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Sample records for aids conspiracy beliefs

  1. AIDS conspiracy beliefs and unsafe sex in Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Eduard; Nattrass, Nicoli

    2012-04-01

    This paper uses multivariate logistic regressions to explore: (1) potential socio-economic, cultural, psychological and political determinants of AIDS conspiracy beliefs among young adults in Cape Town; and (2) whether these beliefs matter for unsafe sex. Membership of a religious organisation reduced the odds of believing AIDS origin conspiracy theories by more than a third, whereas serious psychological distress more than doubled it and belief in witchcraft tripled the odds among Africans. Political factors mattered, but in ways that differed by gender. Tertiary education and relatively high household income reduced the odds of believing AIDS conspiracies for African women (but not men) and trust in President Mbeki's health minister (relative to her successor) increased the odds sevenfold for African men (but not women). Never having heard of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), the pro-science activist group that opposed Mbeki on AIDS, tripled the odds of believing AIDS conspiracies for African women (but not men). Controlling for demographic, attitudinal and relationship variables, the odds of using a condom were halved amongst female African AIDS conspiracy believers, whereas for African men, never having heard of TAC and holding AIDS denialist beliefs were the key determinants of unsafe sex. PMID:21538083

  2. Relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS and birth control.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2006-07-01

    Although prior research shows that substantial proportions of African Americans hold conspiracy beliefs, little is known about the subgroups of African Americans most likely to endorse such beliefs. We examined the relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to their conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS and birth control. Anonymous telephone surveys were conducted with a targeted random-digit-dial sample of 500 African Americans (15-44 years) in the contiguous United States. Respondents reported agreement with statements capturing beliefs in HIV/AIDS conspiracies (one scale) and birth control conspiracies (two scales). Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, employment, income, number of people income supports, number of living children, marital/cohabitation status, religiosity and black identity. Multivariate analyses indicated that stronger HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs were significantly associated with male gender, black identity and lower income. Male gender and lower education were significantly related to black genocide conspiracy beliefs, and male gender and high religiosity were significantly related to contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs. The set of sociodemographic characteristics explained a moderately small amount of the variance in conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS (R2 range=0.07-0.12) and birth control (R2 range=0.05-0.09). Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not isolated to specific segments of the African-American population. PMID:16895286

  3. Relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS and birth control.

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Although prior research shows that substantial proportions of African Americans hold conspiracy beliefs, little is known about the subgroups of African Americans most likely to endorse such beliefs. We examined the relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to their conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS and birth control. Anonymous telephone surveys were conducted with a targeted random-digit-dial sample of 500 African Americans (15-44 years) in the contiguous United States. Respondents reported agreement with statements capturing beliefs in HIV/AIDS conspiracies (one scale) and birth control conspiracies (two scales). Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, employment, income, number of people income supports, number of living children, marital/cohabitation status, religiosity and black identity. Multivariate analyses indicated that stronger HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs were significantly associated with male gender, black identity and lower income. Male gender and lower education were significantly related to black genocide conspiracy beliefs, and male gender and high religiosity were significantly related to contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs. The set of sociodemographic characteristics explained a moderately small amount of the variance in conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS (R2 range=0.07-0.12) and birth control (R2 range=0.05-0.09). Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not isolated to specific segments of the African-American population. PMID:16895286

  4. Exploring the relationship of conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS to sexual behaviors and attitudes among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Bird, Sheryl Thorburn

    2003-11-01

    Conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS have been endorsed by significant percentages of African Americans in prior research. However, almost no research has investigated the relationship of such beliefs to behaviors and attitudes relevant to HIV risk. In the present exploratory study, 71 African-American adults (aged 18-45; 61% female) in the United States participated in a national, cross-sectional telephone survey examining the relationship of HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs to sexual attitudes and behaviors. Results indicated significant associations between endorsement of a general HIV/AIDS government conspiracy and negative beliefs regarding condoms and greater numbers of sexual partners. Endorsement of HIV/AIDS treatment conspiracies was related to positive attitudes about condoms and greater condom use intentions. Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs have implications for HIV prevention in African-American communities. PMID:14651372

  5. Understanding the origins and prevalence of AIDS conspiracy beliefs in the United States and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) originated from cross-species transmission of the simian immunodeficiency virus from primates to humans. Yet a significant minority of people in the United States (US) and South Africa believe that HIV was deliberately created by scientists as a bioweapon. Scholars in the humanities emphasise the historical context, socially situated character and psycho-social dimensions of such aetiological narratives. This is important, but so is the role of individual agents participating in the cultic milieu in which oppositional ideas such as HIV conspiracy theories are borrowed across national, ideological and political divides. This article discusses the origins of the legend of 'HIV as bioweapon' and summarises the available evidence on the prevalence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) conspiracy beliefs in the US and South Africa. This is followed by a discussion of the history of biowarfare and racial oppression which renders the legend (and its local South African variants) believable for many people. The article then moves beyond socio-historical analysis to argue that analytical space needs to be created to critique the political leaders who promoted AIDS conspiracy beliefs. PMID:22533636

  6. Linking 'White Oppression' and HIV/AIDS in American Indian Etiology: Conspiracy Beliefs among AI MSMs and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Brian Joseph; Keesee, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the use of conspiracy beliefs by American Indian (AI) men who have sex with men and their peers to explain the origins of HIV/AIDS. We found that one-third (N = 15) of the individuals surveyed believed that HIV/AIDS was intentionally created by "Whites, White Christians, or the Federal…

  7. Conspiracy beliefs about the origin of HIV/AIDS in four racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Essien, E James; Torres, Isabel

    2006-03-01

    We examined beliefs about the origin of HIV as a genocidal conspiracy in men and women of four racial/ethnic groups in a street intercept sample in Houston, Texas. Groups sampled were African American, Latino, non-Hispanic white, and Asian. Highest levels of conspiracy theories were found in women, and in African American and Latino populations (over a quarter of African Americans and over a fifth of Latinos) with slightly lower rates in whites (a fifth) and Asians (less than one in ten). Reductions in condom use associated with such beliefs were however only apparent in African American men. Conspiracy beliefs were an independent predictor of reported condom use along with race/ethnicity, gender, education, and age group. Data suggest that genocidal conspiracy beliefs are relatively widespread in several racial/ethnic groups and that an understanding of the sources of these beliefs is important to determine their possible impact on HIV prevention and treatment behaviors. PMID:16540935

  8. Belief in AIDS-Related Conspiracy Theories and Mistrust in the Government: Relationship With HIV Testing Among At-Risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One in 4 persons living with HIV/AIDS is an older adult (age 50 or older); unfortunately, older adults are disproportionately diagnosed in late stages of HIV disease. Psychological barriers, including belief in AIDS-related conspiracy theories (e.g., HIV was created to eliminate certain groups) and mistrust in the government, may influence whether adults undergo HIV testing. We examined relationships between these factors and recent HIV testing among at-risk, older adults. Design and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among older adults enrolled in a large venue–based study. None had a previous diagnosis of HIV/AIDS; all were seeking care at venues with high HIV prevalence. We used multiple logistic regression to estimate the associations between self-reported belief in AIDS-related conspiracy theories, mistrust in the government, and HIV testing performed within the past 12 months. Results: Among the 226 participants, 30% reported belief in AIDS conspiracy theories, 72% reported government mistrust, and 45% reported not undergoing HIV testing within the past 12 months. Belief in conspiracy theories was positively associated with recent HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–3.60), whereas mistrust in the government was negatively associated with testing (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26–0.73). Implications: Psychological barriers are prevalent among at-risk older adults seeking services at venues with high HIV prevalences and may influence HIV testing. Identifying particular sources of misinformation and mistrust would appear useful for appropriate targeting of HIV testing strategies. PMID:23362210

  9. Relations of familiarity with reasoning strategies in conspiracy beliefs.

    PubMed

    Bost, Preston R; Prunier, Stephen G; Piper, Allen J

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence and resilience of conspiracy beliefs suggest that such beliefs may derive in part from general information-processing mechanisms. Two predictions were tested: conspiracy beliefs would increase as familiarity with the conspiracy increased, and conspiracy beliefs would rest in part on the perception of the alleged conspirators' motive. Participants read condensed versions of four real-life conspiracy theories of varying familiarity, rated their belief in the conspiracies, and explained their ratings. Although belief was not associated with familiarity, participants used different justifications for their beliefs about familiar and unfamiliar conspiracies, relying prominently on motive when the conspiracy was unfamiliar. Preliminary data suggested that participants' beliefs in conspiracies may have been equally strong when they reasoned only in terms of motive as when they reasoned in terms of documented evidence. An additional finding suggested also that beliefs in conspiracies may increase as affiliation with the victim of the alleged conspiracy increases. PMID:21117487

  10. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. PMID:25217762

  11. Belief in AIDS Origin Conspiracy Theory and Willingness to Participate in Biomedical Research Studies: Findings in Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in Seven Cities Across Two Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stefanie L.; Katz, Ralph V.; Wang, Min Qi; Lee, Ryan; Green, B. Lee; Kressin, Nancy R.; Claudio, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether a belief in the AIDS origin conspiracy theory is related to likelihood or fear of participation in research studies. Methods The Tuskegee Legacy Project Questionnaire was administered via random-digit-dialed telephone interview to black, white, and Hispanic participants in 4 cities in 1999 and 2000 (n = 1,133) and in 3 cities in 2003 (n = 1,162). Results In 1999, 27.8% of blacks, 23.6% of Hispanics, and 8% of whites (P ≤ .001) reported that it was “very or somewhat likely” that AIDS is “the result of a government plan to intentionally kill a certain group of people by genocide.” In 2003, 34.1% of blacks, 21.9% of Hispanics, and 8.4% of whites (P ≤ .001) reported the same. Conclusions Whereas blacks and Hispanics were more than 3 times more likely than whites to believe in this AIDS origin conspiracy theory, holding this belief was not associated with a decreased likelihood of participation in, or increased fear of participation in, biomedical research. PMID:21388939

  12. Longitudinal association of HIV conspiracy beliefs with sexual risk among black males living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Galvan, Frank H; Wagner, Glenn J; Klein, David J

    2011-08-01

    Research is needed to identify culturally relevant factors that may contribute to sexual risk among African Americans. We investigated HIV-specific medical mistrust as one such cultural factor, often exhibited as conspiracy beliefs about HIV (e.g., "AIDS was produced in a government laboratory"), which may be indicative of general suspicion of HIV treatment and prevention messages. Over a 6-month time-period, we measured endorsement of HIV conspiracy beliefs three times and frequency of condom use monthly among 181 HIV-positive African American males. A hierarchical multivariate repeated-measures logistic random effects model indicated that greater belief in HIV conspiracies was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting unprotected intercourse across all time-points. An average of 54% of participants who endorsed conspiracies reported unprotected intercourse, versus 39% who did not endorse conspiracies. Secondary prevention interventions may need to address medical mistrust as a contributor to sexual risk among African Americans living with HIV. PMID:20734227

  13. Beliefs in conspiracy theories and the need for cognitive closure

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Patrick J.; Cinnirella, Marco

    2013-01-01

    An important component of conspiracy theories is how they influence, and are influenced by, the evaluation of potential evidence. Some individuals may be more open minded regarding certain explanations for events whereas others may seek closure and thus cut off a conspiracy explanation. Two studies examined the relationship between the need for cognitive closure (NFCC), levels of belief in real world conspiracy theories, and the attribution of conspiracy theories to explain events. A first, small (N = 30) and preliminary study found no relationship between NFCC and beliefs in conspiracy theories, suggesting that both advocates and opponents of conspiracy explanations do not differ on this dimension. A second study (N = 86) revealed that evidence for and against conspiracy theories had an influence on attributions of the likelihood of a conspiracy to explain a novel event. Specifically, after reading evidence individuals with high levels of belief in conspiracy theories tended to rate a conspiracy explanation as more likely whereas those with low levels of belief rated it as less likely. However, when the need for cognitive closure (NFCC) was experimentally lowered the effects of prior beliefs in conspiracy theories diminished. PMID:23818885

  14. Beliefs in conspiracy theories and the need for cognitive closure.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J; Cinnirella, Marco

    2013-01-01

    An important component of conspiracy theories is how they influence, and are influenced by, the evaluation of potential evidence. Some individuals may be more open minded regarding certain explanations for events whereas others may seek closure and thus cut off a conspiracy explanation. Two studies examined the relationship between the need for cognitive closure (NFCC), levels of belief in real world conspiracy theories, and the attribution of conspiracy theories to explain events. A first, small (N = 30) and preliminary study found no relationship between NFCC and beliefs in conspiracy theories, suggesting that both advocates and opponents of conspiracy explanations do not differ on this dimension. A second study (N = 86) revealed that evidence for and against conspiracy theories had an influence on attributions of the likelihood of a conspiracy to explain a novel event. Specifically, after reading evidence individuals with high levels of belief in conspiracy theories tended to rate a conspiracy explanation as more likely whereas those with low levels of belief rated it as less likely. However, when the need for cognitive closure (NFCC) was experimentally lowered the effects of prior beliefs in conspiracy theories diminished. PMID:23818885

  15. Rationality in conspiracy beliefs: the role of perceived motive.

    PubMed

    Bost, Preston R; Prunier, Stephen G

    2013-08-01

    Previous work has raised the possibility that the perception of motive may contribute to conspiracy beliefs. The current study tested the prediction that conspiracy beliefs will strengthen as the apparent motive of the alleged conspirators strengthens. Participants (N = 57) rated the plausibility of fictional conspiracy theories, manipulated for the strength of direct evidence for the conspiracy and the type of outcome (gain vs. no gain) experienced by the alleged conspirators after the event. Ratings revealed that participants were more likely to believe conspiracy claims not only if the evidence was strong but also if the apparent motive was high, and that the effect of apparent motive was independent of the strength of the evidence. The findings suggested that information about apparent motive may help create and sustain conspiracy beliefs. PMID:24340806

  16. Measuring belief in conspiracy theories: the generic conspiracist beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C; Pickering, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation - individuals' general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB) scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world. PMID:23734136

  17. Measuring Belief in Conspiracy Theories: The Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C.; Pickering, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of conspiracy theory beliefs is not yet well understood, although research indicates that there are stable individual differences in conspiracist ideation – individuals’ general tendency to engage with conspiracy theories. Researchers have created several short self-report measures of conspiracist ideation. These measures largely consist of items referring to an assortment of prominent conspiracy theories regarding specific real-world events. However, these instruments have not been psychometrically validated, and this assessment approach suffers from practical and theoretical limitations. Therefore, we present the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs (GCB) scale: a novel measure of individual differences in generic conspiracist ideation. The scale was developed and validated across four studies. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of a novel 75-item measure of non-event-based conspiracist beliefs identified five conspiracist facets. The 15-item GCB scale was developed to sample from each of these themes. Studies 2, 3, and 4 examined the structure and validity of the GCB, demonstrating internal reliability, content, criterion-related, convergent and discriminant validity, and good test-retest reliability. In sum, this research indicates that the GCB is a psychometrically sound and practically useful measure of conspiracist ideation, and the findings add to our theoretical understanding of conspiracist ideation as a monological belief system unpinned by a relatively small number of generic assumptions about the typicality of conspiratorial activity in the world. PMID:23734136

  18. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2–4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  19. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  20. Longitudinal Association of HIV Conspiracy Beliefs with Sexual Risk Among Black Males Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Frank H.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Klein, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to identify culturally relevant factors that may contribute to sexual risk among African Americans. We investigated HIV-specific medical mistrust as one such cultural factor, often exhibited as conspiracy beliefs about HIV (e.g., “AIDS was produced in a government laboratory”), which may be indicative of general suspicion of HIV treatment and prevention messages. Over a 6-month time-period, we measured endorsement of HIV conspiracy beliefs three times and frequency of condom use monthly among 181 HIV-positive African American males. A hierarchical multivariate repeated-measures logistic random effects model indicated that greater belief in HIV conspiracies was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting unprotected intercourse across all time-points. An average of 54% of participants who endorsed conspiracies reported unprotected intercourse, versus 39% who did not endorse conspiracies. Secondary prevention interventions may need to address medical mistrust as a contributor to sexual risk among African Americans living with HIV. PMID:20734227

  1. 'They will not control us': Ingroup positivity and belief in intergroup conspiracies.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Marchlewska, Marta; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Olechowski, Mateusz

    2016-08-01

    This research examined the role of different forms of positive regard for the ingroup in predicting beliefs in intergroup conspiracies. Collective narcissism reflects a belief in ingroup greatness contingent on others' recognition. We hypothesized that collective narcissism should be especially likely to foster outgroup conspiracy beliefs. Non-narcissistic ingroup positivity, on the other hand, should predict a weaker tendency to believe in conspiracy theories. In Study 1, the endorsement of conspiratorial explanations of outgroup actions was positively predicted by collective narcissism but negatively by non-narcissistic ingroup positivity. Study 2 showed that the opposite effects of collective narcissism and non-narcissistic ingroup positivity on conspiracy beliefs were mediated via differential perceptions of threat. Study 3 manipulated whether conspiracy theories implicated ingroup or outgroup members. Collective narcissism predicted belief in outgroup conspiracies but not in ingroup conspiracies, while non-narcissistic ingroup positivity predicted lower conspiracy beliefs, regardless of them being ascribed to the ingroup or the outgroup. PMID:26511288

  2. Perceptual Biases in Relation to Paranormal and Conspiracy Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that one’s prior beliefs have a strong effect on perceptual decision-making and attentional processing. The present study extends these findings by investigating how individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are related to perceptual and attentional biases. Two field studies were conducted in which visitors of a paranormal conducted a perceptual decision making task (i.e. the face / house categorization task; Experiment 1) or a visual attention task (i.e. the global / local processing task; Experiment 2). In the first experiment it was found that skeptics compared to believers more often incorrectly categorized ambiguous face stimuli as representing a house, indicating that disbelief rather than belief in the paranormal is driving the bias observed for the categorization of ambiguous stimuli. In the second experiment, it was found that skeptics showed a classical ‘global-to-local’ interference effect, whereas believers in conspiracy theories were characterized by a stronger ‘local-to-global interference effect’. The present study shows that individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are associated with perceptual and attentional biases, thereby extending the growing body of work in this field indicating effects of cultural learning on basic perceptual processes. PMID:26114604

  3. Perceptual Biases in Relation to Paranormal and Conspiracy Beliefs.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that one's prior beliefs have a strong effect on perceptual decision-making and attentional processing. The present study extends these findings by investigating how individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are related to perceptual and attentional biases. Two field studies were conducted in which visitors of a paranormal conducted a perceptual decision making task (i.e. the face/house categorization task; Experiment 1) or a visual attention task (i.e. the global/local processing task; Experiment 2). In the first experiment it was found that skeptics compared to believers more often incorrectly categorized ambiguous face stimuli as representing a house, indicating that disbelief rather than belief in the paranormal is driving the bias observed for the categorization of ambiguous stimuli. In the second experiment, it was found that skeptics showed a classical 'global-to-local' interference effect, whereas believers in conspiracy theories were characterized by a stronger 'local-to-global interference effect'. The present study shows that individual differences in paranormal and conspiracy beliefs are associated with perceptual and attentional biases, thereby extending the growing body of work in this field indicating effects of cultural learning on basic perceptual processes. PMID:26114604

  4. HIV-related conspiracy beliefs and its relationships with HIV testing and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tun, Waimar; Kellerman, Scott; Maimane, Senkhu; Fipaza, Zukiswa; Sheehy, Meredith; Vu, Lung; Nel, Dawie

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine extent of HIV conspiracy belief endorsement among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Pretoria, and assess whether endorsement of HIV conspiracy beliefs are associated with inconsistent condom use and never testing for HIV. A cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling was conducted between February and August 2009. A high proportion of respondents endorsed HIV conspiracy beliefs. MSM commonly endorsed beliefs related to AIDS information being held back from the general public (51.0%), HIV being a man-made virus (25.5%), and people being used as guinea pigs in HIV research and with HIV treatments (approximately 20%). Bisexually- or heterosexually-identified MSM were significantly more likely to endorse conspiracy beliefs compared to homosexually-identified MSM (38.5% vs. 14.7%). Endorsing conspiracy beliefs was not associated with unprotected anal intercourse; however, it was significantly associated with not having been HIV tested (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1-5.7). Endorsing beliefs in HIV conspiracies reflects a mistrust in government institutions and systems which could be an impediment to seeking HIV-related services, including HIV counseling and testing. PMID:22084826

  5. Associations between belief in conspiracy theories and the maladaptive personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-02-28

    Conspiracy theories can be treated as both rational narratives of the world as well as outcomes of underlying maladaptive traits. Here, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and individual differences in personality disorders. An Internet-based sample (N=259) completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories and the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Preliminary analyses showed no significant differences in belief in conspiracy theories across participant sex, ethnicity, and education. Regression analyses showed that the PID-5 facets of Unusual Beliefs and Experiences and, to a lesser extent, Suspiciousness, significantly predicted belief in conspiracy theories. These findings highlight a role for maladaptive personality traits in understanding belief in conspiracy theories, but require further investigation. PMID:26776299

  6. HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk: conspiracies, questions and confusion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Newman, Peter A; Duan, Naihua; Rudy, Ellen T

    2005-12-01

    HIV vaccines offer the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. We explored HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk for HIV/AIDS. Participants (N=99; median age=33 years; 48% female; 22% African-American; 44% Latino; 28% white; 6% other) were recruited from seven high-risk venues in Los Angeles, California, using purposive, venue-based sampling. Results from nine focus groups revealed: 1) mixed beliefs and conspiracy theories about the existence of HIV vaccines; 2) hopefulness and doubts about future HIV vaccine availability; 3) lack of information about HIV vaccines; and 4) confusion about vaccines and how they work. Tailored HIV vaccine education that addresses the current status of HIV vaccine development and key vaccine concepts is warranted among communities at risk. Ongoing dialogue among researchers, public health practitioners and communities at risk may provide a vital opportunity to dispel misinformation and rumors and to cultivate trust, which may facilitate HIV vaccine trial participation and uptake of future HIV vaccines. PMID:16396058

  7. HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk: conspiracies, questions and confusion.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Newman, Peter A.; Duan, Naihua; Rudy, Ellen T.

