epistemological and methodological framework of critical theory, the following three questions are raised: First, in Quebec's current state of the law, is it possible to relieve the suffering of end-of-life patients? Second, can the Quebec proposition to legalize euthanasia in specific circumstances be harmful? Third, is the Quebec proposition on euthanasia compatible with palliative care and social values? In conclusion, recommendations and alternatives to the current Quebec proposition are suggested. PMID:24125960

  18. AIDS, Metaphor and Ritual: The Crafting of Care in Rural South African Childhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Based on a two-year study of 31 young people aged 14-20 who had lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, the article draws on an in-depth ethnographic account of a 17-year-old girl's life process. It traces forms of care between adults and children within her family across several generations, exploring how…

  19. Too complicated for the field? Measuring quality of care in humanitarian aid settings

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Roland; Bosse, Götz; Dörner, Frank; Slavuckij, Andrej; Fernandez, Gustavo; Marx, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While quality of care is a major concern in the western world, not many studies investigate this topic in low-income countries. Even less is known about the quality of care in humanitarian aid settings, where additional challenges from natural or manmade disasters contribute to additional challenges. This study tried to address this gap by introducing a new approach to systematically measure quality of care in a project of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Agok area, between South Sudan and Sudan. Our objective was to obtain a valid snapshot of quality of care for a MSF project in three weeks that has the potential to serve as a baseline for quality improvement strategies. The evaluation followed a cross-sectional study design to assess structural, process and outcome quality according to Donabedian's criteria of quality of care. A bundle of well-established methods for collection of quantitative and qualitative data was used to assess the project by following a triangulated mixed-methods approach. Mean structural quality scored 73% of expected performance level and mean process quality 59%. The overall mortality rate for the hospital was 3.6%. On average, less complicated cases got a better level of care than patients who were seriously ill. Significant motivational issues were discovered in staff interviews potentially affecting quality of care. The tool appeared to be quick, feasible and effective in judging quality of care in the selected project. To tap the whole potential of the approach a re-evaluation should be carried out to assess the effectiveness of implemented improvement strategies in Agok. To confirm the usefulness of the approach, more studies are needed covering the variety of different humanitarian aid settings. PMID:23683715

  20. Improving hospital care for young children in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Chandan, Upjeet; Rochat, Tamsen

    2009-09-01

    Paediatric wards in South African government hospitals are occupied predominantly by children with HIV and AIDS-related illnesses. Although access to anti-retroviral treatment for adults is being scaled up, it is likely to be many years before South Africa achieves anywhere near universal access for children. Currently, most children living with HIV or AIDS are identified only when they become acutely or chronically ill and/or hospitalized, if at all. In the absence of treatment, the stress of caring for ill and hospitalized HIV-positive children often results in emotional withdrawal among both health professionals and caregivers. The demoralizing cycle of repeated admissions, treatment failure and death also affect the quality of the care given to HIV-negative children in over-burdened wards. This article describes the development of simple, low-cost and context-relevant interventions to improve the care environment for young hospitalized children within the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and poverty. PMID:19713404

  1. Job Satisfaction among Care Aides in Residential Long-Term Care: A Systematic Review of Contributing Factors, Both Individual and Organizational

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Janet E.; Hoben, Matthias; Linklater, Stefanie; Carleton, Heather L.; Graham, Nicole; Estabrooks, Carole A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing literature on professional nurses' job satisfaction, job satisfaction by nonprofessional nursing care providers and, in particular, in residential long-term care facilities, is sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence on which factors (individual and organizational) are associated with job satisfaction among care aides, nurse aides, and nursing assistants, who provide the majority of direct resident care, in residential long-term care facilities. Nine online databases were searched. Two authors independently screened, and extracted data and assessed the included publications for methodological quality. Decision rules were developed a priori to draw conclusions on which factors are important to care aide job satisfaction. Forty-two publications were included. Individual factors found to be important were empowerment and autonomy. Six additional individual factors were found to be not important: age, ethnicity, gender, education level, attending specialized training, and years of experience. Organizational factors found to be important were facility resources and workload. Two additional factors were found to be not important: satisfaction with salary/benefits and job performance. Factors important to care aide job satisfaction differ from those reported among hospital nurses, supporting the need for different strategies to improve care aide job satisfaction in residential long-term care. PMID:26345545

  2. Job Satisfaction among Care Aides in Residential Long-Term Care: A Systematic Review of Contributing Factors, Both Individual and Organizational.

    PubMed

    Squires, Janet E; Hoben, Matthias; Linklater, Stefanie; Carleton, Heather L; Graham, Nicole; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing literature on professional nurses' job satisfaction, job satisfaction by nonprofessional nursing care providers and, in particular, in residential long-term care facilities, is sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence on which factors (individual and organizational) are associated with job satisfaction among care aides, nurse aides, and nursing assistants, who provide the majority of direct resident care, in residential long-term care facilities. Nine online databases were searched. Two authors independently screened, and extracted data and assessed the included publications for methodological quality. Decision rules were developed a priori to draw conclusions on which factors are important to care aide job satisfaction. Forty-two publications were included. Individual factors found to be important were empowerment and autonomy. Six additional individual factors were found to be not important: age, ethnicity, gender, education level, attending specialized training, and years of experience. Organizational factors found to be important were facility resources and workload. Two additional factors were found to be not important: satisfaction with salary/benefits and job performance. Factors important to care aide job satisfaction differ from those reported among hospital nurses, supporting the need for different strategies to improve care aide job satisfaction in residential long-term care. PMID:26345545

  3. Measurement and Analysis of Individualized Care Inventory Responses Comparing Long-Term Care Nurses and Care Aides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Norm; Chappell, Neena L.; Caspar, Sienna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Motivating and enabling formal caregivers to provide individualized resident care has become an increasingly important objective in long-term care (LTC) facilities. The current study set out to examine the structure of responses to the individualized care inventory (ICI). Design and Methods: Samples of 242 registered nurses (RNs)/licensed…

  4. A successful guide in understanding Latino immigrant patients: An aid for health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Allison A.; Garcés-Palacio, Isabel C.; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It has been shown that cultural and linguistic barriers may have a great impact on the quality of health care received by immigrants. The recent growth of Latino immigrants in new areas of the country (particularly in the South) has presented great challenges to the health care system and health care professionals in these states. Through a NCI funded community-based educational program (Sowing the Seeds of Health), we created an informative DVD to aid health care providers in better understanding Latino immigrant health beliefs and health care seeking behaviors. The educational DVD presented information on how to provide culturally competent care as it relates to Latino immigrants, their expectations when seeking care, and common cultural beliefs and practices. Health care professionals and Latino immigrants participated in the development and content of the DVD. Methods The intervention was delivered though various mediums; on-site, on-line, two national webcasts and mailed copies of the DVD. Pre- post self-administered questionnaires assessing knowledge and attitudes regarding culture competency and relevant topics addressed in the DVD. Results Four-hundred and sixty-three (N=463) health care professionals participated from across the United States. Intervention produced significant overall knowledge increase (p-value <0.001) in cultural competency, Latino cultural beliefs and barriers to healthcare access for Latino immigrants. Conclusion The findings indicate that a short DVD offered via multiple mediums may be a promising avenue for educating health care professionals about the needs and expectations of Latino immigrants in the U.S. PMID:22143490

  5. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  6. Feasibility of integrating the "Healthy moves for aging well" program into home care aide services for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae-Hee; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of implementing simple, safe, non-equipment evidence-based movements (Healthy Moves for Aging Well program) using an affordable and sustainable homecare-aide based delivery model that reaches the maximum possible number of frail older adults living at home in Illinois. Two local agencies were asked to identify two experienced home care aides and two inexperienced home care aides (n= 8). Each home care aides delivered the Healthy Moves to four clients (n= 16). Eight home care aides visited the client in the home and were asked to deliver the Healthy Moves program on a regular basis for a four-month time period. Outcome measures included a pre-and post- survey, a functional fitness test (older adults), and interviews. Evaluation procedures focused on older adult participants, homecare aids, and sites. The results showed that both interview and survey data revealed that most participants including older adults, home care aides, and site directors had a positive perception and high satisfaction with the program. Specially, 100% of older adult participants reported that they would recommend the program to others. Additionally, seniors and home care aides reported that they enjoyed working with each other on the program and both site directors reported that dissemination of the program in the State of Illinois employing home care aides was feasible and acceptable. Our study results indicate that Healthy Moves for Aging Well could be safely and successfully be disseminated to frail older adults in the State of Illinois. PMID:25061600

  7. Developing and Implementing Monitoring and Evaluation Methods in the New Era of Expanded Care and Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, R. Cameron; Bicego, George; Marconi, Katherine; Bessinger, Ruth; van Praag, Eric; Noriega-Minichiello, Shanti; Pappas, Gregory; Fronczak, Nancy; Peersman, Greet; Fiorentino, Renee K.; Rugg, Deborah; Novak, John

    2004-01-01

    The sharp rise in the HIV/AIDS burden worldwide has elicited calls for increased efforts to combat the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS. Efforts must continue with the aim to decrease new infections. At the same time, care and treatment services for those already infected can lead to longer, productive lives, thereby minimizing negative effects on…

  8. Prevalence, self-care behaviors, and self-care activities for peripheral neuropathy symptoms of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Patrice K; Voss, Joachim; Wantland, Dean; Lindgren, Teri; Huang, Emily; Holzemer, William L; Cuca, Yvette; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Portillo, Carmen; Willard, Suzanne; Arudo, John; Kirksey, Kenn; Corless, Inge B; Rosa, María E; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary J; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Human, Sarie; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Maryland, Mary; Nokes, Kathleen M; Eller, Lucille; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Brion, John M; Bunch, Elli H; Shannon, Maureen; Nicholas, Thomas P; Viamonte-Ros, Ana; Bain, Catherine A

    2010-03-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual (n = 775), this study examined the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected individuals at 12 sites in the USA, Puerto Rico, and Africa. Neuropathy was reported by 44% of the sample; however, only 29.4% reported initiating self-care behaviors to address the neuropathy symptoms. Antiretroviral therapy was found to increase the frequency of neuropathy symptoms, with an increased mean intensity of 28%. A principal axis factor analysis with Promax rotation was used to assess the relationships in the frequency of use of the 18 self-care activities for neuropathy, revealing three distinct factors: (i) an interactive self-care factor; (ii) a complementary medicine factor; and (iii) a third factor consisting of the negative health items of smoking, alcohol, and street drugs. The study's results suggest that peripheral neuropathy is a common symptom and the presence of neuropathy is associated with self-care behaviors to ameliorate HIV symptoms. The implications for nursing practice include the assessment and evaluation of nursing interventions related to management strategies for neuropathy. PMID:20487335

  9. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care. PMID:23237045

  10. We care don't we? Social workers, the profession and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has impacted all levels of society from the individual to the macro-economic. The continuing spread of infection around the world means that traditional methods of care and support are put under extreme pressure and many families lose their capacity to cope. Social workers are involved in providing care, counseling and support to those affected, and in developing programmes and other interventions to prevent the spread of the disease. Prevention and behaviour change are vital, but access to treatment is an ethical imperative, particularly in developing countries where the epidemic is most prevalent. Social work is a profession uniquely situated to demonstrate leadership in multi-sectoral collaboration in responding to this pandemic. Consequently this paper briefly reviews the scale and current nature of the epidemic and then considers how social workers can help build more compassionate policies at an international level. Social workers can help to create awareness of the negative effects of poverty, tackle gender inequity, help build more effective coalitions and partnerships, and work with other concerned groups and organisations to end stigma and discrimination. Using case examples the paper considers how social workers can help develop caring strategies that improve the lives of those living with HIV and AIDS. PMID:17521984

  11. Pharmacy Student Attitudes and Willingness to Engage in Care with People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Furtek, Kari J.; Malladi, Ruthvik; Ng, Eric; Zhou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the extent to which pharmacy students hold negative attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and to determine whether background variables, student knowledge, and professional attitudes may affect willingness to care for PLWHA. Methods. An online survey tool was developed and administered to 150 pharmacy students in their third professional year. Descriptive and stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. Results. While descriptive results showed a majority of respondents had favorable professional attitudes towards caring for PLWHA, most pharmacy students expressed discomfort with specific attitudes about being in close physical contact and receiving selected services from PLWHA. Multivariate results revealed that: (1) being a minority predicted greater knowledge; (2) having received prior HIV instruction and greater HIV knowledge predicted more positive professional attitudes caring for PLWHA; (3) being more socially liberal, having more positive professional attitudes caring for PLWHA, and having greater empathy towards PLWHA predicted student willingness to provide services. Conclusion. Future educational interventions specifically targeted toward socially conservative whites may impact greater student willingness to care for PLWHA. Additional research should also explore the generalizability of the present findings and modeling to pharmacy students in other regions of the country. PMID:27170816

  12. 77 FR 13324 - Fresenius Medical Care AG & Co. KGaA; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Fresenius Medical Care AG & Co. KGaA; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment... Consent Orders (``Consent Agreement'') from Fresenius Medical Care AG & Co. KGaA (``Fresenius''). The..., Fresenius is required to divest 60 dialysis clinics and terminate one management contract in 43...

  13. 75 FR 42752 - Nestle' HealthCare Nutrition, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Nestle' HealthCare Nutrition, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment AGENCY..., subject to final approval, an agreement containing a consent order from Nestle; HealthCare Nutrition, Inc... Drug Administration (FDA) pursuant to the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA)....

  14. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  15. Children, AIDS and the politics of orphan care in Ethiopia: the extended family revisited.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Tatek; Aase, Asbjorn

    2007-05-01

    The astounding rise in the number of orphans due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic has left many Ethiopian families and communities with enormous childcare problems. Available studies on the capacity and sustainability of the extended family system, which culturally performs the role of care for children in need, suggest two competing theories. The first is grounded in the social rupture thesis and assumes that the traditional system of orphan care is stretched by the impact of the epidemic, and is actually collapsing. By contrast, the second theory counter-suggests that the flexibility and strength of the informal childcare practise, if supported by appropriate interventions, can still support a large number of orphans. Based on a seven-month period of child-focused, qualitative research fieldwork in Ethiopia involving observations; in-depth interviews with orphans (42), social workers (12) and heads of households (18); focus group discussions with orphans (8), elderly people and community leaders (6); and story-writing by children in school contexts, this article explores the trade-offs and social dynamics of orphan care within extended family structures in Ethiopia. It argues that there is a rural-urban divide in the capacity to cater for orphans that emanates from structural differences as well as the socio-cultural and economic values associated with children. The care of orphans within extended family households is also characterised by multiple and reciprocal relationships in care-giving and care-receiving practices. By calling for a contextual understanding of the 'orphan burden', the paper concludes that interventions for orphans may consider care as a continuum in the light of four profiles of extended families, namely rupturing, transient, adaptive, and capable families. PMID:17379371

  16. HIV/AIDS knowledge and occupational risk in primary care health workers from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Baltica Cabieses; Lagunas, Lilian Ferrer; Villarroel, Luis Antonio; Acosta, Rosina Cianelli; Miner, Sarah; Silva, Margarita Bernales

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between knowledge level and occupational risk exposure to HIV/AIDS in primary care health workers. Methodology Analytical cross-sectional study. 720 health workers from Santiago answered a survey about HIV/AIDS that included: knowledge level (appropriate, inappropriate), occupational risk (with or without risk), and control variables (age, gender, health center, education and marital status). Descriptive and association analysis were performed. Odds Ratio (OR) was estimated through simple and multiple regressions logistics. Results 58.7% of the participants reported HIV occupational risk. 63.8% of the participants from the exposed group reported an appropriate level of knowledge, versus 36.1% of the non-exposed group (Adjusted OR of 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p<0.0001). Technicians and cleaning staff reported a lower proportion of appropriate level of knowledge compared to the employees with college education (p<0.0001). Conclusion The level of HIV/AID occupational risk is directly associated with the level of knowledge of the disease. PMID:25284913

  17. EXPERIENCES OF HIV/AIDS STIGMA OF PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS AND NURSES INVOLVED IN THEIR CARE FROM FIVE AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Greeff, Minrie; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucia N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Phetlhu, Rene D.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of stigma has received significant attention in recent years in the HIV/AIDS literature. Although there is some change towards the positive, AIDS still remains a significantly stigmatized condition. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to influence people living with and affected by HIV (PLWA), as well as their health-care providers. Unless stigma is conquered, the illness will not be defeated. Due to the burden that HIV/AIDS places on people living in Africa, a five-year project entitled Perceived AIDS Stigma: A Multinational African Study was undertaken. The focus of the first phase of this project was on exploring and describing the meaning and effect of stigma on PLWA from the experiences of PLWA and the nurses involved in their care in five African countries: Lesotho, Swaziland, Malawi, South Africa and Tanzania. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore and describe the experience of stigma through the critical incident method. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilized. Forty-three focus group discussions were held with respondents to relate incidences which they themselves observed, as well as those that they themselves experienced in the community and in families. The transcribed data was analyzed through the technique of open coding using the NVivo 2.0 analysis package. Three types of stigma (received stigma, internal stigma and associated stigma) and several dimensions for each of these types of stigma emerged from the data. Recommendations were made to pursue these findings further. PMID:20052299

  18. EXPERIENCES OF HIV/AIDS STIGMA OF PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS AND NURSES INVOLVED IN THEIR CARE FROM FIVE AFRICAN COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Greeff, Minrie; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucia N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Phetlhu, Rene D

    2008-01-01

    The concept of stigma has received significant attention in recent years in the HIV/AIDS literature. Although there is some change towards the positive, AIDS still remains a significantly stigmatized condition. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to influence people living with and affected by HIV (PLWA), as well as their health-care providers. Unless stigma is conquered, the illness will not be defeated. Due to the burden that HIV/AIDS places on people living in Africa, a five-year project entitled Perceived AIDS Stigma: A Multinational African Study was undertaken. The focus of the first phase of this project was on exploring and describing the meaning and effect of stigma on PLWA from the experiences of PLWA and the nurses involved in their care in five African countries: Lesotho, Swaziland, Malawi, South Africa and Tanzania. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore and describe the experience of stigma through the critical incident method. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilized. Forty-three focus group discussions were held with respondents to relate incidences which they themselves observed, as well as those that they themselves experienced in the community and in families. The transcribed data was analyzed through the technique of open coding using the NVivo 2.0 analysis package. Three types of stigma (received stigma, internal stigma and associated stigma) and several dimensions for each of these types of stigma emerged from the data. Recommendations were made to pursue these findings further. PMID:20052299

  19. Facing adolescence and adulthood: the importance of mental health care in the global pediatric AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Domek, Gretchen J

    2009-04-01

    With the increasing global accessibility of antiretrovirals, many HIV-positive children now face a future once thought impossible. As these children grow, they face unique psychosocial stressors that differ from any previous chronic or incurable childhood illness. Studies have already described an increased prevalence of mental health disorders among this population. In addition, other studies have illustrated the known future health consequences of adverse childhood experiences, similar but not related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article connects these studies and predicts the grave future health consequences likely to be faced if pediatric mental health care is not addressed. Practical solutions are described that often go hand-in-hand with the current global scale-up of antiretroviral accessibility. These include scaling-up mental health services, educating communities, supporting school-based programs, promoting the role of nongovernmental organizations, and strengthening families and the community to provide a safe and secure home environment for children. HIV-positive children are likely to face future physical and psychological health consequences related to the psychosocial challenges they face as children if mental health care is not made a priority in the current global fight against AIDS. PMID:19363366

  20. [EMOTIONAL MANAGEMENT AND CRITICAL THINKING IN THE AID RELATIONSHIP OF THE HOLISTIC CARE OF PALLIATIVE PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    De Blas Gómez, Irene; Rodríguez García, Marta

    2015-05-01

    To care for palliative patients is essential that healthcare professionals develop emotional competencies. This means acquiring the habit of self reflection and be emphatic with other people, in order to be able to identify the personal emotions of patients, family and team. Reflection involves a continuing effort to reason about aspects of professional practice, especially on issues as complex as suffering and death. Both reflective reasoning and emotional management are vital in an Aid Relationship. For nursing healthcare professionals, to care the emotional aspects means becoming aware of their own and others feelings, and get to understand and accept to handle them properly. Nursing actions involves many qualities of social competence, such as empathy, understanding, communication skills, honesty, flexibility and adaptability to the individual needs of people cared. In the context of palliative care patients and their families all these aspects are fundamental and are part of the same philosophy. Emotional education still remains a challenge in our profession both in the initial and continuing training. PMID:26540895

  1. Unhealthy Substance Use Behaviors as Symptom-Related Self-Care in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430

  2. Management of Chronic Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-Fertilisation between HIV/AIDS and Diabetes Care

    PubMed Central

    van Olmen, Josefien; Schellevis, François; Van Damme, Wim; Kegels, Guy; Rasschaert, Freya

    2012-01-01

    There is growing attention for chronic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and for bridges between the management of HIV/AIDS and other (noncommunicable) chronic diseases. This becomes more urgent with increasing numbers of people living with both HIV/AIDS and other chronic conditions. This paper discusses the commonalities between chronic diseases by reviewing models of care, focusing on the two most dominant ones, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and HIV/AIDS. We argue that in order to cope with care for HIV patients and diabetes patients, health systems in SSA need to adopt new strategies taking into account essential elements of chronic disease care. We developed a “chronic dimension framework,” which analyses the “disease dimension,” the “health provider dimension,” the patient or “person dimension,” and the “environment dimension” of chronic diseases. Applying this framework to HIV/AIDS and DM2 shows that it is useful to think about management of both in tandem, comparing care delivery platforms and self-management strategies. A literature review on care delivery models for diabetes and HIV/AIDS in SSA revealed potential elements for cross-fertilisation: rapid scale-up approaches through the public health approach by simplification and decentralisation; community involvement, peer support, and self-management strategies; and strengthening health services. PMID:23209477

  3. Perceptions of Shared Decision Making and Decision Aids Among Rural Primary Care Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Melinda M.; Gorman, Paul N.; Rugge, J. Bruin; Fagnan, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Shared Decision Making (SDM) and Decision Aids (DAs) increase patients’ involvement in healthcare decisions and enhance satisfaction with their choices. Studies of SDM and DAs have primarily occurred in academic centers and large health systems, but most primary care is delivered in smaller practices and over 20% of Americans live in rural areas where poverty, disease prevalence and limited access to care may increase the need for SDM and DAs. Objective To explore perceptions and practices of rural primary care clinicians regarding SDM and DAs. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting and Participants Primary care clinicians affiliated with the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN). Results Surveys were returned by 181 of 231 eligible participants (78%), 174 could be analyzed. Two-thirds of participants were physicians, 84% practiced family medicine, and 55% were male. Sixty five percent of respondents were unfamiliar with the term “SDM”, but following definition, 97% reported they found the approach useful for conditions with multiple treatment options. Over 90% of clinicians perceived helping patients make decisions regarding chronic pain and health behavior change as moderate/hard in difficulty. Although 69% of respondents preferred that patients play an equal role in making decisions, they estimate this happens only 35% of the time. Time was reported as the largest barrier to engaging in SDM (63%). Respondents were receptive to using DAs to facilitate SDM in printed (95%) or web-based formats (72%) and topic preference varied by clinician specialty and decision difficulty. Conclusions Rural clinicians recognized the value of SDM and were receptive to using DAs in multiple formats. Integration of DAs to facilitate SDM in routine patient care may require addressing practice operation and reimbursement. PMID:22247423

  4. Reliability estimation procedures and CARE: The Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1971-01-01

    Ultrareliable fault-tolerant onboard digital systems for spacecraft intended for long mission life exploration of the outer planets are under development. The design of systems involving self-repair and fault-tolerance leads to the companion problem of quantifying and evaluating the survival probability of the system for the mission under consideration and the constraints imposed upon the system. Methods have been developed to (1) model self-repair and fault-tolerant organizations; (2) compute survival probability, mean life, and many other reliability predictive functions with respect to various systems and mission parameters; (3) perform sensitivity analysis of the system with respect to mission parameters; and (4) quantitatively compare competitive fault-tolerant systems. Various measures of comparison are offered. To automate the procedures of reliability mathematical modeling and evaluation, the CARE (computer-aided reliability estimation) program was developed. CARE is an interactive program residing on the UNIVAC 1108 system, which makes the above calculations and facilitates report preparation by providing output in tabular form, graphical 2-dimensional plots, and 3-dimensional projections. The reliability estimation of fault-tolerant organization by means of the CARE program is described.

  5. The evolving role of health care aides in the long-term care and home and community care sectors in Canada.

    PubMed

    Berta, Whitney; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa; Baumann, Andrea; Gamble, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Health Care Aides (HCAs) provide up to 80% of the direct care to older Canadians living in long-term care facilities, or in their homes. They are an understudied workforce, and calls for health human resources strategies relating to these workers are, we feel, precipitous. First, we need a better understanding of the nature and scope of their work, and of the factors that shape it. Here, we discuss the evolving role of HCAs and the factors that impact how and where they work. The work of HCAs includes role-required behaviors, an increasing array of delegated acts, and extra-role behaviors like emotional support. Role boundaries, particularly instances where some workers over-invest in care beyond expected levels, are identified as one of the biggest concerns among employers of HCAs in the current cost-containment environment. A number of factors significantly impact what these workers do and where they work, including market-level differences, job mobility, and work structure. In Canada, entry into this 'profession' is increasingly constrained to the Home and Community Care sector, while market-level and work structure differences constrain job mobility to transitions of only the most experienced workers, to the long-term care sector. We note that this is in direct opposition to recent policy initiatives designed to encourage aging at home. Work structure influences what these workers do, and how they work; many HCAs work for three or four different agencies in order to sustain themselves and their families. Expectations with regard to HCA preparation have changed over the past decade in Canada, and training is emerging as a high priority health human resource issue. An increasing emphasis on improving quality of care and measuring performance, and on integrated team-based care delivery, has considerable implications for worker training. New models of care delivery foreshadow a need for management and leadership expertise--these workers have not historically been

  6. The evolving role of health care aides in the long-term care and home and community care sectors in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Health Care Aides (HCAs) provide up to 80% of the direct care to older Canadians living in long term care facilities, or in their homes. They are an understudied workforce, and calls for health human resources strategies relating to these workers are, we feel, precipitous. First, we need a better understanding of the nature and scope of their work, and of the factors that shape it. Here, we discuss the evolving role of HCAs and the factors that impact how and where they work. The work of HCAs includes role-required behaviors, an increasing array of delegated acts, and extra-role behaviors like emotional support. Role boundaries, particularly instances where some workers over-invest in care beyond expected levels, are identified as one of the biggest concerns among employers of HCAs in the current cost-containment environment. A number of factors significantly impact what these workers do and where they work, including market-level differences, job mobility, and work structure. In Canada, entry into this ‘profession’ is increasingly constrained to the Home and Community Care sector, while market-level and work structure differences constrain job mobility to transitions of only the most experienced workers, to the long-term care sector. We note that this is in direct opposition to recent policy initiatives designed to encourage aging at home. Work structure influences what these workers do, and how they work; many HCAs work for three or four different agencies in order to sustain themselves and their families. Expectations with regard to HCA preparation have changed over the past decade in Canada, and training is emerging as a high priority health human resource issue. An increasing emphasis on improving quality of care and measuring performance, and on integrated team-based care delivery, has considerable implications for worker training. New models of care delivery foreshadow a need for management and leadership expertise - these workers have not historically

  7. The HIV Primary Care Workforce of Tomorrow: The UCSF Integrated HIV/AIDS Primary Care Capacity Nurse Practitioner Program.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Carmen J; Stringari-Murray, Suzan; Fox, Christopher B; Monasterio, Erica; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for primary care services and the current health care workforce shortage is predicted to cause drastic reductions in the number of clinicians who are competent to provide HIV care. For the past decade, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Nursing has provided HIV specialty education for Advanced Practice Nursing students in the Master's curriculum. In 2013, UCSF was funded by the Health Resources Services Administration to establish a nurse practitioner (NP) HIV primary care education program to expand the number of NPs prepared to provide culturally appropriate comprehensive HIV primary care. To this end, UCSF faculty have developed and validated a set of HIV Primary Care entry-level NP competencies, integrated general HIV knowledge into the NP curriculum, and enhanced our current HIV Specialty curriculum and clinical training. Described herein is UCSF's Integrated HIV/AIDS Primary Care Capacity Nurse Practitioner Program. PMID:27086186

  8. Accuracy of a Decision Aid for Advance Care Planning: Simulated End-of-Life Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Heverley, Steven R.; Green, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Advance directives have been criticized for failing to help physicians make decisions consistent with patients’ wishes. This pilot study sought to determine if an interactive, computer-based decision aid that generates an advance directive can help physicians accurately translate patients’ wishes into treatment decisions. Methods We recruited 19 patient-participants who had each previously created an advance directive using a computer-based decision aid, and 14 physicians who had no prior knowledge of the patient-participants. For each advance directive, three physicians were randomly assigned to review the advance directive and make five to six treatment decisions for each of six (potentially) end-of-life clinical scenarios. From the three individual physicians’ responses, a “consensus physician response” was generated for each treatment decision (total decisions = 32). This consensus response was shared with the patient whose advance directive had been reviewed, and she/he was then asked to indicate how well the physician translated his/her wishes into clinical decisions. Results Patient-participants agreed with the consensus physician responses 84 percent (508/608) of the time, including 82 percent agreement on whether to provide mechanical ventilation, and 75 percent on decisions about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Across the six vignettes, patient-participants’ rating of how well physicians translated their advance directive into medical decisions was 8.4 (range = 6.5–10, where 1 = extremely poorly, and 10 = extremely well). Physicians’ overall rating of their confidence at accurately translating patients’ wishes into clinical decisions was 7.8 (range = 6.1–9.3, 1 = not at all confident, 10 = extremely confident). Conclusion For simulated cases, a computer-based decision aid for advance care planning can help physicians more confidently make end-of-life decisions that patients will endorse. PMID:22167985

  9. Quality of Care for HIV/AIDS and for Primary Prevention by HIV Specialists and Nonspecialists.

    PubMed

    Landovitz, Raphael J; Desmond, Katherine A; Gildner, Jennifer L; Leibowitz, Arleen A

    2016-09-01

    The role of HIV specialists in providing primary care to persons living with HIV/AIDS is evolving, given their increased incidence of comorbidities. Multivariate logit analysis compared compliance with sentinel preventive screening tests and interventions among publicly insured Californians with and without access to HIV specialists in 2010. Quality-of-care indicators [visit frequency, CD4 and viral load (VL) assessments, influenza vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) testing, lipid profile, glucose blood test, and Pap smears for women] were related to patient characteristics and provider HIV caseload. There were 9377 adult Medicare enrollees (71% also had Medicaid coverage) and 2076 enrollees with only Medicaid coverage. Adjusted for patient characteristics, patients seeing providers with greater HIV caseloads (>50 HIV patients) were more likely to meet visit frequency guidelines in both Medicare [98%; confidence interval (CI 97.5-98.2) and Medicaid (97%; CI 96.2-98.0), compared to 60% (CI 57.1-62.3) and 45% (CI 38.3-50.4), respectively, seeing providers without large HIV caseloads (p < 0.001). Patients seeing providers with larger caseloads were significantly more likely to have CD4 (p < 0.001), VL (p < 0.001), and TB testing (p < 0.05). A larger percentage of patients seeing large-volume Medicare providers received influenza vaccinations. Provider caseload was unrelated to lipid or glucose assessments or Pap Smears for women. Patients with access to large-volume providers were more likely to meet clinical guidelines for visits, CD4, VL, tuberculosis testing, and influenza vaccinations, and were not less likely to receive primary preventive care. Substantial insufficiencies remain in both monitoring to assess viral suppression and in preventive care. PMID:27610461

  10. Preferences for professional versus informal care at end of life amongst African-American drug users with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Smith, Thomas J; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of antiretroviral therapies, persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIVs) are living longer but with increased impairment and care needs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a vulnerable population of PLHIVs preferred informal versus professional care when unable to care for themselves, and individual and support network factors associated with preference for informal care. The findings have potential implications for facilitating the population's informal care at end of life. Data were from the BEACON study, which examined social factors associated with health outcomes among former or current drug-using PLHIVs in Baltimore, MD. Structural equation modeling was used to identify individual and support network characteristics associated with PLHIVs' preference for informal (family or friends) compared to professional care. The structural equation model indicated preference for informal care was associated with female sex, greater informal care receipt, reporting one's main partner (i.e., boy/girlfriend or spouse) as the primary source of informal care, and a support network comprised greater numbers of female kin and persons supportive of the participant's HIV treatment adherence. Not asking for needed help to avoid owing favors was associated with preferring professional care. Findings suggest that interventions to promote informal end of life care should bolster supportive others' resources and skills for care provision and treatment adherence support, and should address perceived norms of reciprocity. Such intervention will help ensure community caregiving in a population with high needs for long-term care. PMID:25196174

  11. Working with Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Virginia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This special section features research concluding that volunteers find the time because they believe they have more time to help (Rowland); an extension program using volunteer master teachers (Feather); use of volunteer marketing professionals (Fromer); retaining volunteers through leadership training (Balliette, Smith); "problem" volunteers and…

  12. Creating and sustaining an effective coaching culture in home care: one organization's performance improvement related to aides and aide retention.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marki

    2011-05-01

    Relationships between aides and their supervisors are often challenging. Unproductive disciplinary conversations lead to increased dissatisfaction, low morale, high turnover, and stress levels among staff. This cycle can continue to spiral if not effectively addressed and aimed in a positive direction. This article shares the experience of an organization that addressed this concern through a performance improvement initiative. PMID:21543917

  13. Implementing emergency manuals: can cognitive aids help translate best practices for patient care during acute events?

    PubMed

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Sara N; Howard, Steven K

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we address whether emergency manuals are an effective means of helping anesthesiologists and perioperative teams apply known best practices for critical events. We review the relevant history of such cognitive aids in health care, as well as examples from other high stakes industries, and describe why emergency manuals have a role in improving patient care during certain events. We propose 4 vital elements: create, familiarize, use, and integrate, necessary for the widespread, successful development, and implementation of medical emergency manuals, using the specific example of the perioperative setting. The details of each element are presented, drawing from the medical literature as well as from our combined experience of more than 30 years of observing teams of anesthesiologists managing simulated and real critical events. We emphasize the importance of training clinicians in the use of emergency manuals for education on content, format, and location. Finally, we discuss cultural readiness for change, present a system example of successful integration, and highlight the importance of further research on the implementation of emergency manuals. PMID:24108251

  14. Western health practitioners' view about African traditional health practitioners' treatment and care of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Summerton, J V

    2006-08-01

    African traditional health practitioners are an important source of health care for many South Africans. Thus, they are a health resource in this society. However, the integration of traditional health practitioners into the mainstream of health care is a complex process. Various factors contribute to this complexity, including the skepticism and reservation with which some western health practitioners view traditional health practitioners. This paper highlights the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the traditional healing system for people living with HIV/AIDS, as perceived by western health practitioners. The use of traditional practitioners as a choice of health care is attributed to both the strengths and weaknesses of this system of health care. The strength of the traditional healing system is in its sharing of the worldview and belief system of its users, it being an alternative to an inefficient western health care system (official system), privacy and absence of time limitations per consultation, treating patients psychologically, and scientifically unexplained physiological relief of the symptoms of specific illnesses. The perceived weaknesses of the traditional healing system include harmful treatment regimens, especially for people living with HIV/AIDS; prolonging the seeking of appropriate health care when traditional remedies fail to produce the desired effect; destroying interpersonal relationships of people living with HIV/AIDS through witchcraft accusations; psychological torment caused by the belief that HIV/AIDS can be cured by traditional remedies/intervention; and increasing the workload of western practitioners who are requested by patients to conduct multiple HIV tests after undergoing various traditional treatment regimens to cure HIV/AIDS. It is recommended that traditional practitioners be encouraged to adapt harmful traditional healing practices to the benefit of their patients in a non-judgemental and non-critical manner. In addition

  15. Use of job aids to improve facility-based postnatal counseling and care in rural Benin.

    PubMed

    Jennings, L; Yebadokpo, A; Affo, J; Agbogbe, M

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the effect of a job aids-focused intervention on quality of facility-based postnatal counseling, and whether increased communication improved in-hospital newborn care and maternal knowledge of home practices and danger signs requiring urgent care. Ensuring mothers and newborns receive essential postnatal services, including health counseling, is integral to their survival. Yet, quality of clinic-based postnatal services is often low, and evidence on effective improvement strategies is scarce. Using a pre-post randomized design, data were drawn from direct observations and interviews with 411 mother-newborn pairs. Multi-level regression models with difference-in-differences analyses estimated the intervention's relative effect, adjusting for changes in the comparison arm. The mean percent of recommended messages provided to recently-delivered women significantly improved in the intervention arm as compared to the control (difference-in-differences [∆i - ∆c] +30.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 19.3, 42.5), and the proportion of newborns thermally protected within the first hour (∆i - ∆c +33.7, 95 % CI 19.0, 48.4) and delayed for bathing (∆i - ∆c +23.9, 95 % CI 9.4, 38.4) significantly increased. No significant changes were observed in early breastfeeding (∆i - ∆c +6.8, 95 % CI -2.8, 16.4) which was nearly universal. Omitting traditional umbilical cord substances rose slightly, but was insignificant (∆i - ∆c +8.5, 95 % CI -2.8, 19.9). The proportion of mothers with correct knowledge of maternal (∆i - ∆c +27.8, 95 % CI 11.0, 44.6) and newborn (∆i - ∆c +40.3, 95 % CI 22.2, 58.4) danger signs grew substantially, as did awareness of several home-care practices (∆i - ∆c +26.0, 95 % CI 7.7, 44.3). Counseling job aids can improve the quality of postnatal services. However, achieving reduction goals in maternal and neonatal mortality will likely require more comprehensive approaches to link enhanced facility services with

  16. University Students' Perception of People Living with HIV/AIDS: Discomfort, Fear, Knowledge and a Willingness to Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtsonen, Jarmo; Kylmä, Jari; Korhonen, Teija; Välimäki, Maritta; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are often subject to blame, fear and avoidance, particularly if they are perceived as personally responsible for their infection due to their risky behaviour or life style choices. Some people however, react to PLWHA with sympathy and a willingness to care. This paper explores how university students (n = 282)…

  17. Activities for Preschoolers--A Laboratory Manual for Use by Child-Care Teacher-Aide Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Jean

    This laboratory manual for use by child care and teacher aide students is arranged by topic according to the months and holidays of the school year. Suggested activities, songs, fingerplays, and poems are included for each topic, along with a list of related resource books. Many of the activities and songs include a number in parentheses following…

  18. A Comprehensive Careers Cluster Curriculum Model. Health Occupations Cluster Curriculum Project and Health-Care Aide Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortz, Richard F.

    To prepare learning materials for health careers programs at the secondary level, the developmental phase of two curriculum projects--the Health Occupations Cluster Curriculum Project and Health-Care Aide Curriculum Project--utilized a model which incorporated a key factor analysis technique. Entitled "A Comprehensive Careers Cluster Curriculum…

  19. Determinants of longer job tenure among home care aides: what makes some stay on the job while others leave?

    PubMed

    Butler, Sandra S; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Wardamasky, Sara; Ashley, Alison

    2014-03-01

    An inadequate supply of direct care workers and a high turnover rate in the workforce has resulted in a "care gap" in our long-term care system. As people are increasingly choosing community-based care, retention of home care workers is particularly important. The mixed-method study described herein explored determinants of longer job tenure for home care aides (n = 261). Study participants were followed for 18 months, completing two mail surveys and one telephone interview each. Predictors of longer job tenure included older age, living rurally, lower physical function, higher wages, a greater sense of autonomy on the job, and less frequent feelings of personal accomplishment. Thematic analysis of telephone interviews revealed long-term stayers to be less concerned about low wages and inconsistent hours than those who left their jobs within a year; both groups of workers reported high levels of job satisfaction. Policy implications of study findings are discussed. PMID:24652953

  20. Volunteering and Volunteers: Benefit-Cost Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Femida; Mook, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of volunteering from a benefit-cost perspective. Both the individual making a decision to volunteer and the organization making a decision to use volunteer labor face benefits and costs of their actions, yet these costs and benefits almost always remain unarticulated, perhaps because the common perception of…

  1. The grief experience of prison inmate hospice volunteer caregivers.

    PubMed

    Supiano, Katherine P; Cloyes, Kristin G; Berry, Patricia H

    2014-01-01

    Correctional institutions are obligated to provide end-of-life care to a population with complex medical needs. Prison hospices are increasingly being formed to address this demand. Few empirical studies have examined the impact of caring for dying inmates on the hospice inmate volunteers, who, in several prison health care systems, provide direct care. In this study, experiences of the inmate hospice volunteers with death were investigated to illuminate their grief processes. Understanding the bereavement needs of hospice volunteers and how prison hospice volunteers navigate grief and remain committed to providing excellent hospice care can inform the grief processes and practices of hospice care professionals. PMID:24628143

  2. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Indonesia: does primary health care as a prevention and intervention strategy work?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Kusman; Songwathana, Praneed; Boonyasopun, Umaporn; Francis, Karen

    2010-04-01

    The continuing increase in the number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Indonesia is impacting on society. Various policies and strategies have been adopted and implemented to tackle this epidemic including primary health-care (PHC) initiatives. This paper describes the current HIV/AIDS epidemic in Indonesia and highlights a range of prevention and intervention initiatives introduced to limit the spread and impact of this disease factors, such as the characteristics of high-risk groups, the decentralization policy in the health sector, and the lack of skilled human resources and supplies in health centres have been identified as influencing access to health-care services among high-risk groups. Revitalization of a PHC approach coupled with adequate fiscal, infrastructure and human resources if addressed will increase of PLWHA and other risk groups to health care. PMID:20487052

  3. System and Patient Barriers to Care among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Houston/Harris County, Texas: HIV Medical Care Providers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Salma; Bell, Tanvir K; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Arafat, Raouf; Essien, Ekere James; Singh, Mamta; Aguilar, Jonathan; Roland, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, a considerable number of people diagnosed with HIV are not receiving HIV medical care due to some barriers. Using data from the Medical Monitoring Project survey of HIV medical care providers in Houston/Harris County, Texas, we assessed the HIV medical care providers' perspectives of the system and patient barriers to HIV care experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study findings indicate that of the 14 HIV care barriers identified, only 1 system barrier and 7 patient barriers were considered of significant (P ≤ .05) importance, with the proportion of HIV medical care providers' agreement to these barriers ranging from 73.9% (cost of health care) to 100% (lack of social support systems and drug abuse problems). Providers' perception of important system and patient barriers varied significantly (P ≤ .05) by profession, race/ethnicity, and years of experience in HIV care. To improve access to and for consistent engagement in HIV care, effective intervention programs are needed to address the barriers identified especially in the context of the new health care delivery system. PMID:24943655

  4. Sterilization for Large Volunteer Temporary Clinics.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Eve

    2015-12-01

    Large portable clinics staffed by volunteers present many unique challenges, including establishing appropriate instrument processing services. This article explores many of the specific steps an organization can take to ensure a safe care environment for patients and a safe working environment for volunteers. PMID:26819989

  5. A VNA-Organized Hospice Volunteer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorang, Edith S.

    1981-01-01

    Factors contributing to the success of a hospice volunteer program, organized by a visiting nurse association, include patient involvement in defining agency expectations of a volunteer, careful selection of candidates, a well-planned training program, contractual agreements, and record-keeping. (CT)

  6. Complex lives: resiliency of African American Women with HIV/AIDS serving as informal kinship care providers.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Charu

    2014-01-01

    Using the resiliency model as a framework, this qualitative description study was designed to elicit the experiences of African American women living with HIV/AIDS serving as informal kinship care providers. Themes emerging from the interviews included (a) strengths of informal social supports, (b) benefits of living with HIV as opposed to women who are not HIV positive, and (c) negative experiences of child welfare services. Findings suggest a plethora of resources women accessed through community-based agencies because of their HIV/AIDS status, as opposed to child welfare agencies. PMID:24802222

  7. Subjective experience of coercion in psychiatric care: a study comparing the attitudes of patients and healthy volunteers towards coercive methods and their justification.

    PubMed

    Mielau, J; Altunbay, J; Gallinat, J; Heinz, A; Bermpohl, F; Lehmann, A; Montag, C

    2016-06-01

    Under certain conditions, coercive interventions in psychotic patients can help to regain insight and alleviate symptoms, but can also traumatize subjects. This study explored attitudes towards psychiatric coercive interventions in healthy individuals and persons suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder. The impact of personal history of coercive treatment on preferences concerning clinical management of patients unable to consent was investigated. Six case vignettes depicting scenarios of ethical dilemmas and demanding decisions in favour of or against coercive interventions were presented to 60 healthy volunteers and 90 patients. Structured interviews focusing on experienced coercion were performed in conjunction with the Coercion Experience Scale and the Admission Experience Survey. Symptom severity, psychosocial functioning and insight into illness were assessed as influencing variables. Student's t tests compared patients' and controls' judgments, followed by regression analyses to define the predictive value of symptoms and measures of coercion on judgments regarding the total patient sample and patients with experience of fixation. Patients and non-psychiatric controls showed no significant difference in their attitudes towards involuntary admission and forced medication. Conversely, patients more than controls significantly disapproved of mechanical restraint. Subjective experience of coercive interventions played an important role for the justification of treatment against an individual's "natural will". Factors influencing judgments on coercion were overall functioning and personal experience of treatment effectiveness and fairness. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of perceived coercion, in addition to insight into illness, predicted judgments of previously fixated patients. Results underline the importance of the quality of practical implementation and care, if coercive interventions cannot be avoided. PMID:25900468

  8. When Volunteers Attack!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    Working with alumni volunteers shouldn't create horror and suspense. Following a few key steps can help maintain a smooth relationship between alumni volunteers and the alumni relations office staff. In this article, the author discusses how to manage volunteers and keep the alumni volunteer relationship on track.

  9. Evaluation of the care of women living with HIV/AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Segurado, Aluisio Cotrim; Miranda, Shirlei Duarte; Latorre, Maria-Do-Rosário Dias Oliveira

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate care provided to women living with HIV in São Paulo, Brazil, based on their own experiences, patients from HIV/AIDS reference clinics answered a questionnaire on circumstances of HIV testing, health personnel's attitudes at diagnosis, adherence to follow-up, services provided by care centers and access to laboratory monitoring. From September 1999 to February 2000, 1,068 women were interviewed. Most had over 8 years of education and reported having regular sexual partners, being mothers and family caregivers. They were diagnosed as HIV-infected for 4.36 +/- 3.15 years. The majority had been referred to testing without counseling. Post-test counseling was provided depending on the testing center. Neither pre-test nor post-test counseling were associated to time since diagnosis. Some patients reported having felt indifference, discrimination or criticism at diagnosis, depending on where testing occurred. Compliance to medical follow-up was associated to adherence to antiretrovirals and to shorter time since diagnosis, but not with having a primary caregiver or with commuting time to the care center. Psychological support, nutrition care and oral health were women's less addressed needs. Access to gynecological care was associated with counseling on mother-to-child transmission and on safe sex. Access to CD4+ cell counts and HIV viral loads was concordant with guidelines, but the understanding of their meaning was incomplete. We conclude that women living with HIV/AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil have limited HIV risk perception and unmet care needs. Better training of professionals in charge of diagnosis and integrating women's health and family-planning actions to AIDS programs may enhance care. PMID:12639291

  10. Caregiver Burden among Adults Caring for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vishnu; Chowta, Nithyananda; Ramapuram, John; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Jose, Hyma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, family caregivers provide bulk of care to People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Caregiver burden refers to the physical, emotional and financial hardships associated with providing care to a diseased individual. Attending to the needs of PLWHA can place a significant burden on family members. This may adversely affect their Quality of Life (QOL). Aim The main aim of our study was to assess the caregiver burden and QOL among the family members of PLWHA in Southern India. We also determined the impact of caregiver burden on QOL. Materials and Methods This facility based cross-sectional study was carried out at Kasturba Medical College (KMC) Mangalore. The study was conducted over a period of 18 months starting from October 2013. A total of 360 caregivers participated in our study. The data were collected by face-to-face interview. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden scale & WHOQOL-BREF scale was used to assess the QOL of caregivers. The collected data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of caregivers was 36.09± 10.18 years. Most of the caregivers were females 279 (77.5%). Majority of caregivers 184 (51.1%) belonged to Middle/Lower Middle socioeconomic class (Kuppuswamy class III). Majority of PLWHA 155 (43.1%) had Stage 2 disease. Mean CD4 count of the patients was 405.2± 240 cells/μL. In our study 88(24.4%) caregivers had moderate to severe burden and 36(10%) had very severe burden. Physical domain of QOL showed maximum score of 60.28±13.08, while a minimum score of 51.88 ± 14.20 was seen in social domain. With increase in caregiver burden, the mean QOL scores decreased which was statistically significant. Conclusion Our study highlights the need to counsel the caregivers on how to deal with PLWHA in the family. Family care plays a major role in the general wellbeing of PLWHA. Majority of national HIV programmes all

  11. Preferences for Professional vs. Informal Care at End of Life Amongst African American Drug Users with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Mary M.; Robinson, Allysha C.; Nguyen, Trang Q.; Smith, Thomas J.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction With the advent of antiretroviral therapies (ART), persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIVs) are living longer, but with increased impairment and care needs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a vulnerable population of PLHIVs preferred informal versus professional care when unable to care for themselves, and individual and support network factors associated with preference for informal care. The findings have potential implications for facilitating the population’s informal care at end of life. Method Data were from the BEACON study, which examined social factors associated with health outcomes among former or current drug using PLHIVs in Baltimore, Maryland. Structural equation modeling was used to identify individual and support network characteristics associated with PLHIVs’ preference for informal (family or friends) compared to professional care. Results The structural equation model indicated preference for informal care was associated with female sex, greater informal care receipt, reporting one’s main partner (i.e., boy/girlfriend, spouse) as the primary source of informal care, and a support network comprised of greater numbers of female kin and persons supportive of the participant’s HIV treatment adherence. Not asking for needed help to avoid owing favors was associated with preferring professional care. Discussion Findings suggest that interventions to promote informal end of life care should bolster supportive others’ resources and skills for care provision and treatment adherence support, and should address perceived norms of reciprocity. Such intervention will help ensure community caregiving in a population with high needs for long term care. PMID:25196174

  12. Effect of Peer Health Workers on AIDS Care in Rakai, Uganda: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Larry W.; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Ssempijja, Victor; Packer, Arnold H.; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gray, Ronald H.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Reynolds, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Human resource limitations are a challenge to the delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-resource settings. We conducted a cluster randomized trial to assess the effect of community-based peer health workers (PHW) on AIDS care of adults in Rakai, Uganda. Methodology/Principal Findings 15 AIDS clinics were randomized 2∶1 to receive the PHW intervention (n = 10) or control (n = 5). PHW tasks included clinic and home-based provision of counseling, clinical, adherence to ART, and social support. Primary outcomes were adherence and cumulative risk of virologic failure (>400 copies/mL). Secondary outcomes were virologic failure at each 24 week time point up to 192 weeks of ART. Analysis was by intention to treat. From May 2006 to July 2008, 1336 patients were followed. 444 (33%) of these patients were already on ART at the start of the study. No significant differences were found in lack of adherence (<95% pill count adherence risk ratio [RR] 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–1.35; <100% adherence RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.94–1.30), cumulative risk of virologic failure (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.61–1.08) or in shorter-term virologic outcomes (24 week virologic failure RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.65–1.32; 48 week, RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.47–1.48; 72 week, RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.44–1.49). However, virologic failure rates ≥96 weeks into ART were significantly decreased in the intervention arm compared to the control arm (96 week failure RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31–0.81; 120 week, RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.22–1.60; 144 week, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16–0.95; 168 week, RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.097–0.92; 192 week, RR 0.067, 95% CI 0.0065–0.71). Conclusions/Significance A PHW intervention was associated with decreased virologic failure rates occurring 96 weeks and longer into ART, but did not affect cumulative risk of virologic failure, adherence measures, or shorter-term virologic outcomes. PHWs may be an effective intervention to sustain long-term ART in low-resource settings

  13. Volunteering Internationally: Why, Where and How.

    PubMed

    Frost, David E; Kelly, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Oral health volunteers have an important role in addressing oral health care shortages around the world, but to be effective they need to understand and prepare for the challenges of working overseas. PMID:26819987

  14. Task shifting in Mozambique: cross-sectional evaluation of non-physician clinicians' performance in HIV/AIDS care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many resource-constrained countries now train non-physician clinicians in HIV/AIDS care, a strategy known as 'task-shifting.' There is as yet no evidence-based international standard for training these cadres. In 2007, the Mozambican Ministry of Health (MOH) conducted a nationwide evaluation of the quality of care delivered by non-physician clinicians (técnicos de medicina, or TMs), after a two-week in-service training course emphasizing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Forty-four randomly selected TMs were directly observed by expert clinicians as they cared for HIV-infected patients in their usual worksites. Observed clinical performance was compared to national norms as taught in the course. Results In 127 directly observed patient encounters, TMs assigned the correct WHO clinical stage in 37.6%, and correctly managed co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in 71.6% and ART in 75.5% (adjusted estimates). Correct management of all 5 main aspects of patient care (staging, co-trimoxazole, ART, opportunistic infections, and adverse drug reactions) was observed in 10.6% of encounters. The observed clinical errors were heterogeneous. Common errors included assignment of clinical stage before completing the relevant patient evaluation, and initiation or continuation of co-trimoxazole or ART without indications or when contraindicated. Conclusions In Mozambique, the in-service ART training was suspended. MOH subsequently revised the TMs' scope of work in HIV/AIDS care, defined new clinical guidelines, and initiated a nationwide re-training and clinical mentoring program for these health professionals. Further research is required to define clinically effective methods of health-worker training to support HIV/AIDS care in Mozambique and similarly resource-constrained environments. PMID:20939909

  15. Challenges Caring for Adults With Congenital Heart Disease in Pediatric Settings: How Nurses Can Aid in the Transition.

    PubMed

    Anton, Kristin

    2016-08-01

    As surgery for complex congenital heart disease is becoming more advanced, an increasing number of patients are surviving into adulthood, yet many of these adult patients remain in the pediatric hospital system. Caring for adult patients is often a challenge for pediatric nurses, because the nurses have less experience and comfort with adult care, medications, comorbid conditions, and rehabilitation techniques. As these patients age, the increased risk of complications and comorbid conditions from their heart disease may complicate their care further. Although these patients are admitted on a pediatric unit, nurses can aid in promoting their independence and help prepare them to transition into the adult medical system. Nurses, the comprehensive medical teams, and patients' families can all effectively influence the process of preparing these patients for transition to adult care. PMID:27481810

  16. HIV/AIDS: Integrating Prevention and Care into Your Sector. Idea Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This idea book offers practical strategies for assessing and responding to the effects of HIV on each of the Peace Corps' project areas, including agriculture and environment, small enterprise development, health, youth, and education. It also offers examples of creative and effective strategies used by Peace Corps volunteers to integrate the…

  17. Lessons learned while implementing an HIV/AIDS care and treatment program in rural Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Moon, Troy D; Burlison, Janeen R; Sidat, Mohsin; Pires, Paulo; Silva, Wilson; Solis, Manuel; Rocha, Michele; Arregui, Chiqui; Manders, Eric J; Vergara, Alfredo E; Vermund, Sten H

    2010-04-23

    Mozambique has severe resource constraints, yet with international partnerships, the nation has placed over 145,000 HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapies (ART) through May-2009. HIV clinical services are provided at > 215 clinical venues in all 11 of Mozambique's provinces. Friends in Global Health (FGH), affiliated with Vanderbilt University in the United States (US), is a locally licensed non-governmental organization (NGO) working exclusively in small city and rural venues in Zambézia Province whose population reaches approximately 4 million persons. Our approach to clinical capacity building is based on: 1) technical assistance to national health system facilities to implement ART clinical services at the district level, 2) human capacity development, and 3) health system strengthening. Challenges in this setting are daunting, including: 1) human resource constraints, 2) infrastructure limitations, 3) centralized care for large populations spread out over large distances, 4) continued high social stigma related to HIV, 5) limited livelihood options in rural areas and 6) limited educational opportunities in rural areas. Sustainability in rural Mozambique will depend on transitioning services from emergency foreign partners to local authorities and continued funding. It will also require "wrap-around" programs that help build economic capacity with agricultural, educational, and commercial initiatives. Sustainability is undermined by serious health manpower and infrastructure limitations. Recent U.S. government pronouncements suggest that the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief will support concurrent community and business development. FGH, with its Mozambican government counterparts, see the evolution of an emergency response to a sustainable chronic disease management program as an essential and logical step. We have presented six key challenges that are essential to address in rural Mozambique. PMID:25097450

  18. Barriers and Incentives to Orphan Care in a Time of AIDS and Economic Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Caregivers in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brian H.; Phillips, Carl V.; Matinhure, Nelia; Goodman, Karen J.; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Johnson, Cary A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Africa is in an orphan-care crisis. In Zimbabwe, where one-fourth of adults are HIV-positive and one-fifth of children are orphans, AIDS and economic decline are straining society's ability to care for orphans within their extended families. Lack of stable care is putting thousands of children at heightened risk of malnourishment,…

  19. Self-care among caregivers of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kakola location, Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Geteri, Leila Moraa; Angogo, Evelyn Mandela

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in Kakola Location of Nyando District in Kenya. The aim of study was to determine the factors influencing the practice of self-care among caregivers for person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) as well as their practice of self-care. A study by World Health Organization approximated that in developing countries, the need for long-term care will increase by as much as 40% in the coming years. HIV/AIDS has been cited as one of the challenges in long-term care. As demand for long-term care increases, the assumption that extended family networks can meet all the needs of their members deteriorates. The community-based survey employed descriptive cross-sectional design, involving primary caregivers of PLWHAs in Kakola location who had practiced care giving for more than 3 months. A household survey was conducted with 150 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 11.0. Simple frequencies and cross tabulations to compare variables were produced. Microsoft Excel was used to produce tables and graphs. Majority of the respondents 124 (82.7%) were female, while 26 (17.3%) were male. Self-care elements most practiced by the respondents in all the age categories were infection prevention and nutritional care. Female respondents had the highest proportions in all the practices of self-care. The results also showed that gender, relationship of patient to caregiver and marital status were the main demographic factors that significantly influenced the practice of self-care among caregivers. There was a significant relationship between main sources of income of caregivers with the practice of self-care. The study also revealed that respondents with no education had the lowest number of respondents practicing all the six practices of self-care and belonging to a support group. Recommendations for the study included, forging partnerships among stakeholders, training of caregivers and

  20. Self-care among caregivers of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kakola location, Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Geteri, Leila Moraa; Angogo, Evelyn Mandela

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in Kakola Location of Nyando District in Kenya. The aim of study was to determine the factors influencing the practice of self-care among caregivers for person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) as well as their practice of self-care. A study by World Health Organization approximated that in developing countries, the need for long-term care will increase by as much as 40% in the coming years. HIV/AIDS has been cited as one of the challenges in long-term care. As demand for long-term care increases, the assumption that extended family networks can meet all the needs of their members deteriorates. The community-based survey employed descriptive cross-sectional design, involving primary caregivers of PLWHAs in Kakola location who had practiced care giving for more than 3 months. A household survey was conducted with 150 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 11.0. Simple frequencies and cross tabulations to compare variables were produced. Microsoft Excel was used to produce tables and graphs. Majority of the respondents 124 (82.7%) were female, while 26 (17.3%) were male. Self-care elements most practiced by the respondents in all the age categories were infection prevention and nutritional care. Female respondents had the highest proportions in all the practices of self-care. The results also showed that gender, relationship of patient to caregiver and marital status were the main demographic factors that significantly influenced the practice of self-care among caregivers. There was a significant relationship between main sources of income of caregivers with the practice of self-care. The study also revealed that respondents with no education had the lowest number of respondents practicing all the six practices of self-care and belonging to a support group. Recommendations for the study included, forging partnerships among stakeholders, training of caregivers and

  1. [Hygienic aspects with regard to nursing of home care patients with AIDS, chronic diseases and mental handicaps].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, H G; Flassak, H; Throm, W

    1995-04-01

    A human handicap is defined as a broad, hard and long lasting restriction of the mental development and the social integration. Groups of handicapped persons can be divided into mentally, psychologically, physically, sensory (blind, deaf) handicapped as well as into multiple disabled and chronically sick persons and those in need of care (old). New groups with demands for aid are among others people suffering from AIDS, psychologically sick (old) and people getting old as well as mentally, physically und multiple handicapped persons, people suffering from cancer, severely ill and dying people. For all handicapped people should be demanded the possibility of living almost normal lives. For all persons directly concerned as well as their families such a normal life should include: the right of self-determination and autonomy, the demand for complex styles of living and nearby care/support, the providing of respective infrastructures such as barrier free living and access to public institutions, access to public transport and homes fitting for handicapped persons, the demand for out-patient treatment by a complex range of various possibilities of support and finally, the providing of alternative forms of living in contrast to the traditional way of life of handicapped people like families or homes. Three important living areas can be derived from these ideas, namely: living conditions, education/professional and working field, social life/social environment. These important living areas require preventive measures, mainly advice and information centres, places to go early recognition and early promotion of handicapped people and those in risk of a handicap (especially children) as well as medical, professional and social rehabilitation or integration. Concerning the spectrum of support, aid and care in the homely area up to now already exists a variety of offers by out-patient services (information services, social units, mobile support services

  2. Protocol for the Osteoporosis Choice trial. A pilot randomized trial of a decision aid in primary care practice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates can reduce fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis, but many at-risk patients do not start or adhere to these medications. The aims of this study are to: (1) preliminarily evaluate the effect of an individualized 10-year osteoporotic fracture risk calculator and decision aid (OSTEOPOROSIS CHOICE) for postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporotic fractures; and (2) assess the feasibility and validity (i.e., absence of contamination) of patient-level randomization (vs. cluster randomization) in pilot trials of decision aid efficacy. Methods/Design This is a protocol for a parallel, 2-arm, randomized trial to compare an intervention group receiving OSTEOPOROSIS CHOICE to a control group receiving usual primary care. Postmenopausal women with bone mineral density T-scores of <-1.0, not receiving bisphosphonate therapy, and receiving care at participating primary care practices in and around Rochester, Minnesota, USA will be eligible to participate in the trial. We will measure the effect of OSTEOPOROSIS CHOICE on five outcomes: (a) patient knowledge regarding osteoporosis risk factors and treatment; (b) quality of the decision-making process for both the patient and clinician; (c) patient and clinician acceptability and satisfaction with the decision aid; (d) rate of bisphosphonate use and adherence, and (e) trial processes (e.g., ability to recruit participants, collect patient outcomes). To capture these outcomes, we will use patient and clinician surveys following each visit and video recordings of the clinical encounters. These video recordings will also allow us to determine the extent to which clinicians previously exposed to the decision aid were able to recreate elements of the decision aid with control patients (i.e., contamination). Pharmacy prescription profiles and follow-up phone interviews will assess medication start and adherence at 6 months. Discussion This pilot trial will provide evidence of feasibility, validity of