    2005-01-01

    HIV vaccines offer the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. We explored HIV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among communities at elevated risk for HIV/AIDS. Participants (N=99; median age=33 years; 48% female; 22% African-American; 44% Latino; 28% white; 6% other) were recruited from seven high-risk venues in Los Angeles, California, using purposive, venue-based sampling. Results from nine focus groups revealed: 1) mixed beliefs and conspiracy theories about the existence of HIV vaccines; 2) hopefulness and doubts about future HIV vaccine availability; 3) lack of information about HIV vaccines; and 4) confusion about vaccines and how they work. Tailored HIV vaccine education that addresses the current status of HIV vaccine development and key vaccine concepts is warranted among communities at risk. Ongoing dialogue among researchers, public health practitioners and communities at risk may provide a vital opportunity to dispel misinformation and rumors and to cultivate trust, which may facilitate HIV vaccine trial participation and uptake of future HIV vaccines. PMID:16396058

  8. Conspiracies, contagion, and compassion: trust and public reactions to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Herek, G M; Capitanio, J P

    1994-08-01

    AIDS educational programs can be effective only to the extent that they are perceived as credible by their target audiences. In this study, public trust associated with AIDS was assessed in a national telephone survey. African-Americans were more likely than whites to express distrust of doctors and scientists concerning HIV transmission through casual contact, to believe that AIDS is being used as a form of genocide against minority groups, and to believe that information about AIDS is being withheld from the public. Individuals high in distrust did not differ from those low in distrust in their exposure to AIDS information. Higher levels of AIDS-related distrust were not related to self-reported personal risk reduction, but were related to inaccurate beliefs about HIV transmission through casual contact and greater willingness to avoid and stigmatize people with AIDS. The importance of overcoming distrust in AIDS education programs is discussed. PMID:7986656

  9. The effect of conspiracy beliefs and trust on HIV diagnosis, linkage, and retention in young MSM with HIV.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Jason; Davila, Jessica; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Parkinson-Windross, Diana; Miertschin, Nancy; Mitts, Beau; Henley, Charles; Giordano, Thomas P

    2013-02-01

    Conspiracy beliefs about HIV may result in delayed diagnosis, medication non-adherence, and low retention in care. The impact of such beliefs is not well described for minority youth. We assessed conspiracy beliefs, trust in physicians, and trust in the health care system in 47 HIV-infected, minority, adolescent men who have sex with men (MSM). We identified correlations of these factors with two intermediate outcomes (general self-efficacy and medication attitudes) and with three clinical outcomes (CD4 cell count at diagnosis, linkage to care, and retention in care). Greater conspiracy beliefs were associated with negative medication attitudes (r=-0.37, p=.01), while trust in physicians was correlated with positive medication attitudes (r=0.42, p=.003). Neither conspiracy beliefs nor trust was correlated with self-efficacy, nor were they correlated with any of the three clinical outcomes. Conspiracy beliefs and lack of trust did not predict delayed diagnosis or poor linkage and retention in this population of young, minority MSM. PMID:23377715

  10. Nothing Happens by Accident, or Does It? A Low Prior for Randomness Does Not Explain Belief in Conspiracy Theories.

    PubMed

    Dieguez, Sebastian; Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gauvrit, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has often been associated with a biased perception of randomness, akin to a nothing-happens-by-accident heuristic. Indeed, a low prior for randomness (i.e., believing that randomness is a priori unlikely) could plausibly explain the tendency to believe that a planned deception lies behind many events, as well as the tendency to perceive meaningful information in scattered and irrelevant details; both of these tendencies are traits diagnostic of conspiracist ideation. In three studies, we investigated this hypothesis and failed to find the predicted association between low prior for randomness and conspiracist ideation, even when randomness was explicitly opposed to malevolent human intervention. Conspiracy believers' and nonbelievers' perceptions of randomness were not only indistinguishable from each other but also accurate compared with the normative view arising from the algorithmic information framework. Thus, the motto "nothing happens by accident," taken at face value, does not explain belief in conspiracy theories. PMID:26392260

  11. Silence, blame and AIDS conspiracy theories among the Xhosa people in two townships in Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Sivelä, Jonas Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Conspiratorial expressions about the origins of HIV/AIDS have been recognised as an outcome of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa. This article examines the reasons behind AIDS conspiracy theories, which include a reoccurring repertory of themes, motifs and characters. In these expressions, the malevolent antagonist is the replaced apartheid regime, along with other more archetypal adversaries. So far, AIDS conspiracy theories have been interpreted in terms of currently perceived injustices and frustrations related to the complex past of South Africa. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Xhosa people in two townships in Cape Town, this article goes further to examine how AIDS conspiracy theories in South Africa can be ascribed to gender-based communication. Sporadic but pronounced expressions of conspiratorial thinking should be understood as connected to local traditions of avoidance and respect. Moreover, the fact that conspiratorial expressions are more common among men can be seen in terms of a counter-narrative mechanism, which is to some extent due to the blame that is cast on men for being the main culprits behind the spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:25920982

  12. Conspiracist ideation in Britain and Austria: evidence of a monological belief system and associations between individual psychological differences and real-world and fictitious conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. PMID:21751999

  13. Girl in the cellar: a repeated cross-sectional investigation of belief in conspiracy theories about the kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Gumhalter, Nora; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized a repeated cross-sectional survey design to examine belief in conspiracy theories about the abduction of Natascha Kampusch. At two time points (October 2009 and October 2011), participants drawn from independent cross-sections of the Austrian population (Time Point 1, N = 281; Time Point 2, N = 277) completed a novel measure of belief in conspiracy theories concerning the abduction of Kampusch, as well as measures of general conspiracist ideation, self-esteem, paranormal and superstitious beliefs, cognitive ability, and media exposure to the Kampusch case. Results indicated that although belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory declined between testing periods, the effect size of the difference was small. In addition, belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory was significantly predicted by general conspiracist ideation at both time points. The need to conduct further longitudinal tests of conspiracist ideation is emphasized in conclusion. PMID:23745118

  14. Girl in the cellar: a repeated cross-sectional investigation of belief in conspiracy theories about the kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Stefan; Gumhalter, Nora; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized a repeated cross-sectional survey design to examine belief in conspiracy theories about the abduction of Natascha Kampusch. At two time points (October 2009 and October 2011), participants drawn from independent cross-sections of the Austrian population (Time Point 1, N = 281; Time Point 2, N = 277) completed a novel measure of belief in conspiracy theories concerning the abduction of Kampusch, as well as measures of general conspiracist ideation, self-esteem, paranormal and superstitious beliefs, cognitive ability, and media exposure to the Kampusch case. Results indicated that although belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory declined between testing periods, the effect size of the difference was small. In addition, belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory was significantly predicted by general conspiracist ideation at both time points. The need to conduct further longitudinal tests of conspiracist ideation is emphasized in conclusion. PMID:23745118

  15. Rumors and Realities: Making Sense of HIV/AIDS Conspiracy Narratives and Contemporary Legends.

    PubMed

    Heller, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The social context of the early HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States provided fertile ground for rumors about transmission. Today, however, rumors about HIV/AIDS persist only within the African American public. Focus group and public discourse data reveal the content and distribution of HIV/AIDS origin and conspiracy rumors. Rumor and contemporary legend theory allows reinterpretation of rumors as a measure of trust between the African American public and health professionals, not as evidence of ignorance or of historical racial oppression. To improve public health results in the African American community, HIV/AIDS efforts must acknowledge the sources and meanings of rumors, include rumors as a measure of trust, and address the underlying distrust that the rumors signify. PMID:25393166

  16. Myths or theories? Alternative beliefs about HIV and AIDS in South African working class communities.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David

    2013-09-01

    Despite three decades of public health promotion based on the scientific explanation of HIV/AIDS, alternative explanations of the disease continue to circulate. While these are seen as counter-productive to health education efforts, what is rarely analysed is their plurality and their tenacity. This article analyses the 'AIDS myths' collected by African HIV/AIDS workplace peer educators during an action research project. These beliefs about HIV/AIDS are organised, in this article, around core ideas that form the basis of 'folk' and 'lay theories' of HIV/AIDS. These constitute non-scientific explanations of HIV/AIDS, with folk theories drawing on bodies of knowledge that are independent of HIV/AIDS while lay theories are generated in response to the disease. A categorisation of alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS is presented which comprises three folk theories - African traditional beliefs, Christian theology, and racial conspiracy - and three lay theories, all focused on avoiding HIV infection. Using this schema, the article describes how the plausibility of these alternative theories of HIV/AIDS lies not in their scientific validity, but in the robustness of the core idea at the heart of each folk or lay theory. Folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS are also often highly palatable in that they provide hope and comfort in terms of prevention, cure, and the allocation of blame. This study argue that there is coherence and value to these alternative HIV/AIDS beliefs which should not be dismissed as ignorance, idle speculation or simple misunderstandings. A serious engagement with folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS helps explain the continued circulation of alternative beliefs of HIV/AIDS and the slow uptake of behavioural change messages around the disease. PMID:25860318

  17. Singaporean beliefs about HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G D

    1996-12-01

    As part of an in-home survey, 429 Singaporeans responded to questions concerning beliefs about AIDS as a disease and the ways in which one can contract HIV. The results indicated that, although many held realistic beliefs, identifiable biases and misconceptions were present. Virtually all respondents were aware that HIV is contracted through sexual contact as well as the sharing of needles during IV drug use. However, many respondents believed that it is either somewhat or very likely for HIV to be transmitted through casual contact, by giving blood, or from mosquitoes and other insects. Also, many expressed the belief that persons with AIDS are identifiable through visible symptoms or membership in high risk groups and a significant percentage indicated a lack of concern about the disease. Implications for understanding AIDS beliefs and for health education are discussed. PMID:9104063

  18. Dr. Wouter Basson, Americans, and wild beasts: men's conspiracy theories of HIV/AIDS in the South African Lowveld.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Isak; Jonsson, Gunvor

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates HIV/AIDS as a cosmological problem among Northern Sotho and Tsonga-speakers in the South African lowveld. Based on in-depth interviews with 70 informants (35 men and 35 women) I show how the attribution of blame for HIV/AIDS articulates gendered concerns. I suggest that women blamed men and envious nurses for spreading the virus and that these discourses expressed women's ideological association with the domestic domain. By contrast, men invoked conspiracy theories, blaming translocal agents--such as Dr. Wouter Basson, Americans, soldiers, and governments--for the pandemic. I suggest that these theories are informed by men's humiliating experiences of job losses and deindustrialization in the global labour market. My discussion highlights the need for HIV/AIDS interventions in order to address not only women's oppression but also men's gendered concerns. PMID:16019570

  19. Conspiracy theory and cognitive style: a worldview

    PubMed Central

    Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Denovan, Andrew; Parton, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assessed whether belief in conspiracy theories was associated with a particularly cognitive style (worldview). The sample comprised 223 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling and included undergraduates, postgraduates, university employees, and alumni. Respondents completed measures assessing a range of cognitive-perceptual factors (schizotypy, delusional ideation, and hallucination proneness) and conspiratorial beliefs (general attitudes toward conspiracist thinking and endorsement of individual conspiracies). Positive symptoms of schizotypy, particularly the cognitive-perceptual factor, correlated positively with conspiracist beliefs. The best predictor of belief in conspiracies was delusional ideation. Consistent with the notion of a coherent conspiratorial mindset, scores across conspiracy measures correlated strongly. Whilst findings supported the view that belief in conspiracies, within the sub-clinical population, was associated with a delusional thinking style, cognitive-perceptual factors in combination accounted for only 32% of the variance. PMID:25762969

  20. Conspiracy theory and cognitive style: a worldview.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Denovan, Andrew; Parton, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assessed whether belief in conspiracy theories was associated with a particularly cognitive style (worldview). The sample comprised 223 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling and included undergraduates, postgraduates, university employees, and alumni. Respondents completed measures assessing a range of cognitive-perceptual factors (schizotypy, delusional ideation, and hallucination proneness) and conspiratorial beliefs (general attitudes toward conspiracist thinking and endorsement of individual conspiracies). Positive symptoms of schizotypy, particularly the cognitive-perceptual factor, correlated positively with conspiracist beliefs. The best predictor of belief in conspiracies was delusional ideation. Consistent with the notion of a coherent conspiratorial mindset, scores across conspiracy measures correlated strongly. Whilst findings supported the view that belief in conspiracies, within the sub-clinical population, was associated with a delusional thinking style, cognitive-perceptual factors in combination accounted for only 32% of the variance. PMID:25762969

  1. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  2. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  3. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  4. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  5. What Conspiracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    College professors often speak of power relations within the university setting in adversarial terms, as a matter of "us", meaning the faculty, versus "them", which usually means all administrators. However, depicting campus administrators as participants in some organized conspiracy against faculty members is unproductive and obscures the fact…

  6. Sexual Risk Behaviors, AIDS Knowledge, and Beliefs about AIDS among Runaways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Koopman, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Examined young runaways' current risk behaviors, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about preventing AIDS by questioning 130 male and female subjects from shelters in New York City in 1988-89. Results did not explain the 6.7 percent seroprevalence rate reported in l988. Recommends closer inquiries regarding IV drug use and prostitution. (DM)

  7. AIDS and traditional health beliefs and practices of black women.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Rush, C E

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether traditional health beliefs and practices of black Americans reported in the literature were consistent with those of a target population of low-income black women in Los Angeles County and describes how these traditional classifications of illness and healing practices were related to their understanding of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A qualitative approach was used to gather the data in unstructured interviews. Content analysis was used to classify data. Sources of illness and remedies identified by the women were divided into two categories: natural and supernatural. Natural sources included cold, impurities, diet, weakness, lack of moderation, and stress. Supernatural sources included illnesses allowed by God, witchcraft, and evil influences. Remedies included antidotes, food, medicines, prayer, and healing. Analysis of the relationship of AIDS to traditional beliefs revealed that AIDS had been integrated into the traditional conceptualization of illness, health practices, and healing, and was attributed to both natural and supernatural causes. Prevention, prayer, and spiritual healing were recommended as remedies. Implications were that AIDS education, prevention, and treatment programs be within the context of traditional belief system. PMID:2748354

  8. Religious beliefs and HIV / AIDS / STD health promotion.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S

    1996-01-01

    Most people are raised in an environment that espouses a religion. Religions use different codes to structure people's lives. These codes contribute to the enforcement of societal discipline. Some religious laws bestow privileges to men (e.g., polygamy), which may make women more vulnerable to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). These laws do not reflect the great changes in lifestyles. Communities still condemn people with HIV/AIDS as deserving the infection because they are immoral. Some community members, proclaiming religion as their justification, control the content of health education by limiting health education to sexual abstinence and fidelity. Should not religions also support the promotion of condom use? Everyone needs to learn about HIV/AIDS and to have access to preventive methods. Educators and counselors must avoid moralizing, but should instead offer people different options to protect themselves and others. Health educators should emphasize those religious codes and edicts with positive values relevant to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. No religious law calls for ostracizing individuals. Religious laws prohibit stigmatization, discrimination, prejudice, and ill-treatment. Religions tend to call for tolerance. They are founded on a universal belief of duty to support all suffering persons and to help them receive the best possible care and treatment. Thus, religion can help make HIV infection an acceptable social condition. On the grounds of edict or morality, religion cannot be a non-participant. In many cases, religion has restored respect, dignity, and understanding for persons with HIV/AIDS. Many religious groups provide care for such persons. PMID:12291633

  9. Contesting epistemic authority: Conspiracy theories on the boundaries of science.

    PubMed

    Harambam, Jaron; Aupers, Stef

    2015-05-01

    Conspiracy theories are immensely popular today, yet in the social sciences they are often dismissed as "irrational," "bad science," or "religious belief." In this study, we take a cultural sociological approach and argue that this persistent disqualification is a form of "boundary work" that obscures rather than clarifies how and why conspiracy theorists challenge the epistemic authority of science. Based on a qualitative study of the Dutch conspiracy milieu, we distinguish three critiques that are motivated by encounters with scientific experts in everyday life: the alleged dogmatism of modern science, the intimate relation of scientific knowledge production with vested interests, and the exclusion of lay knowledge by scientific experts forming a global "power elite." Given their critique that resonates with social scientific understandings of science, it is concluded that conspiracy theorists compete with (social) scientists in complex battles for epistemic authority in a broader field of knowledge contestation. PMID:25452381

  10. The Effects of Anti-Vaccine Conspiracy Theories on Vaccination Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors. PMID:24586574

  11. The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors. PMID:24586574

  12. Black communities' belief in "AIDS as genocide". A barrier to overcome for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Guinan, M E

    1993-03-01

    The belief that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a form of genocide targeted at the black population is prevalent in black communities in the United States. Public health authorities are distrusted, in part because of the legacy of the Tuskegee Study of untreated syphilis, a perceived racist experiment. For effective interventions to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in black communities, genocidal fears and beliefs must be addressed and black community leaders should be involved in planning and implementation. PMID:8269075

  13. Does it take one to know one? Endorsement of conspiracy theories is influenced by personal willingness to conspire.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M

    2011-09-01

    We advance a new account of why people endorse conspiracy theories, arguing that individuals use the social-cognitive tool of projection when making social judgements about others. In two studies, we found that individuals were more likely to endorse conspiracy theories if they thought they would be willing, personally, to participate in the alleged conspiracies. Study 1 established an association between conspiracy beliefs and personal willingness to conspire, which fully mediated a relationship between Machiavellianism and conspiracy beliefs. In Study 2, participants primed with their own morality were less inclined than controls to endorse conspiracy theories - a finding fully mediated by personal willingness to conspire. These results suggest that some people think 'they conspired' because they think 'I would conspire'. PMID:21486312