  3. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings

    PubMed Central

    Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H.Y.; Cole, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages. PMID:23594416

  4. Volunteering for College Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfering, David L.; Biasco, Frank

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the literature in volunteering as it relates to a university credit course for students volunteering in human services agencies. Discusses the development of the program, along with the advantages to students, agencies, and the university. (Author/RC)

  5. Can Schools Support HIV/AIDS-Affected Children? Exploring the 'Ethic of Care' amongst Rural Zimbabwean Teachers.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    How realistic is the international policy emphasis on schools 'substituting for families' of HIV/AIDS-affected children? We explore the ethic of care in Zimbabwean schools to highlight the poor fit between the western caring schools literature and daily realities of schools in different material and cultural contexts. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 44 teachers and 55 community members, analysed in light of a companion study of HIV/AIDS-affected pupils' own accounts of their care-related experiences. We conceptualise schools as spaces of engagement between groups with diverse needs and interests (teachers, pupils and surrounding community members), with attention to the pathways through which extreme adversity impacts on those institutional contexts and social identifications central to giving and receiving care. Whilst teachers were aware of how they might support children, they seldom put these ideas into action. Multiple factors undermined caring teacher-pupil relationships in wider contexts of poverty and political uncertainty: loss of morale from low salaries and falling professional status; the inability of teachers to solve HIV/AIDS-related problems in their own lives; the role of stigma in deterring HIV/AIDS-affected children from disclosing their situations to teachers; authoritarian teacher-learner relations and harsh punishments fuelling pupil fear of teachers; and lack of trust in the wider community. These factors undermined: teacher confidence in their skills and capacity to support affected pupils and motivation to help children with complex problems; solidarity and common purpose amongst teachers, and between teachers and affected children; and effective bridging alliances between schools and their surrounding communities-all hallmarks of HIV-competent communities. We caution against ambitious policy expansions of teachers' roles without recognition of the personal and social costs of emotional labour, and the need for significant

  6. School Volunteer Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Public Television, Madison.

    This guide to implementing a school volunteer program was developed for the 1995 Wisconsin Volunteer-A-Thon project, which was intended to encourage individuals, schools, organizations, and corporations to volunteer time to youth and education. Part 1 contains a timeline for the implementation of the project, a description of how to participate,…

  7. Engagement with Care, Substance Use, and Adherence to Therapy in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Patrice K.; Willard, Suzanne; Thompson, Clinton; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Corless, Inge B.; Wantland, Dean J.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Rivero Mendez, Marta; Robinson, Linda M.; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie P.; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Stanton, Mark A.; Voss, Joachim G.; Moezzi, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Engagement with care for those living with HIV is aimed at establishing a strong relationship between patients and their health care provider and is often associated with greater adherence to therapy and treatment (Flickinger, Saha, Moore, and Beach, 2013). Substance use behaviors are linked with lower rates of engagement with care and medication adherence (Horvath, Carrico, Simoni, Boyer, Amico, and Petroli, 2013). This study is a secondary data analysis using a cross-sectional design from a larger randomized controlled trial (n = 775) that investigated the efficacy of a self-care symptom management manual for participants living with HIV. Participants were recruited from countries of Africa and the US. This study provides evidence that substance use is linked with lower self-reported engagement with care and adherence to therapy. Data on substance use and engagement are presented. Clinical implications of the study address the importance of utilizing health care system and policy factors to improve engagement with care. PMID:24800065

  8. Engagement with Care, Substance Use, and Adherence to Therapy in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Patrice K; Willard, Suzanne; Thompson, Clinton; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Corless, Inge B; Wantland, Dean J; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Nokes, Kathleen M; Kirksey, Kenn M; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L; Portillo, Carmen J; Rivero Mendez, Marta; Robinson, Linda M; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie P; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Stanton, Mark A; Driscoll, Marykate; Voss, Joachim G; Moezzi, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Engagement with care for those living with HIV is aimed at establishing a strong relationship between patients and their health care provider and is often associated with greater adherence to therapy and treatment (Flickinger, Saha, Moore, and Beach, 2013). Substance use behaviors are linked with lower rates of engagement with care and medication adherence (Horvath, Carrico, Simoni, Boyer, Amico, and Petroli, 2013). This study is a secondary data analysis using a cross-sectional design from a larger randomized controlled trial (n = 775) that investigated the efficacy of a self-care symptom management manual for participants living with HIV. Participants were recruited from countries of Africa and the US. This study provides evidence that substance use is linked with lower self-reported engagement with care and adherence to therapy. Data on substance use and engagement are presented. Clinical implications of the study address the importance of utilizing health care system and policy factors to improve engagement with care. PMID:24800065

  9. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  10. Healthy Volunteer 2020: Comparing Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics with Healthy People 2020 national objectives.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Susan J; Newman, Jeannette; Ferguson, Rennie W; Jung, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) provides a set of quantifiable objectives for improving the health and well-being of Americans. This study examines Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics in comparison with the Leading Health Indicators (LHIs) in order to set baseline measures for Volunteers' health care and align our measurements with Healthy People 2020 standards. Health data from multiple internal Peace Corps datasets were compared with relevant LHIs and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Seventeen (65%) of the 26 LHIs were relevant to Peace Corps Volunteers. Of these, Volunteers' health measures met or were more favorable than the goals of 13 (76%) of the LHIs. There were no data available for 4 (24%) of the LHIs. The entire Volunteer population has full access to primary care, oral health, and reproductive health services. No suicides or homicides were reported among Volunteers during the analyzed time period. Utilizing the LHIs, we have identified high-priority public health issues relevant for the Peace Corps Volunteer population. We discuss the need for quality data to measure and monitor Volunteers' health progress and outcomes over time, and also to standardize our measurements with Healthy People 2020 benchmarks. This framework may foster greater collaboration to engage in health promotion and disease prevention activities driven by evidence-based information, which may, in turn, encourage healthy behavior among Volunteers. PMID:27413680

  11. HIV/AIDS and access to water: A case study of home-based care in Ngamiland, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Kgathi, D. L.

    This case study investigates access to potable water in HIV/AIDS related home-based care households in five rural communities in Ngamiland, Botswana. Primary data collected from five villages consisted of two parts. The first survey collected household data on demographic and rural livelihood features and impacts of HIV/AIDS. A total of 129 households were selected using a two-stage stratified random sampling method. In the second survey, a total of 39 family primary and community care givers of continuously ill, bed-ridden or non-bed-ridden HIV/AIDS patients were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions, was used to collect household data. In addition to using the questionnaire, data were also collected through participant observation, informal interviews and secondary sources. The study revealed that there are several sources of water for communities in Ngamiland such as off-plot, outdoor (communal) and on-plot outdoor and/or indoor (private) water connections, as well as other sources such as bowsed water, well-points, boreholes and open perennial/ephemeral water from river channels and pans. There was a serious problem of unreliable water supply caused by, among other things, the breakdown of diesel-powered water pumps, high frequency of HIV/AIDS related absenteeism, and the failure of timely delivery of diesel fuel. Some villages experienced chronic supply disruptions while others experienced seasonal or occasional water shortages. Strategies for coping with unreliability of water supply included economizing on water, reserve storage, buying water, and collection from river/dug wells or other alternative sources such as rain harvesting tanks in government institutions. The unreliability of water supply resulted in an increase in the use of water of poor quality and other practices of poor hygiene as well as a high opportunity cost of water collection. In such instances, bathing of patients was cut from twice daily to once or

  12. Retention in Care and Viral Suppression Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS in New York City, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Qiang; Wiewel, Ellen W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the proportions of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in New York City (NYC) retained in care and virally suppressed. Methods. We used routinely reported laboratory surveillance data to measure trends in retention in care and viral suppression in PLWHA in NYC from 2006 through 2010. Our denominator excluded persons lacking any HIV-related laboratory tests during the 5 years prior to the year of analysis. Results. The proportion of patients retained in care (≥ 1 care visit in a calendar year) was stable, at 82.5% in 2006 and 81.8% in 2010. However, the proportion of persons with evidence of viral suppression increased significantly, from 44.3% to 59.1%. Blacks were least likely to have viral suppression (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87, 0.90). A U-shaped relationship between age and viral suppression was observed, with the 20- to 29-year age group least likely to have a suppressed viral load. Conclusions. Higher and more plausible proportions retained in care and virally suppressed than national estimates may reflect the difference in methodology and our comprehensive HIV-related laboratory reporting system. PMID:25033144

  13. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941

  14. Primary Care Provider Views About Usefulness and Dissemination of a Web-Based Depression Treatment Information Decision Aid

    PubMed Central

    Westmacott, Robin; Walker, John R; Vardanyan, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Background Decisions related to mental health are often complex, problems often remain undetected and untreated, information unavailable or not used, and treatment decisions frequently not informed by best practice or patient preferences. Objective The objective of this paper was to obtain the opinions of health professionals working in primary health care settings about a Web-based information decision aid (IDA) for patients concerning treatment options for depression and the dissemination of the resources in primary care settings. Methods Participants were recruited from primary care clinics in Winnipeg and Ottawa, Canada, and included 48 family physicians, nurses, and primary care staff. The study design was a qualitative framework analytic approach of 5 focus groups. Focus groups were conducted during regular staff meetings, were digitally recorded, and transcripts created. Analysis involved a content and theme analysis. Results Seven key themes emerged including the key role of the primary care provider, common questions about treatments, treatment barriers, sources of patient information, concern about quality and quantity of available information, positive opinions about the IDA, and disseminating the IDA. The most common questions mentioned were about medication and side effects and alternatives to medication. Patients have limited access to alternative treatment options owing to cost and availability. Conclusions Practitioners evaluated the IDA positively. The resources were described as useful, supportive of providers’ messages, and accessible for patients. There was unanimous consensus that information needs to be available electronically through the Internet. PMID:27277709

  15. Mixed method approach for determining factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, UN; Chandrasekharan, V; Guddattu, V; Gruiskens, JRJH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not only beneficial for the people living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLHA) but for the public and society as well. The study was aimed to identify the factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care. Materials and Methods: A facility-based unmatched case-control (1:1) study along with in-depth qualitative assessment was conducted at an ART Plus center at a district hospital, Udupi, southern India. A sample of 320 HIV patients (160 cases and 160 controls) was selected randomly between February and July 2014. Information regarding the patients were collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. The qualitative component was assessed by in-depth interviews of 4 health professionals and 12 HIV-positive patients who were late for HIV care. The quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. The technique of thematic analysis was adopted for the analysis of qualitative data. Results: HIV-positive individuals who lived with families [odds ratio (OR) = 5.11], the patients having non-AIDS comorbidities [OR= 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-4.40], the patients who perceived fear of losing family [OR = 5.00, 95% CI: 2.17-11.49], the patients who perceived fear that their status will be ruined in the community [OR= 2.00, 95% CI: 1.01-3.97], the patients who perceived fear of side effects of ART medications [OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.65-11.33], the patients who perceived fear of losing confidentiality [OR = 4.94, 95% CI: 2.54-9.59], the patients those who lack information available on government services [OR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.127-8.005], and the patients who consumed alcohol [OR= 3.52, 95% CI: 1.83-6.77] were found to be independently associated with the late presentation to HIV/AIDS care after adjusting for all known confounders in a multivariable analysis. The qualitative

  16. A Guide for Preparing the Application for Program Approval for Certification of Nursing Assistants for Long Term Care Agencies and Home Health Aides in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaincott, Helen K.

    The purpose of this guide is to assist health care agencies and educational institutions to prepare an application for approval by the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania Department of Health to train nursing aides for long-term care and home health agencies. Types of materials provided include definitions, a sample…

  17. A Direct-Service Volunteer Program in a Residential Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Florence D.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the design and implementation of a direct-service volunteer program in the Boys and Girls Aid Society of San Diego, a private, nonprofit treatment facility for 56 emotionally disturbed teenagers. (Author/SDH)

  18. 45 CFR 1217.6 - Roles of volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... roles: (a) Primary contact with VISTA volunteers on personal and administrative matters. (b) Aid in... program concepts with VISTA volunteers and supervisor/sponsor. (g) Advise supervisor on potential problem... best meet goals and objectives addressing the community's problem(s)....

  19. Counting or Caring: Examining a Nursing Aide's Third Eye Using Bourdieu's Concept of Habitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    This article is derived from analysis of observations and an interview with, Anita, a nursing aide, who was followed in her work in a semi-emergency unit in Sweden. Based on an analysis of this information, it is suggested that the process of going from school to a workplace can be viewed as a transition between different mathematical activities,…

  20. Impact of an ASHA Intervention on Depressive Symptoms among Rural Women Living with AIDS in India: Comparison of the Asha Life and Usual Care Program

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Meyer, Visha; Ganguly, Kalyan K; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ramakrishnan, Padma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized pilot study is to conduct an intervention with 68 rural women living with AIDS to compare the effectiveness of two different programs on depressive symptoms. The trial was designed to assess the impact of the Asha-Life intervention, engaging an HIV-trained village woman, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activist), to participate in the care of WLA, along with other health care providers compared to a Usual Care group. Two high prevalence HIV/AIDS villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, which were demographically alike and served by distinct Public Health Centers, were selected randomly from a total of 16 villages. The findings of this study demonstrated that the Asha-Life participants significantly reduced their depressive symptom scores compared to the Usual Care participants. Moreover, women living with AIDS who demonstrated higher depressive symptom scores at baseline had greater reduction in their depressive symptoms than women with lower scores. PMID:22676466

  1. Evaluation of a Brief Intervention to Improve the Nursing Care of Young Children in a High HIV and AIDS Setting

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda M.; Rochat, Tamsen J.; Hsiao, Celia; Zuma, Thembelihle H.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in South Africa is putting great strain on health services, including the inpatient care of young children. Caregivers and young children (107 pairs) and 17 nurses participated in an intervention to improve the care of young children in hospital in a high HIV and AIDS setting. The intervention addressed caregiver expectations about admission and treatment, responsive feeding, coping with infant pain and distress, assistance with medical procedures, and preparation for discharge and home care. Following a preparatory and piloting phase, measures of nurse burnout, caregiver physical and emotional well-being, and caregiver-child interaction were made before and after intervention. No changes were found between before and after intervention on assessments of caregiver wellbeing. However, mothers in the postintervention phase rated nurses as more supportive; mother-child interaction during feeding was more relaxed and engaged, and babies were less socially withdrawn. While the intervention proved useful in improving certain outcomes for children and their caregivers, it did not address challenging hospital and ward administration or support needed by caregivers at home following discharge. To address the latter need, the intervention has been extended into the community through home-based palliative care and support. PMID:22530114

  2. Patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care at private clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Miller, James S; Mhalu, Aisa; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Hellen; Kaaya, Silvia; Tito, Justina; Aris, Eric; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2014-01-01

    Health system responsiveness (HSR) measures quality of care from the patient's perspective, an important component of ensuring adherence to medication and care among HIV patients. We examined HSR in private clinics serving HIV patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We surveyed 640 patients, 18 or older receiving care at one of 10 participating clinics, examining socioeconomic factors, HIV regimen, and self-reported experience with access and care at the clinic. Ordered logistic regression, adjusted for clustering of the clinic sites, was used to measure the relationships between age, gender, education, site size, and overall quality of care rating, as well as between the different HSR domains and overall rating. Overall, patients reported high levels of satisfaction with care received. Confidentiality, communication, and respect were particularly highly rated, while timeliness received lower ratings despite relatively short wait times, perhaps indicating high expectations when receiving care at a private clinic. Respect, confidentiality, and promptness were significantly associated with overall rating of health care, while provider skills and communication were not significantly associated. Patients reported that quality of service and confidentiality, rather than convenience of location, were the most important factors in their choice of a clinic. Site size (patient volume) was also positively correlated with patient satisfaction. Our findings suggest that, in the setting of urban private-sector clinics, flexible clinics hours, prompt services, and efforts to improve respect, privacy and confidentiality may prove more helpful in increasing visit adherence than geographic accessibility. While a responsive health system is valuable in its own right, more work is needed to confirm that improvements in HSR in fact lead to improved adherence to care. PMID:24499337

  3. "Does AIDS Hurt?": Educating Young Children about AIDS. Suggestions for Parents, Teachers, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia; Villarreal, Sylvia

    This document gives parents, teachers, and others basic information and suggested guidelines for teaching children aged 10 and younger about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These topics concerning AIDS and young children are discussed: (1) talking with young children about AIDS; (2) things to keep in mind when talking with children,…

  4. EMERGENCY VICTIM CARE AND RESCUE, TEXTBOOK FOR SQUADMEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    DESIGNED FOR TRAINING EMERGENCY SQUAD PERSONNEL IN RESCUE PROCEDURES AND VICTIM CARE BEYOND BASIC FIRST AID, THIS TEXTBOOK WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF SQUADMEN, DOCTORS, NURSES, FIREMEN, AND STATE TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL TO BE USED IN ADULT TRAINING CLASSES OF FULL-TIME OR VOLUNTEER SQUADMEN. THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL INCLUDES 26…

  5. Translating comparative effectiveness of depression medications into practice by comparing the depression medication choice decision aid to usual care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative effectiveness research (CER) documents important differences in antidepressants in terms of efficacy, safety, cost, and burden to the patient. Decision aids can adapt this evidence to help patients participate in making informed choices. In turn, antidepressant therapy will more likely reflect patients’ values and context, leading to improved adherence and mood outcomes. Methods/Design The objective of this study is to develop the Depression Medication Choice decision aid for use during primary care encounters, and to test its efficacy by conducting a clustered practical randomized trial comparing the decision aid to usual depression care in primary care practices. We will use a novel practice-based, patient-centered approach based on participatory action research that involves a multidisciplinary team of designers, investigators, clinicians, patient representatives, and other stakeholders for the development of the decision aid. We will then conduct a clustered practical randomized trial enrolling clinicians and their patients (n = 300) with moderate to severe depression from rural, suburban and inner city primary care practices (n = 10). The intervention will consist of the use of the depression medication choice decision aid during the clinical encounter. This trial will generate preliminary evidence of the relative impact of the decision aid on patient involvement in decision making, decision making quality, patient knowledge, and 6-month measures of medication adherence and mental health compared to usual depression care. Discussion Upon completion of the proposed research, we will have developed and evaluated the efficacy of the decision aid depression medication choice as a novel translational tool for CER in depression treatment, engaged patients with depression in their care, and refined the process by which we conduct practice-based trials with limited research footprint. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01502891 PMID

  6. A response to Edzi (AIDS): Malawi faith-based organizations' impact on HIV prevention and care.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Teri; Schell, Ellen; Rankin, Sally; Phiri, Joel; Fiedler, Rachel; Chakanza, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    African faith-based organization (FBO) leaders influence their members' HIV knowledge, beliefs, and practices, but their roles in HIV prevention and care are poorly understood. This article expands the work of Garner (2000) to test the impact of FBO influence on member risk and care behaviors, embedding it in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys were collected from five FBOs (Christian and Muslim) in Malawi and analyzed using mixed methods. Contrary to Garner, we found that the level of power and influence of the FBO had no significant impact on the risk-taking behaviors of members; however, leaders' HIV knowledge predicted members' behaviors. Stigmatizing attitudes of leaders significantly decreased members' care behaviors, but FBO hierarchy tended to increase members' care behaviors. The power of local church and mosque leaders to influence behavior could be exploited more effectively by nurses by providing support, knowledge, and encouragement to churches and mosques. PMID:22959480

  7. Attitudes and normative beliefs of nursing students as predictors of intended care behaviors with AIDS patients: a test of the Ajzen-Fishbein theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D; Laschinger, H

    1991-03-01

    Few investigators have studied nurses' or nursing students' responses to caring for AIDS patients. The purpose of this exploratory study was to test the Ajzen-Fishbein (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action in a student nurse population about AIDS patient care. This theory offers an approach to explaining individuals' intentions to engage in certain behaviors as determined by two components: attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms. Forty-six second-year baccalaureate nursing students completed a questionnaire developed according to guidelines described by Ajzen and Fishbein (alpha reliability range was .69-.85) prior to and following an instructional unit on caring for AIDS patients. Consistent with the theory, students' attitudes and subjective norms were found to be significant predictors of intentions to care for AIDS patients in their clinical experience (R2 = .29, F[1, 43] = 6.63, p less than .003). In addition, qualitative data resembled those in previous reports of fear of contagion among health professionals. The effects of the instructional unit about caring for AIDS patients resulted in significant changes in both attitudes and subjective norms. PMID:1850791

  8. A national survey of home-based care kits for palliative HIV/AIDS care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mabude, Z A; Beksinska, M E; Ramkissoon, A; Wood, S; Folsom, M

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess home-based care (HBC) kits and programs in South Africa to evaluate the feasibility of scaling up kit production and distribution. South African HBC organizations received structured questionnaires; key informant interviews and a literature review were completed to assess systems for production, distribution and supply of HBC kits. Meetings with stakeholders were held in two Provinces to share and analyze the study findings. The study team distributed questionnaires to 466 organizations and conducted interviews with representatives from 45 organizations, the Provincial Department of Health (DoH) and manufacturers of kits. All identifiable HBC organizations in South Africa were included in the survey. As a result 215 HBC organizations returned questionnaires; including non-governmental organizations (56%), community-based organizations (32%) and organizations affiliated with government health departments. Two types of kits were available: a home kit and a professional kit. The demand for HBC kits exceeded availability, kit contents and availability varied considerably and the supply chain was irregular. Kit production and distribution systems were fragmented. Replenishment of kit items was problematic. End-users are mostly caregivers who have not received adequate training on their use. The study shows that substantial work has been done by HBC organizations in South Africa to respond to the need for palliative care supplies within resource constraints. The growing demand for kits exceeds the supply. There is a need to improve the supply chain management of HBC kits, strengthen referral systems and links between community-based organizations and government departments, expand training opportunities for care givers, and develop monitoring and evaluation systems. PMID:18608083

  9. Changing access to mental health care and social support when people living with HIV/AIDS become service providers.

    PubMed

    Li, Alan Tai-Wai; Wales, Joshua; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Owino, Maureen; Perreault, Yvette; Miao, Andrew; Maseko, Precious; Guiang, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    As people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) achieve more stable health, many have taken on active peer support and professional roles within AIDS service organizations. Although the increased engagement has been associated with many improved health outcomes, emerging program and research evidence have identified new challenges associated with such transition. This paper reports on the results of a qualitative interpretive study that explored the effect of this role transition on PHA service providers' access to mental health support and self care. A total of 27 PHA service providers of diverse ethno-racial backgrounds took part in the study. Results show that while role transition often improves access to financial and health-care benefits, it also leads to new stress from workload demands, emotional triggers from client's narratives, feeling of burnout from over-immersion in HIV at both personal and professional levels, and diminished self care. Barriers to seeking support included: concerns regarding confidentiality; self-imposed and enacted stigma associated with accessing mental health services; and boundary issues resulting from changes in relationships with peers and other service providers. Evolving support mechanisms included: new formal and informal peer support networks amongst colleagues or other PHA service providers to address both personal and professional challenges, and having access to professional support offered through the workplace. The findings suggest the need for increased organizational recognition of HIV support work as a form of emotional labor that places complex demands on PHA service providers. Increased access to employer-provided mental health services, supportive workplace policies, and adequate job-specific training will contribute to reduced work-related stress. Community level strategies that support expansion of social networks amongst PHA service providers would reduce isolation. Systemic policies to increase access to insurance

  10. Perceptions of health care among persons living with HIV/AIDS who are not receiving antiretroviral medications.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Graham, Jeffrey; Luke, Webster; Austin, James

    2002-05-01

    Antiretroviral medications are effective at improving the health and increasing the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS. However, studies have shown that a substantial number of HIV-infected people do not receive antiretroviral treatments. The current study examined the physical and mental health, substance use, and perceptions of medical care of 163 men and 78 women living with HIV/AIDS. Results of a confidential survey showed that 79 (33%) were not currently treated for HIV. These persons did not differ from those who were treated in chart-abstracted CD4 cell counts, years living with HIV infection, HIV-related symptoms, and HIV-related hospitalizations. Unlike past studies, gender was not found to be a factor in treatment status. However, untreated persons had higher chart-abstracted viral loads and were more likely to be ethnic minorities, have a lower level of education, greater level of depression, and greater pessimistic attitude. They were significantly more likely to have used alcohol, powder cocaine, and crack cocaine in the previous 3 months, were likely to know their own viral load and CD4 count, and held significantly more negative views of their health care and their health care providers. There were no differences between untreated and treated persons in their meeting the year 1999 antiretroviral treatment guidelines that were in effect at the time of data collection. These results suggest that persons who are not receiving antiretroviral medications may be in need of mental health and substance use interventions and may benefit from interventions designed to engage and retain them in medical treatment. PMID:12055031

  11. InformedTogether: Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Decision Aid to Facilitate Shared Advance Care Planning for Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uhler, Lauren M; Pérez Figueroa, Rafael E; Dickson, Mark; McCullagh, Lauren; Kushniruk, Andre; Monkman, Helen; Witteman, Holly O

    2015-01-01

    Background Advance care planning may help patients receive treatments that better align with their goals for care. We developed a Web-based decision aid called InformedTogether to facilitate shared advance care planning between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and their doctors. Objective Our objective was to assess the usability of the InformedTogether decision aid, including whether users could interact with the decision aid to engage in tasks required for shared decision making, whether users found the decision aid acceptable, and implications for redesign. Methods We conducted an observational study with 15 patients and 8 doctors at two ethnically and socioeconomically diverse outpatient clinics. Data included quantitative and qualitative observations of patients and doctors using the decision aid on tablet or laptop computers and data from semistructured interviews. Patients were shown the decision aid by a researcher acting as the doctor. Pulmonary doctors were observed using the decision aid independently and asked to think aloud (ie, verbalize their thoughts). A thematic analysis was implemented to explore key issues related to decision aid usability. Results Although patients and doctors found InformedTogether acceptable and would recommend that doctors use the decision aid with COPD patients, many patients had difficulty understanding the icon arrays that were used to communicate estimated prognoses and could not articulate the definitions of the two treatment choices—Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR). Minor usability problems regarding content, links, layout, and consistency were also identified and corresponding recommendations were outlined. In particular, participants suggested including more information about potential changes in quality of life resulting from the alternative advance directives. Some doctor participants thought the decision aid was too long and some thought it may cause nervousness among patients due to

  12. College Students' Volunteering: Factors Related to Current Volunteering, Volunteer Settings, and Motives for Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…

  13. Recruiting Today's Volunteer Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paresky, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    College and university development officers are encouraged to adjust their expectations of volunteers to the current reality of graduates' schedules and commitments. Five barriers to volunteering (economic, time and distance, language and cultural, environmental, and competitive) are identified, and techniques for overcoming them are offered. (MSE)

  14. Native Son. Vista Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urvant, Ellen; And Others

    The June issue of the Vista Volunteer is devoted to a presentation of the current plight of the American Indian emphasizing the injustice with which the Indian has been treated. Throughout the 5 articles the achievements and efforts of the Vista volunteers working with various Indian tribes are described. Statements by Indian leaders point up the…

  15. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  16. Volunteer Shelter Bed Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    The volunteer shelter bed program development guidelines in this booklet are offered as a community-based alternative to the institutionalization of status offenders. The volunteer shelter bed program is described as a nonsecure residential alternative for status offenders, which can be implemented without the creation of new facilities or the…

  17. Children caring for their "caregivers": exploring the caring arrangements in households affected by AIDS in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Reflecting dominant understandings of childhood, many researchers describe orphans as an emotional and financial cost to the households in which they live. This has created a representation of orphans as a burden, not only to their fostering household, but also to society. This article seeks to challenge this representation by exploring children's contributions to their fostering households. Drawing on research from Bondo District in Kenya, this article brings together the views of 36 guardians and 69 orphaned children between the ages of 11 and 17, who articulated their circumstances through photography and drawing. Nearly 300 photos and drawings were selected by the children and subsequently described in writing. An additional 44 in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted to explore findings further. The data suggest that many fostering households benefit tremendously from absorbing orphaned children. All orphans were found to contribute to their fostering household's income and provide valuable care or support to ageing, ailing or young members of their households. The article concludes that caution should be exercised in using the term "caregiver" to describe foster parents due to the reciprocity, and indeed at times a reversal, of caring responsibilities. PMID:20390486

  18. Understanding Sustained Retention in HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment: a Synthetic Review.

    PubMed

    Roy, Monika; Czaicki, Nancy; Holmes, Charles; Chavan, Saurabh; Tsitsi, Apollo; Odeny, Thomas; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Padian, Nancy; Geng, Elvin

    2016-06-01

    Sustained retention represents an enduring and evolving challenge to HIV treatment programs in Africa. We present a theoretical framework for sustained retention borrowing from ecologic principles of sustainability and dynamic adaptation. We posit that sustained retention from the patient perspective is dependent on three foundational principles: (1) patient activation: the acceptance, prioritization, literacy, and skills to manage a chronic disease condition, (2) social normalization: the engagement of a social network and harnessing social capital to support care and treatment, and (3) livelihood routinization: the integration of care and treatment activities into livelihood priorities that may change over time. Using this framework, we highlight barriers specific to sustained retention and review interventions addressing long-term, sustained retention in HIV care with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27188300

  19. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Green, Tyler; Green, Heidi; Scandlyn, Jean; Kestler, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. Methods The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin) to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Results Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. Conclusion The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the individual project. In this

  20. Symptom management and self-care for peripheral neuropathy in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, P K; Kemppainen, J K; Canaval, G E; Corless, I B; Sefcik, E F; Nokes, K M; Bain, C A; Kirksey, K M; Eller, L Sanzero; Dole, P J; Hamilton, M J; Coleman, C L; Holzemer, W L; Reynolds, N R; Portillo, C J; Bunch, E H; Wantland, D J; Voss, J; Phillips, R; Tsai, Y-F; Mendez, M Rivero; Lindgren, T G; Davis, S M; Gallagher, D M

    2007-02-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication in HIV and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease, sociodemographic and disease-related correlates and self-care strategies. A convenience sample of 1,217 respondents was recruited from data collection sites in several US cities, Puerto Rico, Colombia and Taiwan. Results of the study indicated that respondents with peripheral neuropathy (n=450) identified 20 self-care behaviors including complementary therapies, use of medications, exercise and rest and/or elevation of extremities. Ratings of frequency and effectiveness were also included. An activities checklist summarized into five categories of self-care behaviors including activities/thoughts, exercise, medications, complementary therapies and substance was used to determine self-care behaviors. Taking a hot bath was the most frequent strategy used by those with peripheral neuropathy (n=292) and received the highest overall rating of effectiveness of any self-management strategies included in this study at 8.1 (scale 1-10). Other self-care strategies to manage this symptom included: staying off the feet (n=258), rubbing the feet with cream (n=177), elevating the feet (n=236), walking (n=262), prescribed anti-epileptic agent (n=80), prescribed analgesics (n=84), over-the-counter medications (n=123), vitamin B (n=122), calcium supplements (n=72), magnesium (n=48), massage (n=156), acupuncture (n=43), reflexology (n=23) and meditation (n=80). Several behaviors that are often deemed unhealthy were included among the strategies reported to alleviate peripheral neuropathy including use of marijuana (n=67), cigarette smoking (n=139), drinking alcohol (n=81) and street drugs (n=30). PMID:17364396

  1. Nonhospital Care for AIDS Victims. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (March 5, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document presents the text of the Congressional hearing called to discuss the provision of health care services to people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) outside of hospitals, including home health care, hospice care, nursing home care, personal care and counseling, and other support services for patients and their families.…

  2. The Evolving Scenario of Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers: Challenges and Opportunities of Care

    PubMed Central

    Vaccher, Emanuela; Serraino, Diego; Carbone, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Background. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) on the risk of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) and the role of biological and clinical factors in their pathogenesis are debated issues. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology, etiology, and not-yet-defined pathogenic characteristics of NADCs and discuss topics such as treatment strategies, comorbidity, and multidrug interactions. Four types of NADCs that deserve special attention are examined: anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), hepatocellular carcinoma, and lung cancer. Methods. The PubMed database and the Cochrane Library were searched by focusing on NADCs and on the association among NADCs, HAART, aging, and/or chronic inflammation. All articles were reviewed to identify those reporting variables of interest. Results. NADC incidence is twofold higher in patients with HIV/AIDS than in the corresponding general population, and this elevated risk persists despite the use of HAART. The mechanisms that HIV may use to promote the development of NADCs are presently unclear; immunological mechanisms, either immunodeficiency and/or immunoactivation, may play a role. Conclusion. Recent clinical studies have suggested that equivalent antineoplastic treatment is feasible and outcome can be similar in HIV-infected patients on HAART compared with uninfected patients for the treatment of HL and anal and lung cancers. However, patients with advanced HIV disease and/or aging-related comorbidities are likely to experience worse outcomes and have poorer tolerance of therapy compared with those with less advanced HIV disease. PMID:24969164

  3. Getting the Message Across: Does the Use of Drama Aid Education in Palliative Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Margaret; Abbott, Jo-Anne; Recoche, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Drama is a promising means of delivering educational messages in palliative care. Research studies have found drama to be an effective means of delivering educational messages in other domains of learning, such as teaching health education to children and adults and engaging the general public in health policy development. This paper discusses the…

  4. Building Momentum--Taking Action: Southern States Collaborate on Child Care Financial Aid and Quality Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.

    In the year 2000, the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care was formed with representatives from 16 southern states and the District of Columbia as well as appointments from the Southern Institute on Children and Families and the Southern Growth Policies Board to collaborate in developing an action plan to improve access to child care…

  5. The Impact of an AIDS Symposium on Attitudes of Providers of Pediatric Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feit, Lloyd R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A symposium was designed in 1987 to demonstrate to health-care providers at 3 hospitals in the Bronx, New York, the low risk of occupational HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection and techniques for avoiding infection. Twenty-nine of 100 responders reported that the symposium had increased their concerns regarding their risk. (Author/MLW)

  6. Patient reports of symptoms and their treatment at three palliative care projects servicing individuals with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Karus, Daniel; Raveis, Victoria H; Alexander, Carla; Hanna, Barbara; Selwyn, Peter; Marconi, Katherine; Higginson, Irene

    2005-11-01

    Self-reports of 32 symptoms and their treatments were obtained from patients of three palliative care programs that provide services to seriously ill HIV patients (>or=95% AIDS) in Alabama (n=47), Baltimore (n=91), and New York City (n=117). On average, patients reported 10.9 (SD=7.6) to 12.7 (SD=6.2) symptoms. Pain, lack of energy, and worrying were reported by a majority of patients at all sites, often with a high level of associated distress. For only four symptoms (pain, nausea, difficulty swallowing, and mouth sores) did half or more of patients at all sites experiencing the symptom also report treatment. Less than a third of patients experiencing 12 symptoms (five of six comprising a psychological subscale) reported treatment. Results show that despite the availability of more efficacious treatments, many HIV/AIDS patients continue to experience significant physical and psychological symptomatology. Many of those experiencing symptoms, however, do not perceive their symptoms as being treated. PMID:16310615

  7. Late presentation to HIV/AIDS care in Brazil among men who self-identify as heterosexual

    PubMed Central

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Brignol, Sandra; Reddy, Manasa; Nunn, Amy; Dourado, Inês

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS services among heterosexual men. METHODS Men infected by HIV who self-identified as heterosexual (n = 543) were included in the study. Descriptive, biivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the factors associated with late presentation (defined as individuals whose first CD4 count was <350 cells/mm3) in the study population. RESULTS The prevalence of late presentation was 69.8%. The multivariate logistic analysis showed testing initiated by the provider (ORadjusted 3.75; 95%CI 2.45–5.63) increased the odds of late presentation. History of drug use (ORadjusted 0.59; 95%CI 0.38–0.91), history of having sexually transmitted infections (ORadjusted 0.64; 95%CI 0.42–0.97), and having less education (ORadjusted 0.63; 95%CI 0.41–0.97) were associated with a decreased odds of LP. CONCLUSIONS Provider initiated testing was the only variable to increase the odds of late presentation. Since the patients in this sample all self-identified as heterosexual, it appears that providers are not requesting they be tested for HIV until the patients are already presenting symptoms of AIDS. The high prevalence of late presentation provides additional evidence to shift towards routine testing and linkage to care, rather than risk-based strategies that may not effectively or efficiently engage individuals infected with HIV. PMID:27556968

  8. Unhealthy substance-use behaviors as symptom-related self-care in persons with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Brion, John M; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K; Sloane, Rick; Corless, Inge B; Lindgren, Teri G; Wantland, Dean J; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Nokes, Kathleen M; Kirksey, Kenn M; Eller, Lucille; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L; Portillo, Carmen J; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen; Willard, Suzanne

    2011-03-01

    Unhealthy substance-use behaviors, including a heavy alcohol intake, illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage their disease-related symptoms. This study, based on data from a larger randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual, examines the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms. The mean age of the sample (n = 775) was 42.8 years and 38.5% of the sample was female. The mean number of years living with HIV was 9.1 years. The specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were the use of marijuana, cigarettes, a large amount of alcohol, and illicit drugs. A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance-use behaviors, including amphetamine and injection drug use, heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. The implications for clinical practice include the assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons regarding the self-management of HIV. PMID:21352430

  9. Hospice Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurses, social workers, spiritual counselors, home health aides, bereavement counselors and volunteers. The hospice team helps patients ... patient's family doctor Expert management of physical symptoms Bereavement and support groups for families What is bereavement ...

  10. Volunteer Notes on Reforestation. A Handbook for Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Steve, Comp.

    Provided in this document are descriptions of reforestation projects and techniques presented by Peace Corps volunteers from Chad, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, and Niger. The purpose of the document is to aid individuals in trying to find solutions to the problems facing forestry in the Sahel. These projects include: (1) reforestation of Ronier palm…

  11. Using Edward de Bono's six hats game to aid critical thinking and reflection in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Lesley J

    2003-03-01

    This article describes the use of a creative thinking game to stimulate critical thinking and reflection with qualified health professionals undertaking palliative care education. The importance of reflective practice in nursing is well documented and numerous models are available. However, the author as a nurse teacher has found that many of these models are either too simple or too complex to be valuable in practice. The six hats game, devised by Edward de Bono, is a method that stimulates a variety of types of thinking and when used as a means of reflection helps students to become more critical about their practice. Using this game with a palliative care case study the author demonstrates how thinking more creatively about the patients' perceived needs and problems can assist in developing reflective skills. The article concludes with a discussion on some of the challenges of using this method and suggestions for future practical uses. PMID:12682572

  12. 42 CFR 418.78 - Conditions of participation-Volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Conditions of Participation: Patient Care Non-Core...) Standard: Role. Volunteers must be used in day-to-day administrative and/or direct patient care roles. (c... administrative and/or direct patient care services in an amount that, at a minimum, equals 5 percent of the...

  13. Spectrum of Opportunistic Fungal Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Dhakad, Megh S.; Goyal, Ritu; Dewan, Richa

    2016-01-01

    HIV related opportunistic fungal infections (OFIs) continue to cause morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. The objective for this prospective study is to elucidate the prevalence and spectrum of common OFIs in HIV/AIDS patients in north India. Relevant clinical samples were collected from symptomatic HIV positive patients (n = 280) of all age groups and both sexes and subjected to direct microscopy and fungal culture. Identification as well as speciation of the fungal isolates was done as per the standard recommended methods. CD4+T cell counts were determined by flow cytometry using Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter Count system. 215 fungal isolates were isolated with the isolation rate of 41.1%. Candida species (86.5%) were the commonest followed by Aspergillus (6.5%), Cryptococcus (3.3%), Penicillium (1.9%), and Alternaria and Rhodotorula spp. (0.9% each). Among Candida species, Candida albicans (75.8%) was the most prevalent species followed by C. tropicalis (9.7%), C. krusei (6.4%), C. glabrata (4.3%), C. parapsilosis (2.7%), and C. kefyr (1.1%). Study demonstrates that the oropharyngeal candidiasis is the commonest among different OFIs and would help to increase the awareness of clinicians in diagnosis and early treatment of these infections helping in the proper management of the patients especially in resource limited countries like ours. PMID:27413381

  14. Spectrum of Opportunistic Fungal Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Dhakad, Megh S; Goyal, Ritu; Bhalla, Preena; Dewan, Richa

    2016-01-01

    HIV related opportunistic fungal infections (OFIs) continue to cause morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. The objective for this prospective study is to elucidate the prevalence and spectrum of common OFIs in HIV/AIDS patients in north India. Relevant clinical samples were collected from symptomatic HIV positive patients (n = 280) of all age groups and both sexes and subjected to direct microscopy and fungal culture. Identification as well as speciation of the fungal isolates was done as per the standard recommended methods. CD4+T cell counts were determined by flow cytometry using Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter Count system. 215 fungal isolates were isolated with the isolation rate of 41.1%. Candida species (86.5%) were the commonest followed by Aspergillus (6.5%), Cryptococcus (3.3%), Penicillium (1.9%), and Alternaria and Rhodotorula spp. (0.9% each). Among Candida species, Candida albicans (75.8%) was the most prevalent species followed by C. tropicalis (9.7%), C. krusei (6.4%), C. glabrata (4.3%), C. parapsilosis (2.7%), and C. kefyr (1.1%). Study demonstrates that the oropharyngeal candidiasis is the commonest among different OFIs and would help to increase the awareness of clinicians in diagnosis and early treatment of these infections helping in the proper management of the patients especially in resource limited countries like ours. PMID:27413381

  15. Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

  16. Strategies to enhance linkages between care for HIV/AIDS in jail and community settings.

    PubMed

    Draine, Jeffrey; Ahuja, Divya; Altice, Frederick L; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Avery, Ann K; Beckwith, Curt G; Booker, Cristina A; Ferguson, Ann; Figueroa, Hayley; Lincoln, Thomas; Ouellet, Lawrence J; Porterfield, Jeffrey; Spaulding, Anne C; Tinsley, Melinda J

    2011-03-01

    The policies of mass incarceration and the expansion of the criminal justice system in the USA over the last 40 years have weighed heavily on individuals and communities impacted by drug use and HIV disease. Though less than ideal, jails provide a unique opportunity to diagnose, treat and implement effective interventions. The role of jails in HIV detection, treatment, and continuity of care, however, has yet to be systematically examined. This paper reviews the service strategies and contexts for 10 demonstration sites funded to develop innovative methods for providing care and treatment to HIV-infected individuals in jail settings who are returning to their communities. The sites have implemented varied intervention strategies; each set in unique policy and service system contexts. Collaboration among agencies and between systems to implement these interventions is viewed as particularly challenging undertakings. We anticipate the sites will collectively serve 700-1000 individuals across the duration of the initiative. In this paper, we review the service contexts and strategies developed by the 10 sites. The individual and multi-site evaluations aim to provide new data on testing, treatment, and community linkages from jails that will further develop our knowledge base on effective intervention strategies in these settings. PMID:21347900

  17. Advancing the argument for validity of the Alberta Context Tool with healthcare aides in residential long-term care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational context has the potential to influence the use of new knowledge. However, despite advances in understanding the theoretical base of organizational context, its measurement has not been adequately addressed, limiting our ability to quantify and assess context in healthcare settings and thus, advance development of contextual interventions to improve patient care. We developed the Alberta Context Tool (the ACT) to address this concern. It consists of 58 items representing 10 modifiable contextual concepts. We reported the initial validation of the ACT in 2009. This paper presents the second stage of the psychometric validation of the ACT. Methods We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to frame our validity assessment. Data from 645 English speaking healthcare aides from 25 urban residential long-term care facilities (nursing homes) in the three Canadian Prairie Provinces were used for this stage of validation. In this stage we focused on: (1) advanced aspects of internal structure (e.g., confirmatory factor analysis) and (2) relations with other variables validity evidence. To assess reliability and validity of scores obtained using the ACT we conducted: Cronbach's alpha, confirmatory factor analysis, analysis of variance, and tests of association. We also assessed the performance of the ACT when individual responses were aggregated to the care unit level, because the instrument was developed to obtain unit-level scores of context. Results Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standards (> 0.3) for the majority of items (51 of 58). We ran three confirmatory factor models. Model 1 (all ACT items) displayed unacceptable fit overall and for five specific items (1 item on adequate space for resident care in the Organizational Slack-Space ACT concept and 4 items on use of electronic resources in the Structural and Electronic Resources ACT concept). This prompted specification of two additional models. Model 2 used

  18. Health-Care Access in a Rural Area: Perspectives from Russian-Speaking Immigrants, English-Speaking Doctors, and Volunteer Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brua, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Health-care access for immigrants in the United States is often problematic because of language barriers, lack of health insurance, or differing expectations based on divergent medical systems in the U.S. and the immigrants' home countries. Such difficulties are exacerbated when a linguistic-minority population lives in a rural community that has…

  19. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  20. Child-Care Aid and Quality for California Families: Focusing on San Francisco and Santa Clara Counties. PACE Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Chang, Yueh-Wen; Suzuki, Sawako; Kagan, Sharon Lynn

    Against the backdrop of evolving welfare policies in California following the approval of federal welfare reforms in 1996, the Growing Up in Poverty Project is examining how single mothers and their children fare as they move from cash aid to jobs, the types and quality of child care arrangements selected, and if mothers' access to child care…

  1. Knowledge and understanding of AIDS among health-care workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Orrett, F A; Prabhakar, P

    1989-12-01

    Six hundred and fifty questionnaires were sent to Health-care Workers (HCW) in four hospitals to assess the knowledge and understanding on HIV transmission and isolation precautions to be instituted for control and also to ascertain whether any differences in knowledge existed between HCW of teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Five hundred and nine questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 79%. Questions on HIV transmission via blood transfusion and sexual intercourse and proper disposal of sharp instruments received the highest scores (85-100), embracing all groups of teaching and non-teaching hospitals. The greatest area of misconception and misunderstanding was reflected in responses obtained on isolation precautions (less than 30) for both teaching and non-teaching hospitals. Our study emphasizes an urgent need for a comprehensive, continuous education of HCW on prevention and control of HIV infections in Jamaica. PMID:2623847

  2. Using a Question Prompt List As a Communication Aid in Advanced Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jonathan C.; Jennifer Cheng, M.; Chung, Christine H.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Oncologists and patients often avoid discussing prognosis, treatment failure, and end-of-life planning. Thus, many patients still overestimate their prognosis and possibility of cure, impairing decision making. We piloted a question prompt list (QPL) covering these issues to determine whether it would affect patient anxiety and how it would be used and received by new oncology patients. Materials and Methods A one-page checklist of common questions surrounding cancer care, quality of life, and end of life was created from previous instruments. A total of 30 patients with advanced or metastatic head and neck cancer were recruited from outpatient clinics. Patients received the QPL before their initial consultation. Patient anxiety, satisfaction, and information/decision-making preferences were assessed using validated instruments. Patient opinions regarding the QPL were solicited through Likert-scale items. Results During their visit, 27 patients (90%) used the QPL, but notably, none shared it directly with their oncologist. Most participants felt that the QPL was relevant and helpful (90%) and recommended that more physicians use this sort of list (90%) while disagreeing that the QPL made them feel anxious (80%). Generally, participants were highly satisfied with the consultation, and their anxiety decreased during the visit (P < .005). Conclusion A simple, one-page QPL addressing cancer treatment, prognosis, quality of life, and end-of-life issues was well received by new oncology patients and did not affect patient anxiety or physician workflow. Follow-up studies will determine whether use of the QPL increases knowledge, facilitates decision making, and improves advance-care planning. PMID:24594680

  3. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  4. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  5. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  6. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  7. 45 CFR 57.3 - Volunteer service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operation of a health care facility. Volunteers may be used to supplement, but not to take the place of..., or his designee, to broaden and strengthen the delivery of health services, contribute to the comfort... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION VOLUNTEER SERVICES §...

  8. Ivermectin distribution using community volunteers in Kabarole district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kipp, W; Burnham, G; Bamuhiiga, J; Weis, P; Büttner, D W

    1998-06-01

    Ivermectin mass distribution for the control of onchocerciasis in Uganda began in 1991. This report describes a community based ivermectin distribution programme covering two foci in the Kabarole district which have an estimated 32,000 persons infected and another 110,000 at risk. Through nodule palpation in adult males, 143 villages were identified where nodule prevalence exceeded 20%. Skin snips were also taken from a sample of the population to measure changes in community microfilarial load (CMFL) with treatment. The delivery programme was integrated into the district health management structure, and used community volunteers supervised by medical assistants from adjacent health facilities for annual ivermectin distribution campaigns. After initial efforts by the community to support distributors in-kind proved inadequate, ivermectin distributors earned money retailing condoms as part of the social marketing component of district STD/AIDS programme. Reduction in the CMFL ranged from 40-62% twelve months after the second ivermectin treatment in three villages, and from 69-84% six months after the fourth round of treatment in two villages. After four years of treatment, 85% of eligible persons were receiving ivermectin from community volunteers in each treatment cycle. Drop out rates among volunteers did not exceed 20% over the four years reported here. The direct cost of treatment was US $0.29 per person. Among the reasons for low per-person treatment costs were the strong supervisory structure, the presence of health centres in the foci and a well developed and capable district Primary Health Care management team. PMID:10180405

  9. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. PMID:25422517

  10. Report and policy brief from the 4th Africa Conference on Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research: innovations in access to prevention, treatment and care in HIV/AIDS, Kisumu, Kenya, 29 April - 3 May 2007.

    PubMed

    Setswe, G; Peltzer, K; Banyini, M; Skinner, D; Seager, J; Maile, S; Sedumedi, S; Gomis, D; van der Linde, I

    2007-08-01

    About 520 delegates from all over Africa and 21 countries attended the conference. This report and policy brief summarises the key findings and suggested policy options that emerged from rapporteur reports of conference proceedings including the following themes: (1) Orphans and vulnerable children, (2) Treatment, (3) Prevention, (4) Gender and male involvement, (5) Male circumcision, (6) People living with HIV/AIDS, (7) Food and nutrition, (8) Socioeconomics, and (9) Politics/policy. Two (11.8%) of the 17 OVC projects from the three countries were classified as best practice interventions. Of the 83 abstracts that were accepted at the conference, only 7 (8.4%) were dealing with antiretroviral therapy (ART). There has been tremendous effort by various organisations to provide information about prevention of HIV/AIDS. Information received by adolescents has been effective in increasing their knowledge, but without positive sexual behaviour change. The conference noted the contribution of gender discrimination and violence to the HIV epidemic and the different risks that men and women face in relation to the epidemic. Social scientists need to study the deep cultural meanings attached to male circumcision among different ethnic groups to be able to guide the debate on the latest biomedical findings on the protective effect of circumcision against HIV. Palliative care and support is crucial for coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in order to deal with medical and psychological issues. Results from several countries have helped researchers to explore alternative ways of examining poverty in the context of HIV and AIDS. Policy frameworks which are likely to succeed in combating HIV/AIDS need to be updated to cover issues of access, testing, disclosure and stigma. In general, the conference was successful in identifying innovations in access to prevention, treatment and care in HIV/AIDS. PMID:18071616

  11. [Medical care provided to pregnant women with HIV/AIDS in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Karla Santana Azevedo; Alves dos Prazeres, José Carlos; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Valdanha Netto, Américo

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the perinatal results of the prophylactic measures adopted in the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. The study was carried out using the medical records of 168 women with HIV and their newborns in a public maternity unit of Fortaleza, in the state of Ceará, from 2005 to 2009. The data was obtained between the months of March and September 2010 and was analyzed using the program SPSS 10.0. The women diagnosed before pregnancy received timely care that permitted them an effective antiretroviral therapy and a greater number of check-ups (p<0,05). Antiretroviral therapy was administered to 97.6% of the pregnant women, and triple therapy in 88.7%. AZT was administered intrapartum in 95.2% of the women and oral AZT in syrup to 100% of the newborns. Birth by cesarean section was predominant (92.8%) and was associated to the intrapartum use of AZT when compared to vaginal birth (p<0.001). Cesarean section favored intrapartum administration of AZT. PMID:24500549

  12. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS: Perception of Health Care Workers in Rural Areas of Oyo State

    PubMed Central

    Aishat, Usman; Olubunmi, Ayinde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Proper implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services requires adequate knowledge and appropriate attitudes and practices on the part of the health care providers especially in rural areas where access to health care delivery is very limited in Oyo State. Materials and Methods. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 350 health care workers in a two-stage sampling technique. Data was obtained using interviewer-administered, pretested, semistructured questionnaires. The data was analyzed using Epi Info software version 7. Results. The knowledge of PMTCT of HIV was poor among the health care workers (69.1%). However, more than half (58.3%) had good attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV/AIDS. Predictors of good knowledge of PMTCT were religion [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.6)], cadre of occupation [AOR = 10.2, 95% CI (2.9–35.1)], and length of service [AOR = 4.3, 95% CI (2.3–19.4)]. Predictors of good attitude towards PMTCT were length of service in the current hospital [AOR = 2.8, 95% CI (1.5–5.2)] and cadre of occupation [AOR = 3.9, 95% CI (1.28–11.9)]. Conclusion. Despite poor knowledge of PMTCT of HIV/AIDS among the health care workers, the attitude towards PMTCT of HIV/AIDS was good. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge of and attitude towards prevention of MTCT of HIV/AIDS among health care workers in the rural areas. PMID:26904361

  13. Analysis of contemporary HIV/AIDS health care costs in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Treskova, Marina; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Bogner, Johannes; Hower, Martin; Heiken, Hans; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Mahlich, Jörg; von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias Graf; Stoll, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To analyze contemporary costs of HIV health care and the cost distribution across lines of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). To identify variations in expenditures with patient characteristics and to identify main cost determinants. To compute cost ratios between patients with varying characteristics. Empirical data on costs are collected in Germany within a 2-year prospective observational noninterventional multicenter study. The database contains information for 1154 HIV-infected patients from 8 medical centers. Means and standard deviations of the total costs are estimated for each cost fraction and across cART lines and regimens. The costs are regressed against various patient characteristics using a generalized linear model. Relative costs are calculated using the resultant coefficients. The average annual total costs (SD) per patient are €22,231.03 (8786.13) with a maximum of €83,970. cART medication is the major cost fraction (83.8%) with a mean of €18,688.62 (5289.48). The major cost-driving factors are cART regimen, CD4-T cell count, cART drug resistance, and concomitant diseases. Viral load, pathology tests, and demographics have no significant impact. Standard non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens induce 28% lower total costs compared with standard PI/r regimens. Resistance to 3 or more antiretroviral classes induces a significant increase in costs. HIV treatment in Germany continues to be expensive. Majority of costs are attributable to cART. Main cost determinants are CD4-T cells count, comorbidity, genotypic antiviral resistance, and therapy regimen. Combinations of characteristics associated with higher expenditures enhance the increasing effect on the costs and induce high cost cases. PMID:27367993

  14. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  15. 29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted...

  16. HIV/AIDS health care challenges for cross-country migrants in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Khitdee, Chiraporn; Thaichinda, Chompoonut; Kantamaturapoj, Kanang; Leelahavarong, Pattara; Jumriangrit, Pensom; Topothai, Thitikorn; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Putthasri, Weerasak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV/AIDS has been one of the world’s most important health challenges in recent history. The global solidarity in responding to HIV/AIDS through the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and encouraging early screening has been proved successful in saving lives of infected populations in past decades. However, there remain several challenges, one of which is how HIV/AIDS policies keep pace with the growing speed and diversity of migration flows. This study therefore aimed to examine the nature and the extent of HIV/AIDS health services, barriers to care, and epidemic burdens among cross-country migrants in low-and middle-income countries. Methods A scoping review was undertaken by gathering evidence from electronic databases and gray literature from the websites of relevant international initiatives. The articles were reviewed according to the defined themes: epidemic burdens of HIV/AIDS, barriers to health services and HIV/AIDS risks, and the operational management of the current health systems for HIV/AIDS. Results Of the 437 articles selected for an initial screening, 35 were read in full and mapped with the defined research questions. A high HIV/AIDS infection rate was a major concern among cross-country migrants in many regions, in particular sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a large number of studies reported in Africa, fewer studies were found in Asia and Latin America. Barriers of access to HIV/AIDS services comprised inadequate management of guidelines and referral systems, discriminatory attitudes, language differences, unstable legal status, and financial hardship. Though health systems management varied across countries, international partners consistently played a critical role in providing support for HIV/AIDS services to uninsured migrants and refugees. Conclusion It was evident that HIV/AIDS health care problems for migrants were a major concern in many developing nations. However, there was little evidence suggesting if the current

  17. [Volunteer support at home, at the end of life].

    PubMed

    de Baudus, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    Volunteers work alongside nurses providing social support to people at the end of life at home. As partners in the patient management, they can contribute to finding innovative solutions and are important players in the "shared caring". PMID:26567078

  18. The impact of 9/11 on HIV/AIDS care in Africa and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.

    PubMed

    Ssemakula, John Kiwanuka

    2002-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States sent shock waves throughout the world. The World Bank said the events of 9/11 were likely to have mid- to long-term negative effects in some countries, and donor assistance to Africa could be affected. The terrorist attacks also had the effect of bringing up the issue of security and the potential threat the HIV/AIDS epidemic poses to international security, especially in Africa. This article examines some of the effects of the 9/11 attacks on the fight against HIV/AIDS in Africa, and their implications. PMID:12369390

  19. From PALSA PLUS to PALM PLUS: adapting and developing a South African guideline and training intervention to better integrate HIV/AIDS care with primary care in rural health centers in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only about one-third of eligible HIV/AIDS patients receive anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Decentralizing treatment is crucial to wider and more equitable access, but key obstacles are a shortage of trained healthcare workers (HCW) and challenges integrating HIV/AIDS care with other primary care. This report describes the development of a guideline and training program (PALM PLUS) designed to integrate HIV/AIDS care with other primary care in Malawi. PALM PLUS was adapted from PALSA PLUS, developed in South Africa, and targets middle-cadre HCWs (clinical officers, nurses, and medical assistants). We adapted it to align with Malawi's national treatment protocols, more varied healthcare workforce, and weaker health system infrastructure. Methods/Design The international research team included the developers of the PALSA PLUS program, key Malawi-based team members and personnel from national and district level Ministry of Health (MoH), professional associations, and an international non-governmental organization. The PALSA PLUS guideline was extensively revised based on Malawi national disease-specific guidelines. Advice and input was sought from local clinical experts, including middle-cadre personnel, as well as Malawi MoH personnel and representatives of Malawian professional associations. Results An integrated guideline adapted to Malawian protocols for adults with respiratory conditions, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and other primary care conditions was developed. The training program was adapted to Malawi's health system and district-level supervision structure. PALM PLUS is currently being piloted in a cluster-randomized trial in health centers in Malawi (ISRCTN47805230). Discussion The PALM PLUS guideline and training intervention targets primary care middle-cadre HCWs with the objective of improving HCW satisfaction and retention, and the quality of patient care. Successful adaptations are feasible, even across health systems as different as those of

  20. Housing Status, Medical Care, and Health Outcomes Among People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael G.; Shubert, Virginia; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Rueda, Sergio; Bozack, Anne K.; Caban, Maria; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Accumulating evidence suggests responses to HIV that combine individual-level interventions with those that address structural or contextual factors that influence risks and health outcomes of infection. Housing is such a factor. Housing occupies a strategic position as an intermediate structural factor, linking “upstream” economic, social, and cultural determinants to the more immediate physical and social environments in which everyday life is lived. The importance of housing status for HIV prevention and care has been recognized, but much of this attention has focused on homeless individuals as a special risk group. Analyses have less often addressed community housing availability and conditions as factors influencing population health or unstable, inadequate, or unaffordable housing as a situation or temporary state. A focus on individual-level characteristics associated with literal homelessness glosses over social, economic, and policy drivers operating largely outside any specific individual’s control that affect housing and residential environments and the health resources or risk exposures such contexts provide. Objectives. We examined the available empirical evidence on the association between housing status (broadly defined), medical care, and health outcomes among people with HIV and analyzed results to inform future research, program development, and policy implementation. Search methods. We searched 8 electronic health and social science databases from January 1, 1996, through March 31, 2014, using search terms related to housing, dwelling, and living arrangements and HIV and AIDS. We contacted experts for additional literature. Selection criteria. We selected articles if they were quantitative analyses published in English, French, or Spanish that included at least 1 measure of housing status as an independent variable and at least 1 health status, health care, treatment adherence, or risk behavior outcome among people with HIV in

  1. Influence of a persuasive strategy on nursing students' beliefs and attitudes toward provision of care to people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Valois, P; Turgeon, H; Godin, G; Blondeau, D; Cote, F

    2001-11-01

    Based on the theory of planned behavior and the elaboration likelihood model, the aim of this study was to verify the effect of persuasive messages on nursing students' beliefs and attitudes regarding provision of care to people living with HIV/AIDS. The assumption was that a persuasive communication strategy induces a constructive change in beliefs and attitudes regarding provision of care. Baseline data collection was performed among a group of 74 nursing students (experimental group = 27; control group = 47). The questionnaire assessed the variables of the theory of planned behavior (i.e., beliefs, attitudes, perceived behavioral control). The results confirmed that persuasive messages generated a change in beliefs and attitudes of the nursing students concerning providing care to people living with HIV/AIDS. It appears that this strategy of modifying behavioral predispositions is effective and generates cognitive and affective changes. Therefore, educational programs should take these observations into consideration to ensure that future nurses are better prepared to provide appropriate care to people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:11725993

  2. Addressing HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal People using a Health Status, Health Determinants and Health Care Framework: A Literature Review and Conceptual Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nowgesic, Earl

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To describe the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among Aboriginal populations using a mixed methods approach (i.e. quantitative and qualitative methods); (2) to examine the individual-level and community-level relationships between HIV/AIDS, health determinants, and health care (e.g. diagnosis, access to treatment and health services planning); and (3) to explore innovative solutions to address HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal populations based upon research and infrastructure (e.g. partnerships, data sources and management, health indicators and culture) and policy (i.e. self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples). Methods Literature review and conceptual analysis using a health status, health determinants and health care framework. Results In comparison to non-Aboriginal persons, HIV infection is higher among Aboriginal persons, is more directly attributable to unique risk factors and socio-demographic characteristics, and yields more adverse health outcomes. Culture, poverty and self-determination are determinants of health for Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal people have inadequate primary care and, in particular, specialist care. It is necessary to include traditional Aboriginal approaches and culture when addressing Aboriginal health while understanding competing paradigms between modern medicine and Aboriginal traditions. Conclusion There is a need for self-determination of Aboriginal Peoples in order to improve the health of Aboriginal communities and those living with HIV/AIDS. Research and policy affecting Aboriginal people should be of the highest quality and based upon Aboriginal community relevance and involvement.