  14. Polish Adolescents and Their Beliefs and Attitudes to HIV/AIDS and Sexual Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganczak, Maria; Boron-Kaczmarska, Anna; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Szych, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to survey the needs for HIV/AIDS educational interventions and attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV infection, including sexual relationships, among 17-year-old Polish adolescents. A total of 761 students who attended schools located in urban and rural areas was surveyed. The study, based on the voluntary, self-completed,…

  15. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Beliefs among Haitian Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelin, Louis Herns; McCoy, H. Virginia; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low- and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with…

  16. “What about building 7?” A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Michael J.; Douglas, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the “conspiracy theory” label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577

  17. "What about building 7?" A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael J; Douglas, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the "conspiracy theory" label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577

  18. Conspiracy, Schools and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratte, Richard

    1977-01-01

    It is argued by some critics of the education system that a conspiracy exists to maintain the status quo rather than to educate; this claim suggests a deliberate policy of suppression without examining the more complex reasons for flaws in the system. (JD)

  19. Science vs Conspiracy: Collective Narratives in the Age of Misinformation

    PubMed Central

    Bessi, Alessandro; Coletto, Mauro; Davidescu, George Alexandru; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The large availability of user provided contents on online social media facilitates people aggregation around shared beliefs, interests, worldviews and narratives. In spite of the enthusiastic rhetoric about the so called collective intelligence unsubstantiated rumors and conspiracy theories—e.g., chemtrails, reptilians or the Illuminati—are pervasive in online social networks (OSN). In this work we study, on a sample of 1.2 million of individuals, how information related to very distinct narratives—i.e. main stream scientific and conspiracy news—are consumed and shape communities on Facebook. Our results show that polarized communities emerge around distinct types of contents and usual consumers of conspiracy news result to be more focused and self-contained on their specific contents. To test potential biases induced by the continued exposure to unsubstantiated rumors on users’ content selection, we conclude our analysis measuring how users respond to 4,709 troll information—i.e. parodistic and sarcastic imitation of conspiracy theories. We find that 77.92% of likes and 80.86% of comments are from users usually interacting with conspiracy stories. PMID:25706981

  20. Science vs conspiracy: collective narratives in the age of misinformation.

    PubMed

    Bessi, Alessandro; Coletto, Mauro; Davidescu, George Alexandru; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Quattrociocchi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The large availability of user provided contents on online social media facilitates people aggregation around shared beliefs, interests, worldviews and narratives. In spite of the enthusiastic rhetoric about the so called collective intelligence unsubstantiated rumors and conspiracy theories-e.g., chemtrails, reptilians or the Illuminati-are pervasive in online social networks (OSN). In this work we study, on a sample of 1.2 million of individuals, how information related to very distinct narratives-i.e. main stream scientific and conspiracy news-are consumed and shape communities on Facebook. Our results show that polarized communities emerge around distinct types of contents and usual consumers of conspiracy news result to be more focused and self-contained on their specific contents. To test potential biases induced by the continued exposure to unsubstantiated rumors on users' content selection, we conclude our analysis measuring how users respond to 4,709 troll information-i.e. parodistic and sarcastic imitation of conspiracy theories. We find that 77.92% of likes and 80.86% of comments are from users usually interacting with conspiracy stories. PMID:25706981

  1. Beliefs and attitudes towards AIDS policies and educational programs among Japanese businesses.

    PubMed

    Muto, T; Fukuwatari, Y; Onoda, K

    1996-10-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the beliefs and attitudes of Japanese businesses towards AIDS. Questionnaires were mailed to 1,655 Japanese companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange in June 1993, and the response rate was 38% (n = 620). About 60% of the responding companies had already implemented or were developing AIDS measures. Only 7% of the companies had an AIDS policy, and 5% of the companies were developing one. Eighty-five per cent of the companies perceived AIDS education as necessary, while 53% of the companies replied that HIV testing was unnecessary. As reasons for providing AIDS education, avoiding discrimination and anxiety in the workplace were frequently cited. Ninety-five per cent of the companies wanted guidelines or manuals for AIDS to be developed by the Ministry of Labour, or to have training courses for personnel in charge of education or counselling provided by the Ministry. Although AIDS measures are currently unsatisfactory in Japanese businesses, they are expected to develop effective measures, considering their high recognition of the need for AIDS education. PMID:8918150

  2. Is there a legacy of the U.S. Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee in HIV/AIDS-related beliefs among heterosexual African-Americans and Latinos?

    PubMed

    Mays, Vickie M; Coles, Courtney N; Cochran, Susan D

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the US Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee is sometime cited as a principal reason for the relatively low participation rates seen among racial/ethnic minorities, particularly African Americans, in biomedical research. However, only a few studies have actually explored this possibility. We use data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 510 African-Americans and 253 Latinos, age 18 to 45 years, to investigate associations between knowledge of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee and endorsement of HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories. All respondents were drawn from an area of low-income, predominantly race-segregated inner city households in Los Angeles. Results indicate that African Americans were significantly more likely than Latinos to endorse HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories. Further, African Americans were more aware of the USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee (SST). Nevertheless, 72% of African Americans and 94% of Latinos reported that they have never heard of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. Further, while awareness of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee was a significant predictor of endorsing HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories, results suggest that other factors may be more important in accounting for low biomedical and behavioral study participation rates. PMID:23308036

  3. HIV/AIDS-associated beliefs and practices relating to diet and work in southeastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Komwa, Maction K.; Parker, Dawn C.

    2010-01-01

    To explore beliefs relating to diet, work, and HIV/AIDS among the Busoga of rural southeastern Uganda, a cross-sectional survey of 322 adults was conducted in 2007 in Mayuge district, Uganda. Of these adults, 56 were HIV-infected, 120 had a family member with HIV/AIDS, and 146 were in households without HIV-infected members. More than 74.2% of the adults knew someone with HIV/AIDS, and more than 90% correctly identified transmission modes and prevention methods of HIV. In total, 93.2% believed that a person with HIV should work fewer hours to conserve energy but all the three participant groups reported the same working hours. Also, 91.6% believed that a person with HIV infection should eat special nutritious foods, and the participants with HIV infection reported eating more fruits (p=0.020) and vegetables (p=0.012) than other participants. The participants expressed a consistent set of health beliefs about practices relating to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20214089

  4. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Beliefs Among Haitian Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Louis Herns; McCoy, H. Virginia; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low-and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with their families and networks of friends, which added rich descriptions to the quantitative data. Overall knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high with the majority of adolescents identifying unprotected sex and sharing injection drug needles as HIV transmission routes. Moreover, approximately 75% of the adolescents reported condom use as an effective preventive strategy. However, misconceptions that could reduce adolescents' adoption of HIV preventive strategies were also identified. The adolescents' sources for information about HIV/AIDS as well as implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:17502921

  5. Conspiracy in bacterial genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappat, L.; Sciarrino, A.

    2006-09-01

    The rank ordered distribution of the codon usage frequencies for 109 eubacteria and 14 archaea is best fitted by a three-parameter function which is the sum of a constant, an exponential and a linear term in the rank n. The parameters depend (two parabolically) from the total GC content. The rank ordered distribution of the amino acids is fitted by a straight line. The Shannon entropy computed over all the codons is well fitted by a parabola in the GC content, while the partial entropies computed over subsets of the codons show peculiar different behavior. Moreover, the sum of the codon usage frequencies over particular sets, e.g. with C and A (respectively G and U) as ith nucleotide, show a clear linear dependence from the GC content, exhibiting a conspiracy effect.

  6. The Conspiracy Of Silence

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Saul

    1980-01-01

    The issue of the impaired physician is compounded by not only mass denial of the problem, but also a 'conspiracy of silence' among many groups associated with the physician. The conspirators—including the physician himself, his family, community, professional colleagues and nurses as well as hospital boards and administration—are unable to reconcile deteriorating performance due to alcohol or drugs with an otherwise gifted professional who should know the dangers of substance abuse. They may also fear the effects of labels such as 'alcoholism', 'drug abuse' and 'psychiatric illness', and they may not know how to handle the problem. A Saskatchewan Medical Association committee was formed in 1976 to penetrate the shroud of silence by identifying and rehabilitating impaired physicians. However, the committee's experience since that time has been largely frustrating because its function has been viewed as more punitive than therapeutic. Imagesp849-a PMID:21293652

  7. Food Safety Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Persons with AIDS: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections including recurrent Salmonella septicemia and toxoplasmosis of the brain with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with immunologic AIDS in Chicago, New Orleans, and Bayamon were interviewed to determine gaps in food safety knowledge and prevalence of related behaviors in order to create targeted educational material for this population. A food safety score was calculated based on responses to 40 knowledge, belief, and behavior questions. Among 268 AIDS patients interviewed, the overall food safety score was 63% (range 28% to 93%). Many patients believed it was okay to eat higher risk food (38% for eating eggs served loose or runny, 27% for eating store-bought hot dogs without heating them first), 40% did not know that eating unpasteurized cheese may get germs inside their body that could cause hospitalization and possibly death, and 40% would not throw away salad that had been splashed with a few drops of raw chicken juice. These data demonstrate substantial knowledge gaps and behavioral risk related to acquisition of foodborne disease among AIDS patients. Healthcare providers should incorporate education regarding foodborne disease risk into routine outpatient discussion of improving and maintaining their health. PMID:25061438

  8. Influence of Web-Aided Cooperative Learning Environment on Motivation and on Self-Efficacy Belief in Biology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevedanli, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the web-aided cooperative learning environment on biology preservice teachers' motivation and on their self-efficacy beliefs in biology teaching. The study was carried out with 30 biology preservice teachers attending a state university in Turkey. In the study, the pretest-posttest…

  9. Survey of Parents of Middle/High School Students. Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding HIV/AIDS Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutt, Dan

    This study, commissioned by the Lucas County (Ohio) Health Department, was designed to assess parental beliefs and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS prevention for youth, particularly in middle and high schools. In November 1996, 400 telephone interviews were completed with parents of middle/high school students in Lucas County. Names were randomly…

  10. NCLB: Conspiracy, Compliance, or Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, Hayes

    This speech addresses the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and educators' and policymakers' reactions to it. The talk focuses on three ways people are responding to the Act. Some, according to the speaker, consider the law to be malevolent and a conspiracy by the Bush Administration to start handing education over to private corporations. This camp…

  11. 76 FR 63702 - In the Matter of the Designation of Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei, aka Conspiracy of the Nuclei of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Matter of the Designation of Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei, aka Conspiracy of the Nuclei of Fire, aka Conspiracy of Cells of Fire, aka Synomosia of Pyrinon Tis Fotias, aka Thessaloniki-Athens Fire Nuclei... January 23, 2003, I hereby determine that the organization known as Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei, also...

  12. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect comprehension and beliefs of young South African women.

    PubMed

    Lubinga, E; Maes, A A; Jansen, C J M

    2016-12-01

    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC) was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow. PMID:27310424

  13. A Comparison between a 1986 and 1989 Cohort of Inner-City Adolescent Females on Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk Factors for AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Maxine L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared responses of inner-city adolescent girls to measures of knowledge, beliefs and risk factors for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) obtained in 1986 (n=205) and in 1989 (n=510). Between 1986 and 1989, number of sexual partners increased whereas concern about AIDS decreased. Those adolescents with most sexual partners also had most…

  14. Beliefs and Attitudes of Medical Students from Public and Private Universities in Malaysia towards Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Koh Kwee; Rene, Teh Jae; Khan, Saad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA), in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree) was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student's t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant with 95% confidence interval. Our study revealed less than 20% of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory. PMID:24285935

  15. Beliefs and attitudes of medical students from public and private universities in Malaysia towards individuals with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Choy, Koh Kwee; Rene, Teh Jae; Khan, Saad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA), in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree) was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student's t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant with 95% confidence interval. Our study revealed less than 20% of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory. PMID:24285935

  16. Knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS among students of health institutes in Sana'a city.

    PubMed

    Al-Rabeei, N A; Dallak, A M; Al-Awadi, F G

    2012-03-01

    Students of health-related subjects have an important role in national strategies on HIV/AIDS prevention. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS among students at health institutes in Sana'a city, Yemen. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 600 students selected by cluster sampling. Students had a moderate level of HIV/AIDS knowledge (an average of 67.6% were correct on all items). Nevertheless, 82.3% knew that HIV could be transmitted by sexual intercourse without a condom, 87.5% from syringes, 71.8% from infected blood and 80.7% from mother to child. Misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted (e.g. hugging and kissing or sharing food, swimming pools and classrooms) were found among 41.5% of the students. Attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS showed that 59.8% of students were accepting and positive. There was a common opinion among respondents that HIV-infected persons needed to be punished (65.5%) and isolated (41.0%); however, 86.8% were willing to care for an HIV-infected person. PMID:22574474

  17. An AIDS Prevention Campaign: Effects on Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on the effect of AIDS education on college students. Lists reasons for underestimating personal risk: illusions of invulnerability, the long incubation period of AIDS, drugs and sexual experimentation, underestimating partners' risky sexual behaviors, and acquaintance rape. Concludes that increasing knowledge will not necessarily promote…

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the business community relative to HIV-AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G

    1991-01-01

    One of the goals of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) policy on the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is to support business organizations in implementing HIV and AIDS information, education, and prevention activities. However, the response of the American business community to HIV infection and AIDS has been varied. Although company executives consider AIDS to be one of the leading problems in the country, surveys typically indicate that less than one-third of businesses have or are developing some type of AIDS policy. The workplace appears to be a valid site for AIDS information and education programs, given the weight employees attach to information received there. However, workplace education and information programs are undertaken primarily by large companies. Many small companies do not devote much time and effort to these activities, even though extensive, indepth educational programs are likely to have positive impacts on worker attitudes and behavior, whereas short programs or literature distribution may only increase workers' fears. The question of what is an effective workplace program still needs additional research. Very little is known about the magnitude of the costs of HIV infection and AIDS to business. These costs, which are affected by the changing roles of employer-based health insurance, cost shifting, and public programs, will influence how employers react to the epidemic and how they respond to CDC's prevention initiatives. PMID:1956975

  19. Conspiracy Rhetoric: From Pragmatism to Fantasy in Public Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, G. Thomas; Poulakos, John

    1981-01-01

    Notes that conspiracy charges have come to characterize mainstream political drama. Analyzes dimensions of the Watergate scandal so that the manner in which conspiracy rhetoric unfolds in political drama may be better understood. (PD)

  20. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  1. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  2. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  3. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  4. 31 CFR 561.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 561.205 Section 561.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 561.205 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  5. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  6. 31 CFR 545.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 545... Prohibitions § 545.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  7. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  8. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 576.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed...

  9. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  10. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  11. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  12. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  13. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  14. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  15. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  16. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  17. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  18. 31 CFR 587.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 587... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 587.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a... date, any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  19. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  20. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  1. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  2. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  3. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  4. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  5. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  6. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  7. 31 CFR 560.203 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 560.203 Section 560.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.203 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  8. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  9. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  10. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  11. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  12. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  13. 31 CFR 575.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 575... § 575.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  14. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  15. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  16. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  17. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  18. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  19. 31 CFR 586.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 586... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 586.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  20. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 542.205 Section 542.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  1. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  2. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  3. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  4. 31 CFR 585.214 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 585... Prohibitions § 585.214 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  5. 31 CFR 560.203 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 560.203 Section 560.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.203 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  6. 31 CFR 595.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 595... § 595.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or which has the effect... this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a...

  7. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  8. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  9. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  10. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 576.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed...

  11. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  12. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  13. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  14. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Prohibitions § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S... forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set...

  15. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  16. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  17. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  18. 31 CFR 588.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  19. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  20. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  1. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  2. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  3. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  4. 31 CFR 547.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 547... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 547.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  5. 31 CFR 544.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 544... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 544.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  6. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  7. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy...

  8. 31 CFR 561.205 - Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; conspiracies. 561.205 Section 561.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 561.205 Evasions; attempts; causing violations; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction.... (b) Any conspiracy formed to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited....

  9. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  10. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  11. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  12. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  13. 31 CFR 594.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 594... Prohibitions § 594.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for...

  14. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  15. 31 CFR 593.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 593... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 593.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy...

  16. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  17. 31 CFR 596.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 596... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 596.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  18. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  19. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  20. 31 CFR 542.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 542... § 542.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed for the...

  1. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  2. 31 CFR 539.203 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 539... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 539.203 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States... prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in a transaction prohibited by this part...

  3. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541... § 541.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  4. 31 CFR 548.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 548... § 548.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  5. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  6. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 576.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed...

  7. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  8. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy...

  9. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537... § 537.206 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Any transaction by a U.S. person or within the United... attempts to violate any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. (b) Any conspiracy...

  10. 31 CFR 549.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 549... § 549.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  11. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  12. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  13. 31 CFR 592.202 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 592... Prohibitions § 592.202 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Notwithstanding the existence of any rights or... contract entered into or any license or permit granted prior to July 30, 2003, any conspiracy formed...

  14. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  15. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  16. 31 CFR 543.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 543... Prohibitions § 543.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  17. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  18. 31 CFR 588.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 588... Prohibitions § 588.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate...

  19. 31 CFR 598.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 598... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 598.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Except to the extent provided in... the effect of evading or avoiding, and any endeavor, attempt, or conspiracy to violate any of...

  20. 31 CFR 546.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 546... § 546.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding any... or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed to violate the prohibitions...

  1. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538... § 538.211 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction by any United States person or within the..., any of the prohibitions set forth in this part is prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose...

  2. 31 CFR 597.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 597... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 597.204 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. Any transaction for the purpose of, or... set forth in this part is hereby prohibited. Any conspiracy formed for the purpose of engaging in...

  3. 31 CFR 576.205 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 576... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 576.205 Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... entered into or any license or permit granted prior to the effective date, any conspiracy formed...

  4. Readability and Test-Retest Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Beliefs, Behaviours and Sources of HIV Prevention Information of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…

  5. Relationship Between Health Literacy, Knowledge of Health Status, and Beliefs about HIV/AIDS Transmission among Ryan White Clients in Miami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooss, Angela; Brock-Getz, Petra; Ladner, Robert; Fiano, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between health literacy, knowledge of health status, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) transmission beliefs among recipients of Ryan White care. Design: Quota and convenience sampled, quantitative analysis captured with closed and…

  6. American Indian University Students' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors Associated with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Manuscript considers results of a research study that assesses American Indian university students' factual knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, and relationships between their attitudes and decisions to engage in HIV-risk behaviors. Participants responded to a 57-item scaled survey and several demographic…

  7. Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Rose, Darcy E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years; 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372

  8. Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study.