  3. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  4. UTAH VOLUNTEER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goal 1) Promote and coordinate stream monitoring efforts in Utah as an effective watershed educational tool. Task 1) Inventory and compile an annotated list of existing volunteer monitoring programs and related efforts in Utah. Task 2) Promote monitoring activities throughout the...

  5. Disclosure of HIV status: experiences and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS and nurses involved in their care in Africa.

    PubMed

    Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, Rene; Makoae, Lucia N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Holzemer, William L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Kohi, Thecla W; Uys, Leana R; Chirwa, Maureen L

    2008-03-01

    Most people with HIV have disclosed their status to someone, often with mixed results. Most health literature seems to favor disclosure by persons living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but it could be that to disclose is not always a good thing. We used a descriptive, qualitative research design to explore the experience of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS stigma of people living with HIV or AIDS and nurses involved in their care in Africa. Focus group discussions were held with respondents. We asked them to relate incidents that they themselves observed, and those that they themselves experienced in the community and in families. Thirty-nine focus groups were conducted in five countries in both urban and rural settings. This article is limited to a discussion of data related to the theme of disclosure only. The sub-themes of disclosure were experiences before the disclosure, the process of disclosure, and responses during and after disclosure. PMID:18235155

  6. Checklists and Other Cognitive Aids For Emergency And Routine Anesthesia Care-A Survey on the Perception of Anesthesia Providers From a Large Academic US Institution

    PubMed Central

    Krombach, Jens W.; Edwards, William A.; Marks, James D.; Radke, Oliver C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of printed or electronic checklists and other cognitive aids has gained increasing interest from anesthesia providers and professional societies. While these aids are not currently considered standard of care, the perceptions of the clinician might have an impact on their adoption. Objectives: We conducted a comprehensive survey to study the current opinions of anesthesia provider on the use of checklists and other cognitive aids. Patients and Methods: A questionnaire was developed by a departmental checklist focus group, which aimed to identify the perception of health care checklists in general as well as specific checklists for routine and crisis situations in anesthesia. Furthermore participants were asked regarding their perception of performing routine anesthesia and managing crisis situations without any cognitive aids. Using a web-based system, the survey was administered to all anesthesia providers at a single large United States academic medical center (University of California San Francisco). Demographic information included professional status (faculty, anesthesia resident, or nurse anesthetists [certified registered nurse anesthetists; CRNA]) and years of clinical experience. Results: 69% of 312 providers responded. 98% of the survey takers consider the procedural time-out (the widely used pre-incision operating room checklist) as important or very important. We found that many anesthesia providers acknowledged limitations in their ability to perform clinical tasks without any lapses, and a majority would use checklists and other cognitive aids if available. Their acceptances are especially high for crisis situations (87 - 97%, depending on years of experience) and routine care that providers do not perform often (76 - 91%). Printed or electronic aids for patient-care transition and shift hand-offs were also valued (61% and 58%). To prepare for and perform routine anesthesia care, 40% of providers claimed interest in using

  7. Factors affecting satisfaction among community-based hospice volunteer visitors.

    PubMed

    Chevrier, F; Steuer, R; MacKenzie, J

    1994-01-01

    Trained volunteers are an essential component in the delivery of care to clients and families facing a terminal and/or life-threatening illness. As the need for hospice care increases, so does the need to increase the number of volunteers available for visiting. Hospice of London, which is a community based hospice, proposed that volunteers who felt satisfied would remain with the organization longer, thereby, decreasing the costs associated with training new volunteers and enhancing the ability of the agency to provide high-quality volunteer client matches. Accordingly, a survey was conducted in August 1992 to determine which factors were related to hospice volunteer satisfaction. One hundred and five volunteer were surveyed over the telephone. Results demonstrated a positive correlation between satisfaction and feeling like a team member, receiving feedback from staff, feeling valuable and having the volunteer's expectations match the position. Differences in the factors related to satisfaction were noted when the groups were divided by age and gender. PMID:7893559

  8. Enhancing Leadership Skills in Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Landry L.; Boyd, Barry

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how professionals leading volunteers can purposefully work toward developing the "leadership identity" of individual volunteers. These concepts and the application of them are presented in the context of Cooperative Extension volunteer groups. Specific methods of developing the leadership identity and capacity of individual…

  9. Perceptions of the Volunteer Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Wayne L.

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire responses from 51 probation and parole line officers to determine staff perceptions of one Volunteers in Corrections program. Findings suggest that officers view volunteer role as involving several functions, including research, treatment, counseling, supervision, volunteer program operations, clerical, and investigation.…

  10. Talking with Kids about AIDS: A Program for Parents and Other Adults Who Care. Teaching Guide [and] Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Jennifer; Tobias, Donald; Raqub, Arzeymah; Ziegler, Jerome

    The teaching guide and resource manual present information to help parents and other adults talk to children and adolescents about AIDS. The teaching guide is a resource for conducting parent AIDS education programs. It presents step-by-step instructions for facilitators that explain the activities and objectives and the teaching techniques for…

  11. Health Care and the Social Construction of AIDS: Impact of Disease Definitions on Psychosocial Adaptation and Economic Circumstances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, Stephen; Jackson, Marguerite

    As with other illnesses, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a socially constructed phenomenon, not simply a biological entity. Biologically, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes immunosuppression, which in turn causes a spectrum of disease states. The official definition of AIDS by the Centers for Disease Control requires…

  12. Associations between factors affecting access to care and health-related quality of life: results of a statewide HIV/AIDS cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Krause, Denise D; Butler, Kenneth R; May, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationship between access to care and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Mississippi by administering a statewide survey. A random probability sample of PLWHA was derived from the Mississippi State Department of Health's communicable disease tracking system. Interviews were conducted with 220 PLWHA to collect data on access to care, demographic and social characteristics, and HRQOL. Overall, most participants had access to care and reasonable HRQOL. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed to measure associations between access to care and HRQOL. Univariate analyses showed that age, income, social networks, severity of disease, having been prescribed medications, and having experienced problems accessing care to be significantly associated with HRQOL scales. Multivariate analysis of variance models further demonstrated low-income level, having experienced problems accessing care, and having been prescribed antiretroviral medications to be significantly associated with HRQOL. Reducing barriers is a major factor in improving quality of life. This study provides needed insight into the relationship between access to care and HRQOL among PLWHA in Mississippi, which could be valuable to public health planners to help them better understand how to make the greatest impact on HRQOL. PMID:22612404

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Hospitalization and Home-Based Care Strategies for People Living with HIV/AIDS: The Case of Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Hove-Musekwa, Senelani D.; Mambili-Mamboundou, Hermane

    2014-01-01

    The model of care of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has shifted from hospital care to community home-based care (CHBC) because of shortage of space in hospitals and lack of resources. We evaluate the costs and benefits of home-based care and other HIV/AIDS intervention strategies in Zimbabwe, using an interdisciplinary approach which weaves together the techniques of an epidemic transmission model and economic evaluation concepts. The intervention strategies considered are voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), VCT combined with hospitalization (H), VCT combined with CHBC, and all the interventions implemented concurrently. The results of the study indicate that implementing all the strategies concurrently is the most cost-effective, a result which also agrees with the epidemiological model. Our results also show that the effectiveness of a strategy in the epidemiological model does not necessarily imply cost-effectiveness of the strategy and behaviour change, modelled by the parameters p and m, that accompanied the strategies, influencing both the cost-effectiveness of an intervention strategy and dynamics of the epidemic. This study shows that interdisciplinary collaborations can help in improving the accuracy of predictions of the course and cost of the epidemic and help policy makers in implementing the correct strategies.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Hospitalization and Home-Based Care Strategies for People Living with HIV/AIDS: The Case of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Hove-Musekwa, Senelani D; Nyabadza, Farai; Mambili-Mamboundou, Hermane; Chiyaka, Christinah; Mukandavire, Zindoga

    2014-01-01

    The model of care of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has shifted from hospital care to community home-based care (CHBC) because of shortage of space in hospitals and lack of resources. We evaluate the costs and benefits of home-based care and other HIV/AIDS intervention strategies in Zimbabwe, using an interdisciplinary approach which weaves together the techniques of an epidemic transmission model and economic evaluation concepts. The intervention strategies considered are voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), VCT combined with hospitalization (H), VCT combined with CHBC, and all the interventions implemented concurrently. The results of the study indicate that implementing all the strategies concurrently is the most cost-effective, a result which also agrees with the epidemiological model. Our results also show that the effectiveness of a strategy in the epidemiological model does not necessarily imply cost-effectiveness of the strategy and behaviour change, modelled by the parameters p and m, that accompanied the strategies, influencing both the cost-effectiveness of an intervention strategy and dynamics of the epidemic. This study shows that interdisciplinary collaborations can help in improving the accuracy of predictions of the course and cost of the epidemic and help policy makers in implementing the correct strategies. PMID:27437475

  15. Perceptions of Women Living with AIDS in Rural India Related to the Engagement of HIV-Trained Accredited Social Health Activists for Care and Support

    PubMed Central

    NYAMATHI, ADELINE M.; WILLIAM, RAVI RAJ; GANGULY, KALYAN K.; SINHA, SANJEEV; HERAVIAN, ANISA; ALBARRÁN, CYNTHIA R.; THOMAS, ALEXANDRA; GREENGOLD, BARBARA; EKSTRAND, MARIA; RAMAKRISHNA, PADMA; RAO, PANTANGI RAMA

    2011-01-01

    A community-based participatory research study was conducted using focus groups with 39 women living with AIDS (WLA) in the rural setting of Andhra Pradesh, India. In addition, three nurses, two physicians, and five reproductive health accredited social health activists (ASHAs) took part in focus groups. The WLA offered insight into the benefits of HIV-trained ASHAs including emotional support, assistance with travel to health care providers and antiretroviral therapy medication adherence. Health care providers also identified benefits of using HIV-trained ASHAs and suggested modalities for how to train these individuals. These findings will contribute to the design of a future program of care involving HIV-trained ASHAs. PMID:21331322

  16. Perinatal HIV testing among African American, Caucasian, Hmong and Latina women: exploring the role of health-care services, information sources and perceptions of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lee King, Patricia A; Pate, David J

    2014-02-01

    Perinatal HIV transmission disproportionately affects African American, Latina and potentially Hmong women in the United States. Understanding racially and ethnically diverse women's perceptions of and experiences with perinatal health care, HIV testing and HIV/AIDS may inform effective health communications to reduce the risk of perinatal HIV transmission among disproportionate risk groups. We used a qualitative descriptive research design with content analysis of five focus groups of African American, Caucasian, Hmong and Latina women of reproductive age with low socioeconomic status distinguished by their race/ethnicity or HIV status. A purposive stratified sample of 37 women shared their health-care experiences, health information sources and perceptions of HIV testing and HIV/AIDS. Women's responses highlighted the importance of developing and leveraging trusted provider and community-based relationships and assessing a woman's beliefs and values in her sociocultural context, to ensure clear, consistent and relevant communications. Perinatal health communications that are culturally sensitive and based on an assessment of women's knowledge and understanding of perinatal health and HIV/AIDS may be an effective tool for health educators addressing racial and ethnic disparities in perinatal HIV transmission. PMID:24150728

  17. [Hygiene is not cleanliness. For a new definition of hygiene promotion in emergency humanitarian aid].

    PubMed

    Larose, L

    2001-03-01

    Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation. PMID:11525045

  18. Personalized genomic disease risk of volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; McGuire, Amy L.; Pereira, Stacey; Caskey, C. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used for researching the causes of genetic disorders. However, its usefulness in clinical practice for medical diagnosis is in early development. In this report, we demonstrate the value of NGS for genetic risk assessment and evaluate the limitations and barriers for the adoption of this technology into medical practice. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on 81 volunteers, and for each volunteer, we requested personal medical histories, constructed a three-generation pedigree, and required their participation in a comprehensive educational program. We limited our clinical reporting to disease risks based on only rare damaging mutations and known pathogenic variations in genes previously reported to be associated with human disorders. We identified 271 recessive risk alleles (214 genes), 126 dominant risk alleles (101 genes), and 3 X-recessive risk alleles (3 genes). We linked personal disease histories with causative disease genes in 18 volunteers. Furthermore, by incorporating family histories into our genetic analyses, we identified an additional five heritable diseases. Traditional genetic counseling and disease education were provided in verbal and written reports to all volunteers. Our report demonstrates that when genome results are carefully interpreted and integrated with an individual’s medical records and pedigree data, NGS is a valuable diagnostic tool for genetic disease risk. PMID:24082139

  19. Impact of supervised drug consumption services on access to and engagement with care at a palliative and supportive care facility for people living with HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Ryan; Dilley, Laura B; Guirguis-Younger, Manal; Hwang, Stephen W; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Improvements in the availability and effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have prolonged the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS. However, mortality rates have remained high among populations that encounter barriers to accessing and adhering to HAART, notably people who use drugs. This population consequently has a high burden of illness and complex palliative and supportive care needs, but is often unable to access these services due to anti-drug policies and discrimination. In Vancouver, Canada, the Dr. Peter Centre (DPC), which operates a 24-bed residential HIV/AIDS care facility, has sought to improve access to palliative and supportive care services by adopting a comprehensive harm reduction strategy, including supervised injection services. We undertook this study to explore how the integration of comprehensive harm reduction services into this setting shapes access to and engagement with care. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 DPC residents between November 2010 and August 2011. Interviews made use of a semistructured interview guide which facilitated discussion regarding how the DPC Residence's model of care (a) shaped healthcare access, (b) influenced healthcare interactions and (c) impacted drug use practices and overall health. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Participant accounts highlight how the harm reduction policy altered the structural-environmental context of healthcare services and thus mediated access to palliative and supportive care services. Furthermore, this approach fostered an atmosphere in which drug use could be discussed without the risk of punitive action, and thus increased openness between residents and staff. Finally, participants reported that the environmental supports provided by the DPC Residence decreased drug-related risks and improved health outcomes, including HAART adherence and survival. Conclusions This study highlights how adopting

  20. Correlates of Strengthening Lessons from HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care Services in Ethiopia Perceived Access and Implications for Health System

    PubMed Central

    Ncama, Busisiwe Purity

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to healthcare is an important public health concept and has been traditionally measured by using population level parameters, such as availability, distribution and proximity of the health facilities in relation to the population. However, client based factors such as their expectations, experiences and perceptions which impact their evaluations of health care access were not well studied and integrated into health policy frameworks and implementation programs. Objective This study aimed to investigate factors associated with perceived access to HIV/AIDS Treatment and care services in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 492 people living with HIV, with 411 using ART and 81 using pre-ART services accessed at six public sector health facilities from November 2014 to March 2015. Data were analyzed using the ologit function of STATA. The variables explored consisted of socio-demographic and health characteristics, type of health facility, type of care, distance, waiting time, healthcare responsiveness, transportation convenience, satisfaction with service, quality of care, financial fairness, out of pocket expenses and HIV disclosure. Results Of the 492 participants, 294 (59.8%) were females and 198 (40.2%) were males, with a mean age of 38.8 years. 23.0% and 12.2% believed they had ‘good’ or ‘very good’ access respectively, and 64.8% indicated lower ratings. In the multivariate analysis, distance from the health facility, type of care, HIV clinical stage, out of pocket expenses, employment status, type of care, HIV disclosure and perceived transportation score were not associated with the perceived access (PA). With a unit increment in satisfaction, perceived quality of care, health system responsiveness, transportation convenience and perceived financial fairness scores, the odds of providing higher rating of PA increased by 29.0% (p<0.001), 6.0%(p<0.01), 100.0% (p<0.001), 9.0% (p<0.05) and 6.0% (p<0

  1. The role of cultural practices and the family in the care for people living with HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Muoghalu, Caroline O; Jegede, Samuel A

    2010-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the worst epidemics that have been experienced by humankind. It is indeed a major event of our time. The pandemic has killed so many people around the world and Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst hit. The nature of the pandemic lent it to stigma and discrimination, which have made caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) a big problem. It has also brought so much suffering on PLWHA around the world. This article examines the role of culture and the family in the care for PLWHA in Anambra State. Quantitative and Qualitative data collection methods (questionnaire and in-depth interviews) are used to elicit information from respondents. A total of 1000 copies of a questionnaire were administered on adult males and females and 914 were completed and analyzed. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were conducted on 10 opinion leaders using an interview guide. Data were analyzed in themes based on the objectives and the data from in-depth interviews were used to support data from the questionnaire. The results showed that certain cultural practices such as cultural obligations to sick, blood relations, collective ownership of children, affinity to blood relations, and strong marital bond enhance care and support for PLWHA. Also, the burden of care for PLWHA was found to be on the family in the study area. In conclusion, cultural practices and the family play major roles in the care for PLWHA in the area and should be harnessed in order to make life more comfortable for PLWHA. PMID:21113852

  2. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  3. Reasons Why Canadian Seniors Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Prince, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    A study examined types of and reasons for volunteering among Canadian adults over 64 (n=1,569) and compared them with those given by adults aged 45-64 (n=5,563). Results indicate that the older group volunteers out of self-interest and are more likely to volunteer because of a feeling of obligation and social value than those aged 45-64. (JOW)

  4. A review of the role of food insecurity in adherence to care and treatment among adult and pediatric populations living with HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Young, Sera; Wheeler, Amanda; McCoy, Sandi; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for reducing HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality. Food insecurity (FI) is emerging as an important barrier to adherence to care and treatment recommendations for people living with HIV (PLHIV), but this relationship has not been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we reviewed the literature to explore how FI may impact ART adherence, retention in medical care, and adherence to health care recommendations among PLHIV. We found data to support FI as a critical barrier to adherence to ART and to other health care recommendations among HIV-infected adults, HIV-infected pregnant women and their HIV-exposed infants, and child and adolescent populations of PLHIV. Associations between FI and ART non-adherence were seen in qualitative and quantitative studies. We identified a number of mechanisms to explain how food insecurity and ART non-adherence may be causally linked, including the exacerbation of hunger or ART side effects in the absence of adequate food and competing resource demands. Interventions that address FI may improve adherence to care and treatment recommendations for PLHIV. PMID:23842717

  5. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services. PMID:1602509

  6. Augmenting Advance Care Planning in Poor Prognosis Cancer with a Video Decision Aid: A Pre-Post Study

    PubMed Central

    Volandes, Angelo E.; Levin, Tomer T.; Slovin, Susan; Carvajal, Richard D.; O’Reilly, Eileen M.; Keohan, Mary Louise; Theodoulou, Maria; Dickler, Maura; Gerecitano, John F.; Morris, Michael; Epstein, Andrew S.; Naka-Blackstone, Anastazia; Walker-Corkery, Elizabeth S.; Chang, Yuchiao; Noy, Ariela

    2012-01-01

    Background We tested whether an educational video on the goals of care in advanced cancer (life-prolonging, basic or comfort care) can help patients understand these goals and impact preferences for resuscitation. Methods Survey of 80 advanced cancer patients before and after viewing the video. Outcomes included changes in goals-of-care preference and knowledge, and consistency of preferences with code status. Results Before viewing the video, 10 patients (13%) preferred life-prolonging care; 24 (30%) basic care; and 29 (36%) comfort care; 17 (21%) were unsure. Preferences did not change after the video: 9 (11%) chose life-prolonging care; 28 (35%) basic care; 29 (36%) comfort care; and, 14 (18%) were unsure (p=0.28). Compared to baseline, after the video presentation more patients did not want CPR (71 vs 61%, p=0.03) or ventilation (79 vs 67%, p=0.008). Knowledge about goals of care and likelihood of resuscitation increased post-video (p<.001). Of the patients who did not want CPR or ventilation after the video augmentation, only 4 (5%) had a documented DNR order in the medical record (kappa statistic −0.01; 95% CI −0.06 – 0.04). Acceptability of the video was high. Conclusion Patients with advanced cancer did not change care preferences after viewing the video, but fewer wanted CPR or ventilation. Documented code status was inconsistent with patient preferences. Patients were more knowledgeable after the video, found the video acceptable, and would recommend it to others. Video may enable visualization of “goals of care,” enriching patient understanding of worsening health states and better informing decision-making. PMID:22252775

  7. Volunteering for charity: pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers.

    PubMed

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi

    2007-05-01

    This study builds upon and extends the social-identity-based model of cooperation with the organization (T. R. Tyler, 1999; T. R. Tyler & S. L. Blader, 2000) to examine commitment and cooperative intent among fundraising volunteers. In Study 1, structural equation modeling indicated that pride and respect related to the intent to remain a volunteer with an organization, and that this relation was mediated primarily by normative organizational commitment. In Study 2, structural equation modeling indicated that the perceived importance of volunteer work was related to pride, that perceived organizational support related to the experience of respect, and that pride and respect mediated the relation between perceived importance and support on the one hand and organizational commitment on the other. Overall, the results suggest that volunteer organizations may do well to implement pride and respect in their volunteer policy, for instance to address the reliability problem (J. L. Pearce, 1993). PMID:17484556

  8. The Affordable Care Act and the Burden of High Cost Sharing and Utilization Management Restrictions on Access to HIV Medications for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Hank, Yasamean

    2016-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a critical public health issue in the United States, where an estimated 1.2 million individuals live with HIV infection. Viral suppression is one of the primary public health goals for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A crucial component of this goal involves adequate access to health care, specifically anti-retroviral HIV medications. The enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 raised hopes for millions of PLWHA without access to health care coverage. High cost-sharing requirements enacted by health plans place a financial burden on PLWHA who need ongoing access to these life-saving medications. Plighted with poverty, Detroit, Michigan, is a center of attention for examining the financial burden of HIV medications on PLWHA under the new health plans. From November 2014 to January 2015, monthly out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization requirements for 31 HIV medications were examined for the top 12 insurance carriers offering Qualified Health Plans on Michigan's Health Insurance Marketplace Exchange. The percentage of medications requiring quantity limits and prior authorization were calculated. The average monthly out-of-pocket cost per person ranged from $12 to $667 per medication. Three insurance carriers placed all 31 HIV medications on the highest cost-sharing tier, charging 50% coinsurance. High out-of-pocket costs and medication utilization restrictions discourage PLWHA from enrolling in health plans and threaten interrupted medication adherence, drug resistance, and increased risk of viral transmission. Health plans inflicting high costs and medication restrictions violate provisions of the ACA and undermine health care quality for PLWHA. (Population Health Management 2016;19:272-278). PMID:26565514

  9. Dementia-Related Work Activities of Home Care Nurses and Aides: Frequency, Perceived Competence, and Continuing Education Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debra G.; Kosteniuk, Julie G.; O'Connell, Megan E.; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Stewart, Norma J.; Karunanayake, Chandima

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the specific dementia learning needs of home care staff is needed to plan relevant continuing education (CE) programs and supports. The study's objective was to examine frequency and perceived competence in performing 20 dementia-related work activities, and identify CE priorities among home care staff. A cross-sectional survey…

  10. Navigating the Financial Aid System in the Community College: The Lived Experience of Students Formerly in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solemsaas, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    For many low-income and disadvantaged students formerly in foster care, community colleges are the main post-secondary educational pathway to socioeconomic opportunities. However, students formerly in foster care face many barriers in accessing college as well as actually succeeding in achieving a college degree. Although considerable efforts have…

  11. Recruiting 4-H Volunteer Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Four-H Club Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to assist 4-H Club extension workers in recruiting volunteer adult and youth leaders. It discusses: why volunteers serve (organizational identity, desire to serve, involvement of other family members, future opportunities and obligations, community status, self interest, and public opinion); how to recruit (person-to-person…

  12. Prison Volunteers: Profiles, Motivations, Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewksbury, Richard; Dabney, Dean

    2004-01-01

    Large numbers of correctional institutions rely on volunteers to assist staff in various programs and tasks. At present there exists a paucity of literature describing these programs and/or subjecting them to systematic evaluation. The present study uses self-report data from a sample of active volunteers at a medium-security Southern prison to…

  13. Tools for Today's PTA Volunteer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children: The National PTA Magazine, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Becoming a PTA volunteer takes more than a willingness to serve; it takes knowing how to work effectively within the PTA and school community. This article describes what National PTA offers volunteers. When one trains with PTA resources, one has a chance to: (1) Participate in workshops and seminars with family-engagement experts; (2) Network…

  14. The Effective Use of Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Scott G.

    1980-01-01

    If volunteers are to be effective, they must perform needed tasks, have a clear job description, a sense of importance, a schedule for completion, and an understood term of office. Identifying, recruiting, and training fund-raising volunteers are discussed. Annual giving specialists are classified as leaders, personal solicitors, class agents,…

  15. Managing Library Volunteers, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…

  16. Volunteer Development. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Certain practices in volunteer development have proved successful to help organizations make the best use of their volunteers. Development should be a comprehensive, continuous process through which individuals can extend, update, and adapt their knowledge, skills, and abilities to enhance their performance and potential. A model for volunteer…

  17. Comparing the effect of a decision aid plus patient navigation with usual care on colorectal cancer screening completion in vulnerable populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening can reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. However, screening is underutilized in vulnerable patient populations, particularly among Latinos. Patient-directed decision aids can increase CRC screening knowledge, self-efficacy, and intent; however, their effect on actual screening test completion tends to be modest. This is probably because decision aids do not address some of the patient-specific barriers that prevent successful completion of CRC screening in these populations. These individual barriers might be addressed though patient navigation interventions. This study will test a combined decision aid and patient navigator intervention on screening completion in diverse populations of vulnerable primary care patients. Methods/Design We will conduct a multisite, randomized controlled trial with patient-level randomization. Planned enrollment is 300 patients aged 50 to 75 years at average CRC risk presenting for appointments at two primary clinics in North Carolina and New Mexico. Intervention participants will view a video decision aid immediately before the clinic visit. The 14 to 16 minute video presents information about fecal occult blood tests and colonoscopy and will be viewed on a portable computer tablet in English or Spanish. Clinic-based patient navigators are bilingual and bicultural and will provide both face-to-face and telephone-based navigation. Control participants will view an unrelated food safety video and receive usual care. The primary outcome is completion of a CRC screening test at six months. Planned subgroup analyses include examining intervention effectiveness in Latinos, who will be oversampled. Secondarily, the trial will evaluate the intervention effects on knowledge of CRC screening, self-efficacy, intent, and patient-provider communication. The study will also examine whether patient ethnicity, acculturation, language preference, or health insurance status moderate the intervention effect on

  18. Guidelines for Improving Entry Into and Retention in Care and Antiretroviral Adherence for Persons With HIV: Evidence-Based Recommendations From an International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care Panel

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Melanie A.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Amico, K. Rivet; Cargill, Victoria A.; Chang, Larry W.; Gross, Robert; Orrell, Catherine; Altice, Frederick L.; Bangsberg, David R.; Bartlett, John G.; Beckwith, Curt G.; Dowshen, Nadia; Gordon, Christopher M.; Horn, Tim; Kumar, Princy; Scott, James D.; Stirratt, Michael J.; Remien, Robert H.; Simoni, Jane M.; Nachega, Jean B.

    2014-01-01

    Description After HIV diagnosis, timely entry into HIV medical care and retention in that care are essential to the provision of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART adherence is among the key determinants of successful HIV treatment outcome and is essential to minimize the emergence of drug resistance. The International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care convened a panel to develop evidence-based recommendations to optimize entry into and retention in care and ART adherence for people with HIV. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to produce an evidence base restricted to randomized, controlled trials and observational studies with comparators that had at least 1 measured biological or behavioral end point. A total of 325 studies met the criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted and coded data from each study using a standardized data extraction form. Panel members drafted recommendations based on the body of evidence for each method or intervention and then graded the overall quality of the body of evidence and the strength for each recommendation. Recommendations Recommendations are provided for monitoring of entry into and retention in care, interventions to improve entry and retention, and monitoring of and interventions to improve ART adherence. Recommendations cover ART strategies, adherence tools, education and counseling, and health system and service delivery interventions. In addition, they cover specific issues pertaining to pregnant women, incarcerated individuals, homeless and marginally housed individuals, and children and adolescents, as well as substance use and mental health disorders. Recommendations for future research in all areas are also provided. PMID:22393036

  19. Impact of a printed decision aid on patients’ intention to undergo prostate cancer screening: a multicentre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Viet-Thi; Kisseleva-Romanova, Elena; Rigal, Laurent; Falcoff, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite recommendations against systematic screening for prostate cancer, 70% of patients still request prostate-specific antigen testing. Aim To assess the impact of a decision aid on patients’ intention to undergo prostate cancer screening. Design and setting Randomised controlled trial with two-arm parallel groups in 86 general practices in urban and rural areas in France. Method Males aged 50–75 years were randomised to receive either the decision aid (intervention group) or usual care (control group). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients’ intending to undergo prostate cancer screening, assessed immediately after reading the decision aid. The reasons underlying their choice were elicited and the proportion of patients citing each reason to undergo, or not undergo, prostate cancer screening were compared between the two arms. Results A total of 1170 patients were randomised (588 in the intervention arm) from November 2012 to February 2013. The proportion of patients who intended to be tested for prostate cancer in the intervention arm (123 patients [20.9%]) was significantly reduced compared with the control arm (57 patients [9.8%]) (difference 11.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.0 to 15.2, P<0.0001). In the intervention group, a lower proportion of individuals expressed that cancer screening would protect them from the disease, compared with the control group (P<0.0001), while a greater proportion of individuals stated that prostate cancer screening would not benefit their health (P<0.0001) and may involve procedures with harmful side effects (P = 0.0005). Conclusion The decision aid improved participants’ informed decision making and reduced their intent to undergo prostate cancer screening. PMID:25918334

  20. Food insecurity and mental health: Surprising trends among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Kenneth C.; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 food crisis may have increased household food insecurity and caused distress among impoverished populations in low-income countries. Policy researchers have attempted to quantify the impact that a sharp rise in food prices might have on population wellbeing by asking what proportion of households would drop below conventional poverty lines given a set increase in prices. Our understanding of the impact of food crises can be extended by conducting micro-level ethnographic studies. This study examined self-reported household food insecurity (FI) and common mental disorders (CMD) among 110 community health AIDS care volunteers living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the height of the 2008 food crisis. We used generalized estimating equations that account for associations between responses given by the same participants over 3 survey rounds during 2008, to model the longitudinal response profiles of FI, CMD symptoms, and socio-behavioral and micro-economic covariates. To help explain the patterns observed in the response profiles and regression results, we examine qualitative data that contextualize the cognition and reporting behavior of AIDS care volunteers, as well as potential observation biases inherent in longitudinal, community-based research. Our data show that food insecurity is highly prevalent, that is it associated with household economic factors, and that it is linked to mental health. Surprisingly, the volunteers in this urban sample did not report increasingly severe FI or CMD during the peak of the 2008 food crisis. This is a counter-intuitive result that would not be predicted in analyses of population-level data such as those used in econometrics simulations. But when these results are linked to real people in specific urban ecologies, they can improve our understanding of the psychosocial consequences of food price shocks. PMID:20189698

  1. Food insecurity and mental health: surprising trends among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2010-05-01

    The 2008 food crisis may have increased household food insecurity and caused distress among impoverished populations in low-income countries. Policy researchers have attempted to quantify the impact that a sharp rise in food prices might have on population wellbeing by asking what proportion of households would drop below conventional poverty lines given a set increase in prices. Our understanding of the impact of food crises can be extended by conducting micro-level ethnographic studies. This study examined self-reported household food insecurity (FI) and common mental disorders (CMD) among 110 community health AIDS care volunteers living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the height of the 2008 food crisis. We used generalized estimating equations that account for associations between responses given by the same participants over 3 survey rounds during 2008, to model the longitudinal response profiles of FI, CMD symptoms, and socio-behavioral and micro-economic covariates. To help explain the patterns observed in the response profiles and regression results, we examine qualitative data that contextualize the cognition and reporting behavior of AIDS care volunteers, as well as potential observation biases inherent in longitudinal, community-based research. Our data show that food insecurity is highly prevalent, that is it associated with household economic factors, and that it is linked to mental health. Surprisingly, the volunteers in this urban sample did not report increasingly severe FI or CMD during the peak of the 2008 food crisis. This is a counter-intuitive result that would not be predicted in analyses of population-level data such as those used in econometrics simulations. But when these results are linked to real people in specific urban ecologies, they can improve our understanding of the psychosocial consequences of food price shocks. PMID:20189698

  2. Trends Impacting Volunteer Administrators in the Next Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken, III; Nolan, Mike

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 49 volunteer leadership development programs (39% response) and 704 professional association members (46% response) identified the top volunteer trends: virtual volunteering, corporate/workplace volunteers, episodic volunteering, and changing demographics of volunteers. (JOW)

  3. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  4. Episodic Volunteers: Reality for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macduff, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    Episodic volunteer opportunities allow for short-term services--either one-time or recurring. The organization using such volunteers must identify new jobs that can be performed on an episodic basis or redesign traditional volunteer jobs. (SK)

  5. Development of an interactive computer program for advance care planning

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael J.; Levi, Benjamin H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of an innovative, multimedia decision aid for advance care planning. Background Advance care planning is an important way for people to articulate their wishes for medical care when they are not able to speak for themselves. Living wills and other types of advance directives are the most commonly used tools for advance care planning, but have been criticized for being vague, difficult to interpret, and inconsistent with individuals’ core beliefs and values. Results We developed a multimedia, computer-based decision aid for advance care planning (‘Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future’) to overcome many of the limitations of standard advance directive forms. This computer program guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, and unlike standard advance directives, provides tailored education, values clarification exercises, and a decision-making tool that translates an individual’s values and preferences into a specific medical plan that can be implemented by a health-care team. Pilot testing with 50 adult volunteers recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic showed high levels of satisfaction with the program. Further pilot testing with 34 cancer patients indicated that the program was perceived to be highly accurate at representing patients’ wishes. Conclusions This paper describes the development of an innovative decision aid for advance care planning that was designed to overcome common problems with standard advance directives. Preliminary testing suggests that it is acceptable to users and is accurate. PMID:18823445

  6. Transportation-related barriers to care among African American women living with HIV/AIDS: “What you getting out of the cab for?”