    PubMed

    Dinnsen, Daniel A; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L; Rose, Darcy E

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372

  9. Influence of a persuasive strategy on nursing students' beliefs and attitudes toward provision of care to people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Valois, P; Turgeon, H; Godin, G; Blondeau, D; Cote, F

    2001-11-01

    Based on the theory of planned behavior and the elaboration likelihood model, the aim of this study was to verify the effect of persuasive messages on nursing students' beliefs and attitudes regarding provision of care to people living with HIV/AIDS. The assumption was that a persuasive communication strategy induces a constructive change in beliefs and attitudes regarding provision of care. Baseline data collection was performed among a group of 74 nursing students (experimental group = 27; control group = 47). The questionnaire assessed the variables of the theory of planned behavior (i.e., beliefs, attitudes, perceived behavioral control). The results confirmed that persuasive messages generated a change in beliefs and attitudes of the nursing students concerning providing care to people living with HIV/AIDS. It appears that this strategy of modifying behavioral predispositions is effective and generates cognitive and affective changes. Therefore, educational programs should take these observations into consideration to ensure that future nurses are better prepared to provide appropriate care to people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:11725993

  10. Attitudes and beliefs regarding depression, HIV/AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals’ attitudes and beliefs toward behaviors are key indicators of behavioral performance. The purpose of this study was to elucidate attitudes and beliefs about depression, HIV/AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females and to develop an understanding of their context for HIV risk. For this descriptive qualitative inquiry, semi-structured interviews and surveys were employed (N = 24). The narratives reveal that behavioral sequelae of depression (i.e. loneliness) can produce risk for HIV. These findings may guide psychiatric nurse educators, scientists, and practitioners to modify HIV risk among clinically depressed African American adolescent females. PMID:23164403

  11. Attitudes and beliefs regarding depression, HIV/AIDS, and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M

    2012-12-01

    Individuals' attitudes and beliefs toward behaviors are key indicators of behavioral performance. The purposes of this study were to elucidate attitudes and beliefs about depression, HIV/AIDS, and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females and to develop an understanding of their context for HIV risk. For this descriptive qualitative inquiry, semistructured interviews and surveys were employed (N = 24). The narratives reveal that behavioral sequelae of depression (i.e., loneliness) can produce risk for HIV. These findings may guide psychiatric nurse educators, scientists, and practitioners to modify HIV risk among clinically depressed African American adolescent females. PMID:23164403

  12. Examining conspiracist beliefs about the disappearance of Amelia Earhart.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that conspiracist ideation forms part of a monological belief system in which one conspiracist idea acts as evidence for new conspiracist ideas. Here, we examined this possibility in relation to an event lacking reliable or conclusive evidence, namely the disappearance of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan. A total of 914 members of the British general public completed scales measuring their beliefs about the disappearance of Earhart and Noonan, belief in conspiracy theories, the Big Five personality factors, support for democratic principles, political cynicism, self-esteem, and self-assessed intelligence. Results showed that belief in conspiracy theories was associated with the endorsement of less plausible explanations for the disappearance of Earhart and Noonan. In addition, belief in less plausible explanations was also significantly associated with lower self-assessed intelligence, greater political cynicism, lower self-esteem, and higher Agreeableness scores. These results are discussed in relation to monological belief systems. PMID:24837176

  13. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices in Lebanon concerning HIV/AIDS, 1996-2004.

    PubMed

    Kahhaleh, J G; El Nakib, M; Jurjus, A R

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study, aimed at evaluating the impact of HIV prevention interventions in Lebanon since 1996, was performed between January 2004 and July 2004 on 3200 Lebanese aged 15-49 years. Of the sexually active respondents, 13.0% of men and 2.6% of women had regular partners other than the spouse but only 25.0% used a condom in their last sexual intercourse. However, 16.8% had sex with casual partners and 71.7% of those used a condom. Knowledge about preventive practices against HIV/AIDS has regressed since 1996, 85.7% compared to 94.9%. Self reports of symptoms suggestive of sexually transmitted disease were 9.1% compared to 5.6% in 1996. PMID:20187544

  14. John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Conspiracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nufrio, Ronald M.

    The 1865 conspiracy to assassinate Abraham Lincoln also included plans to assassinate other government officials on that same April evening. The actor, John Wilkes Booth, succeeded in killing Lincoln, but his fellow conspirators bungled their attempts to kill William Seward, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, and possibly Edwin Stanton. In…

  15. Dependency and Education: Reproduction or Conspiracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velloso, Jacques

    1985-01-01

    The origins and meaning of dependency are examined, how the dependency approach as an analytical tool can be used to advance research in comparative education is illustrated, and two issues raised by the critics of dependency--the issues of reproduction and of conspiracy--are discussed. (RM)

  16. Social Movements: A Place for Conspiracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Donovan J.

    One frequently encounters innuendoes, charges, allegations, threats, and rationales of conspiracy in studying the role of rhetoric in social movements. While "full discussion of competing ideas," holds high repute, "people meeting to plot some action," is disreputable and under some conditions illegal. This paper focuses on existing definitions of…

  17. Paraprofessionals: An Administration/School Board Conspiracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Leon J.

    1973-01-01

    The failure of the teaching profession to react to the infiltration of paraprofessionals into the teaching ranks, a movement promoted by what amounts to an administration/school board conspiracy, suggests that teachers are doomed to second-class status. (Author/JN)

  18. Why Leaders Can't Lead. The Unconscious Conspiracy Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennis, Warren

    An analysis of the problems facing leaders in higher education or other organizational settings as well as insights on effective leadership is presented. The 23 chapters are organized in four parts. Part 1, "The Unconscious Conspiracy and How to Confound It," suggests the presence of such a conspiracy involving the entrenched bureaucracy and…

  19. On the Viability of Conspiratorial Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, David Robert

    2016-01-01

    Conspiratorial ideation is the tendency of individuals to believe that events and power relations are secretly manipulated by certain clandestine groups and organisations. Many of these ostensibly explanatory conjectures are non-falsifiable, lacking in evidence or demonstrably false, yet public acceptance remains high. Efforts to convince the general public of the validity of medical and scientific findings can be hampered by such narratives, which can create the impression of doubt or disagreement in areas where the science is well established. Conversely, historical examples of exposed conspiracies do exist and it may be difficult for people to differentiate between reasonable and dubious assertions. In this work, we establish a simple mathematical model for conspiracies involving multiple actors with time, which yields failure probability for any given conspiracy. Parameters for the model are estimated from literature examples of known scandals, and the factors influencing conspiracy success and failure are explored. The model is also used to estimate the likelihood of claims from some commonly-held conspiratorial beliefs; these are namely that the moon-landings were faked, climate-change is a hoax, vaccination is dangerous and that a cure for cancer is being suppressed by vested interests. Simulations of these claims predict that intrinsic failure would be imminent even with the most generous estimates for the secret-keeping ability of active participants—the results of this model suggest that large conspiracies (≥1000 agents) quickly become untenable and prone to failure. The theory presented here might be useful in counteracting the potentially deleterious consequences of bogus and anti-science narratives, and examining the hypothetical conditions under which sustainable conspiracy might be possible. PMID:26812482

  20. On the Viability of Conspiratorial Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David Robert

    2016-01-01

    Conspiratorial ideation is the tendency of individuals to believe that events and power relations are secretly manipulated by certain clandestine groups and organisations. Many of these ostensibly explanatory conjectures are non-falsifiable, lacking in evidence or demonstrably false, yet public acceptance remains high. Efforts to convince the general public of the validity of medical and scientific findings can be hampered by such narratives, which can create the impression of doubt or disagreement in areas where the science is well established. Conversely, historical examples of exposed conspiracies do exist and it may be difficult for people to differentiate between reasonable and dubious assertions. In this work, we establish a simple mathematical model for conspiracies involving multiple actors with time, which yields failure probability for any given conspiracy. Parameters for the model are estimated from literature examples of known scandals, and the factors influencing conspiracy success and failure are explored. The model is also used to estimate the likelihood of claims from some commonly-held conspiratorial beliefs; these are namely that the moon-landings were faked, climate-change is a hoax, vaccination is dangerous and that a cure for cancer is being suppressed by vested interests. Simulations of these claims predict that intrinsic failure would be imminent even with the most generous estimates for the secret-keeping ability of active participants-the results of this model suggest that large conspiracies (≥1000 agents) quickly become untenable and prone to failure. The theory presented here might be useful in counteracting the potentially deleterious consequences of bogus and anti-science narratives, and examining the hypothetical conditions under which sustainable conspiracy might be possible. PMID:26812482

  1. Angiotensin and insulin resistance: conspiracy theory.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Raymond R

    2003-04-01

    Resistance to the metabolic effects of insulin is a contender for the short list of major cardiovascular risk factors. Since the elements of the syndrome of insulin resistance were first articulated together in 1988, numerous epidemiologic investigations and treatment endeavors have established a relationship between the metabolic disarray of impaired insulin action and cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin II, the primary effector of the renin-angiotensin system, has also achieved a place in the chronicles of cardiovascular risk factors. Conspiracy mechanisms by which angiotensin II and insulin resistance interact in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease are reviewed, with particular attention to recent developments in this engaging area of human research. PMID:12642009

  2. The Use of Comprehension Aids in a Hypermedia Environment: Investigating the Impact of Metacognitive Awareness and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Kendall; Bendixen, Lisa D.

    2003-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that analyzes learners' use of comprehension aids such as objectives, a glossary and links between pages in a hypermedia tutorial. Students read a short hypermedia tutorial on the topic of E. coli. Relationships between the use of the comprehension aids and individual characteristics such as metacognitive awareness and…

  3. The Use of Comprehension Aids in a Hypermedia Environment: Investigating the Impact of Metacognitive Awareness and Epistemic Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Kendall; Bendixen, Lisa D.

    A descriptive study analyzed learners' use of comprehensive aids such as objectives and the glossary in a hypermedia tutorial. College students (n=101) read a short hypermedia tutorial on the topic of E. coli. Relationships between the use of the comprehension aids and individual characteristics such as metacognitive awareness and epistemic…

  4. They're Out to get us - Conspiracy Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, William

    1995-11-01

    Admit it: Conspiracy theories are fun to think about and, occasionally, plausible. But when they dominate the world view of tens of millions of Americans, and increasingly implicate scientists as co-conspirators, we have a problem.

  5. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: implications for HIV education and AIDS risk education programs in the black community.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S B; Quinn, S C

    1991-11-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male is the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history. The strategies used to recruit and retain participants were quite similar to those being advocated for HIV/AIDS prevention programs today. Almost 60 years after the study began, there remains a trail of distrust and suspicion that hampers HIV education efforts in Black communities. The AIDS epidemic has exposed the Tuskegee study as a historical marker for the legitimate discontent of Blacks with the public health system. The belief that AIDS is a form of genocide is rooted in a social context in which Black Americans, faced with persistent inequality, believe in conspiracy theories about Whites against Blacks. These theories range from the belief that the government promotes drug abuse in Black communities to the belief that HIV is a manmade weapon of racial warfare. An open and honest discussion of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study can facilitate the process of rebuilding trust between the Black community and public health authorities. This dialogue can contribute to the development of HIV education programs that are scientifically sound, culturally sensitive, and ethnically acceptable. PMID:1951814

  6. Gender equity and HIV/AIDS prevention: comparing gender differences in sexual practice and beliefs among Zimbabwe university students.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Mhloyi, Marvelous; Masvaure, Tsitsi B; Adlis, Susan A

    We assess gender differences in HIV prevention knowledge, attitudes and practices with a focus on cultural, sociological, and economic variables. A randomized cross-sectional study was used in order to achieve high participation and broad comparative assessment. An eight-page questionnaire was administered to 933 randomly selected students at the University of Zimbabwe. Survey items addressed sexual decision-making, condom use, limiting sexual partners, cultural power dynamics and access to HIV testing. We found marked gender differences with men reporting beliefs of entitlement to dominate women, an assumed leadership in decision-making concerning condom use and an attitude that when a woman says "no" to sex, really, "it depends." Women acknowledged gender-based cultural attitudes but are much more likely to support women's rights to sexual expression. A multi-faceted approach to gender equity training is needed to challenge men and women to change attitudes and increase social awareness that respects cultural traditions while still inspiring both men and women to champion justice and equality between genders. PMID:17690049

  7. Development and Assessment of Traditional and Innovative Media to Reduce Individual HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Attitudes and Beliefs in India

    PubMed Central

    Catalani, Caricia; Castaneda, Diego; Spielberg, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Although stigma is considered a major barrier to effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there is a lack of evidence on effective interventions. This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling. A series of 16 focus group discussions were held in 4 rural and 4 urban sites in South India, with specific groups for sex workers, men who have sex with men, young married women, and others. Focus groups with viewers of the traditional film (8 focus groups, 80 participants) and viewers of the new media production (8 focus groups, 69 participants) revealed the mechanisms through which storyline, characters, and esthetics influence viewers’ attitudes and beliefs about stigma. A comparative pre-/post-survey showed that audiences of both videos significantly improved their stigma scores. We found that a simple illustrated video, produced on a limited budget by amateurs, and a feature film, produced with an ample budget by professionals, elicited similar responses from audiences and similar positive short-term outcomes on stigma. PMID:24350190

  8. Conspiracy Drama and the John Birch Society: A Movement Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    This paper examines the conspiracy drama which characterizes the rhetoric generated by the John Birch Society. According to the Society, "innocent" America is under direct threat from some organized external and internal force that is seeking its destruction. Members are called to react in a carefully outlined manner: (1) piece together the…

  9. 31 CFR 537.206 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 537.206 Section 537.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  11. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 536.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 536.204 Section 536.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 541.204 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 541.204 Section 541.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. "Whiteness" as Institutionalized Racism as Conspiracy: Understanding the Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Maud

    2008-01-01

    The notion of a conspiracy creating and maintaining the educational performance gap between Black and White students may seem to most to be far-fetched. However, experience of schools and of the workings of local education authorities points to a continuation if not a deepening of educational inequalities. How can this be understood? Gillborn…

  17. Conspiracy Arguments in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarefsky, David

    1984-01-01

    Using the historic debates as a case study, the author draws inferences about how and why conspiracy arguments become credible and concludes that Lincoln's achievement was strategic and tactical, reflecting an intuitive understanding of how political arguments involving moral questions are discussed in the public sphere. (PD)

  18. 31 CFR 538.211 - Evasions; attempts; conspiracies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evasions; attempts; conspiracies. 538.211 Section 538.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  20. Children's Beliefs about the Human Circulatory System: An Aid for Teachers Regarding the Role Intuitive Beliefs Play in the Development of Formal Concepts in 7-14-Year Olds. Report No. 82:16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catherall, Robin W.

    This exploratory study was aimed at uncovering children's beliefs and ideas about the human circulatory system. Thirty-two subjects, aged 7 to 14 years, were interviewed using a modification of Piaget's clinical method. The data were analyzed by developing a conceptual inventory of beliefs for each of five research questions. It was found that the…

  1. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  2. How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention in Select Botswanan Secondary Schools.

    PubMed

    Nleya, Paul T; Segale, Emelda

    2015-01-01

    The article reports on the aspects of a Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoE & SD) HIV/AIDS Instructional Television (ITV) project modeled on a similar HIV/AIDS program implemented in Brazil. This Teacher Capacity Building Project (TCBP) in Botswana is in its initial years of implementation. Its overall goal is to contribute to the prevention and mitigation of the impact of HIV and AIDS by strengthening the capacity of the education and communication sectors to deliver interactive, distance HIV/AIDS education primarily to teachers so that they act as agents of behavior change among the in-school youth. One of the components of the TCBP program is a live teacher education television HIV/AIDS program called Talk Back program. Talk Back is a collaborative effort of the MoE & SD and the Botswana national television station. The Talk Back program involves development and implementation of weekly 1 hour live HIV/AIDS education interactive TV broadcasts for teachers. The development of the live programs is guided by a curriculum that provides a wide range of themes related to HIV/AIDS and education. This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers' and adolescents' sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers and students and thus make it difficult for the Talk Back program to impart

  3. Relationship Dynamics and Partner Beliefs About Viral Suppression: A Longitudinal Study of Male Couples Living with HIV/AIDS (The Duo Project).

    PubMed

    Conroy, Amy A; Gamarel, Kristi E; Neilands, Torsten B; Dilworth, Samantha E; Darbes, Lynae A; Johnson, Mallory O

    2016-07-01

    Accurate beliefs about partners' viral suppression are important for HIV prevention and care. We fit multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models to examine associations between partners' viral suppression beliefs and objective HIV RNA viral load tests, and whether relationship dynamics were associated with accurate viral suppression beliefs over time. Male couples (N = 266 couples) with at least one HIV-positive partner on antiretroviral therapy completed five assessments over 2 years. Half of the 407 HIV-positive partners were virally suppressed. Of the 40 % who had inaccurate viral load beliefs, 80 % assumed their partner was suppressed. The odds of having accurate viral load beliefs decreased over time (OR = 0.83; p = 0.042). Within-couple differences in dyadic adjustment (OR = 0.66; p < 0.01) and commitment (OR = 0.82; p = 0.022) were negatively associated with accurate viral load beliefs. Beliefs about a partner's viral load may factor into sexual decision-making and social support. Couple-based approaches are warranted to improve knowledge of partners' viral load. PMID:27150895

  4. Thirty shades of truth: conspiracy theories as stories of individuation, not of pathological delusion.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marius H; Ortlieb, Stefan A; Auer, Nikolas; Guthmann, Klara; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on conspiracy theories employ standardized questionnaires, thus neglecting their narrative qualities by reducing them to mere statements. Recipients are considered as consumers only. Two empirical studies-a conventional survey (n = 63) and a study using the method of narrative construction (n = 30)-which were recently conducted by the authors of this paper-suggest that the truth about conspiracy theories is more complex. Given a set of statements about a dramatic historic event (in our case 9/11) that includes official testimonies, allegations to a conspiracy and extremely conspiratorial statements, the majority of participants created a narrative of 9/11 they deemed plausible that might be considered a conspiracy theory. The resulting 30 idiosyncratic stories imply that no clear distinction between official story and conspiratorial narrative is possible any more when the common approach of questionnaires is abandoned. Based on these findings, we present a new theoretical and methodological approach which acknowledges conspiracy theories as a means of constructing and communicating a set of personal values. While broadening the view upon such theories, we stay compatible with other approaches that have focused on extreme theory types. In our view, accepting conspiracy theories as a common, regulative and possibly benign phenomenon, we will be better able to understand why some people cling to immunized, racist and off-wall stories-and others do not. PMID:23847576

  5. Thirty shades of truth: conspiracy theories as stories of individuation, not of pathological delusion

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Marius H.; Ortlieb, Stefan A.; Auer, Nikolas; Guthmann, Klara; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on conspiracy theories employ standardized questionnaires, thus neglecting their narrative qualities by reducing them to mere statements. Recipients are considered as consumers only. Two empirical studies—a conventional survey (n = 63) and a study using the method of narrative construction (n = 30)—which were recently conducted by the authors of this paper—suggest that the truth about conspiracy theories is more complex. Given a set of statements about a dramatic historic event (in our case 9/11) that includes official testimonies, allegations to a conspiracy and extremely conspiratorial statements, the majority of participants created a narrative of 9/11 they deemed plausible that might be considered a conspiracy theory. The resulting 30 idiosyncratic stories imply that no clear distinction between official story and conspiratorial narrative is possible any more when the common approach of questionnaires is abandoned. Based on these findings, we present a new theoretical and methodological approach which acknowledges conspiracy theories as a means of constructing and communicating a set of personal values. While broadening the view upon such theories, we stay compatible with other approaches that have focused on extreme theory types. In our view, accepting conspiracy theories as a common, regulative and possibly benign phenomenon, we will be better able to understand why some people cling to immunized, racist and off-wall stories—and others do not. PMID:23847576

  6. Attitudes and normative beliefs of nursing students as predictors of intended care behaviors with AIDS patients: a test of the Ajzen-Fishbein theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D; Laschinger, H

    1991-03-01

    Few investigators have studied nurses' or nursing students' responses to caring for AIDS patients. The purpose of this exploratory study was to test the Ajzen-Fishbein (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action in a student nurse population about AIDS patient care. This theory offers an approach to explaining individuals' intentions to engage in certain behaviors as determined by two components: attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms. Forty-six second-year baccalaureate nursing students completed a questionnaire developed according to guidelines described by Ajzen and Fishbein (alpha reliability range was .69-.85) prior to and following an instructional unit on caring for AIDS patients. Consistent with the theory, students' attitudes and subjective norms were found to be significant predictors of intentions to care for AIDS patients in their clinical experience (R2 = .29, F[1, 43] = 6.63, p less than .003). In addition, qualitative data resembled those in previous reports of fear of contagion among health professionals. The effects of the instructional unit about caring for AIDS patients resulted in significant changes in both attitudes and subjective norms. PMID:1850791

  7. The Dark Matter Conspiracy in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Cappellari, Michele; Brodie, Jean P.; SLUGGS Team

    2016-01-01

    The extended mass profiles of early-type galaxies, including their dark matter distributions, have remained uncertain many decades after dark matter was established in late-type galaxies, owing to the lack of cold gas disks as dynamical tracers. We have combined kinematics data from the ATLAS^3D and SLUGGS surveys over wide fields in 14 early-type galaxies, providing strong and unique constraints on their mass distributions out to 4 effective radii. We find ubiquitous near-isothermal total mass profiles in these galaxies, from their central to outer regions. This result is remarkably similar to the constant rotation curves found for late-type galaxies, and implies a "conspiracy" between stellar and dark matter distributions in both galaxy types. Further examination of the implications for dark matter distributions will be presented.

  8. Flat spectrum multicomponent radio sources - Cosmic conspiracy or geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pacholczyk, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Compact radio sources which do not exhibit currently large flux density variations, are often characterized by spectra nearly flat over a wide range of wavelengths. Cotton et al. (1980) recently reported the results of the VLBI multifrequency interferometric and total flux density observations of a typical representative of the flat spectrum class of sources, a BL Lacertae object PKS 0735+178. If 0735+178 is indeed representative of flat spectrum sources, then some mechanism causing the component production and energy loss to be balanced must be operative among this type of radio source to maintain a flat spectrum over at least certain periods of time. This effect is referred to as 'cosmic conspiracy'. It is suggested that the flatness of spectra of this class of radio sources may be related to a specific symmetry in the radio structure, namely, to a predominantly linear, one-dimensional evolution of radio radiating material, rather than spherical, three-dimensional evolution.

  9. Beyond belief.

    PubMed

    Cromby, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychology, including health psychology, frequently invokes the concept of belief but almost never defines it. Drawing upon scholarship associated with the 'affective turn', this article argues that belief might usefully be understood as a structure of socialized feeling, contingently allied to discursive practices and positions. This conceptualization is explained, and its implications for health psychology discussed with respect to research on religiosity and spirituality and debates about the value of social cognition models such as the theory of planned behaviour. PMID:22947889

  10. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A.; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers—extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect. PMID:23882250

  11. The Sarrazin effect: the presence of absurd statements in conspiracy theories makes canonical information less plausible.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marius Hans; Auer, Nikolas; Ortlieb, Stefan A; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reptile prime ministers and flying Nazi saucers-extreme and sometimes off-wall conclusion are typical ingredients of conspiracy theories. While individual differences are a common research topic concerning conspiracy theories, the role of extreme statements in the process of acquiring and passing on conspiratorial stories has not been regarded in an experimental design so far. We identified six morphological components of conspiracy theories empirically. On the basis of these content categories a set of narrative elements for a 9/11 story was compiled. These elements varied systematically in terms of conspiratorial allegation, i.e., they contained official statements concerning the events of 9/11, statements alleging to a conspiracy limited in time and space as well as extreme statements indicating an all-encompassing cover-up. Using the method of narrative construction, 30 people were given a set of cards with these statements and asked to construct the course of events of 9/11 they deem most plausible. When extreme statements were present in the set, the resulting stories were more conspiratorial; the number of official statements included in the narrative dropped significantly, whereas the self-assessment of the story's plausibility did not differ between conditions. This indicates that blatant statements in a pool of information foster the synthesis of conspiracy theories on an individual level. By relating these findings to one of Germany's most successful (and controversial) non-fiction books, we refer to the real-world dangers of this effect. PMID:23882250

  12. Conspiracy theories as quasi-religious mentality: an integrated account from cognitive science, social representations theory, and frame theory.

    PubMed

    Franks, Bradley; Bangerter, Adrian; Bauer, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories (CTs) can take many forms and vary widely in popularity, the intensity with which they are believed and their effects on individual and collective behavior. An integrated account of CTs thus needs to explain how they come to appeal to potential believers, how they spread from one person to the next via communication, and how they motivate collective action. We summarize these aspects under the labels of stick, spread, and action. We propose the quasi-religious hypothesis for CTs: drawing on cognitive science of religion, social representations theory, and frame theory. We use cognitive science of religion to describe the main features of the content of CTs that explain how they come to stick: CTs are quasi-religious representations in that their contents, forms and functions parallel those found in beliefs of institutionalized religions. However, CTs are quasi-religious in that CTs and the communities that support them, lack many of the institutional features of organized religions. We use social representations theory to explain how CTs spread as devices for making sense of sudden events that threaten existing worldviews. CTs allow laypersons to interpret such events by relating them to common sense, thereby defusing some of the anxiety that those events generate. We use frame theory to explain how some, but not all CTs mobilize collective counter-conspiratorial action by identifying a target and by proposing credible and concrete rationales for action. We specify our integrated account in 13 propositions. PMID:23882235

  13. Conspiracy theories as quasi-religious mentality: an integrated account from cognitive science, social representations theory, and frame theory

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Bradley; Bangerter, Adrian; Bauer, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories (CTs) can take many forms and vary widely in popularity, the intensity with which they are believed and their effects on individual and collective behavior. An integrated account of CTs thus needs to explain how they come to appeal to potential believers, how they spread from one person to the next via communication, and how they motivate collective action. We summarize these aspects under the labels of stick, spread, and action. We propose the quasi-religious hypothesis for CTs: drawing on cognitive science of religion, social representations theory, and frame theory. We use cognitive science of religion to describe the main features of the content of CTs that explain how they come to stick: CTs are quasi-religious representations in that their contents, forms and functions parallel those found in beliefs of institutionalized religions. However, CTs are quasi-religious in that CTs and the communities that support them, lack many of the institutional features of organized religions. We use social representations theory to explain how CTs spread as devices for making sense of sudden events that threaten existing worldviews. CTs allow laypersons to interpret such events by relating them to common sense, thereby defusing some of the anxiety that those events generate. We use frame theory to explain how some, but not all CTs mobilize collective counter-conspiratorial action by identifying a target and by proposing credible and concrete rationales for action. We specify our integrated account in 13 propositions. PMID:23882235

  14. First aid strategies that are helpful to young people developing a mental disorder: beliefs of health professionals compared to young people and parents

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Morgan, Amy J; Wright, Annemarie

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the best ways for a member of the public to respond when someone in their social network develops a mental disorder. Controlled trials are not feasible in this area, so expert consensus may be the best guide. Methods To assess expert views, postal surveys were carried out with Australian GPs, psychiatrists and psychologists listed on professional registers and with mental health nurses who were members of a professional college. These professionals were asked to rate the helpfulness of 10 potential first aid strategies for young people with one of four disorders: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis. Data were obtained from 470 GPs, 591 psychiatrists, 736 psychologists and 522 mental health nurses, with respective response rates of 24%, 35%, 40% and 32%. Data on public views were available from an earlier telephone survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years and 2005 of their parents, which included questions about the same strategies. Results A clear majority across the four professions believed in the helpfulness of listening to the person, suggesting professional help-seeking, making an appointment for the person to see a GP and asking about suicidal feelings. There was also a clear majority believing in the harmfulness of ignoring the person, suggesting use of alcohol to cope, and talking to them firmly. Compared to health professionals, young people and their parents were less likely to believe that asking about suicidal feelings would be helpful and more likely to believe it would be harmful. They were also less likely to believe that talking to the person firmly would be harmful. Conclusion Several first aid strategies can be recommended to the public based on agreement of clinicians about their likely helpfulness. In particular, there needs to be greater public awareness of the helpfulness of asking a young person with a mental health problem about suicidal feelings. PMID:18538033

  15. Inducing Resistance to Conspiracy Theory Propaganda: Testing Inoculation and Metainoculation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, John A.; Miller, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the boundaries of inoculation theory by examining how inoculation can be applied to conspiracy theory propaganda as well as inoculation itself (called metainoculation). A 3-phase experiment with 312 participants compared 3 main groups: no-treatment control, inoculation, and metainoculation. Research questions explored…

  16. Debunking the Conspiracy Theory: Understanding Ideology in Explanations in Historical Studies of Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Januszewski, Alan; Koetting, J. Randall

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of theory and methodology in the field of educational technology research. Topics include critical analysis, the difference between conspiracy theory and the intentional explanation of social science, interpretation, historical analysis, causality, and new theoretical frameworks and paradigms. (LRW)

  17. Racism and the Conspiracy of Silence: Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2005-01-01

    This presidential address focuses on a specific and daunting assumption about racism that many find disturbing--a belief that no one born and raised in the United States is free from inheriting the racial biases of their forebears. It states explicitly that it is impossible for anyone to not to have racist, sexist, and homophobic attitudes,…

  18. Dissecting the social body: social inequality through AIDS counter-narratives.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Sonja

    2011-07-01

    HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories constitute a loosely grouped set of meanings that share the notion of secret collusion among allied parties. This paper traces one woman's etiological narrative of HIV/AIDS. Such embodied experience and cultural understanding when placed against the backdrop of current thinking on the topic in the United States builds a new framework for understanding the emergence and circulation of HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories as "counter-narratives" employed by individuals and publics in the face of the AIDS pandemic. Such counter-narrative creates a rhetorical space for challenges to power through the articulation of oppositional ideas about dominant scientific knowledge. Without a critical exploration of HIV/AIDS conspiracy theories that examines their emergence and effects as a form of discourse circulating in the public domain, public health advocates will not be able to trace and respond to these narratives' impact on HIV prevention efforts or consider their relevance for other emerging infectious diseases. PMID:21936263

  19. Scrutinizing impacts of conspiracy theories on readers' political views: a rational choice perspective on anti-semitic rhetoric in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nefes, Turkay Salim

    2015-09-01

    Although conspiracy theories have been politically significant throughout history, only a few empirical studies have been about their influence on readers' views. Combining a rational choice approach with a content analysis of an anti-Semitic best-selling conspiracy theory book series in Turkey - the Efendi series - and semi-structured interviews with its readers, this paper reveals the effects of the conspiracy theories on readers' political perspectives. The findings suggest that whereas the rightists are reactive to the Jewish origins of the Dönmes, the leftists oppose the Dönmes as dominant bourgeois figures. This paper concludes that left- and right-wing adherents use the conspiratorial accounts in line with their political views and ontological insecurities. It expands the existing academic literature, which conceptualizes conspiracy theories either as paranoid delusions or as neutral, rational narratives, by showing that they can be both. PMID:26174172

  20. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and…

  1. Making Theory Relevant: The Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory (GABI), a teaching tool designed to aid students in (a) realizing how sociological theory links to their personal beliefs and (b) exploring any combination of 11 frequently used theoretical perspectives on gender, including both conservative theories (physiological,…

  2. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  3. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-13

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  4. The social consequences of conspiracism: Exposure to conspiracy theories decreases intentions to engage in politics and to reduce one's carbon footprint.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    The current studies explored the social consequences of exposure to conspiracy theories. In Study 1, participants were exposed to a range of conspiracy theories concerning government involvement in significant events such as the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to engage in politics, relative to participants who were given information refuting conspiracy theories. This effect was mediated by feelings of political powerlessness. In Study 2, participants were exposed to conspiracy theories concerning the issue of climate change. Results revealed that exposure to information supporting the conspiracy theories reduced participants' intentions to reduce their carbon footprint, relative to participants who were given refuting information, or those in a control condition. This effect was mediated by powerlessness with respect to climate change, uncertainty, and disillusionment. Exposure to climate change conspiracy theories also influenced political intentions, an effect mediated by political powerlessness. The current findings suggest that conspiracy theories may have potentially significant social consequences, and highlight the need for further research on the social psychology of conspiracism. PMID:24387095

  5. Irrational Beliefs in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. Eric

    1977-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that certain types of irrational beliefs covary with the severity of depression, 156 undergraduates completed the Beck Depression Inventory and R. G. Jone's Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT). (Author)

  6. Peirce on Educational Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Torill

    2005-01-01

    This article contends that Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) may enhance our understanding of educational beliefs and that Peirce's logic may be a tool to distinguish between a dogmatic and a pragmatic justification of such beliefs. The first part of the article elaborates on Peirce's comprehension of beliefs as mediated, socially situated and…

  7. Epistemological Beliefs of Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the epistemological beliefs of learners of general subjects has been the focus of many studies in the past, so far, little is known about the beliefs of apprentices on knowledge and the acquiring of knowledge. The present study analysed the first level of epistemological beliefs of students in industrial and technical professions and their…

  8. Conspiracies and Test Compromise: An Evaluation of the Resistance of Test Systems to Small-Scale Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Jing; Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Test compromise is a concern in cognitive ability testing because such tests are widely used in employee selection and administered on a continuous basis. In this study, the resistance of cognitive tests, deployed in different test systems, to small-scale cheating conspiracies, was evaluated regarding the accuracy of ability estimation.…

  9. The impact of African Americans' beliefs about HIV medical care on treatment adherence: a systematic review and recommendations for interventions.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Gina B; Alleyne-Green, Binta

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in access to and retention of regular HIV medical treatment persist among African Americans living with HIV. Many scholars believe that the mistrust of health care held by many African Americans stems from a legacy of abuse, from medical experimentation on slaves to the unethical practices with patients in the Tuskegee Syphilis study. We performed a systematic appraisal of the literature, using several key terms, in order to understand how attitudes about HIV-related health care influence African Americans' engagement in care. We examined peer-reviewed studies published during the period January 2001 through May 2012. An initial search generated 326 studies. Sixteen descriptive studies met our inclusion criteria. Experiences of racism, conspiracy beliefs and the quality of provider relationships appeared to impact engagement. Providers should openly investigate personal beliefs that adversely affect their treatment decisions, listen to patient narratives, and share treatment decisions in order to create a transparent environment. PMID:23010941

  10. Old Beliefs = Taimaknaqtat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Minnie Aliitchak; And Others

    Written in English and Upper Kobuk Inupiaq Eskimo, the booklet presents several examples of Eskimo "old beliefs" to be taught to younger people providing them with a greater understanding of the elders and what governs their actions and behavior. Topics of "old beliefs" pertain to babies, women, young girls and boys, bears, beavers, animal spirit,…

  11. Illness beliefs in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kinderman, Peter; Setzu, Erika; Lobban, Fiona; Salmon, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Beliefs about health and illness shape emotional responses to illness, health-related behaviour and relationships with health-care providers in physical illness. Researchers are beginning to study the illness beliefs of people with psychosis, primarily using models developed in relation to physical illness. It is likely that modifications to these models will be necessary if they are to apply to mental disorders, and it is probable that some of the assumptions underlying the models will be inappropriate. In particular, different dimensions of understanding may be present in mental illness in comparison to those identified in physical illness. The present study examines the beliefs of 20 patients in the UK diagnosed with schizophrenia, including 10 currently psychotic inpatients and 10 outpatients in remission, about their experiences, using qualitative interviews and thematic analysis. Patients currently experiencing psychosis did not identify their experiences as separable 'illnesses' and did not have 'illness beliefs'. Patients currently in a period of remission appraised their experiences as distinct from their own normal behaviour, but used conceptual frameworks of understanding that deviated significantly from conventional 'health belief' models. Patients' ways of understanding mental illness did not parallel those described in physical illnesses. Methods for assessing beliefs about mental illness should therefore not be transferred directly from studies of beliefs about physical illness, but should be tailored to the nature of patients' beliefs about mental illness. PMID:16777306

  12. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  13. Young Children's Understanding of Fact Beliefs versus Value Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.

    Three studies compared 3-year-olds' ability to attribute fact beliefs and value beliefs to another person when these beliefs differed from the children's. Value beliefs concerned the tastes and smells of substances, and whether stimuli were pretty or not. Numbers of subjects involved in the three studies were 32, 16, and 20. The consistent finding…

  14. The hidden impact of conspiracy theories: perceived and actual influence of theories surrounding the death of Princess Diana.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M

    2008-04-01

    The authors examined the perceived and actual impact of exposure to conspiracy theories surrounding the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in 1997. One group of undergraduate students rated their agreement and their classmates' perceived agreement with several statements about Diana's death. A second group of students from the same undergraduate population read material containing popular conspiracy theories about Diana's death before rating their own and others' agreement with the same statements and perceived retrospective attitudes (i.e., what they thought their own and others' attitudes were before reading the material). Results revealed that whereas participants in the second group accurately estimated others' attitude changes, they underestimated the extent to which their own attitudes were influenced. PMID:18512419

  15. Grounded spatial belief revision.

    PubMed

    Nejasmic, Jelica; Bucher, Leandra; Knauff, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs frequently undergo revisions, especially when new pieces of information are true but inconsistent with current beliefs. In previous studies, we showed that linguistic asymmetries provided by relational statements, play a crucial role in spatial belief revision. Located objects (LO) are preferably revised compared to reference objects (RO), known as the LO-principle. Here we establish a connection between spatial belief revision and grounded cognition. In three experiments, we explored whether imagined physical object properties influence which object is relocated and which remains at its initial position. Participants mentally revised beliefs about the arrangements of objects which could be envisaged as light and heavy (Experiment 1), small and large (Experiment 2), or movable and immovable (Experiment 3). The results show that intrinsic object properties are differently taken into account during spatial belief revision. Object weight did not alter the LO-principle (Experiment 1), whereas object size was found to influence which object was preferably relocated (Experiment 2). Object movability did not affect relocation preferences but had an effect on relocation durations (Experiment 3). The findings support the simulation hypothesis within the grounded cognition approach and create new connections between the spatial mental model theory of reasoning and the idea of grounded cognition. PMID:25796056

  16. Reading Processing Strategies Employed To Comprehend Text Both Consistent and Inconsistent with Subjects' Prior Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Karen L.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.

    A study examined how beliefs and attitudes influence the processing of information: people tend to distort contradictory information to make it consistent with their pre-existing beliefs and attitudes and to use it to bolster their initially held convictions. The study addressed the degree to which people believed that HIV causes AIDS. Subjects,…

  17. Effect of an AIDS education program for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rose, M A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an age-specific AIDS education program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and perceived severity of AIDS in older adults. The health belief model served as a framework. The age-specific AIDS education program was developed based on a knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors survey of 458 older adults at senior citizen centers. The program included case study presentations of actual older people with AIDS along with an emphasis on myths identified in the initial survey. There was a significant increase in total knowledge about AIDS (p < .001), perceived susceptibility (p < .01), and perceived severity (p < .001) after the educational program. Based on the results of this study, nurses are in an excellent position to provide primary and secondary AIDS prevention strategies for all age groups, including the older adult population. PMID:8916603

  18. AIDS/HIV education for preservice elementary teachers.

    PubMed

    Ballard, D J; White, D M; Glascoff, M A

    1990-08-01

    Professional preparation programs should provide future elementary teachers opportunities to develop competence in dealing with school-related AIDS issues. Curriculum writers and instructors of preservice elementary teachers could be more effective if they were aware of this groups' beliefs about school-related AIDS issues. A survey was conducted to assess the beliefs and opinions of preservice elementary teachers about school-related AIDS issues. Subjects (n = 157) generally agreed they would eventually have a child with AIDS in their classroom and agreed AIDS education should be included in the elementary grades, yet a substantial number did not believe they understood the basics about AIDS. Less than one-third indicated they knew how to clean up blood or body fluids safely. About one-third indicated they would feel personally threatened to teach a student with AIDS. These results are reflected in recommended AIDS educational content and resources for preservice elementary teachers and future research in this area. PMID:2232729

  19. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  20. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  1. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  2. Beliefs about hearing voices.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H; Robidoux, Serje; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2016-07-01

    People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause. In response, 20 (57.1%) reported that their AVHs were self-generated, 9 (25.7%) were uncertain, and 6 (17.1%) reported that their AVHs were caused by external agents. Several analytical approaches revealed little or no evidence for associations between either AVH intensity or phenomenology and beliefs about the AVH's cause; the evidence instead favoured the absence of these associations. Beliefs about the cause of AVHs are thus unlikely to be explained solely by the phenomenological qualities of the AVHs. PMID:27258929

  3. Assessing Students Beliefs about Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents 11 open-ended questions that can be presented to students and teachers at all educational levels in various formats to assess mathematical beliefs. Questions investigate beliefs toward mathematics, the problem-solving process, mathematicians, and mathematical applications. (MDH)

  4. Meteor Beliefs Project: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2003-05-01

    A new project to investigate beliefs in meteors and meteoric phenomena in past and present times using chiefly folklore, mythology, prose and poetic literature, is described. Some initial examples are given, along with a bibliography of relevant items already in print in IMO publications.