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Shenell D.; Williams, Bryman E.

    2015-01-01

    Transportation-related problems have been consistently reported as barriers to accessing and remaining in HIV medical care, particularly among African American women living in under-resourced areas. With emphasis on the Southern region of the United States, this commentary presents a brief overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among African Americans, barriers to remaining in HIV care, and pilot data from a study conducted among African American women living in Mississippi. A small focus group study was conducted to examine the relative influence of transportation-related barriers on attendance and motivation to attend HIV medical care appointments. Eight African American women (mean age of 43.50, SD = 10.82) who were engaged in medical care participated in one focus group session. Time since diagnosis ranged from 6 to 17 years. Participants reported transportation-related barriers that were generally consistent with previous research, including lack of personal transportation, limited financial resources to pay family and friends for transportation or gasoline, and inconveniences associated with sharing van services with other patients. Participants appeared to have learned how to successfully navigate these barriers in order to remain in care. Interestingly, participants reported significant fear of disclosure related to use of transportation services provided by insurance providers and community organizations. Specifically, many of the women indicated that family, friends, and neighbors questioned them about where they were going and why they used taxis. These types of encounters might influence whether individuals utilize available transportation services. Participants provided several recommendations for improving the transportation system. Additional research is warranted to obtain a more representative sampling of opinions among African American women living in under-resourced areas. PMID:26523160

  7. How they cope: a qualitative study of the coping skills of hospice volunteers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary V

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the coping techniques utilized by hospice volunteers. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 hospice volunteers who had at least 1 year of experience, working as a hospice volunteer with direct patient care. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed utilizing qualitative research methods. The results indicated the volunteers used problem-focused coping (seeking advice from members of the hospice interdisciplinary team), emotion-focused coping (talking with others, going to funerals), meaning making through appraisal (religious beliefs, downward comparison), and physical techniques (walking, deep breathing). The most significant coping mechanism utilized for the volunteer was talking with the volunteer coordinator. Implications for hospice volunteer coordinators are also discussed. PMID:21262760

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers in Lesotho regarding the management of patients with oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ramphoma, K J; Naidoo, S

    2014-11-01

    Lesotho has the third highest prevalence of HIV in the world with an estimated 23% of the adult population infected. At least 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have presented with oral manifestation of HIV as the first sign of the disease. Oral health workers regularly encounter patients presenting with oral lesions associated with HIV disease and therefore need to have adequate knowledge of these conditions for diagnosis and management. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers (OHCW) of Lesotho regarding the management of oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 46 OHCW in 26 public and private care facilities in all ten districts of Lesotho. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information. The response rate was 100%. Nearly all (94.7%) agreed that oral lesions are common in people living with HIV and/or AIDS. The majority (91.3%) named oral candidiasis (OC) as the most common lesion found in PLWHA while Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) (34.7%) and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) (32.6%) were mentioned as the least common oral lesions of HIV. Most correctly identified the images of oral candidiasis (97.8%), angular cheilitis (86.9%) and herpes zoster (80.4%). Only 16.7% felt they had comprehensive knowledge of oral HIV lesions, although 84.8% reported having previously received training. Almost three quarters (71%) reported that there was no need to treat HIV positive patients differently from HIV negative patients. OHCW in Lesotho demonstrated high confidence levels in their competence in managing dental patients with oral lesions associated with HIV, however, they lacked an in-depth knowledge in this regard. Amongst this group there is a need for comprehensive training with regards to diagnosis and management of oral lesions of HIV including the training of other cadres of health care workers together with nurses and community

  9. High-risk sexual behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS attending tertiary care hospitals in district of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Mukesh; Agarwal, Monica; Singh, Jai Vir; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Srivastava, Anand Kumar; Singh, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to diminish the new instances of HIV and the target are those who are engaged in high-risk sexual behavior. Therefore, understanding the risky behaviors of the HIV-infected individual is important. Aims: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and the predictors of high-risk sexual behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at antiretroviral therapy centers of two tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow. Materials and Methods: A total of 322 HIV-positive patients were interviewed about their sexual behaviors during last 3 months using a pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Probability (p) was calculated to test for statistical significance at 5% level of significance. Association between risk factors and high-risk sexual behavior was determined using bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression. Results: Prevalence of high-risk sexual behavior was 24.5%. Of these patients, multiple sexual partners were reported by 67.3% whereas about 46.9% were engaged in unprotected sex. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high-risk sexual behavior was significantly associated with nonsupporting attitude of spouse (odds ratio [OR]: 18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–225.5; P = 0.02) and alcohol consumption (OR: 9.3; 95% CI: 2.4–35.4; P = 0.001). Conclusions: Specific intervention addressing alcohol consumption and encouragement of spouse and family support should be integrated in the routine HIV/AIDS care and treatment apart from HIV transmission and prevention knowledge. PMID:27190412

  10. Influence of Jail Incarceration and Homelessness Patterns on Engagement in HIV Care and HIV Viral Suppression among New York City Adults Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Nash, Denis; Hollod, Laura; Harris, Tiffany G.; Lennon, Mary Clare; Thorpe, Lorna E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Both homelessness and incarceration are associated with housing instability, which in turn can disrupt continuity of HIV medical care. Yet, their impacts have not been systematically assessed among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods We studied a retrospective cohort of 1,698 New York City PLWHA with both jail incarceration and homelessness during 2001–05 to evaluate whether frequent transitions between jail incarceration and homelessness were associated with a lower likelihood of continuity of HIV care during a subsequent one-year follow-up period. Using matched jail, single-adult homeless shelter, and HIV registry data, we performed sequence analysis to identify trajectories of these events and assessed their influence on engagement in HIV care and HIV viral suppression via marginal structural modeling. Results Sequence analysis identified four trajectories; 72% of the cohort had sporadic experiences of both brief incarceration and homelessness, whereas others experienced more consistent incarceration or homelessness during early or late months. Trajectories were not associated with differential engagement in HIV care during follow-up. However, compared with PLWHA experiencing early bouts of homelessness and later minimal incarceration/homelessness events, we observed a lower prevalence of viral suppression among PLWHA with two other trajectories: those with sporadic, brief occurrences of incarceration/homelessness (0.67, 95% CI = 0.50,0.90) and those with extensive incarceration experiences (0.62, 95% CI = 0.43,0.88). Conclusions Housing instability due to frequent jail incarceration and homelessness or extensive incarceration may exert negative influences on viral suppression. Policies and services that support housing stability should be strengthened among incarcerated and sheltered PLWHA to reduce risk of adverse health conditions. PMID:26599877

  11. Sticky Dollars: Inertia in the Evolution of Federal Allocations for HIV Care through the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erika G.; Keenan, Patricia S.

    2010-01-01

    While substantial research examines the dynamics prompting policy adoption, few studies have assessed whether enacted policies are modified to meet distributional equity concerns. Past research suggests that important forces limit such adaptation, termed here “policy inertia.” We examine whether block grant allocations to states from the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program have evolved in response to major technological and political changes. We assess the impact of initial allocations on later funding patterns, compared to five counterfactual distributional equity standards. Initial allocations strongly predict future allocations; in comparison, the standards are weak predictors, suggesting the importance of policy inertia. Our methodology of employing multiple measures of equity as a counterfactual to policy inertia can be used to evaluate the adaptability of federalist programs in other domains. PMID:21278911

  12. Characterization of infectious aerosols in health care facilities: an aid to effective engineering controls and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Cole, E C; Cook, C E

    1998-08-01

    Assessment of strategies for engineering controls for the prevention of airborne infectious disease transmission to patients and to health care and related workers requires consideration of the factors relevant to aerosol characterization. These factors include aerosol generation, particle size and concentrations, organism viability, infectivity and virulence, airflow and climate, and environmental sampling and analysis. The major focus on attention to engineering controls comes from recent increases in tuberculosis, particularly the multidrug-resistant varieties in the general hospital population, the severely immunocompromised, and those in at-risk and confined environments such as prisons, long-term care facilities, and shelters for the homeless. Many workers are in close contact with persons who have active, undiagnosed, or insufficiently treated tuberculosis. Additionally, patients and health care workers may be exposed to a variety of pathogenic human viruses, opportunistic fungi, and bacteria. This report therefore focuses on the nature of infectious aerosol transmission in an attempt to determine which factors can be systematically addressed to result in proven, applied engineering approaches to the control of infectious aerosols in hospital and health care facility environments. The infectious aerosols of consideration are those that are generated as particles of respirable size by both human and environmental sources and that have the capability of remaining viable and airborne for extended periods in the indoor environment. This definition precludes skin and mucous membrane exposures occurring from splashes (rather than true aerosols) of blood or body fluids containing infectious disease agents. There are no epidemiologic or laboratory studies documenting the transmission of bloodborne virus by way of aerosols. PMID:9721404

  13. Service Delivery and Patient Outcomes in Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program–Funded and –Nonfunded Health Care Facilities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, John; Beer, Linda; Frazier, Emma L.; Patel, Roshni; Dempsey, Antigone; Hauck, Heather; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Outpatient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) health care facilities receive funding from the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP) to provide medical care and essential support services that help patients remain in care and adhere to treatment. Increased access to Medicaid and private insurance for HIV-infected persons may provide coverage for medical care but not all needed support services and may not supplant the need for RWHAP funding. OBJECTIVE To examine differences between RWHAP-funded and non–RWHAP-funded facilities and in patient outcomes between the 2 systems. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The study was conducted from June 1, 2009, to May 31, 2012, using data from the 2009 and 2011 cycles of the Medical Monitoring Project, a national probability sample of 8038 HIV-infected adults receiving medical care at 989 outpatient health care facilities providing HIV medical care. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Data were used to compare patient characteristics, service needs, and access to services at RWHAP-funded vs non–RWHAP-funded facilities. Differences in prescribed antiretroviral treatment and viral suppression were assessed. Data analysis was performed between February 2012 and June 2015. RESULTS Overall, 34.4% of facilities received RWHAP funding and 72.8% of patients received care at RWHAP-funded facilities. With results reported as percentage (95% CI), patients attending RWHAP-funded facilities were more likely to be aged 18 to 29 years (8.5%[7.4%–9.5%] vs 5.0%[3.9%–6.2%]), female (29.2%[27.2%–31.2%] vs 20.1%[17.0%–23.1%]), black (47.5% [41.5%–53.5%] vs 25.8% [20.6%–31.0%]) or Hispanic (22.5%[16.4%–28.6%] vs 12.9%[10.6%–15.2%]), have less than a high school education (26.1% [24.0%–28.3%] vs 10.9%[8.7%–13.1%]), income at or below the poverty level (53.6%[50.3%–56.9%] vs 23.9%[19.7%–28.0%]), and lack health care coverage (25.0%[21.9%–28.1%] vs 6.1% [4.1%–8.0%]). The RWHAP-funded facilities were more likely to provide

  14. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  15. Volunteering among High School Students. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet explores volunteering among high school students, ages 16-18. Overall, volunteering among high school students was down slightly in 2006 as compared to 2005. Additional information includes types of volunteer organizations and activities, and ways that high school students become involved in these activities. Volunteer rate vary by…

  16. Nothing's Free: Calculating the Cost of Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, W. Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Most school district administrators recognize the benefits of using parent and community volunteers, including improved school-community relations. But volunteers are not cost free. At their best, volunteers can be a valuable resource for schools and districts. At their worst, volunteers can consume already limited resources. However, their use…

  17. Parallel Volunteer Learning during Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Green, Jeremy; Derby, Amy; Bothum, Candi

    2012-01-01

    Lack of time is a hindrance for volunteers to participate in educational opportunities, yet volunteer success in an organization is tied to the orientation and education they receive. Meeting diverse educational needs of volunteers can be a challenge for program managers. Scheduling a Volunteer Learning Track for chaperones that is parallel to a…

  18. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. Methods The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participating facilities to complete the anonymous questionnaires. The return rate of the questionnaire was 88.75%. The validated instruments of Hershenson's (1981) and Schaefer and Moos (1993) were adopted to measure work stressors and work adjustment, respectively. A forward-backward translation process was used in this study. Results Indonesian foreign nurse aides respect their work, and are better workers than Vietnamese and Filipino nurse aids in many respects, which shows how the nationality of the foreign nurse aides might affect work adjustment. The stress created from patient care tasks influenced the foreign nurse aides' personal relationships at work and also affected their attitude when they performed their tasks. In addition, pressure from their supervisors might have affected their work skills, work habits, personal relationships, self-concepts or work attitudes. Moreover, a heavy workload and improper scheduling might have affected the personal relationships and work attitudes of the foreign nurse aides. It was found that work stressors had a significant correlation with work adjustment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that training programs are important factors for work adjustment among foreign nurse aides. Furthermore, celebration and leisure activities could be provided to release them from work stressors. More effort should be put into improving the working environment, namely providing a more supportive and enriching atmosphere. Based on these findings

  19. Executive summary of the consensus statement on assistance to women with HIV infection in the health care sector. National AIDS Plan (PNS) and AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA).

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop a consensus on clinical recommendations for health care assistance for women with HIV infection. To this end, a panel of experts, appointed by the Secretariat of the National AIDS Plan and GeSIDA was assembled, that included internal medicine physicians with expertise in the field of HIV infection, gynecologists, pediatricians and psychologists, with two members of the panel acting as coordinators. Scientific information was reviewed in publications and conference reports up to October 2012. In keeping with the criteria of the Infectious Disease Society of America, two levels of evidence were applied to support the proposed recommendations: the strength of the recommendation according to expert opinion (A, B, C) and the level of empirical evidence (I, II, III), already used in previous documents from SPNS/GESIDA. Multiple recommendations are provided for the clinical management of women with HIV infection, considering both the diagnostic and possible therapeutic strategies. This document presents recommendations for the treatment of women with HIV infection. This must be multidisciplinary, taking into account the differences that can be found in the diagnosis, development of disease and treatment between men and women. PMID:23931832

  20. Learning Local Environmental Knowledge: A Volunteer's Guide to Community Entry [and] Learning Local Environmental Knowledge: Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    These two publications fill the need of newly posted Peace Corps volunteers (PCVs) for self-directed learning activities to aid the community entry process. A volunteer's guide provides a way to learn about biophysical, economic, and social aspects of the host community during the first few months of service. It has ideas and activities for…

  1. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health care ...

  2. The Changing Face of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    The New Mexico AIDS Education and Training Center developed a self-guided Internet course to help New Mexico's rural health-care providers treat and counsel today's changing AIDS patients. The Center also provides on-site customized training to rural health-care providers, acts as an information center, and funds mini-sabbaticals during which…

  3. Retreat from Alma Ata? The WHO's report on Task Shifting to community health workers for AIDS care in poor countries.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C; Scott, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of community health worker (CHW) programmes, as proposed by the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) document Task Shifting to tackle health worker shortages, to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment and various Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries. It examines the WHO proposal through a literature review of factors that have facilitated the success of previous CHW experiences. The WHO has taken account of five key lessons learnt from past CHW programmes (the need for strong management, appropriate selection, suitable training, adequate retention structures and good relationships with other healthcare workers). It has, however, neglected to emphasise the importance of a sixth lesson, the 'community embeddedness' of CHWs, found to be of critical importance to the success of past CHW programmes. We have no doubt that the WHO plans will increase the number of workers able to perform medically oriented tasks. However, we argue that without community embeddedness, CHWs will be unable to successfully perform the socially oriented tasks assigned to them by the WHO, such as health education and counselling. We locate the WHO's neglect of community embeddedness within the context of a broader global public health trend away from community-focused primary healthcare towards biomedically focused selective healthcare. PMID:19916089

  4. AIDS: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Turk, H N

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has had a profound effect on society and the workplace and has raised legal and social problems for which society was not prepared. This article will chronicle the evolution of federal, state and local law concerning AIDS and the workplace. Although there are some clear-cut answers and guidelines that address the relationship of employer and employee to the AIDS epidemic, current legislation and enforcement of those laws does not adequately address the AIDS victim as a handicapped individual. Emphasis is also placed on the problems peculiar to the health care industry, the constitutionality of present legislation, and the AIDS victim's right to privacy versus the employer's need to know. Finally, some practical solutions and guidelines will be presented that will help the employer deal with the AIDS victim and his or her co-worker. PMID:10295811

  5. Volunteer governance of health services in Canada: redundant or relevant?

    PubMed

    Lum, Lillie; Gough, Jim

    2005-01-01

    With the continued growth in size and complexity of healthcare organizations, trustes/directors are increasingly called upon to provide strategic leadership. In response, new recruitment methods have been adopted in order to meet the need for skilled and knowledgeable trustees. Volunteer governance models need to be carefully evaluated in comparison to government control models in order to determine how relations of accountability and responsibility change with a shift in models. The central question is whether volunteer governance remains a viable concept in Canada. PMID:15913225

  6. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  7. More than Volunteering: Active Citizenship through Youth Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This pack aims to provide materials to help all those involved in youth volunteering and post-16 citizenship education to ensure that there are some citizenship learning outcomes from these valuable experiences. The pack has been produced by the Post-16 Citizenship Support Programme to help the integration of citizenship education into post-16…

  8. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  9. The International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care: Position Statements Can Aid Nurses to Think Globally and Act Locally.

    PubMed

    Beck, Susan L; Bialous, Stella; Ben-Gal, Yael

    2016-03-01

    The number of new cases of cancer is expected to rise by about 70% during the next two decades, and people living in low- and middle-income countries will experience a disproportionate burden of this increase. Oncology nurses are positioned to take the lead in addressing this looming health crisis. Such efforts will gain momentum and have a greater impact if nurses around the world collaborate. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of the International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care in leading this effort, with a particular focus on three specific position statements that nursing societies and nurse leaders can use to advance cancer prevention and control in their own institution or country.
. PMID:26906137

  10. Nutrition, development, and foreign aid: a case study of U.S.-directed health care in Colombian plantation zone.

    PubMed

    Taussig, M

    1978-01-01

    Based on a case study of some aspects of Rockefeller and USAID intervention in the Cauca Valley, Colombia, this article is aimed at drawing attention to the political characteristics and inadequacies of U.S.-sponsored health care planning and research in the Third World, particularly as regards nutrition in rural regions of intensive economic development. By contrasting an historical analysis of the politicoeconomic development of agriculture and nutrition in the southern Cauca Valley with the assumptions guiding U.S. intervention in the health field there, a more complete picture of the causes of malnutrition is obtained, among which should be counted the intervention of the U.S. itself. Inter alia, other approaches to the malnutrition problem are suggested. PMID:631959

  11. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Allison L.; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered Advance Care Planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18-month post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS. PMID:26044463

  12. No Exceptions: Documenting the Abortion Experiences of US Peace Corps Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Angel M; Arnott, Grady; Parniak, Simone; LaRoche, Kathryn J; Trussell, James

    2015-01-01

    Since 1979, US federal appropriations bills have prohibited the use of federal funds from covering abortion care for Peace Corps volunteers. There are no exceptions; unlike other groups that receive health care through US federal funding streams, including Medicaid recipients, federal employees, and women in federal prisons, abortion care is not covered for volunteers even in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest. We interviewed 433 returned Peace Corps volunteers to document opinions of, perceptions about, and experiences with obtaining abortion care. Our results regarding the abortion experiences of Peace Corps volunteers, especially those who were raped, bear witness to a profound inequity and show that the time has come to lift the "no exceptions" funding ban on abortion coverage. PMID:25494207

  13. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  14. Motivation and satisfaction among polyclinic volunteers at the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Reeser, J; Berg, R; Rhea, D; Willick, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Olympic and Paralympic Games rely heavily on volunteers to provide many essential services, including medical care of athletes. Objective: This preliminary investigation sought to characterise the motivational influences and factors responsible for the satisfaction of Olympic and Paralympic healthcare volunteers. Methods: The 2002 Winter Games polyclinic healthcare volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to elicit information about their motives for volunteering and the factors that contributed to their satisfaction with their volunteer experience. Results: There was no significant difference in the motivation or satisfaction summary scores based on event worked. There was a strong positive correlation between motivation and satisfaction. Physician respondents had a lower mean motivation score than did non-physician volunteers. Conclusions: There were no significant motivational differences between Olympic and Paralympic volunteers, but there were several differences noted between physician and non-physician volunteers. The 2002 polyclinic volunteers appear to have been motivated by a complex process best described as "enlightened self interest," and all were generally well satisfied with their experience. These results may assist organisers of future Games in selecting appropriately motivated volunteer personnel and creating rewarding work environments for them. PMID:15793078

  15. The relationship between diabetes attitudes and treatment among free clinic patients and volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Nourian, Maziar M; Myers, Kyl; Saunders, AnnMarie; Solis, Silvia P; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

    2014-12-01

    Free clinics provide free primary care to the under or uninsured and have been playing an important role in serving the socio-economically disadvantaged. Free clinic patients represent a group of people who experience significant barriers to receiving diabetes prevention and intervention. This study examined diabetes attitudes among free clinic patients and volunteers. English or Spanish speaking patients and volunteers (N = 384), aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Diabetic patients and volunteers shared similar levels of diabetes attitudes compared to non-diabetic patients. Among patients, ethnicity, education level, diabetes education, and family history affected diabetes attitudes. Among volunteers, diabetes education was an important factor associated with positive diabetes attitudes. Whether the volunteer is a healthcare professional or student was related only to one aspect of diabetes attitudes, seriousness of type 2 diabetes. The results, indicating free clinic diabetic patients and volunteers shared similar levels of diabetes attitudes, were positive for maintaining and developing diabetes education programs at a free clinic. Unfortunately, the average length of volunteering at this free clinic was short and student volunteers likely leave the clinic upon graduation. Future research should examine issues of volunteer retention in free clinics. Diabetes education for patients may need to be diversified according to ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and educational level. Finally, non-healthcare professional volunteers could potentially be involved in diabetes education at a free clinic. PMID:24756836

  16. A volunteer-based Hospital Elder Life Program to reduce delirium.

    PubMed

    Sandhaus, Sonia; Zalon, Margarete L; Valenti, Donna; Dzielak, Edward; Smego, Raymond A; Arzamasova, Ulyana

    2010-01-01

    A community hospital with nearly 50% of its admitted patients 70 years or older adapted the well-established Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP). The primary adaptation entailed an enhanced participation of trained volunteers in HELP interventions designed to prevent and reduce delirium. Integral program elements include detailed volunteer training, required demonstration of competencies, and regular evaluation and feedback of volunteers provided by program staff. Nurse satisfaction with HELP increased from 64% to 91% in the second year of implementation, and a survey of patients and families indicated that 95% were satisfied with HELP. This innovative volunteer-assisted model of elder care support was positively embraced by patients, their families, and the nursing staff and supported by nursing administration. The use of volunteers is a cost-effective method of enhancing the nursing care of vulnerable elders during hospitalization. PMID:20436332

  17. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  18. An NGO at work: CARE-Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Cooperation for American Relief to Everywhere (CARE) was established in response to the needs of the people after World War II through the distribution of food and clothes. CARE/Ethiopia, which signed its first Basic Agreement with the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission, was provided with assistance during the 1994 drought that affected Ethiopia. The primary objective of CARE was to alleviate the suffering brought about by severe food shortages and to expand the program to mitigation and development. This approach was based on the premise of a community-based development philosophy and as an implementation strategy for reaching the rural poor. The five programmatic areas highlighted by the CARE projects were the rural and urban infrastructure; water and sanitation; small-scale irrigation; reproductive health and HIV/AIDS; and microcredit. On the other hand, the family planning and HIV/AIDS project aimed to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural communities towards family planning and reproductive health through community-based family planning services. Results of the project evaluation emphasize the significance of community-based programs in the improvement of health status. Two critical program constraints identified in this paper are lack of access to referral-level services and lack of systemic provision of contraceptive commodities. Several suggestions for future programs include the assurance that the volunteers would be provided with aid in work, childcare and free health services for their families. PMID:12349450

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Usefulness of Mobile Text Phone Messages to Improve the Quality of Care of HIV and AIDS Patients in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Lange, Innocent; Fon, Peter Nde; Nguedia Assob, Jules Clement; Tanue, Elvis Asangbeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV and AIDS are major public health problems in the world and Africa. In Cameroon, the HIV prevalence is 5.1%. Cellphones have been found to be useful in the provision of modern health care services using short message services (SMS). This study assessed the effectiveness of SMS in improving the adherence of people living with HIV and AIDS to their treatment and care in Cameroon. Methods: This intervention study used a randomized controlled trial design. Ninety participants seeking treatment at the Nkwen Baptist Health Center were recruited between August and September 2011 using a purposive sampling method. They were randomly allocated into the intervention and control groups, each containing 45 participants. In the intervention group, each participant received four SMSs per week at equal intervals for four weeks. The patients were investigated for adherence to ARVs by evaluating the number of times treatment and medication refill appointments were missed. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire before and after intervention and analysed on STATA. Results: The baseline survey indicated that there were 55(61.1%) females and 35(38.9%) males aged 23 - 62 years; the mean age was 38.77 ± 1.08. Most participants were teachers [12 (13.3%)], farmers [11 (12.2%)], and businessmen [24 (26.7%)]. Adherence to ARVs was 64.4% in the intervention group and 44.2% in the control group (p = 0.05). 2(4.4%) patients in the control group failed to respect their drug refill appointments while all the 45(100%) participants in the intervention group respected their drug refill appointments. 54.17% of married people and 42.9% of the participants with primary and secondary levels of education missed their treatment. Key reasons for missing treatment were late home coming (54%), forgetfulness (22.5%), and travelling out of station without medication (17.5%). Other factors responsible for non-adherence included involvement in outdoor business (60

  20. [Home hospice care at a clinic].

    PubMed

    Arai, F; Osako, M; Shimoaraiso, Y; Sakamoto, T; Miyashita, T; Yamanouchi, H; Kadokura, K; Yoshida, K; Dozono, F; Mamitsuka, K; Dozono, H

    1999-12-01

    For the people who want to stay at home until their last day, the primary doctor and clinic where they were diagnosed will be the most reliable supports. We have been operating a 19 bed clinic since 1996. In these three years, we have established what we call a "combination palliative care system." A team composed of two doctors, 13 nurses, 3 care aids, a social worker, and a counselor provides home care services as well as outpatient and inpatient care. From April, 1998 to March, 1999, 59 patients died of cancer. Among them, 25 patients died at home. Their primary cancers were lung (7), colon (3), pancreatic (2), breast (2), ovarian (2), brain (1), stomach (1), hepatoma (1), neck (1) and others. First of all, sufficient consultation with patients and family makes this care successful. Through this, the patient can choose his style of care. The whole staff is involved in this care in turn, so that all of us become acquainted with each patient. Home care includes: 1) medical and nursing service available 24 hours a day, 2) activation of social resources for the support of the patient user, 3) constructive cooperation with relevant institutions, 4) relieving the patient's physical and mental suffering, 5) aroma therapy, oil massage, hair cuts and music therapy, and 6) support by volunteers. In this way, as a neighborhood clinic, the combination palliative care system is valuable. PMID:10630230

  1. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  2. An Incentive Program for Nurse Aides Implementation Report: Description and Evaluation. Illinois Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects Series. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinke, Mary

    This study examined a nursing aide recognition program in a nursing home with 50 nurses and 200 nurse aides. Before the program was implemented, baseline data on job satisfaction were gathered with a questionnaire. A one-page description of the program and an evaluation tool were distributed to the nurse aides at their information sessions. Nurse…

  3. Is volunteering a public health intervention? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the health and survival of volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Volunteering has been advocated by the United Nations, and American and European governments as a way to engage people in their local communities and improve social capital, with the potential for public health benefits such as improving wellbeing and decreasing health inequalities. Furthermore, the US Corporation for National and Community Service Strategic Plan for 2011–2015 focused on increasing the impact of national service on community needs, supporting volunteers’ wellbeing, and prioritising recruitment and engagement of underrepresented populations. The aims of this review were to examine the effect of formal volunteering on volunteers’ physical and mental health and survival, and to explore the influence of volunteering type and intensity on health outcomes. Methods Experimental and cohort studies comparing the physical and mental health outcomes and mortality of a volunteering group to a non-volunteering group were identified from twelve electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, HMIC, SSCI, ASSIA, Social Care Online, Social Policy and Practice) and citation tracking in January 2013. No language, country or date restrictions were applied. Data synthesis was based on vote counting and random effects meta-analysis of mortality risk ratios. Results Forty papers were selected: five randomised controlled trials (RCTs, seven papers); four non-RCTs; and 17 cohort studies (29 papers). Cohort studies showed volunteering had favourable effects on depression, life satisfaction, wellbeing but not on physical health. These findings were not confirmed by experimental studies. Meta-analysis of five cohort studies found volunteers to be at lower risk of mortality (risk ratio: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.90). There was insufficient evidence to demonstrate a consistent influence of volunteering type or intensity on outcomes. Conclusion Observational evidence suggested that volunteering may benefit mental health and survival

  4. The GEMS Model of Volunteer Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken, III; Deppe, Catherine A.; Castillo, Jaime X.; Wells, Betty J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes GEMS, a spiral model that profiles volunteer administration. Components include Generate, Educate, Mobilize, and Sustain, four sets of processes that span volunteer recruitment and selection to retention or disengagement. (SK)

  5. 76 FR 29720 - Information Collection: Volunteer Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Volunteer Programs AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA... an extension of a currently approved information collection associated with the Volunteer Programs... Desk Officer for Agriculture, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management...