  5. A Reflection on Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon in which, for many people, subjective personal belief is viewed as a more accurate representation of reality than objective scientific knowledge developed over the course of human history and transmitted through secular education. The first half of the article is based on personal observations of the author…

  6. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  7. Irrational Beliefs and Anger Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazaleus, Susan L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between irrational beliefs and anger arousal in college students (N=342) who completed two questionnaires. Results showed men were more likely to endorse irrational beliefs regarding blame proneness and helplessness. Women reported more endorsement of the irrational belief regarding dependency. (BH)

  8. Teacher Beliefs and Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodarczyk, Steven

    The beliefs of teachers with respect to open education are discussed. The point is made that a teacher who expresses a desire to move toward an open classroom environment must first come to trust beliefs and values that may be alien to her own beliefs and must learn to value the following ideas: (1) The life of a child in school is not a…

  9. Low Vision Aids for Visually Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurink, J.; Cox, R. F. A.; Cillessen, A. H. N.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    It is a widely accepted belief in clinical practice that children with a visual impairment can profit from the use of a low vision aid (LVA). However, we found a considerable gap in our scientific understanding of LVA use, particularly in young children. This is the reason for the analysis presented in this paper. A selected overview of LVA use in…

  10. The CDC AIDS Survey: A Psychometric Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkan, Kevin

    The latent structure, reliability, and item discrimination of 33 items on a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) instrument representing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were assessed. The study sample included 311 adolescents ranging from ages 12 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics of the…

  11. Introduction: Psychosocial Aspects of AIDS Prevention among African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Randolph, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Articles in this special issue are devoted to psychosocial aspects of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention in the African-American community. The core assumption is that the values, beliefs, and world views of people of African descent must be understood for AIDS prevention to be effective. (SLD)

  12. HIV/AIDS Teaching Behaviors of Educators in Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Lise D.; Mueller, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the predictive power of knowledge, attitudes, support for AIDS education, teaching comfort, perceived behavioral control, religious (Vodoun and Christian) beliefs, and subjective norms on Haitian educators' teaching of HIV/AIDS to their students. Two hundred and fourteen teachers from Jeremie and surrounding areas in Haiti…

  13. Intuition, Affect, and Peculiar Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Berenbaum, Howard; Topper, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of adults that included individuals with elevated levels of peculiar perceptions and beliefs. We measured positive and negative affect and intuitive thinking through questionnaires, and peculiar beliefs (i.e., ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs) through structured clinical interviews. We found that peculiar beliefs were associated with intuitive thinking and negative affect, but not positive affect. Furthermore, in no instance did the interaction of affect and intuitive thinking predict peculiar beliefs. These results suggest that there are important differences in the factors that contribute to peculiar beliefs between college students and clinically meaningful samples. PMID:22707815

  14. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  15. Assessing superstitious belief.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Parker, Andrew; Munley, Gary

    2009-04-01

    The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of Wiseman and Watt's (2004) negative and positive superstitious belief items. The original items were compared with a modified, reworded set of items which emphasized each item's relation with either good or bad luck, and standard psychometric analyses were done. Modifying the items did not improve their psychometric properties; there was a negligible effect on Cronbach alpha, and Positive Item 3 continued to perform poorly. Confirmatory factor analysis, using the maximum likelihood method, suggested that a two-factor solution was preferable to a one-factor solution for both the original and modified items and that the problematic item should be discounted. It was concluded that the items require development and refinement before firm conclusions can be made about the factorial structure of superstitious belief. These results should also be tested further using Rasch methods. PMID:19610474

  16. Climate Contrarianism: Conspiracies, Movable Goalposts, Cherry Picking, and the Galileo Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    How can two well-qualified climate scientists, with similar educational backgrounds and professional careers, come to diametrically opposed conclusions on important research issues that have been the subjects of extensive scientific investigation? This question is illuminated by examining the attitudes and practices that separate mainstream climate researchers and credentialed contrarian scientists. The existence of contrarians, scientists who reject the findings of mainstream researchers, is not confined to climate science. Indeed, in many fields of science, rhetorical arguments have been made by contrarians in order to create the impression that the expert scientific community is divided, and that genuine scientific controversy exists, where in fact there is none. The frequent objective underlying this practice is not to advance the science, but rather to cast doubt on scientific findings because of opposition to policies that might be implemented because of trust in these scientific results. Thus, opposition to cap-and-trade systems, or to carbon taxes, or to government interference with markets, or to ceding national sovereignty via treaties, can all be reasons for calling into question the mainstream scientific result that climate change due to human activities is real and has significant adverse effects. Contrarian scientists in many fields have alleged that they are victims of secretive conspiracies by mainstream scientists. They have also created unrealistic expectations of what research ought to provide, such as by pointing out that all climate models have uncertainties and weaknesses, and therefore no model results deserve serious consideration. They have emphasized weaknesses in papers supporting mainstream findings, and have exaggerated the importance of isolated results, and they have attacked the methods and credibility of mainstream scientists, all in the hope of undermining mainstream findings. They have often sought to portray themselves as

  17. THE PHYSICS OF THE FAR-INFRARED-RADIO CORRELATION. I. CALORIMETRY, CONSPIRACY, AND IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacki, Brian C.; Thompson, Todd A.; Quataert, Eliot

    2010-07-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) and radio luminosities of star-forming galaxies are linearly correlated over a very wide range in star formation rate, from normal spirals like the Milky Way to the most intense starbursts. Using one-zone models of cosmic ray (CR) injection, cooling, and escape in star-forming galaxies, we attempt to reproduce the observed FIR-radio correlation (FRC) over its entire span. The normalization and linearity of the FRC, together with constraints on the CR population in the Milky Way, have strong implications for the CR and magnetic energy densities in star-forming galaxies. We show that for consistency with the FRC, {approx}2% of the kinetic energy from supernova explosions must go into high-energy primary CR electrons and that {approx}10%-20% must go into high-energy primary CR protons. Secondary electrons and positrons are likely comparable to or dominate primary electrons in dense starburst galaxies. We discuss the implications of our models for the magnetic field strengths of starbursts, the detectability of starbursts by Fermi, and CR feedback. Overall, our models indicate that both CR protons and electrons escape from low surface density galaxies, but lose most of their energy before escaping dense starbursts. The FRC is caused by a combination of the efficient cooling of CR electrons (calorimetry) in starbursts and a conspiracy of several factors. For lower surface density galaxies, the decreasing radio emission caused by CR escape is balanced by the decreasing FIR emission caused by the low effective UV dust opacity. In starbursts, bremsstrahlung, ionization, and inverse Compton cooling decrease the radio emission, but they are countered by secondary electrons/positrons and the dependence of synchrotron frequency on energy, both of which increase the radio emission. Our conclusions hold for a broad range of variations in our fiducial model, such as those including winds, different magnetic field strengths, and different diffusive escape

  18. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. PMID:25460380

  19. Peircean Decision Aid

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  20. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  1. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  2. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  3. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  4. Young Children's Understanding of Fact Beliefs versus Value Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results of four studies confirmed the hypothesis that three year olds would have less difficulty inferring that another person holds an odd belief about a matter of taste or value than they have in inferring that another person holds a false belief about a matter of verifiable fact. (RH)

  5. Irrational Beliefs of the Obese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Ronald C.; And Others

    The incidence and extent of irrational beliefs in the obese were investigated as well as subsequent changes in such beliefs as a result of participation in a self-monitored weight control program. Subjects were 53 females who were a minimum of 10 pounds and an average of 32 pounds overweight. The obese sample was administered the Irrational…

  6. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  7. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  8. Graphs as Statements of Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David

    2002-01-01

    Identifies points where beliefs are important when making decisions about how graphs are drawn. Describes a simple case of the reaction between 'bicarb soda' and orange or lemon juice and discusses how drawing a graph becomes a statement of belief. (KHR)

  9. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  10. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    PubMed

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. PMID:23974049

  11. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  12. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  13. Belief polarization is not always irrational.

    PubMed

    Jern, Alan; Chang, Kai-min K; Kemp, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Belief polarization occurs when 2 people with opposing prior beliefs both strengthen their beliefs after observing the same data. Many authors have cited belief polarization as evidence of irrational behavior. We show, however, that some instances of polarization are consistent with a normative account of belief revision. Our analysis uses Bayesian networks to characterize different kinds of relationships between hypotheses and data, and distinguishes between cases in which normative reasoners with opposing beliefs should both strengthen their beliefs, cases in which both should weaken their beliefs, and cases in which one should strengthen and the other should weaken his or her belief. We apply our analysis to several previous studies of belief polarization and present a new experiment that suggests that people tend to update their beliefs in the directions predicted by our normative account. PMID:24730598

  14. Delusions as harmful malfunctioning beliefs.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Kengo

    2015-05-01

    Delusional beliefs are typically pathological. Being pathological is clearly distinguished from being false or being irrational. Anna might falsely believe that his husband is having an affair but it might just be a simple mistake. Again, Sam might irrationally believe, without good evidence, that he is smarter than his colleagues, but it might just be a healthy self-deceptive belief. On the other hand, when a patient with brain damage caused by a car accident believes that his father was replaced by an imposter or another patient with schizophrenia believes that "The Organization" painted the shops on a street in red and green to convey a message, these beliefs are not merely false or irrational. They are pathological. What makes delusions pathological? This paper explores the negative features because of which delusional beliefs are pathological. First, I critically examine the proposals according to which delusional beliefs are pathological because of (1) their strangeness, (2) their extreme irrationality, (3) their resistance to folk psychological explanations or (4) impaired responsibility-grounding capacities of people with them. I present some counterexamples as well as theoretical problems for these proposals. Then, I argue, following Wakefield's harmful dysfunction analysis of disorder, that delusional beliefs are pathological because they involve some sorts of harmful malfunctions. In other words, they have a significant negative impact on wellbeing (=harmful) and, in addition, some psychological mechanisms, directly or indirectly related to them, fail to perform the jobs for which they were selected in the past (=malfunctioning). An objection to the proposal is that delusional beliefs might not involve any malfunctions. For example, they might be playing psychological defence functions properly. Another objection is that a harmful malfunction is not sufficient for something to be pathological. For example, false beliefs might involve some malfunctions

  15. Community breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Vari, Patty; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Olsen, Glenn; Anderson, Cindy; Holm, Jeffrey; Peterson, Heidi; Henly, Susan

    2013-07-01

    The cultural norms of a society have a powerful influence over health behavior decisions such as choosing an infant feeding method. The objective of this study was to explore the community breastfeeding perspective by examining breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs, experiences, and behaviors of a U.S. university community through an online survey. Linear and logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of those who had breastfed and those with positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs. Through the findings, the researchers suggest that exposure to breastfeeding and increasing positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs are important as the focus for public breastfeeding campaigns. PMID:23391135

  16. Beliefs and Computer-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Guey-Fa

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of beliefs to guide researchers in the development of computer-based learning. Topics include properties of beliefs; beliefs about learning; beliefs about computer technologies; directions for computer-based learning, including multimedia technology, virtual reality, and groupware; and learning rationales, including…

  17. Mass Transportation Operators' Beliefs about Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Pamela A.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated 171 mass transit operators' beliefs about blindness and the factors that may influence their beliefs. There were statistically significant differences among transit operators' beliefs on the basis of the operators' ethnicity. White participants had significantly fewer irrational beliefs about blindness than Hispanic and…

  18. Reasons for not using smoking cessation aids

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Beatrice; Brose, Leonie; Schumann, Anja; Ulbricht, Sabina; Meyer, Christian; Völzke, Henry; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Background Few smokers use effective smoking cessation aids (SCA) when trying to stop smoking. Little is known why available SCA are used insufficiently. We therefore investigated the reasons for not using SCA and examined related demographic, smoking behaviour, and motivational variables. Methods Data were collected in two population-based studies testing smoking cessation interventions in north-eastern Germany. A total of 636 current smokers who had never used SCA and had attempted to quit or reduce smoking within the last 12 months were given a questionnaire to assess reasons for non-use. The questionnaire comprised two subscales: "Social and environmental barriers" and "SCA unnecessary." Results The most endorsed reasons for non-use of SCA were the belief to be able to quit on one's own (55.2%), the belief that help is not necessary (40.1%), and the belief that smoking does not constitute a big problem in one's life (36.5%). One quarter of all smokers reported that smoking cessation aids are not helpful in quitting and that the aids cost too much. Smokers intending to quit agreed stronger to both subscales and smokers with lower education agreed stronger to the subscale "Social and environmental barriers". Conclusion Main reasons for non-use of SCA are being overly self-confident and the perception that SCA are not helpful. Future interventions to increase the use of SCA should address these reasons in all smokers. PMID:18430206

  19. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  20. Impact of culturally sensitive AIDS video education on the AIDS risk knowledge of African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, H C; Davis, G

    1994-02-01

    AIDS video education is a major mode of providing information about the spread and prevention of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Very little has been written about the need for culturally salient messages in increasing the acquisition and retention of HIV/AIDS prevention information, even though there is considerable agreement that limited culturally sensitive information is reaching African-American youth. This investigation sought to ascertain the impact of a culturally similar AIDS video on the acquisition of AIDS knowledge and endorsement of HIV/AIDS prevention beliefs. This study randomly assigned classes of African-American teenagers to one of two treatment groups: culturally similar video (CSV) AIDS education and culturally dissimilar video (CDV) AIDS education. Results suggest that the CSV group demonstrated significant improvement in pre- to post- AIDS knowledge scores compared to the CDV group (using ANCOVA procedures). The intervention was not significant in demonstrating change in beliefs about prevention. Implications for the development of HIV/AIDS prevention programs for inner-city African-American youth are discussed. PMID:8024942

  1. Brain networks shaping religious belief.

    PubMed

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Krueger, Frank; Thornburg, Matthew P; Grafman, Jordan Henry

    2014-02-01

    We previously demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that religious belief depends upon three cognitive dimensions, which can be mapped to specific brain regions. In the present study, we considered these co-activated regions as nodes of three networks each one corresponding to a particular dimension, corresponding to each dimension and examined the causal flow within and between these networks to address two important hypotheses that remained untested in our previous work. First, we hypothesized that regions involved in theory of mind (ToM) are located upstream the causal flow and drive non-ToM regions, in line with theories attributing religion to the evolution of ToM. Second, we hypothesized that differences in directional connectivity are associated with differences in religiosity. To test these hypotheses, we performed a multivariate Granger causality-based directional connectivity analysis of fMRI data to demonstrate the causal flow within religious belief-related networks. Our results supported both hypotheses. Religious subjects preferentially activated a pathway from inferolateral to dorsomedial frontal cortex to monitor the intent and involvement of supernatural agents (SAs; intent-related ToM). Perception of SAs engaged pathways involved in fear regulation and affective ToM. Religious beliefs are founded both on propositional statements for doctrine, but also on episodic memory and imagery. Beliefs based on doctrine engaged a pathway from Broca's to Wernicke's language areas. Beliefs related to everyday life experiences engaged pathways involved in imagery. Beliefs implying less involved SAs and evoking imagery activated a pathway from right lateral temporal to occipital regions. This pathway was more active in non-religious compared to religious subjects, suggesting greater difficulty and procedural demands for imagining and processing the intent of SAs. Insights gained by Granger connectivity analysis inform us about the causal

  2. Demographic factors and sexist beliefs as predictors of condom use among Latinos in the USA.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Julia; Plambeck, Chad R

    2010-08-01

    Based on a survey conducted among 198 Latinos in Central Illinois, USA, this study shows that income, education, and language skills were important predictors of condom use. In addition, hostile and benevolent sexist ideas had a differing impact on condom use. Hostile sexist ideas, such as the belief that women try to control men, increased condom use with both main and occasional partners. Benevolent sexism, for example, the idea that women should be cherished and protected, was negatively and significantly correlated with condom use with main partner. In this sense, benevolent sexism, an apparently less harmful type of prejudice against women, seems to out them at higher risk of HIV/AIDS infection. Therefore, HIV/AIDS prevention interventions designed for Latinos should not only address the dangers of hostile sexist beliefs in reproducing negative feelings about women but also the problems associated with benevolent sexist beliefs, which seem to decrease condom use. PMID:20677032

  3. Subverting culture: promoting HIV/AIDS prevention among Puerto Rican and Dominican women.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Torres, B; Serrano-García, I; Torres-Burgos, N

    2000-12-01

    This article discusses the challenges faced by researchers and interventionists when attempting to promote change in social norms and normative beliefs that promote HIV/AIDS risk-related behaviors among Puerto Rican and Dominican women. The article focuses on the role of culture in HIV/AIDS prevention with women by analyzing the sociohistorical context of some cultural beliefs and by illustrating the tension between risk-related and protective cultural beliefs in research conducted by the authors with women in both New York and Puerto Rico. The authors propose that promoting changes in sex-related social norms and normative beliefs might be constructed as a subversive act and present the challenge this analysis poses for community psychology. They conclude that this conceptualization might be construed as subversive because rather than idealizing culture, it promotes changes that respect diversity within the culture and foster participation in the development of new cultural values, beliefs and norms. PMID:11109482

  4. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  5. Expert system prototype of food aid distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve efficiency of the food aid distribution process of international food relief organizations. An overall objective of this study was to develop a prototype expert system for monitoring and evaluating food aid by international disaster relief organizations. The research identifies data related to monitoring and evaluation processes of various international food-aid organizations. It then applies an artificial intelligence-based expert system to develop a prototype for those processes. Existing data related to monitoring and evaluation program cycles were obtained. An expert system shell called CLIPS(c) (National Aeronautics Space Administration) was used to develop a prototype system named Food Aid Monitor, a rule-based expert system, which uses facts and heuristic rules to provide an adaptive feedback regarding monitoring and evaluating processes at various stages of food aid operation. The Food Aid Monitor was evaluated and validated by three expert panels checking the prototype system for completeness, relevancy, consistency, correctness, precision, and use-ability. Finally, the panels indicated a belief that the system could have an overall positive impact on the stages of monitoring and evaluating food aid processes of the food relief organizations. PMID:17392088

  6. Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions. That is, verbal communities reinforce (a) reporting general rather than specific attitudes and beliefs, (b) presentation of intraverbals as if they were tacts, and (c) presentation of beliefs as if they were attitudes. Consistency among and between attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is also contingent upon the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. Thus, attitudes and beliefs can be studied as social behavior rather than as private, cognitive processes. PMID:22478181

  7. Confidence in one's social beliefs: implications for belief justification.

    PubMed

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri

    2012-12-01

    Philosophers commonly define knowledge as justified true beliefs. A heated debate exists, however, about what makes a belief justified. In this article, we examine the question of belief justification from a psychological perspective, focusing on the subjective confidence in a belief that the person has just formed. Participants decided whether to accept or reject a proposition depicting a social belief, and indicated their confidence in their choice. The task was repeated six times, and choice latency was measured. The results were analyzed within a Self-Consistency Model (SCM) of subjective confidence. According to SCM, the decision to accept or reject a proposition is based on the on-line sampling of representations from a pool of representations associated with the proposition. Respondents behave like intuitive statisticians who infer the central tendency of a population based on a small sample. Confidence depends on the consistency with which the belief was supported across the sampled representations, and reflects the likelihood that a new sample will yield the same decision. The results supported the assumption of a commonly shared population of representations associated with each proposition. Based on this assumption, analyses of within-person consistency and cross-person consensus provided support for the model. As expected, choices that deviated from the person's own modal judgment or from the consensually held judgment took relatively longer to form and were associated with relatively lower confidence, presumably because they were based on non-representative samples. The results were discussed in relation to major epistemological theories--foundationalism, coherentism and reliabilism. PMID:22995400

  8. The ecology of religious beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  9. The ecology of religious beliefs.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C; Gray, Russell D

    2014-11-25

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  10. Adolescents' AIDS Risk Taking: A Rational Choice Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William; Herman, Janna

    1990-01-01

    Discounts the belief in adolescents' irrational behavior, and proposes a rational choice decision-making theory of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Suggests that social ecology affects risk-taking choices. Proposals for AIDS education concern delayed initiation of sexual activity, promotion of condom use, and counseling of high-risk adolescents.…

  11. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  12. Religious beliefs in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysh, Robert; Lucas, Keith B.

    1998-12-01

    The question of the relationship between science and religion assumes importance for many secondary school students of science, especially but not exclusively for those in Christian schools. Science as presented in many school classrooms is not as objective and value free as it might seem on first examination, nor does it represent adequately the range of beliefs about science held by students and teachers. This paper reports part of a larger research study into beliefs about science and religion held by students, teachers and clergy in a Lutheran secondary school. Results indicate that participants in the study was the relationship between science and religious belief in ways unforeseen and unappreciated by traditional school science programs. The stories of selected participants are told and they frame a discussion of implications of the study for science teaching.

  13. Persuading Students to Use Safer Sex Practices Proves Difficult, Even with the Danger of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschorn, Michael W.

    1987-01-01

    The most apparent roadblock to reaching the college-age population is the widespread belief that AIDS is a homosexual disease. College students don't know how to translate what they learn about AIDS into the way they live. Counseling is advocated. (MLW)

  14. Predictors of Intention To Take Precautions against AIDS among Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; Thompson, Vaida D.

    This research explored the effects of a number of factors derived from extant intention-behavior models on a general behavioral intention to engage in protection against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and a specific behavioral intention to use condoms as protection in vaginal sex. Data pertaining to beliefs, knowledge about AIDS, fear…

  15. Cultural Implications of Death and Loss from AIDS among Women in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2012-01-01

    Over 1.8 million people have died of AIDS in South Africa, and it continues to be a death sentence for many women. The purpose of this study was to examine the broader context of death and loss from HIV/AIDS and to identify the cultural factors that influenced existing beliefs and attitudes. The participants included 110 women recruited from 3…

  16. Thirdhand Smoke Beliefs of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Jeremy E.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Nabi-Burza, Emara; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Hipple, Bethany; Woo, Heide; Chang, Yuchiao

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if the belief that thirdhand smoke is harmful to children is associated with smoking parents’ attitudes, home or car smoking policies, and quitting behaviors. METHODS: Data from a national randomized controlled trial, Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure, assessed thirdhand smoke beliefs of 1947 smoking parents in an exit survey after a pediatric office visit in 10 intervention and 10 control practices. Twelve-month follow-up data were collected from 1355 parents. Multivariable logistic regression determined whether belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children is independently associated with parental behaviors and attitudes 12 months later. A χ2 test assessed whether parents who disagreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful were more likely to make a quit attempt if they later believed that thirdhand smoke is harmful. RESULTS: Belief at the exit survey that thirdhand smoke is harmful was independently associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free home policy (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.37–3.05) and car policy (adjusted odds ratio: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.04–2.74) at the 12-month follow-up. A significantly higher percentage (71% vs 50%) of parents who did not hold the thirdhand smoke harm belief at baseline made at least 1 quit attempt if they agreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful at the 12-month follow-up (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Thirdhand smoke harm belief was associated with a strictly enforced smoke-free home and car and attempts to quit smoking. Sensitizing parents to thirdhand smoke risk could facilitate beneficial tobacco control outcomes. PMID:24590745

  17. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    PubMed

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes. PMID:9520547

  18. Forming Beliefs: Why Valence Matters.

    PubMed

    Sharot, Tali; Garrett, Neil

    2016-01-01

    One of the most salient attributes of information is valence: whether a piece of news is good or bad. Contrary to classic learning theories, which implicitly assume beliefs are adjusted similarly regardless of valence, we review evidence suggesting that different rules and mechanisms underlie learning from desirable and undesirable information. For self-relevant beliefs this asymmetry generates a positive bias, with significant implications for individuals and society. We discuss the boundaries of this asymmetry, characterize the neural system supporting it, and describe how changes in this circuit are related to individual differences in behavior. PMID:26704856

  19. Clampdown on AIDS information in E. Africa.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, B

    1986-01-01

    What is most alarming about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in East Africa is that it is taboo. The reason for the clamping down on publicity in Kenya is that the government sees AIDS as a killer of tourism, the country's 2nd largest revenue earner. The government of Kenya, like several other African governments, is reacting to the widespread belief in the West that AIDS originated in Africa and that it is rampant in Central and East Africa. These "facts" have yet to be proven conclusively by medical evidence. It is certain that a large percentage of the population of these regions have antibodies to the virus HTLV-III, which causes AIDS. From this, virologists deduce that the people concerned must have been exposed to the AIDS virus. The Western media has exaggerated the African AIDS connection and given the impression that African countries are gripped in raging AIDS epidemics. In response to the alarmist publicity, some African countries have clamped down in information about the disease. The result is that the Western press feels confirmed in its fears and the local population, depending on rumor and heresay, have been living in a state of absolute panic. Instead of allaying fears, the clampdown on news has fueled dangerous rumors at home and frightened away tourists. Whatever may be causing the disease and wherever it may have come from, there is no question at all that there are now confirmed cases of AIDS in East and Central Africa. Thus far, the number of confirmed cases if relatively small, but if governments continue to try and hide the facts from the public, there is a real danger of an epidemic developing. A ministerial statement admits to 7 confirmed AIDS cases in Kenya. There are discrepancies in the reports, however. Doctors interviewed by "New African" in Nairobi recently believe the situation is far more serious than the government admits. Doctors in Kenya make the point that the country is highly vulnerable to the spread of AIDS

  20. British National Party representations of Muslims in the month after the London bombings: homogeneity, threat, and the conspiracy tradition.

    PubMed

    Wood, C; Finlay, W M L

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of articles written by prominent members of the British National Party. Each of these articles discussed Muslims and Islam in the aftermath of the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Two prominent discursive themes are discussed here. The first concerned the writers' constructions of the threat that Muslims and Islam pose to Britain. Central to this theme were constructions of Muslims as 'fascists', anti-white racists, and all potentially dangerous, although there was variability in this. Using the Koran as evidence, the articles present a vision of a faith which intends to take over the country; in this way, a homogenous, culturally essentialist version of Muslims is worked up. The second theme illustrates how the writers challenge those who believe that creating a British multicultural society is possible, and in doing so construct liberals and multiculturalists as also posing a threat to the country. The ways in which this represents a variety of conspiracy theory, and the implications of these constructions for social action, are discussed. PMID:18070375

  1. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique…

  2. An empirical assessment of pain beliefs.

    PubMed

    Williams, D A; Thorn, B E

    1989-03-01

    Pain beliefs represent patients' own conceptualizations of what pain is and what pain means for them. Such beliefs may be discordant with current scientific understanding and may serve to adversely affect compliance with modern methods of chronic pain treatment. This study attempts to assess several of the core dimensions around which pain beliefs develop and examines the relationship between pain beliefs and behavioral manifestations of the pain experience. An empirically and factorially derived product of this study, the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory (PBAPI) assess 3 dimensions of pain beliefs: (1) self-blame, (2) perception of pain as mysterious, and (3) beliefs about the duration of pain. These core pain beliefs were found to be predictive of subjective pain intensity, multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment compliance, poor self-esteem, somatization and psychological distress, and associated with attributions about health locus of control. PMID:2710564

  3. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-01-01

    Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and

  4. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  5. Whites' Beliefs about Blacks' Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluegel, James R.; Smith, Eliot R.

    1982-01-01

    Cites data which show that Whites tend to perceive widespread reverse discrimination, to see Blacks' opportunities as having greatly improved in recent years, and to deny structural limits to Black opportunity. Posits that these perceptions are related to (1) prevailing public beliefs about stratification and (2) peoples' own social positions and…

  6. Assessing Students' Beliefs about Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Denise A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents eleven open-ended questions used to address students' beliefs about mathematics that were culled from a wide variety of mathematics education populations. Each question is followed by a summary of typical responses from those populations that can help teachers plan instruction and structure the classroom environment. (JJK)

  7. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  8. Innovative Writing Instruction: Authentic Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Simao

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the success he experienced when he used some of aspects of "This I Believe" series in his classroom. Started in the 1950s and resurrected on National Public Radio (NPR) a few years ago, "This I Believe" is a series of statements of core beliefs from people of all backgrounds and ages: celebrities, politicians,…

  9. Belief Systems and Language Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    The paper discusses some of the "belief systems knowledge" used in language understanding. It begins with a presentation of a theory of personal causation. The theory supplies the tools to account for purposeful behavior. Using primitives of the theory, the social aspect of an action can be described. The social aspect is that which depends on…

  10. Irrational Beliefs, Anger, and Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwemer, Weare A.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Irrational Beliefs Test, Anger Inventory, and Trait Anxiety Inventory to 382 students. Results revealed that personal perfection, anxious overconcern, blame pronenes, and catastrophizing were predictors of general anger. Anxious overconcern, problem avoidance, catastrophizing, and personal perfection were significant regression…

  11. Resilience: It Begins with Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truebridge, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Educators' beliefs are powerful, affecting not only their pedagogical practices, but also student efficacy and success. The academic achievement of any particular student may rely greatly on whether the teacher believes that student has the ability to succeed. This article affirms the imperative for administrators and educators to spend time…

  12. LinguisticBelief and PoolEvidence

    SciTech Connect

    DARBY, JOHN

    2008-03-11

    LinguisticBelief allows the creation and analysis of combinations of linguistic variables with epistemic uncertainty for decision making. The model is solved using approximate reasoning to implement the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for combinations of variables expressed as purely linguistic fuzzy sets. PoolEvidence pools evidence for linguistic variables from many experts for input into LinguisticBelief.

  13. Encoding of Others' Beliefs without Overt Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam S.; German, Tamsin C.

    2009-01-01

    Under what conditions do people automatically encode and track the mental states of others? A recent investigation showed that when subjects are instructed to track the location of an object but are not instructed to track a belief about that location in a non-verbal false-belief task, they respond more slowly to questions about an agent's belief,…

  14. Teacher Beliefs Shape Learning for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torff, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Folk beliefs in our culture support less rigorous curriculum for disadvantaged students, and initiatives to encourage educators to rethink these beliefs are in order. But that's not so easily accomplished. There's ample evidence that all kinds of beliefs are resistant to change. Nonetheless, research shows that disadvantaged students could handle…

  15. Inferring False Beliefs from Actions and Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Louis J.; Flavell, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the possibility that three year olds would do better on tasks in which belief cues were stronger than on standard false belief tasks, in which the children could reason backward to the belief from its effects. Findings provided strong support for the view that three year olds do not fully understand the…

  16. Children's Beliefs about Intelligence and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipek, Deborah; Gralinski, J. Heidi

    1996-01-01

    Associations among children's beliefs about intelligence and effort, goal orientations, self-reported learning strategies, and academic achievement were studied with 319 children in grades 3 through 6. Results revealed a coherent set of beliefs about intelligence and academic performance, and that beliefs are powerful predictors of achievement…

  17. Loneliness and Irrational Beliefs among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Collette L.; Collison, Brooke B.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between loneliness and irrational beliefs among 236 college students who completed the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale and the Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT). Results revealed three specific irrational beliefs (Dependency, Anxious Overconcern, and Frustration Reactivity) to be predictive of…

  18. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  19. An Association Account of False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

  20. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  1. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  2. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  3. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  4. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  5. Rumor, gossip and blame: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention in the South African lowveld.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic provides fertile breeding ground for theories of the origin of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and the allocation of blame. Drawing on ethnographic research in the Bushbuckridge region of the South African lowveld, this article examines the articulation of AIDS through gossip and rumor. These oral forms create moral readings of behavior and shape folk discourses of AIDS that resist dominant epidemiological explanations. Significantly, constructions of AIDS are not uniform. Although elders claim AIDS as traditional and curable, younger men and women support theories of AIDS as a modern, foreign disease. Witchcraft beliefs are popular in explaining why certain people die and not others. At times, rumor may escalate into a moral panic. The implications of these findings for social responses to the AIDS epidemic and HIV/AIDS prevention are explored. PMID:14516020

  6. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Angela C M; Spraggon, John M; Denny, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance. PMID:26859492

  7. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance. PMID:26859492

  8. Beliefs about language development: construct validity evidence.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V

    2012-01-01

    Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations. PMID:23270979

  9. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief

    PubMed Central

    Ghrear, Siba E.; Birch, Susan A. J.; Bernstein, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind (ToM).’ Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan. PMID:26903922

  10. Perceptual Influence of Ugandan Biology Students' Understanding of HIV/AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutonyi, Harriet; Nashon, Samson; Nielsen, Wendy S.

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS has largely depended on public and private media messages about the disease. Media campaigns based on Uganda’s cultural norms of communication are metaphorical, analogical and simile-like. The topic of HIV/AIDS has been introduced into the Senior Three (Grade 11) biology curriculum in Uganda. To what extent do students’ pre-conceptions of the disease, based on these media messages influence students’ development of conceptual understanding of the disease, its transmission and prevention? Of significant importance is the impact the conceptions students have developed from the indirect media messages on classroom instruction on HIV/AIDS. The study is based in a theoretical framework of conceptual change in science learning. An interpretive case study to determine the impact of Ugandan students’ conceptions or perceptions on classroom instruction about HIV/AIDS, involving 160 students aged 15-17, was conducted in four different Ugandan high schools: girls boarding, boys boarding, mixed boarding, and mixed day. Using questionnaires, focus group discussions, recorded biology lessons and informal interviews, students’ preconceptions of HIV/AIDS and how these impact lessons on HIV/AIDS were discerned. These preconceptions fall into four main categories: religious, political, conspiracy and traditional African worldviews. Results of data analysis suggest that students’ prior knowledge is persistent even after biology instructions. This has implications for current teaching approaches, which are mostly teacher-centred in Ugandan schools. A rethinking of the curriculum with the intent of offering science education programs that promote understanding of the science of HIV/AIDS as opposed to what is happening now—insensitivity to misconceptions about the disease—is needed.

  11. Living with death in a time of AIDS: A rural South African case study1

    PubMed Central

    POSEL, DEBORAH; KAHN, KATHLEEN; WALKER, LIZ

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine how a rural community profoundly affected by escalating rates of largely AIDS-related deaths of young and middle-aged people makes sense of this phenomenon and its impact on their everyday lives. Methods Data were collected in Agincourt subdistrict, Limpopo Province. Twelve focus groups were constituted according to age and gender and met three times (a total of 36 focus-group discussions [FGDs]). The FGDs explored sequentially people’s expectations of their lives in the “new” South Africa, their interpretations of the acceleration of death amongst the young and middle-aged, and their understandings of HIV/AIDS. Discussions were recorded, fully transcribed, and thematically analysed. Results Respondents acknowledged escalating death rates in their community, yet few referred directly to HIV/AIDS as the cause. Rather, respondents focused on the social and cultural causes of death, including the erosion of cultural norms and traditions such as cultural taboos on sex. There are many competing versions of what HIV/AIDS is, what causes it and how it is spread, ranging from scientific explanations to conspiracy theories. Findings highlight the relationship between AIDS and other traditional diseases with some respondents suggesting that AIDS is a new form of other longstanding illnesses. Conclusions This study points to the centrality of cultural explanations in understanding “bad death” (AIDS death) in the Agincourt area. Physical illness is understood to be a symptom of “cultural damage”. Implications of this for public health practice and research are outlined. PMID:17676515

  12. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

  13. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  14. Differing religious views on the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Naidu, S

    1997-01-01

    Many religions believe AIDS is mainly a homosexual disease. They have differing views upon how the disease should be treated, but they all agree that people with AIDS should be treated with love, respect, and care. The Hindu religion is strongly opposed to extramarital and premarital sex, two behaviors which promote the spread of HIV. Sex is for procreation and should be experienced only within the limits of marriage, and homosexuality does not fit within the Hindu emphasis upon marriage. However, the person with AIDS should be treated with selfless spirit and reminded of the immortality of the soul as explained in the Hindu Scripture. The Catholic Church does not recognize homosexual relationships and does not promote the use of contraception. A Christian would, however, encourage the person with AIDS to make use of his or her remaining days of life and to look forward to a better afterlife. The Islam sect of Soofieism believes AIDS is a self-inflicted disease caused by promiscuity and the breakdown of morals in society. People who are terminally ill should return to their old religious values and beliefs. PMID:12293156

  15. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV. PMID:8782442

  16. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  17. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  18. Cognitive Obstacles to Pro-Vaccination Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Miton, Helena; Mercier, Hugo

    2015-11-01

    Two frameworks--cultural attraction theory and epistemic vigilance--predict a cultural disadvantage for counter-intuitive beliefs. We review several cognitive mechanisms that conspire to render pro-vaccination beliefs counter-intuitive. Trust and argumentation can spread counter-intuitive beliefs, but only under some conditions. We discuss the hurdles that trust and argumentation face in the case of vaccination. PMID:26522341

  19. Influence of religious belief on Mongolian medicine.

    PubMed

    Caijilahu, C

    1999-04-01

    Religious belief exerts certain influence on early development of Mongolian medicine. Up to early 20th century, some aspects of Mongolian medicine, including diagnostic methods and therapeutic remedies were all dyed with religion. Hence, the study of Mongolian medical history involves culture, philosophy and religious belief, especially culture in its broad sense, and micro - religion, such as the witchery culture of remote ancient time, totem in primitive religion and all kinds of worshipping and beliefs. PMID:11623862

  20. Meteor Beliefs Project: Seven years and counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A.; Drobnock, G. J.; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2010-04-01

    The Meteor Beliefs Project's seventh anniversary is celebrated with an eclectic mixture of meteor beliefs from the 1799 Leonids in Britain, the folkloric link between meteors and wishing in some Anglo-American sources, how a meteoric omen came to feature in Nathaniel Hawthorne's 1850 novel The Scarlet Letter, and a humorous item from the satirical magazine Punch in 1861, all helping to show how meteor beliefs can be transformed by different parts of society.

  1. A Critical Feminist Perspective of the Health Belief Model: Implications for Nursing Theory, Research, Practice, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Linda W.

    1995-01-01

    Most nursing research is based on empiricism or logical positivism; the social behaviorist approach of the Health Belief Model does little to promote awareness or examine power issues. A critical feminist perspective aids understanding of health practices based on contextual knowledge and a holistic approach. (JOW)

  2. Beliefs and knowledge in chemistry teacher development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veal, William R.

    2004-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to establish a link between preservice, secondary chemistry teachers' knowledge base and beliefs about teaching. The case study followed two preservice chemistry teachers through their methods course, practicum experience, and student teaching internship. Pedagogical content knowledge vignettes, following a microgenetic model, and other data sources were used to monitor participants' conceptual change over time. Participants had well-intentioned beliefs about teaching and chemistry. The interaction of epistemologies and beliefs was determined to be synergistic, such that they remained separate epistemological ideas. The beliefs about content were not changed whereas those for teaching did change; one focused on epistemic understanding and the other on subjective realization.