  6. An Experience with Volunteers in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillsworth, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Offers examples of the use of volunteers in recreation and adult education programs. Describes Fanshawe College's local community advisory committees for continuing education centers. Identifies conditions for using volunteers effectively. Reviews Edison College's Talent Banking system which involves volunteers as visiting lecturers, career…

  7. Youth Sport Volunteering: Developing Social Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…

  8. Volunteer Program Development Guide: Participant Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.

    This guide is addressed to those individuals who are considering the development of a volunteer program in agencies that provide prevention of, and treatment and rehabilitation services for alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Specific steps for planning and implementing a volunteer program utilizing individual volunteers to extend and complement staff…

  9. Substitute or Complement?: Spousal Influence on Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotolo, Thomas; Wilson, John

    2006-01-01

    Social scientists have documented the influence of family statuses on volunteering, ignoring intrafamily effects. Using newly issued data from the Current Population Survey on the volunteer behavior of 19,626 American couples, we test two competing theories concerning spousal influences on volunteering. Substitution theory predicts that spouses…

  10. Handbook for Volunteers: Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for volunteers in Olympic College's Adult Education Volunteer Classroom Assistant Project, this handbook discusses volunteer tutors' roles, characteristics of Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) students, suggested teaching techniques, tips for working with instructors, and college policies and regulations.…

  11. Volunteers: The Life-Line of Hospice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchner, Michael A.; Finn, Mark B.

    1988-01-01

    Survey of 68 hospice volunteers found volunteers to be relatively young, well-educated, in good health, motivated by religious beliefs and personal experience, and prepared for jobs after training and some on-the-job experience. Volunteers were most satisfied when working in direct contact with patients and families and in the hospital.…

  12. Peer education for advance care planning: volunteers’ perspectives on training and community engagement activities

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Jane E; Almack, Kathryn; Kennedy, Sheila; Froggatt, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Peer education by volunteers may aid attitudinal change, but there is little understanding of factors assisting the preparation of peer educators. This study contributes to conceptual understandings of how volunteers may be prepared to work as peer educators by drawing on an evaluation of a training programme for peer education for advance care planning (ACP). Objectives To report on volunteers’ perspectives on the peer education training programme, their feelings about assuming the role of volunteer peer educators and the community engagement activities with which they engaged during the year after training. To examine broader implications for peer education. Design Participatory action research employing mixed methods of data collection. Participants Twenty-four older volunteers and eight health and social care staff. Data collection methods Evaluative data were gathered from information provided during and at the end of training, a follow-up survey 4 months post-training; interviews and focus groups 6 and 12 months post-training. Findings Volunteers’ personal aims ranged from working within their communities to using what they had learnt within their own families. The personal impact of peer education was considerable. Two-thirds of volunteers reported community peer education activities 1 year after the training. Those who identified strongly with a community group had the most success. Conclusion We reflect on the extent to which the programme aided the development of ‘critical consciousness’ among the volunteers: a key factor in successful peer education programmes. More research is needed about the impact on uptake of ACP in communities. PMID:21615641

  13. Helping Leaders Help Youth. An Evaluation Report of a Program for Illinois Volunteer 4-H Leaders, 1973-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Conceived by the staff of the University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service as a means of aiding County Extension Advisors in working with volunteer 4-H leaders in Illinois, "Helping Leaders Help Youth" employed a combination of vinyl sound sheets for home study and a leader development meeting series supported by audiovisual aids and…

  14. The Volunteers Speak: A World-Wide Survey of Peace Corps Volunteers. ACTION Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    A survey questionnaire was mailed to all active Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) in the summer of 1975. Based on an internal analysis of the 3,479 respondents (a 66% return), the following findings represent the manner in which PCVs perceive their volunteer experience. Perceived volunteer accomplishments and morale are very high. Volunteers believe…

  15. Pharmacokinetics of cefoperazone in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Saudek, F; Morávek, J; Modr, Z

    1986-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of cefoperazone was studied in 10 healthy volunteers following 15 min intravenous infusion of 2 g. Cefoperazone levels in the blood serum and in the urine were determined microbiologically. At the end of the infusion, mean serum concentrations of the antibiotic were 340.4 (+/- 81.5) mg/l, at the 4th hour after the infusion 38.4 (+/- 10.3) mg/l, and 12 hours after the infusion all subjects had detectable concentrations with the mean value 2.2 (+/- 0.7) mg/l. Within 12 hours, 33.3 (+/- 6.1) % of the total dose of cefoperazone had been eliminated in the urine. The fitting of the individual serum concentration curves and the determination of pharmacokinetic constants were done according to a two-compartment model with the aid of nonlinear least-squares regression analysis on a programmable calculator TI 59. The mean value of the biological half-life (beta phase) of cefoperazone was 1.77 (+/- 0.25) h, mean serum clearance was 61.7 (+/- 12.1) ml/min and the mean distribution volume (Vd area) was 9.44 (+/- 2.2) 1. Our data are in agreement with those previously reported in the literature. The only exception is the distribution volume, which we found to be smaller. PMID:3095076

  16. Cost of hospital care for HIV/AIDS infected patients in three general reference hospitals in Lubumbashi, DR Congo: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tshamba, Henri Mundongo; a Kaut, Clarence Mukeng; Kyalubile, Nono Mulubwa; Kakambal, Alphonse Kaij; Yav, Grevisse Ditend; Kaj, Françoise Malonga; Vancaillie, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article analyses the composition of healthcare costs for HIV/AIDS infected patients in a country with limited resources and attempts to identify the factors that influence these costs. The aims are to calculate medical care costs, analysing how they vary depending on patients’ income, and to evaluate the factors explaining healthcare consumption. Methods This is a prospective cohort study focusing on patients who were admitted to hospital for a short stay between January 2010 and June 2011, before their integration into a specialised program. The patients were selected randomly. Free consent was obtained from all participants. Data were analysed using the SPSS 19.0 software. The significance threshold was set at 5% and the CI (Confidence Interval) at 95%. We used Kruskal-Wallis tests, Fisher's exact test and multiple linear regression. Results We monitored 209 patients. Their average age was 36.37 years (SD: 8.72). The sex ratio was 0.58 and the women patients were generally younger than the male ones (p=0.011). The overall cost of healthcare amounted to $US 41,922. The cost of Antiretroviral Therapy represented 21.6% ($US 9,045). The price of para-clinical examinations represented 46% ($US 19,136) of the overall cost. The patient's average monthly income was $US 157.40 whereas the average direct cost per patient was$US 201.45. Both monthly income (t=4.385; p=0.0000) and education level (t=3.703 p=0.0003) were statistically significant predictive factors for healthcare consumption. The medical care costs for patients with opportunistic infections were nine times higher than those for patients who presented none. The presence of opportunistic infections increased healthcare consumption by approximately 31$ US (CI 95%: 15-46.9). Conclusion The average direct cost for patients on each short-term stay was higher than the average monthly income. To be able to access the necessary services, the patients need additional resources, which are derived

  17. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  18. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  19. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  20. The role of prehealth student volunteers at a student-run free clinic in New York, United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The medical student-run Einstein Community Health Outreach Clinic provides free healthcare to the uninsured adult population of New York, the United States. During the summer, prehealth student volunteers are recruited to assist with clinic operations. Methods: We designed a survey study to identify the baseline characteristics of the volunteers between June and August of 2013 and 2014 in order to evaluate the influence of working in a medical student-run free clinic on their education, impressions, and career goals. Results: A total of 38 volunteers (response rate, 83%) participated in the study. The volunteers were demographically diverse and interested in primary care specialties and community service. Conclusion: After the Einstein Community Health Outreach program, the volunteers showed an improved understanding of the healthcare process and issues relevant to uninsured patients. They also developed favorable attitudes towards primary care medicine and an increased level of interest in pursuing careers in primary care. PMID:26582631

  1. Health care and social service providers' observations on the intersection of HIV/AIDS and violence among their clients and patients.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Cayetano, Reggie T

    2011-07-01

    Associations between HIV/AIDS and several forms of violence have been demonstrated in recent research. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 providers who offered services related to HIV/AIDS or violence to identify specific manifestations of HIV/AIDS-violence intersections, factors that explain why HIV/AIDS and violence intersect in client/patient populations, and the theoretical salience of providers' narratives. Providers confirmed links between HIV/AIDS and violent victimization, and yielded new insights into crossover risk between HIV/AIDS and suicidality, nonsuicidal self-harm, and witnessing and perpetrating violence. We also isolated 20 explanatory factors, including substance use, poor mental health, sex work/trading sex, and sexual orientation/gender identity. Narratives were consistent with syndemics theory, indicating that HIV/AIDS and violence fueled each other's occurrence and magnified the health-related burden on affected client/patient populations, often under conditions of health and social disparity. Providers contribute a novel perspective on our understanding of HIV/AIDS-violence syndemics that shows promise in informing future interventions and practice. PMID:21441414

  2. Implementation of Regional and International HIV and AIDS Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support Conventions and Declarations in Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalanda, Boniface; Mamimine, Patrick; Taela, Katia; Chingandu, Louis; Musuka, Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    The governments across the world have endorsed numerous international Conventions and Declarations (C&Ds) that enhance interventions to reduce the impact of HIV and AIDS. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which the governments of Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique have implemented HIV and AIDS international and regional C&Ds to…

  3. Helping Hands; Giving Volunteer Leaders a Place in the Extension Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strow, Helen A.

    The document is a guide for extension workers, to aid them in identifying and training local volunteer leaders, thereby adding a broader dimension to the extension worker's efforts and enabling him to increase by many times the number of families he is able to reach. Leadership is defined, the importance of leaders explained, and methods for…

  4. The impact of international service on the development of volunteers' intercultural relations.

    PubMed

    Lough, Benjamin J; Sherraden, Margaret Sherrard; McBride, Amanda Moore; Xiang, Xiaoling

    2014-07-01

    Approximately one million people from the United States perform international volunteer service each year, representing a significant flow of ideas, people, resources, and aid across international borders. This quasi-experimental study assesses the longitudinal impact of international volunteer service on volunteers' intercultural relations, international social capital, and concern about international affairs. Using linear mixed regression models that control for a counterfactual comparison group of individuals that did not travel abroad, international volunteers are more likely to report significant increases in international social capital and international concern two to three years after returning from service. Results indicate that intercultural relations may also continue to increase years after returning from service. International service may be a useful approach to helping people gain skills and networks that are needed in an increasingly global society. PMID:24767589

  5. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  6. 75 Hour Nurse Aide Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This 75-hour nurse aide course has been designed to meet the training requirements of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 for aides working in nursing facilities and skilled nursing facilities. Emphasis in the course is on students achieving a basic level of knowledge and demonstrating skills to provide safe, effective resident care. The…

  7. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

  8. Wood Block and Toy Project. Designed for Diversely-Abled Senior Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, Willis E.

    This document describes a volunteer work project designed for nursing home and day-care center persons with minimal physical skills. Potential users of the project are cautioned to plan carefully for the host location where the project will be conducted, as the location must be easily accessible to older adults who may be handicapped and who may…

  9. Challenges and opportunities in healthcare volunteer management: insights from volunteer administrators.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sean E; Rogers, Carmen M; Boyd, Karen D

    2013-01-01

    Volunteer administrators from 105 hospitals in five states in the northeast and southern United States provided open-ended survey responses about what they perceived to be the most pressing challenges and opportunities facing healthcare volunteer management. Taken together, these 105 hospitals used a total of 39,008 volunteers and 5.3 million volunteer hours during a 12-month period between 2010 and 2011. A qualitative content analysis of administrator responses suggests that primary challenges include volunteer recruitment and retention, administrative issues, and operational difficulties brought about by the current economic crisis. Key opportunities include more explicitly linking the volunteer function to hospital outcomes and community impact, expanding volunteer recruitment pools and roles and jobs, and developing organizational support for volunteers and making the volunteer management function more efficient and effective. PMID:23822549

  10. 20 CFR 10.730 - What are the conditions of coverage for Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? 10.730 Section... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? (a) Any injury sustained by a volunteer or volunteer leader while he or she is located abroad shall be presumed to...

  11. Should desperate volunteers be included in randomised controlled trials?

    PubMed

    Allmark, P; Mason, S

    2006-09-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) sometimes recruit participants who are desperate to receive the experimental treatment. This paper defends the practice against three arguments that suggest it is unethical first, desperate volunteers are not in equipoise. Second clinicians, entering patients onto trials are disavowing their therapeutic obligation to deliver the best treatment; they are following trial protocols rather than delivering individualised care. Research is not treatment; its ethical justification is different. Consent is crucial. Third, desperate volunteers do not give proper consent: effectively, they are coerced. This paper responds by advocating a notion of equipoise based on expert knowledge and widely shared values. Where such collective, expert equipoise exists there is a prima facie case for an RCT. Next the paper argues that trial entry does not involve clinicians disavowing their therapeutic obligation; individualised care based on insufficient evidence is not in patients best interest. Finally, it argues that where equipoise exists it is acceptable to limit access to experimental agents; desperate volunteers are not coerced because their desperation does not translate into a right to receive what they desire. PMID:16943339

  12. Swimming for the Handicapped: A Manual for the Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Louise

    Presented is the American National Red Cross Swimming for the Handicapped Program manual designed for volunteer aides. The program's aims, scope, and value are described in the introduction. It is noted that the nonswimming aides can play a vital role in transportation, dressing room assistance, record keeping, and as safety assistants, while…

  13. Assessing business responses to HIV / AIDS in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M; Wangombe, J

    1995-01-01

    A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were--or were suspected to be--HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company. PMID:12289839

  14. Ohio 4-H Agents' and Volunteer Leaders' Perceptions of the Volunteer Leadership Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)

  15. Revolutionising the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Gupta, Geeta Rao; Warner, Ann; Fisher, William F

    2011-01-01

    Individual behaviour change interventions and technological approaches to HIV prevention can only be effective over time if the broader social environment in which health-related decisions are made facilitate their uptake. People need to be not only willing but also able to take up and maintain preventive behaviours, seek testing, treatment and care for HIV. This paper presents findings and recommendations of the Social Drivers Working Group of the aids2031 initiative, which focus on how to ensure that efforts to address the root causes of HIV vulnerability are integrated into AIDS responses at the national level. Specific guidance is given on how to operationalise a structural approach. PMID:21970296

  16. Providing Empowerment to the Person with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Describes author's experiences after his own diagnoses of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Related Complex (ARC) and AIDS itself. Discusses six ways for social workers to provide empowerment to persons with AIDS, which focus on the positive, the healing power of caring, reconnections, direction, victim mindset, and advocacy. (ABL)

  17. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  18. Leadership and Management of Volunteer Programs: A Guide for Volunteer Administrators. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, James C.; Cole, Kathleen M.

    Based on the Association for Volunteer Administration (AVA) Certification Competencies, this book describes the knowledge, skills, and abilities required of professional managers to involve volunteers effectively in the work of organizations. Chapter 1 examines the leadership and management roles of volunteer administrators. Chapters 2 and 3 focus…

  19. Confronting AIDS: international consensus?

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    A coordinated effort by the World Bank, the European Commission, and UNAIDS, and drawing from a number of academic disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and public economics, the recently published book "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" argues that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic can be overcome and that national governments have a major role in preventing the spread of AIDS and tempering its impact. Considerable evidence is presented in support of the argument. The original idea for the book came out of collaboration between individuals in the European Commission and the World Bank. The World Bank's recognition of the importance of AIDS is a milestone in the course of the pandemic. Confronting AIDS highlights the potential and actual impact of AIDS upon households, communities, and countries; argues the case for interventions in both HIV prevention and care; and generally considers some of the difficult choices which need to be made about how scarce resources will be allocated, especially in developing countries. PMID:12294024

  20. Building partnerships to support community-led HIV/AIDS management: a case study from rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nair, Yugi; Campbell, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    The importance of partnerships between marginalised communities and support agencies (from the public sector, private sector and civil society) is a pillar of HIV/AIDS management policy. Such alliances are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. We present a case study focusing on the first stage of a project seeking to build partnerships to facilitate local responses to HIV/AIDS in a remote rural community in South Africa. To date the Entabeni project has been successful in its goal of training volunteer health workers in home-based care, peer education, project management and procedures for accessing grants and services. The paper focuses on the project's other goal - to create external support structures for these volunteers (drawing on government departments, local NGOs and private-sector philanthropists). The partnership aims to empower volunteers to lead HIV-prevention and AIDS-care efforts, and to make public services more responsive to local needs. We illustrate how features of the local public-sector environment have actively worked against effective community empowerment. These include a rigid hierarchy, poor communication between senior and junior health professionals, lack of social development skills and the demoralisation and/or exhaustion of public servants dealing with multiple social problems in under-resourced settings. We outline the obstacles that have prevented private-sector involvement, suggesting a degree of scepticism about the potential for private-sector contributions to development in remote areas. We discuss how the project's most effective partners have been two small under-funded NGOs - run by highly committed individuals with a keen understanding of social-development principles, flexible working styles and a willingness to work hard for small gains. Despite many challenges, the partnership formation process has seen some positive achievements; we outline these and discuss the essential role played by an external change agent

  1. Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, S. J.; Stiffler, J. J.; Bryant, L. A.; Petersen, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    CARE III (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation, Third Generation) helps estimate reliability of complex, redundant, fault-tolerant systems. Program specifically designed for evaluation of fault-tolerant avionics systems. However, CARE III general enough for use in evaluation of other systems as well.

  2. Volunteer map data collection at the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eric, B. Wolf; Poore, Barbara S.; Caro, Holly K.; Matthews, Greg D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1994, citizen volunteers have helped the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) improve its topographic maps. Through the Earth Science Corps program, citizens were able to "adopt a quad" and collect new information and update existing map features. Until its conclusion in 2001, as many as 300 volunteers annotated paper maps which were incorporated into the USGS topographic-map revision process.

  3. Meaningful Commitment: Finding Meaning in Volunteer Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…

  4. Project LOVE (Let Older Volunteers Educate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Sally; Weinrich, Martin C.

    The effect of contact with older adult volunteers on the attitudes of elementary school students was investigated by twice administering questionnaires to all first-, third-, and fourth-grade students at Chapin Elementary School, Chapin, South Carolina. Teachers first administered the questionnaire before the older adults began volunteer work in…

  5. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  6. Non-Alumni Advisory Board Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Judy; Nehls, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Advisory boards typically offer guidance, support, social, and financial capital to academic units within colleges and universities. They are generally comprised of prominent volunteers from the community and appropriate industries or businesses. The results of this exploratory study found that non-alumni advisory board volunteers developed…

  7. Volunteers in College and Career Information (VICCI)!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    The Volunteers in College and Career Information (VICCI) is an innovative attempt to improve guidance services within San Francisco High Schools. To insure that the volunteers receive proper training and supervision, the program was placed under the direction of a credentialed counselor or project director. Three major results have been…

  8. Tutoring ESL: A Handbook for Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Deborah L.; And Others

    This handbook is designed for use by Tacoma Community House volunteer tutors of English as a Second Language (ESL) as a supplement to basic volunteer training. The handbook includes detailed information in areas briefly covered during training and specific instructional ideas and class activities. A section on getting started discusses the…

  9. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  10. School Volunteers: Hidden Benefits and Hidden Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 68 schools shows that half of all volunteers have college degrees; most support classroom and tutoring activities. Volunteers are beneficial, despite costs associated with program administration, recruitment, interviewing, screening, orientation, training, performance assessment, motivation, recognition, record keeping, reporting,…

  11. Senior Volunteers: Helping Hands & Willing Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessely, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Volunteers and other community-based assistants can relieve some of the financial burden brought on by school-budget cutbacks. This publication describes how enlisting the help of senior volunteers and workers benefits both children and seniors, and it presents some guidelines for implementation of intergeneration programs. The programs provide…

  12. Handbook on Volunteers in Army Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This handbook has been prepared for the purpose of offering guidance and assistance in the development and administration of a volunteer program within Army Community Service. It contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 is the Introduction. Chapter 2, Volunteers Are Partners and Team Members, considers the importance of attitudes, agreement on volunteer…

  13. Volunteers in the Child Development Center Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Development Services Bureau (DHEW/OCD), Washington, DC. Project Head Start.

    Suggestions for expanding and improving the volunteer participation in all local Head Start programs are provided in this manual. The primary aims of the volunteer programs are to: (1) provide additional staff in all areas of the program, thus increasing the effectiveness of the paid staff; (2) give interested local citizens, including parents of…

  14. Evaluating Presentation Skills of Volunteer Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Donna K.

    A systematic method for evaluating the presentation skills of volunteer trainers would enable the discovery of hidden problems. It would also increase individual trainer skills and satisfaction and improve the overall effectiveness of the training program. A first step is to determine the general presentation skills a successful volunteer trainer…

  15. No Surprises: Controlling Risks in Volunteer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremper, Charles; Kostin, Gwynne

    This booklet provides general and specific advice to volunteer programs to help them manage physical, economic, legal, personnel, and public relations risks. It examines various myths about the risks that volunteer programs face and outlines a strategy for implementing a risk management process. This process can be used to identify and assess…

  16. 78 FR 24321 - National Volunteer Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-09867 Filed 4-23-13... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8960 of April 19, 2013 National Volunteer Week, 2013 By the President of the... accept certain obligations to one another. National Volunteer Week is a time to renew that...

  17. 76 FR 20215 - National Volunteer Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-8837 Filed 4-11-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195... Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's story has been... they see a need. During National Volunteer Week, we celebrate the profound impact of volunteers...

  18. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  19. HOME HEALTH AIDE TRAINING PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater New Haven Community Council, CT.

    THE HOME HEALTH AIDE PERFORMS SIMPLE PERSONAL CARE FUNCTIONS UNDER NURSING SUPERVISION IN THE HOME CARE OF AN ILL OR DISABLED PERSON. THE PROJECT OBJECTIVES WERE TO TRAIN AS AIDES 30 MEN AND WOMEN AGE 45 YEARS AND OLDER WITH LIMITED INCOMES TO MEET A COMMUNITY EMPLOYMENT NEED AND TO EXPERIMENT IN RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, TRAINING, AND EMPLOYMENT…

  20. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease. PMID:12284225

  1. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nariddh, M C

    1994-08-01

    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs. PMID:12345639

  2. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Blevins, Meridith; Wester, C William; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Ekouevi, Didier K; Egger, Matthias; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine C; Nash, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20), Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7), North America (n=7), Central Africa (n=12), East Africa (n=51), Southern Africa (n=16) and West Africa (n=15). We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr): 33–100%) and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%). Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB) screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%), combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) (94%) and other prevention and clinical management services (97%) – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46%) of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI), especially those in the President's Emergency Plan

  3. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  4. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  5. National Retired Senior Volunteer Program Participant Impact Evaluation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A study examined the long-term effects of participation in the Retired Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) on participants from 20 RSVP projects nationwide. Three rounds of interviews were conducted. In Round 1, 750 volunteers were interviewed: 595 veteran volunteers and 155 new volunteers. In Round 2, 792 volunteers were intereviewed: 175 new…

  6. An Analysis of Teacher Aide Administrative Practices in Kansas Public Schools, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Robert C.

    Responses to a questionnaire sent to all Kansas public school districts with enrollments of 500 and over revealed several characteristics of teacher aide utilization in the state. Such utilization is increasing, especially among larger districts where paid aides predominated over volunteers. In most districts all aides were paid, usually by the…

  7. Impact of an Asha Intervention on Depressive Symptoms among Rural Women Living with AIDS in India: Comparison of the Asha-Life and Usual Care Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Meyer, Visha; Ganguly, Kalyan K.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ramakrishnan, Padma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized pilot study is to conduct an intervention with 68 rural women living with AIDS to compare the effectiveness of two different programs on depressive symptoms. The trial was designed to assess the impact of the Asha-Life intervention engaging with an HIV-trained village woman, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activist),…

  8. 20 CFR 10.731 - What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation purposes? 10.731 Section 10.731 Employees' Benefits OFFICE... Volunteers § 10.731 What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for...

  9. "I washed and fed my mother before going to school": Understanding the psychosocial well-being of children providing chronic care for adults affected by HIV/AIDS in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, Morten; Ogutu, Vincent O

    2009-01-01

    With improved accessibility to life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy, the treatment and care requirements of people living with HIV and AIDS resembles that of more established chronic diseases. As an increasing number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kenya have access to ART, the primary caregivers of poor resource settings, often children, face the challenge of meeting the requirements of rigid ART adherence schedules and frequent relapses. This, and the long-term duty of care, has an impact on the primary caregiver's experience of this highly stigmatised illness – an impact that is often described in relation to psychological deprivation. Reflecting the meanings attached to caregiving by 48 children in Western Kenya, articulated in writing, through photography and drawing, individual and group interviews, this paper presents three case studies of young caregiving. Although all the children involved in the study coped with their circumstances, some better than others, we found that the meanings they attach to their circumstances impact on how well they cope. Our findings suggest that only a minority of young caregivers attach either positive or negative meanings to their circumstances, whilst the majority attaches a mix of positive and negative meanings depending on the context they are referring to. Through a continuum of psychosocial coping, we conclude that to provide appropriate care for young carers, health professionals must align their understanding and responses to the psychosocial cost of chronic care, to a more nuanced and contextual understanding of children's social agency and the social and symbolic resources evident in many African communities. PMID:19698177

  10. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  11. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  12. AGU Committee Volunteers for 2010-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2010-08-01

    The success of AGU as a scientific society depends on dedicated volunteers who reflect the diverse interests of our international membership. To function effectively, we need a strong core of volunteers who generously devote time, talent, and energy to Union committee work. To our members who have stepped up and unselfishly volunteered to serve for 2010-2012, I say thank you for your commitment to AGU's mission and programs. It is through your leadership and example that we will achieve our goals as an organization.

  13. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  14. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  15. 75 FR 56501 - Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys... organizations on the new information collection, the Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys. DATES: Comments... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys. OMB Number:...

  16. 32 CFR 1627.2 - Registration of volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLUNTEERS FOR INDUCTION § 1627.2 Registration of volunteers. (a) If a person who is required to be registered but who has failed to register volunteers for induction, he shall be registered. (b)...

  17. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  18. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  19. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  20. Rural perspectives on HIV/AIDS prevention: a comparative study of Thailand and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Gbesemete, Kwame Prosper

    2005-04-01

    The paper compares rural perspectives in Thailand and Ghana on the level of condom acceptance in sexual relations, willingness to test oneself for HIV before and in marriage and sources of information on HIV/AIDS. We also compared the policy approaches to combating HIV/AIDS in both countries. The results indicates that in the villages studied in Thailand, all single men and the majority of the single women were in favour of using condoms in sexual relations. This group also showed a positive attitude to HIV/AIDS test before and in marriage. However, married men in rural Thailand disapproved of the use of condoms with their wives but married women in the sample population were open to the possibility of using condoms. Both married men and women were strongly against HIV/AIDS test in marriage. In contrast to Thailand, most single men in the communities studied in Ghana showed a disapproval to the use of condoms in sexual relations. However, they condoned HIV test before marriage. Married men and women in rural Ghana were against the use of condoms in sexual relations as well as HIV/AIDS test in marriage. In order to mitigate mother-to-child transmission, the Thais applied anti-retroviral drug care for HIV positive pregnant women during pregnancy and after delivery. In Ghana on the other hand, pregnant women were subject to HIV test and counselling. The mode of information acquisition on HIV/AIDS in both countries were through the media, campaigns and village volunteers. Finally, we observed that fighting poverty is a sine qua non for the success of any HIV/AIDS eradication programme. PMID:15760696

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of a volunteer-mediated diversional therapy program for older patients with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wong Shee, Anna; Phillips, Bev; Hill, Keith; Dodd, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the perceptions of stakeholders is critical for determining acceptability and feasibility of volunteer-mediated programs. This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability for staff, volunteers, patients and their carers, of a volunteer diversional therapy program for patients with cognitive impairment undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Post-program structured interviews were conducted with the volunteers (n = 10), patients (n = 30) and their carers (n = 3); and nursing staff (n = 6) participated in a focus group. Thematic analysis identified five themes (values, attitudes, knowledge, purpose, support) in two dimensions (personal, team culture). Overall, patients, carers, staff and volunteers were satisfied with the volunteer program and perceived benefits for quality of care. Recommendations for improvements to the program related to staff engagement with the program and the volunteers' education and training. The volunteer diversional therapy pilot program for patients with cognitive impairment on a sub-acute ward was acceptable and feasible for patients, carers, staff and volunteers. PMID:24755195

  2. Combining Dedicated Online Training and Apprenticeships in the Field to Assist in Professionalization of Humanitarian Aid Workers: a 2-year Pilot Project for Anesthesia and Intensive Care Residents Working in Resource Constrained and Low-income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Foletti, Marco; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Burkle, Frederick M.; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As a result of the gaps in humanitarian response highlighted by several reports, the international community called for an increased professionalization of humanitarian aid workers. This paper describes a pilot project by an Italian university and a non-profit, non-governmental organization to implement a medical apprenticeship in low-income countries during Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine residencies. Methods: Before deployment, participants were required to complete a dedicated online training course about safety and security in the field, principles of anesthesia at the district hospital level, emergency and essential surgical care, essentials of medical treatment in resource-constrained environments and psychological support in emergencies. Results: At the end of the program, a qualitative self-evaluation questionnaire administered to participants highlighted how the project allowed the participants to advance their professional skills when working in a low-resource environment, while also mastering their adapting skills and the ability to interact and cooperate with local healthcare personnel. The project also proved to be a means for personal growth, making these experiences a recommendation for all residents as a necessary step for the professionalization of healthcare personnel involved in humanitarian aid. PMID:25642362

  3. Cryptosporidium meleagridis: Infectivity in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Akiyoshi, Donna E.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Most Cryptosporidium infections in humans are caused by C. parvum or C. hominis. However, genotyping techniques have identified infections caused by unusual Cryptosporidium species. Cryptosporidium meleagridis has been identified in ≤ 1% of persons with diarrhea, although prevalence is higher in developing nations. We examined the infectivity of C. meleagridis in healthy adults. Five volunteers were challenged with 105 C. meleagridis oocysts and monitored six weeks for fecal oocysts and clinical manifestations. Four volunteers had diarrhea; three had detectable fecal oocysts; and one infected volunteer remained asymptomatic. Fecal DNA from two volunteers was amplified by using a polymerase chain reaction specific for the Cryptosporidium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Nucleotide sequence of these amplicons was diagnostic for C. meleagridis. All infections were self-limited; oocysts were cleared within ≤ 12 days of challenge. These studies establish that healthy adults can be infected and become ill from ingestion of C. meleagridis oocysts. PMID:21813841

  4. A Zen Approach to Volunteer Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Michael L.; Cahill, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    New York University's Zen approach to community service focuses on the principles of mindfulness, awareness, compassion, and engagement in the present moment. It enables a more holistic approach to the measurement of volunteer management objectives. (SK)

  5. Volunteers, Head Start Children, and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooden, Howard E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Investigated with 12 preschool children were whether IQ scores are a predictive indicator of potential learning disability and whether nonprofessional volunteers can remediate possible motor, perceptual, or verbal deficiencies with a concomitant increase in IQ score. (DB)

  6. Medical volunteers: guidelines for success and safety.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Eddie L.; Cole-Hoover, Gwendolyn; Berry, Paula K.; Hoover, Evan T.; Harris, Betsy; Rageh, Deman; Weaver, W. Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Many African Americans from a variety of medical specialties are interested in satisfying a life-long dream of visiting Africa by volunteering their services to faith-based and private volunteer organizations doing missionary work on the continent. While this can be an extremely rewarding experience in which measurable good can be accomplished, this path can also be strewn with many obstacles that will affect both the success of the mission and the personal well-being of the volunteer. The American Medical Team for Africa is a nonprofit, tax-exempt, volunteer organization that has been doing medical missionary work in Africa since 1993. This manuscript is a compilation of this 10-year experience that has established some very useful guidelines for insuring a successful and safe mission if you are fortunate enough to have this opportunity. PMID:15719877

  7. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  8. The Impact of a Volunteer Postpartum Doula Program on Breastfeeding Success: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Cattelona, Georg'ann; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J

    2015-11-01

    Bloomington Area Birth Services (BABS), centered in Bloomington, Indiana, is a community-based program that provides comprehensive education and support for new breastfeeding mothers, infants, family members, and the community by working together with local hospitals, midwives, obstetricians, pediatric offices, and social service agencies to create a seamless continuity of care for families. To help with continuity of care in the community, BABS established a volunteer doula program (birth and postpartum), allowing BABS to combine the services of a community lactation center with birth and postpartum doulas. This article describes the volunteer doula program and highlights one client's story in an effort to encourage and motivate other communities to focus their limited dollars on the development of a volunteer doula program. PMID:25900845

  9. The deafening silence of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cameron, E

    2000-01-01

    For most of those attending the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, the Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered by Justice Edwin Cameron on Monday, 10 July 2000, was one of the highlights of the conference. The presentation is a passionate and compelling appeal to make medical care and treatment accessible and affordable to the more than 30 million people in resource-poor countries who face death from AIDS. PMID:11833178

  10. 29 CFR 1926.23 - First aid and medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid and medical attention. 1926.23 Section 1926.23... Provisions § 1926.23 First aid and medical attention. First aid services and provisions for medical care... prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.23 - First aid and medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid and medical attention. 1926.23 Section 1926.23... Provisions § 1926.23 First aid and medical attention. First aid services and provisions for medical care... prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.23 - First aid and medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and medical attention. 1926.23 Section 1926.23... Provisions § 1926.23 First aid and medical attention. First aid services and provisions for medical care... prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained...

  13. AIDS is everybody's business: reaching people at work: programmes in Uganda, India and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    1992-09-01

    The AIDS advice of Ajonye Fermina Acuba, a trainer with the Federation of Uganda Employers (FUE), is provided in a serious of questions and answers. Other workplace experiences in Zimbabwe and India are reported. Questions were asked about the nature of the AIDS program in Uganda, the secrets of the program's success, the experiences of educators, and progress since 1988. FUE is nationally active with 150 member companies and 900 volunteer employees trained for peer education. Success was tied to proper selection of trainers, who were picked by union representatives and department heads. Training was over 3 days. 75% are men, but training is conducted for men and women together. success is attributed to the type of training and followup. Common problems overcome during training concern talking about changing sexual behavior. Employees initially believe educational efforts are only to promote condoms, but when risk reduction through any method is emphasized, the barriers are removed. Educators talk repeatedly with interested persons. Trainers requested better training to handle "first aid" situations before referral. Managers need specialized training programs. In Zimbabwe, commercial farm owners are engaging in AIDS educational activities through the Commercial Farmers' Union. 4500 farm owners and managers are represented. The program has operated since 1986 by providing volunteer coordinators from branch associations to initiate discussion with village leaders and later the community. AIDS committees are set up at the village level. Education focused on the fatal nature of the disease and lack of cure, the relationship with sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) which transmission can be prevented with condoms, the danger to women of sterility from STDs, and the price of not preventing through education is having to care for relatives' children. Stigma has been thus reduced. In India, the AIDS Research Foundation of India (AFRI), which is financed by local companies

  14. [Innovative Services: The Use of Parent Aides in Child Protective Services]. Module 7. Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen C.; And Others

    The final module of a seven module package for child protective service workers addresses management system skills necessary to maintain a volunteer parent aide program for abused and neglected children and their families. Four program activities center on the following: (1) listing what the agency will provide the volunteer; (2) developing…

  15. Garrison Institute on Aging—Lubbock Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) Provides Services to South Plains, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Joan; Boles, Annette N.; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Tech University Health Sciences (TTUHSC) Garrison Institute on Aging (GIA) was established to promote healthy aging through cutting edge research on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other diseases of aging, through innovative educational and community outreach opportunities for students, clinicians, researchers, health care providers, and the public. The GIA sponsors the Lubbock Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP). According to RSVP Operations Handbook, RSVP is one of the largest volunteer efforts in the nation. Through this program, volunteer skills and talents can be matched to assist with community needs. It is a federally funded program under the guidance of the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) and Senior Corps (SC). Volunteers that participate in RSVP provide service in the following areas: food security, environmental awareness building and education, community need-based volunteer programs, and veteran services. PMID:26696877

  16. Garrison Institute on Aging-Lubbock Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) Provides Services to South Plains, Texas.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Joan; Boles, Annette N; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Tech University Health Sciences (TTUHSC) Garrison Institute on Aging (GIA) was established to promote healthy aging through cutting edge research on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other diseases of aging, through innovative educational and community outreach opportunities for students, clinicians, researchers, health care providers, and the public. The GIA sponsors the Lubbock Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP). According to RSVP Operations Handbook, RSVP is one of the largest volunteer efforts in the nation. Through this program, volunteer skills and talents can be matched to assist with community needs. It is a federally funded program under the guidance of the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS) and Senior Corps (SC). Volunteers that participate in RSVP provide service in the following areas: food security, environmental awareness building and education, community need-based volunteer programs, and veteran services. PMID:26696877

  17. Recruiting Mentors: A Guide to Finding Volunteers To Work with Youth. Technical Assistance Packet #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda

    Recruiting mentors is a continuous challenge for most programs. A systematic recruitment plan, carefully developed and implemented, will increase a program's chances for success. Drawing from effective practices used by volunteer-based organizations and research findings about mentoring, the material in this document describes recruitment…

  18. Linking Family Life and Health Professionals, Volunteers, and Family Life Students in a Community Hospice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruit, Dorothy

    This paper describes the Portage County, Ohio community hospice program, emphasizing the linkages between family life specialists, health professionals, volunteers, and students. Hospice service is defined as a specialized, home-based program for the management of pain and other symptoms of terminal illness, with the family as the unit of care.…

  19. Child Care Resources Catalogue: Child Care Initiatives Fund Projects. Updated = Catalogue des ressources en services de garde a l'enfance: Projets de la Caisse d'aide aux projets en matiere de garde des enfants. Mis a jour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This catalog update lists over 150 end-products of projects sponsored by Health and Welfare of Canada under the Child Care Initiatives Fund. These child care resources include: final reports, manuals, books, conference proceedings, videos, kits, and pamphlets. The first edition of the catalog covers projects completed as of September 1992, as well…

  20. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  1. Assessing efficacy of non-opioid analgesics in experimental pain models in healthy volunteers: an updated review

    PubMed Central

    Staahl, Camilla; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-01

    AIM Experimental pain models may help to evaluate the mechanisms of analgesics and target the clinical indications for their use. This review, the second in a series of two, addresses how the efficacy of non-opioid analgesics have been assessed in human volunteers using experimental pain models. METHODS A literature search was completed for randomized controlled studies that included human experimental pain models, healthy volunteers and non-opioid analgesics. RESULTS Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs worked against various types of acute pain as well as in hyperalgesia. Analgesia from paracetamol was difficult to detect in experimental pain and the pain needed to be assessed with very sensitive methods like evoked brain potentials. The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists exemplified by ketamine generally needed strong, long-lasting or repeated pain in the skin for detectable analgesia, whereas pain in muscle and viscera generally was more easily attenuated. Gabapentin worked well in several models, particularly those inducing hyperalgesia, whereas lamotrigine was weak in modulation of experimental pain. Imipramine attenuated pain in most experimental models, whereas amitriptyline had weaker effects. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol attenuated pain in only a few models. CONCLUSIONS Pain induction and assessment are very important for the sensitivity of the pain models. Generally, experimental pain models need to be designed with careful consideration of the pharmacological mechanisms and pharmacokinetics of analgesics. The drawback with the different study designs is also discussed. This knowledge can aid the decisions that need to be taken when designing experimental pain studies for compounds entering Phase I and II trials. PMID:19740390

  2. Home Improvement in HIV Primary Care: Investigating the Patient-Centered Medical Home Model for People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Erin Gael; Crowley, Megan; Howard, Kim Ammann; Pavel, M Paoloma

    2015-10-01

    This article details the processes and findings of a 3-year demonstration project implementing population health management and the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model in 3 community health centers in Alameda County, California. The article provides a first look at the PCMH Continuum, a tool for aiding staff in conceptualizing and implementing complex organizational change. Findings of the project evaluation also are shared, comprising a road map for other organizations looking to implement population health management, panel management, and PCMH. The article reflects on lessons learned and best practices from the demonstration project. PMID:25867483

  3. Health-related quality of life in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy at a tertiary care facility in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mafirakureva, N; Dzingirai, B; Postma, M J; van Hulst, M; Khoza, S

    2016-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a broad concept reflecting a patient's general subjective perception of the effect of an illness or intervention on physical, psychological and social aspects of their daily life. HRQoL among patients infected with HIV has become an important indicator of impact of disease and treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out at Chitungwiza Central Hospital, Zimbabwe, to assess HRQoL in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), using two validated instruments. The HIV/AIDS-targeted quality of life (HAT-QoL) and EuroQoL Five-dimensions-Three-level (EQ-5D-3L) instruments were used to assess HRQoL. Internal consistency reliability and convergent validity of the two instruments were also evaluated. For construct validity, the relationships between HRQoL scores and socio-economic and HIV/AIDS-related characteristics were explored. The median scores for the HAT-QoL dimensions ranged from 33.3 (financial worries) to 100 (HIV mastery). A considerably low HAT-QoL dimension score of 50.0 was observed for sexual function. There were ceiling effects for all HAT-QoL dimension scores except for financial worries and disclosure worries. Floor effects were observed for financial worries and sexual function. The median of the EQ-5D-3L index and visual analogue scale (VAS) was 0.81 and 79.0, respectively. There were no floor or ceiling effects for both the EQ-5D-3L index and VAS. The overall scale Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 for HAT-Qol and 0.67 for EQ-5D-3L. HAT-QoL demonstrated good convergent validity with EQ-5D index (0.58) and VAS (0.40). A higher level of HRQoL was positively and significantly related to income, education and employment. The patients' self-reported HRQoL was generally satisfactory in all the HAT-QoL dimensions as well as the two components on the EQ-5D-3L instrument. The two instruments demonstrated good measurement properties in HIV/AIDS patients receiving ART and have potential for use

  4. Jurisdictional Control: The Regulation of Nurses' Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Susan C.

    1988-01-01

    The future of health care depends on a more unified nursing hierarchy. It makes sense to place the regulation of nurses' aides within the jurisdiction of the state nursing board, the agency charged with providing safe nursing care. Strengthening nursing's jurisdictional control will not only improve the quality of care, it will increase the…

  5. Providing primary health care with non-physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C

    1984-04-01

    The definition of primary health care is basically the same, but the wide variety of concepts as to the form and type of worker required is largely due to variations in economic, demographic, socio-cultural and political factors. Whatever form it takes, in many parts of the developing world, it is increasingly clear that primary health care must be provided by non-physicians. The reasons for this trend are compelling, yet it is surprisingly opposed by the medical profession in many a developing country. Nonetheless, numerous field trials are being conducted in a variety of situations in several countries around the world. Non-physician primary health care workers vary from medical assistants and nurse practitioners to aide-level workers called village mobilizers, village volunteers, village aides and a variety of other names. The functions, limitations and training of such workers will need to be defined, so that an optimal combination of skills, knowledge and attitudes best suited to produce the desired effect on local health problems may be attained. The supervision of such workers by the physician and other health professionals will need to be developed in the spirit of the health team. An example of the use of non-physicians in providing primary health care in Sarawak is outlined. PMID:6497324

  6. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  7. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  8. Parishes must complement professional elder care.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A

    1988-01-01

    Studies indicate that for every person in a formal system of care in the United States, two are cared for informally. The current economic slump and projections of a substantial increase in persons needing assistance with activities of daily living point out the need for community organizational efforts to provide services for the frail. Historically, the Catholic Church has provided human services to vulnerable persons. The local church now provides many long-term care services. Fordham University studies have identified a number of parishes with successful programs and indicate that virtually all can do more. Successful parish programs are characterized by an institutional consciousness, personal leadership rooted in a supportive structure, clergy participation, formal record keeping, training and support of volunteers, ecumenical efforts, neighborhood involvement, and diocesan support. The parish church has special opportunities to unify spiritual, physical, and social aid to increase the sense of belongingness of frail persons. The Church must play a more decisive role in the provision of long-term care services. PMID:10285425

  9. 45 CFR 1226.11 - Part time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Part time volunteers. 1226.11 Section 1226.11... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.11 Part time volunteers. (a) The provisions in this section are applicable to part time volunteers, as defined in §...

  10. 45 CFR 1226.11 - Part time volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part time volunteers. 1226.11 Section 1226.11... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.11 Part time volunteers. (a) The provisions in this section are applicable to part time volunteers, as defined in §...

  11. Volunteer Programs: When Good Intentions Aren't Enough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingley, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    With structure and support, volunteers can be a great resource for after-school programs. Program managers should train volunteers with specific information, provide appropriate teaching strategies and materials, put important information in writing, match volunteers appropriately, facilitate icebreaker activities, respect volunteers' time, stress…

  12. Above and Beyond: Secondary Activities for Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Judy; And Others

    This manual focuses on what prompts Peace Corps volunteers to get involved, activities that volunteers have tried while on assignment, and a series of guidelines volunteers can apply to secondary activity, which is organized during school recesses or at times when the Volunteer is otherwise unoccupied. The book is divided into three sections. Part…

  13. Liability Issues of Using Volunteers in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshfield, James B.

    1996-01-01

    School districts must properly manage volunteers to protect children from negligent behavior. Districts can reduce the risk of using volunteers by developing volunteer-management policies and procedures; maintaining adequate liability insurance; developing descriptions of volunteer responsibilities; screening interested persons; and providing…

  14. 38 CFR 17.197 - Amount of aid payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.197 Amount of aid payable. The amount of aid payable to a recognized State home shall be at the per diem rates established by title 38 U.S.C., section 1741(a)(1) for domiciliary care; and section 1741(a)(3) for hospital care. In no case shall...

  15. Families, children, migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Haour-Knipe, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care. PMID:22380978

  16. Effect of volunteers on maize gene flow.

    PubMed

    Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Peñas, Gisela; Melé, Enric; Serra, Joan; Salvia, Jordi; Pla, Maria; Nadal, Anna; Messeguer, Joaquima

    2009-08-01

    Regulatory approvals for deliberate release of GM maize events into the environment have lead to real situations of coexistence between GM and non-GM, with some fields being cultivated with GM and conventional varieties in successive seasons. Given the common presence of volunteer plants in maize fields in temperate areas, we investigated the real impact of GM volunteers on the yield of 12 non-GM agricultural fields. Volunteer density varied from residual to around 10% of plants in the field and was largely reduced using certain cultural practices. Plant vigour was low, they rarely had cobs and produced pollen that cross-fertilized neighbour plants only at low--but variable--levels. In the worst-case scenario, the estimated content of GMO was 0.16%. The influence of GM volunteers was not enough to reach the 0.9% adventitious GM threshold but it could potentially contribute to adventitious GM levels, especially at high initial densities (i.e. above 1,000 volunteers/ha). PMID:19225900

  17. 45 CFR 2551.72 - Is a written volunteer assignment plan required for each volunteer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a written volunteer assignment plan required for each volunteer? 2551.72 Section 2551.72 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SENIOR COMPANION PROGRAM Senior Companion Placements and Assignments § 2551.72 Is a...

  18. Volunteer Management in Boards of Probation: Perceptions of Equity, Efficiency, and Reciprocity among Vermont Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesire, J. D.; Karp, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A statewide "Reparative Probation" intervention was evaluated in Vermont in which volunteers serve on local Boards and meet with probationers to negotiate a "reparative contract." Our sample (n = 229) was drawn from the universe of Vermont volunteers who completed a 54-question instrument measuring perceived equity, efficiency, and reciprocity in…

  19. A New Breed of Volunteer Calls for a New Volunteer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    PTAs have always faced the challenge of competing for volunteer time. A PTA's primary volunteer base is made up of parents of public school children, and parents are being pulled in many directions, as their children are more engaged than ever in multiple extracurricular activities that may have their own specialized parent groups. Parents with…

  20. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    PubMed

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms. PMID:12282686

  1. Assessment of Readiness for Clinical Decision Support to Aid Laboratory Monitoring of Immunosuppressive Care at U.S. Liver Transplant Centers

    PubMed Central

    Weir, C.; Evans, R. S.; Staes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Following liver transplantation, patients require lifelong immunosuppressive care and monitoring. Computerized clinical decision support (CDS) has been shown to improve post-transplant immunosuppressive care processes and outcomes. The readiness of transplant information systems to implement computerized CDS to support post-transplant care is unknown. Objectives a) Describe the current clinical information system functionality and manual and automated processes for laboratory monitoring of immunosuppressive care, b) describe the use of guidelines that may be used to produce computable logic and the use of computerized alerts to support guideline adherence, and c) explore barriers to implementation of CDS in U.S. liver transplant centers. Methods We developed a web-based survey using cognitive interviewing techniques. We surveyed 119 U.S. transplant programs that performed at least five liver transplantations per year during 2010–2012. Responses were summarized using descriptive analyses; barriers were identified using qualitative methods. Results Respondents from 80 programs (67% response rate) completed the survey. While 98% of programs reported having an electronic health record (EHR), all programs used paper-based manual processes to receive or track immunosuppressive laboratory results. Most programs (85%) reported that 30% or more of their patients used external laboratories for routine testing. Few programs (19%) received most external laboratory results as discrete data via electronic interfaces while most (80%) manually entered laboratory results into the EHR; less than half (42%) could integrate internal and external laboratory results. Nearly all programs had guidelines regarding pre-specified target ranges (92%) or testing schedules (97%) for managing immunosuppressive care. Few programs used computerized alerting to notify transplant coordinators of out-of-range (27%) or overdue laboratory results (20%). Conclusions Use of EHRs is

  2. AIDS: what should we do?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A

    1990-08-01

    There is no 1 AIDS epidemic in the US. The 1st epidemic includes gay and bisexual men. The 2nd consists of intravenous (IV) drug users and their infants, pimps, lovers, and customers. The 3rd and most recent epidemic affects individuals who are exclusively heterosexual who have never had a blood transfusion, never used IV drugs, and have not had sex with those who did any of these things. The former director of the Center for AIDS Research in Baltimore, MD put out 8 proposals that, if implemented, would reduce the transmission of HIV and provide adequate medical care for AIDS patients. Health and educational professionals must develop improved AIDS education programs directed to those at risk. Since many of them are functionally illiterate, television should carry AIDS education messages. In addition, all AIDS prevention and educational programs need to be evaluated strongly so the country can focus on those activities which are most effective. Those who determine public policy should heed the advice of those who truly understand AIDS. Government, drug companies, and university scientists should all increase research to develop antiretroviral drugs that are not dependent on refrigeration, can be transported rapidly, and are inexpensive. Scientists also need to continue working on a vaccine and determine if an HIV vaccine can indeed immunize entire populations. Moreover affordable health care must be available to all AIDS patients. The present haphazard structure of AIDS treatment services must be recognized and integrated into a system that provides patients with coordinated medical and social services. Likewise, all research, treatment and education programs at federal, state, and local levels must be coordinated so that various players do not bicker over priorities. PMID:12283707

  3. Prevention of low back pain and its consequences among nurses’ aides in elderly care: a stepped-wedge multi-faceted cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A high prevalence of low back pain has persisted over the years despite extensive primary prevention initiatives among nurses’ aides. Many single-faceted interventions addressing just one aspect of low back pain have been carried out at workplaces, but with low success rate. This may be due to the multi-factorial origin of low back pain. Participatory ergonomics, cognitive behavioral training and physical training have previously shown promising effects on prevention and rehabilitation of low back pain. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to examine whether a multi-faceted workplace intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioral training can prevent low back pain and its consequences among nurses’ aides. External resources for the participating workplace and a strong commitment from the management and the organization support the intervention. Methods/design To overcome implementation barriers within usual randomized controlled trial designed workplace interventions, this study uses a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial design with 4 groups. The intervention is delivered to the groups at random along four successive time periods three months apart. The intervention lasts three months and integrates participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioral training tailored to the target group. Local physiotherapists and occupational therapists conduct the intervention after having received standardized training. Primary outcomes are low back pain and its consequences measured monthly by text messages up to three months after initiation of the intervention. Discussion Intervention effectiveness trials for preventing low back pain and its consequences in workplaces with physically demanding work are few, primarily single-faceted, with strict adherence to a traditional randomized controlled trial design that may hamper implementation and compliance, and have mostly been

  4. Motivations for Youth Volunteer Participation: Types and Structure--An Analysis of Interviews with Twenty-Four Young Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luping, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Scholars who study volunteer activities are attaching ever greater importance to the motivations of volunteers who participate in volunteer activities. However, deficiencies are, on the whole, to be found in the empirical studies by scholars in China on the participating volunteers' motivations. To make up for the deficiencies in the research on…

  5. Volunteered Cloud Computing for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects

  6. The Association of Individual and Systemic Barriers to Optimal Medical Care in People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Miami-Dade County

    PubMed Central

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J.; Rodríguez, Allan E.; Falcon, Anthony E.; Chakrabarti, Anindita; Parra, Alexa; Park, Jane; Mercogliano, Kathleen; Villamizar, Kira; Kolber, Michael A.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to retention in HIV care are detrimental to patients’ progress along the HIV continuum of care. Previous literature has focused on individual, client-level barriers and interventions to address them. In contrast, less work has examined the role of system-level barriers on HIV care outcomes. The present study seeks to understand how individual and systemic barriers individually are associated with clinic appointment attendance and virologic suppression in HIV-infected patients attending the largest HIV clinic in Miami-Dade, Florida. In addition, we examined the synergistic effects of these barriers as potential syndemic factors on these health outcomes. Barriers to clinic attendance were determined in a face-to-face study interview with 444 HIV-infected outpatients (187 regular attenders, 191 irregular attenders, 66 non-attenders) identified from electronic medical records. Compared to the other attendance groups, non-attenders had higher viral loads, were less likely to be virologically suppressed, had lower CD4 counts, had higher depressive symptoms, life chaos, lower quality of life, and higher rates of food insecurity and recent drug use. Additionally, non-attenders compared to regular attenders had lower physician relationship ratings, had lower medical information clarity, and more often reported transportation as a barrier to clinic attendance. When viewed as a syndemic, compared to patients not reporting any barriers, patients with three or more individual-level barriers were more likely to have a detectable viral load (OR = 3.60, 95%CI [1.71, 7.61]). Our findings suggest that patients presenting to the clinic with multiple barriers should be prioritized for assistance and future interventions to improve retention in care. Interventions should address multiple individual and system level barriers simultaneously with particular attention to addressing depressive symptoms, organizational skills, relationship with the physician, and HIV

  7. Association of individual and systemic barriers to optimal medical care in people living with HIV/AIDS in Miami-Dade County.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Rodríguez, Allan E; Falcon, Anthony E; Chakrabarti, Anindita; Parra, Alexa; Park, Jane; Mercogliano, Kathleen; Villamizar, Kira; Kolber, Michael A; Feaster, Daniel J; Metsch, Lisa R

    2015-05-01

    Barriers to retention in HIV care are detrimental to patients' progress along the HIV continuum of care. Previous literature has focused on individual, client-level barriers, and interventions to address them. In contrast, less work has examined the role of system-level barriers on HIV care outcomes. This study seeks to understand how individual and systemic barriers individually are associated with clinic appointment attendance and virologic suppression in HIV-infected patients attending the largest HIV clinic in Miami-Dade, FL. In addition, we examined the synergistic effects of these barriers as potential syndemic factors on these health outcomes. Barriers to clinic attendance were determined in a face-to-face study interview with 444 HIV-infected outpatients (187 regular attenders, 191 irregular attenders, and 66 nonattenders) identified from electronic medical records. Compared with the other attendance groups, nonattenders had higher viral loads, were less likely to be virologically suppressed, had lower CD4 counts, had higher depressive symptoms, life chaos, lower quality of life, and higher rates of food insecurity, and recent drug use. Additionally, nonattenders compared with regular attenders had lower physician relationship ratings, had lower medical information clarity and more often reported transportation as a barrier to clinic attendance. When viewed as a syndemic, compared with patients not reporting any barriers, patients with 3 or more individual-level barriers were more likely to have a detectable viral load (odds ratio = 3.60, 95% CI: 1.71 to 7.61). Our findings suggest that patients presenting to the clinic with multiple barriers should be prioritized for assistance and future interventions to improve retention in care. Interventions should address multiple individual and system-level barriers simultaneously with particular attention to addressing depressive symptoms, organizational skills, relationship with the physician, and HIV

  8. Volunteer Losing Balance Wearing Inverted Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brad McLain for the Space Biology Museum Network puts a volunteer back on balance as he tries to adjust to a world inverted by a special pair of glasses. This helps illustrate how dependent the human vestibular system is on visual cues. A volunteer is The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  9. Meaning of Educating Science Volunteer Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Masa-aki; Hoshino, T.; Yoshimura, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Uchida, T.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2010-07-01

    We hold many science events for non-scientists such as primary school students and their parents in a year. We prepare and carry out these events with students who are mainly fast-track students belonging to our center. We encourage them to be instructors in some events, and they teach simple science experiments to children and their parents. While they have experiences to hold several events, they learn a lot of science knowledge and experiments gradually, and become so-called science volunteer leaders. In this article, we consider the meaning of educating science volunteer leaders such as them.

  10. Volunteers build Bay St. Louis playground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    More than 650 volunteers - many of them employees at NASA's Stennis Space Center - weathered rain and cold to transform Bay St. Louis' old City Park into a playground Dec. 17. Volunteers assembled and erected a slide, swing set, jungle gym, sand box and planter benches in an eight-hour time frame. The playground was the first new structure built in the town devastated by Hurricane Katrina and the first on the Gulf Coast after the storm. The project was financed and led by nonprofit organization KaBOOM!, whose vision is to create a great place to play within walking distance of every child in America.

  11. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    PubMed

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future. PMID:12316939

  12. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  13. Computer Aided Drafting. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael A.

    This guide is intended for use in introducing students to the operation and applications of computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: understanding CAD (CAD versus traditional manual drafting and care of software and hardware); using the components of a CAD system (primary and other input…

  14. Living with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    Infection with HIV is serious. But the outlook for people with HIV/AIDS is improving. If you are infected with HIV, there are many things you can do to ... health care provider who knows how to treat HIV. You may want to join a support group. ...

  15. Minority Women's Health: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS more than women of other races include: Poverty — One in 4 African-American women lives in poverty, which is strongly linked to HIV risk. People living in poverty also get lower-quality health care in general, ...

  16. Products to Aid in Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Products to Aid in Daily Living The materials and ... Check back for an update to this message. Product List Product/Services Topics Care Services Information and ...

  17. California's “Bridge to Reform”: Identifying Challenges and Defining Strategies for Providers and Policymakers Implementing the Affordable Care Act in Low-Income HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hazelton, Patrick T.; Steward, Wayne T.; Collins, Shane P.; Gaffney, Stuart; Morin, Stephen F.; Arnold, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In preparation for full Affordable Care Act implementation, California has instituted two healthcare initiatives that provide comprehensive coverage for previously uninsured or underinsured individuals. For many people living with HIV, this has required transition either from the HIV-specific coverage of the Ryan White program to the more comprehensive coverage provided by the county-run Low-Income Health Programs or from Medicaid fee-for-service to Medicaid managed care. Patient advocates have expressed concern that these transitions may present implementation challenges that will need to be addressed if ambitious HIV prevention and treatment goals are to be achieved. Methods 30 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted between October, 2012, and February, 2013, with policymakers and providers in 10 urban, suburban, and rural California counties. Interview topics included: continuity of patient care, capacity to handle payer source transitions, and preparations for healthcare reform implementation. Study team members reviewed interview transcripts to produce emergent themes, develop a codebook, build inter-rater reliability, and conduct analyses. Results Respondents supported the goals of the ACA, but reported clinic and policy-level challenges to maintaining patient continuity of care during the payer source transitions. They also identified strategies for addressing these challenges. Areas of focus included: gaps in communication to reach patients and develop partnerships between providers and policymakers, perceived inadequacy in new provider networks for delivering quality HIV care, the potential for clinics to become financially insolvent due to lower reimbursement rates, and increased administrative burdens for clinic staff and patients. Conclusions California's new healthcare initiatives represent ambitious attempts to expand and improve health coverage for low-income individuals. The state's challenges in maintaining quality care and

  18. Thailand's fear of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, S

    1995-07-01

    Because of a terrorist incident against Bangkok's Relief Center for HIV/AIDS Carriers, it is feared that a rising intolerance is occurring in Thailand. Such fears are damaging efforts to help those with HIV/AIDS. Misconceptions about the nature of HIV/AIDS continue to dominate Thai society. The Thai government is particularly worried that an overemphasis on HIV/AIDS will hurt tourism. According to the Population and Community Development Association, Thai people are infected with HIV at the rate of 500 per day and treatment costs may exceed $170 million a year by the year 2000. Unfortunately, the lack of nongovernmental institutions (other than Buddhist monasteries) and the lack of positive response from other Thai social institutions is driving relatives and friends to take care of the afflicted, and the terrorist attack shows that many Thai people are still unprepared for the challenge. PMID:11362731

  19. How you get HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    How you get HIV/AIDS Which body fluids contain HIV? HIV is a virus that lives in blood and other fluids in ... other fluids) . - an organ transplant . Be sure to get answers to any questions you have about HIV/AIDS. Your public health department and health care provider ...

  20. How you get HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    How you get HIV/AIDS Which body fluids contain HIV? HIV is a virus that lives in blood and other fluids in the body. Moving ... answers to any questions you have about HIV/AIDS. Your public health department and health care provider ...