  3. Infant Childrearing: Beliefs of Parents and Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Gwendolyn; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined differences in childrearing beliefs and changes in mothers' and fathers' beliefs over a six-month period. Results of Luster Parental Beliefs Survey and Personal Style Inventory indicated significant differences between mothers and fathers in beliefs about spoiling, and between mothers and care providers in beliefs about discipline.…

  4. Epistemological Beliefs, Mathematical Problem-Solving Beliefs, and Academic Performance of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Duell, Orpha K.; Hutter, Rosetta

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the structure of middle school students' general epistemological beliefs and domain-specific mathematical problem-solving beliefs by asking whether the 2 belief systems are related and whether they predict students' academic performance. Over 1,200 seventh- and eighth-grade students completed an Epistemological Questionnaire,…

  5. Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale: Evolution of the Personal Beliefs and Reactions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Dawne S.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale (PMBS) was developed to measure maladaptive beliefs about current life circumstances that may occur following trauma exposure. This scale assesses maladaptive beliefs within three domains: (a) Threat of Harm, (b) Self-Worth and Judgment, and (c) Reliability and Trustworthiness of Others. Items for the…

  6. Older Children's Misunderstanding of Uncertain Belief after Passing the False Belief Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Xueru; Zhang, Li; Sha, Wenju; Deak, Gedeon; Li, Hong

    2010-01-01

    A four-location belief task was designed to examine children's understanding of another's uncertain belief after passing a false belief (FB) task. In Experiment 1, after passing the FB task, participants were asked what a puppet would do after he failed to find his toy at the falsely believed location. Most 4-year-olds and half of 6-year-olds…

  7. Turkish Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs Regarding Science Teaching and Their Beliefs about Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencer, Ayse Savran; Cakiroglu, Jale

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Turkish preservice science teachers' science teaching efficacy and classroom management beliefs. Data in this study were collected from a total number of 584 preservice science teachers utilizing the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument and the attitudes and beliefs on classroom control (ABCC)…

  8. The Effect of Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving Beliefs on Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memnun, Dilek Sezgin; Akkaya, Recai; Haciomeroglu, Guney

    2012-01-01

    This study examines prospective teachers' beliefs in their own abilities and effectiveness to impart mathematical literacy to their students, their beliefs about mathematical problem solving, and the relationship between these two belief systems. A total of 567 prospective teachers, majoring in mathematics, science and elementary teacher education…

  9. Pre-Service Teachers' Personal Epistemic Beliefs and the Beliefs They Assume Their Pupils to Have

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebmann, Karin; Schloemer, Tobias; Berding, Florian; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In their workaday life, teachers are faced with multiple complex tasks. How they carry out these tasks is also influenced by their epistemic beliefs and the beliefs they assume their pupils hold. In an empirical study, pre-service teachers' epistemic beliefs and those they assume of their pupils were investigated in the setting of teacher…

  10. Investigating the Relationships among PSTs' Teaching Beliefs: Are Epistemological Beliefs Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahçivan, Eralp

    2016-01-01

    The present case study explored the teaching belief systems of pre-service science teachers (PSTs), including epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy beliefs, conceptions of science learning and teaching and pedagogical content knowledge. Based on their epistemological scores, three PSTs who were categorised as exhibiting naïve, moderately…

  11. Do Humans Have Two Systems to Track Beliefs and Belief-Like States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperly, Ian A.; Butterfill, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of consensus on how to characterize humans' capacity for belief reasoning has been brought into sharp focus by recent research. Children fail critical tests of belief reasoning before 3 to 4 years of age (H. Wellman, D. Cross, & J. Watson, 2001; H. Wimmer & J. Perner, 1983), yet infants apparently pass false-belief tasks at 13 or 15…

  12. Visions of visualization aids - Design philosophy and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or a parsimonious description of phenomena implicit in the data. Useful visualization, in contrast to glitzy, high-tech, computer-graphics imagery, is generally based on preexisting theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena. These beliefs guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Visualization tools are useful for understanding naturally three-dimensional data bases such as those used by pilots or astronauts. Two examples of such aids for spatial maneuvering illustrate that informative geometric distortion may be introduced to assist visualization and that visualization of complex dynamics alone may not be adequate to provide the necessary insight into the underlying processes.

  13. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  14. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  15. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  16. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  17. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  18. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  19. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  20. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  1. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  2. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  3. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  4. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  5. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  6. [Spiritual support in HIV seropositivity or AIDS].

    PubMed

    Pelchat, M

    1992-01-01

    Acute life experiences ("expériences limites de l'existence") have long been considered the exclusive domain of religion. Until recently in Québec, the Catholic Church was noted for overseeing these symbolic events. Although the religious reference has not completely disappeared, the author argues that it has now undergone two changes, in terms of privatization and diversification. As such, several systems of belief, whether religious or secular, are being suggested to provide meaning to our lives. Yet, can these approaches provide any relevant support to patients in general, and to HIV-infected persons in particular, including the various organizations and individuals that provide care and assistance? The author points out that genuine support for seropositive persons or AIDS patients in their search for meaning and their fight against the negative forces in life, must involve a person's spiritual dimension. The outcome of this indispensable process does not necessarily have to lead to a traditional religious creed. However, in considering the issue of spiritual support in the context of illness and suffering, the author concludes that "belief in the search for meaning" is an imperative for all those who are concerned by AIDS. PMID:1515526

  7. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  8. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  9. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  10. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  11. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  12. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  13. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  14. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  15. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  16. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  17. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  18. Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Peggy O; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases in the United States, the quality of life of children with AIDS, and concerns that parents and the community have about the disease. Suggests some responses for educational institutions and teachers to help confront AIDS and help children with the disease. (MDM)

  19. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  20. Changing Professional Practice Requires Changing Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Patricia L.; Nelson, Sarah W.

    2009-01-01

    Creating schools that are culturally responsive and successful with all students requires doing basic work with educators to uncover their beliefs about children. If school leaders believe, like many people do, that changed behavior will result in changed beliefs, they are mistaken. Leaders must be proactive in identifying what teachers believe…

  1. Diversity of Students' Beliefs about Biological Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clores, Michael A.; Limjap, Auxencia A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the beliefs about biological evolution held by college freshman students in one Catholic university in the Philippines. After 4 weeks of constructivist-inspired instruction, interviews and journal entries revealed that the students have diverse beliefs about the theory of evolution. They posited…

  2. Rationality and Belief in Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that rationality and belief are mutually formative dimensions of school mathematics, where each term is more politically embedded than often depicted in the field of mathematics education research. School mathematics then presents not so much rational mathematical thought distorted by irrational beliefs but rather a particular…

  3. Adolescent Television Viewing and Belief in Vampires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr; Robbins, Mandy; Picton, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A total of 1133 13-15-year-old pupils in six secondary schools in South Wales were invited to complete questions concerning vampire belief and amount of television watching. The data demonstrate that belief in vampires was positively associated with higher levels of television watching.

  4. TEACHERS BELIEF SYSTEMS AND PRESCHOOL ATMOSPHERES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARVEY, O.J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY INVESTIGATES THE EFFECT OF A TEACHER'S BELIEF OR CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM ON HIS TEACHING METHOD AND ON THE CLASSROOM ATMOSPHERE CREATED BY THAT TEACHING METHOD. A BELIEF SYSTEM WAS CHARACTERIZED AS EITHER CONCRETE OR ABSTRACT. A CONCRETE SYSTEM WAS REPRESENTED BY A TENDENCY FOR THE TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH TO BE MORE STRUCTURED, MORE…

  5. Professional Preparation: Multicultural Health Beliefs in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Linda Sue

    1982-01-01

    A course dealing with the health beliefs of Hispanics, American Indians, and Anglo Americans was developed at the University of New Mexico. An ethnically diverse class visited different cultural settings in the Southwest to study beliefs about religion, nutrition, folk medicine, and other customs affecting health practices. (PP)

  6. Justification Beliefs and Multiple-Documents Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bråten, Ivar; Ferguson, Leila E.; Strømsø, Helge I.; Anmarkrud, Øistein

    2013-01-01

    Building on the multidimensional framework of epistemic cognition proposed by Greene et al. ("Educational Psychologist" 43:142--160, 2008), this study examined beliefs about justification of knowledge claims in science among 65 Norwegian 10th graders. The first research question asked whether beliefs in personal justification,…

  7. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  8. The Expert Ceiling in Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Paulsen and Wells (1998) stated that, "it seems unlikely that substantial differences in epistemological beliefs across domains would persist in studies of faculty or other more advanced experts," (p. 380). This statement implies the existence of an upper limit or ceiling effect in the epistemological beliefs among experts. Faculty members are…

  9. Non-Scientific Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2012-01-01

    A survey of over 11 000 undergraduate students' knowledge and attitudes related to science and technology over a 22-year period included statements that probed faith-based beliefs and various aspects of pseudoscience belief and superstition. The results reveal that nonscientific ways of thinking are resistant to formal instruction, changing…

  10. Relations between Epistemological Beliefs and Culture Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulimma, Maren

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Epistemological beliefs, defined as individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge and the process of knowing, are assumed to serve an important function in regulating the application of individuals' learning behaviour. Previous research has mainly been shaped by the framework of results of white, well-educated people from North…

  11. Teachers' Beliefs about Pedagogy and Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Vicki E.; Roehl, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs about pedagogical issues as well as related educational and professional issues. Six hundred K-12 teachers in three Midwestern states received surveys and 60% returned them. Results of the survey indicated that teachers were relatively unified in their beliefs, and few differences emerged around demographic…

  12. Belief in an Afterlife: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Bolin, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    Examined factors affecting belief in afterlife. Data from 1978 subfile on National Opinion Research Center's General Social Survey showed that, controlling on frequency of church attendance and religious intensity, Protestants had highest incidence of belief in life after death, followed by Catholics, and then by Jews. Race, religion, and church…

  13. Irrational Beliefs and Perceptions of Marital Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Norman; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Undergraduates completed Jones's Irrational Beliefs Test and reported impressions of actors portraying couples on videotape. Disagreeing couples were rated as experiencing more negative feelings, sharing less affection, having less stable relationships, and being less compatible than agreeing couples. Observers high in irrational beliefs reported…

  14. Belief biases and volatility of assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei-Sun, Wen-Zou, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on an overlapping generation model, this paper introduces the noise traders with belief biases and rational traders. With an equilibrium analysis, this paper examines the volatility of risky asset. The results show that the belief biases, the probability of economy state, and the domain capability are all the factors that have effects on the volatility of the market.

  15. Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linden

    The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

  16. Beliefs About Rape and Women's Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costin, Frank; And Others

    The hypothesis that views of rape which place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs which restrict the rights and roles of women in our society is tested. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Hubert Feild) and the attitudes toward women's scale (Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich),…

  17. Beliefs and Emotions in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragao, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    From the argument that in languaging worlds are created (Aragao, 2005; Kalaja, 1995, 2003; Maturana and Varela, 2001; Nunez, 1997), this article aims at reflecting about the relationship between emotions and beliefs in foreign language learning. It is argued that beliefs and emotions in language learning/teaching are inter-related and can be…

  18. Does Education Cause Spiritual Belief Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, D. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Currently, little is known about the influence classroom learning has on the spiritual beliefs of students. Despite this fact, decisions on educational policy, parental home schooling, and even whether to bring legal actions against school districts, often rest on the assumption that education can induce spiritual belief change. To begin the…

  19. Advanced EFL Learners' Beliefs about Pronunciation Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghazo, Sharif M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores EFL learners' beliefs about English pronunciation teaching and aims to provide insights into current teaching practices of English pronunciation at both college and university levels. To this end, the study sought to elicit the beliefs of a group of 71 third- and fourth-year EFL learners majoring in English at a university…

  20. Empowering Student Leadership Beliefs: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Kadolph, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Leadership beliefs contribute to behaviors and attitudes. The purposes for conducting this study were 1) to gain an understanding of undergraduate students' leadership beliefs, 2) to implement three distinct leadership modules into an introductory textiles and clothing course, and 3) to assess the modules' effectiveness in promoting empowering…

  1. Investigating University Students' Beliefs about Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohebi, Sanaz Ghobadi; Khodadady, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate beliefs students usually held about language learning, based on the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) questionnaire (Horwitz, 1988). For this purpose, 423 University learners of English in Iran were selected. Running descriptive statistics and the scree plot test, five factors were extracted:…

  2. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  3. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  4. Zidovudine Adherence in Persons with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Meredith Y; Rapkin, Bruce D; Morrison, Anne; Kammerman, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the relation of patient beliefs about medication usage and adherence to zidovudine (ZDV) therapy in persons with AIDS. DESIGN Face-to-face interviews were used to determine attitudes of persons with AIDS toward ZDV and other prescribed medications, history of ZDV usage, and sociodemographics. SETTING A public hospital infectious disease clinic, an AIDS day care program, and an inpatient unit in a voluntary hospital where care was provided cooperatively by staff and an informal–care partner. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS One hundred forty-one people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome agreed to be reinterviewed as part of a longitudinal, New York City–based study examining outcomes related to quality of life. Initial recruitment procedures were to approach all active AIDS patients at each of the three sites between January and July of 1992; reinterviews, which were conducted an average of 6 months later, occurred from mid-1992 through May of 1993. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The Zidovudine Drug Attitude Inventory was used to assess subjective feelings and attitudes concerning ZDV and prescribed medications in general. Respondents were grouped into five categories on the basis of their ZDV usage history: (1) “short-term” users (i.e., those who had been taking ZDV for 25 months or less); (2) “long-term” users (i.e., those who had been taking ZDV for more than 25 months); (3) self-terminated users; (4) doctor-terminated users; and (5) never users. Long-term users were likely to view ZDV as an illness prophylactic. In contrast, self-terminated users and never users were most likely to believe that ZDV caused adverse side effects and that medicine need not be taken as prescribed. CONCLUSIONS Patients’ beliefs about ZDV were significantly associated with adherence-related behavior. In particular, those who had self-terminated ZDV treatment believed that taking the drug was harmful, were skeptical of its ability to prevent illness, and

  5. Declining rotation curves - The end of a conspiracy. [HI rotation velocity decrease of two galaxies as indication of large luminous to dark mass ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Casertano, S.; Van gorkom, J.H. Pittsburgh Univ., PA Columbia Univ., New York National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM )

    1991-04-01

    Two new H I rotation curves, observed at the Very Large Array as part of a search for galaxies with extended H I envelopes, are presented. The two curves are characterized by a large decrease in rotation velocity (more than 50 km/s, or about 25 percent of the maximum rotation velocity) between 1 and 3 optical radii. The velocity decrease is present on both sides of each galaxy and is not due to projection effects. The decrease in rotation velocity is interpreted as an indication of a large ratio of luminous to dark mass in the luminous regions of these systems. While confirming the idea that dark matter is ubiquitous, the discovery indicates that the match between the properties of luminous and dark matter required by the well-known 'conspiracy' is not perfect. 69 refs.

  6. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  7. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  8. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  9. Neural signals encoding shifts in beliefs.

    PubMed

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Dolan, Ray

    2016-01-15

    Dopamine is implicated in a diverse range of cognitive functions including cognitive flexibility, task switching, signalling novel or unexpected stimuli as well as advance information. There is also longstanding line of thought that links dopamine with belief formation and, crucially, aberrant belief formation in psychosis. Integrating these strands of evidence would suggest that dopamine plays a central role in belief updating and more specifically in encoding of meaningful information content in observations. The precise nature of this relationship has remained unclear. To directly address this question we developed a paradigm that allowed us to decompose two distinct types of information content, information-theoretic surprise that reflects the unexpectedness of an observation, and epistemic value that induces shifts in beliefs or, more formally, Bayesian surprise. Using functional magnetic-resonance imaging in humans we show that dopamine-rich midbrain regions encode shifts in beliefs whereas surprise is encoded in prefrontal regions, including the pre-supplementary motor area and dorsal cingulate cortex. By linking putative dopaminergic activity to belief updating these data provide a link to false belief formation that characterises hyperdopaminergic states associated with idiopathic and drug induced psychosis. PMID:26520774

  10. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1) rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2) rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3) enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism. PMID:25309491

  11. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1) rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2) rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3) enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism. PMID:25309491

  12. Fusion of Pedigreed Preferential Relations as Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Tojo, Satoshi

    Belief fusion, instead of AGM belief revision, was first proposed to solve the problem of inconsistency, that arised from repetitive application of the operation when agents' knowledge were amalgamated. In the preceding work of Maynard-Reid II and Shoham, the fusion operator is applied to belief states, which is total preorders over possible worlds which is based on the semantics of belief revision. Moreover, they introduced the pedigreed belief state, which represented multiple sources of belief states, ordered by a credibility ranking. However in the theory, all the sources must be totally ordered and thus applicable area is quite restrictive. In this paper, we realize the fusion operator of multiple agents for partially ordered sources. When we consider such a partial ranking over sources, there is no need to restrict that each agent has total preorders over possible worlds. The preferential model, based on the semantics on nonmonotonic reasoning, allows each agent to have strict partial orders over possible worlds. Especially, such an order is called a preferential relation, that prescribes a world is more plausible than the other. Therefore, we introduce an operation which combines multiple preferential relations of agents. In addition, we show that our operation can properly include the ordinary belief fusion.

  13. Neural signals encoding shifts in beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Dolan, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is implicated in a diverse range of cognitive functions including cognitive flexibility, task switching, signalling novel or unexpected stimuli as well as advance information. There is also longstanding line of thought that links dopamine with belief formation and, crucially, aberrant belief formation in psychosis. Integrating these strands of evidence would suggest that dopamine plays a central role in belief updating and more specifically in encoding of meaningful information content in observations. The precise nature of this relationship has remained unclear. To directly address this question we developed a paradigm that allowed us to decompose two distinct types of information content, information-theoretic surprise that reflects the unexpectedness of an observation, and epistemic value that induces shifts in beliefs or, more formally, Bayesian surprise. Using functional magnetic-resonance imaging in humans we show that dopamine-rich midbrain regions encode shifts in beliefs whereas surprise is encoded in prefrontal regions, including the pre-supplementary motor area and dorsal cingulate cortex. By linking putative dopaminergic activity to belief updating these data provide a link to false belief formation that characterises hyperdopaminergic states associated with idiopathic and drug induced psychosis. PMID:26520774

  14. Mathematics teachers' beliefs and curriculum reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handal, Boris; Herrington, Anthony

    2003-05-01

    This paper discusses the role of mathematics teachers' beliefs and their impact on curriculum reform. It is argued that teachers' beliefs about the teaching and learning mathematics are critical in determining the pace of curriculum reform. Educational change is a complex process in which teachers hold strong beliefs about the quality and the process of innovation. Curriculum implementation may only occur through sufferance as many teachers are suspicious of reform in mathematics education given its equivocal success over the past decades. It is not surprising then that many teachers, when they come to enact the curriculum in their classes, rely more on their own beliefs than on current trends in pedagogy. These beliefs, conservative as they might be, have their own rationality in the practical and daily nature of the teaching profession, and in the compelling influence of educational systems from which these teachers are paradoxically the social product. The literature indicates that many of these teachers hold behaviourist beliefs, a fact that has strong implications for the success of constructivist-oriented curriculum reform. In general, studies of teachers' pedagogical beliefs reveal the extreme complexity of bringing about educational change, and largely explains the failure of many past reform endeavours.

  15. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted. PMID:21082471

  16. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  17. AIDS: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Turk, H N

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has had a profound effect on society and the workplace and has raised legal and social problems for which society was not prepared. This article will chronicle the evolution of federal, state and local law concerning AIDS and the workplace. Although there are some clear-cut answers and guidelines that address the relationship of employer and employee to the AIDS epidemic, current legislation and enforcement of those laws does not adequately address the AIDS victim as a handicapped individual. Emphasis is also placed on the problems peculiar to the health care industry, the constitutionality of present legislation, and the AIDS victim's right to privacy versus the employer's need to know. Finally, some practical solutions and guidelines will be presented that will help the employer deal with the AIDS victim and his or her co-worker. PMID:10295811

  18. The Electric Media Conspiracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Media defines a process of marking time. I can only make my own marks as producer and consumer of my own media forms. Man is, all at once, life sound and life motion--a mark through time, leaving a trail of images behind. Media is a natural extension of being human. (SR)

  19. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  20. The Interstellar Conspiracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Matloff, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    If we were designing a human-carrying starship that could be launched in the not-too-distant future, it would almost certainly not use a warp drive to instantaneously bounce around the universe, as is done in Isaac Asimov's classic Foundation series or in episodes of Star Trek or Star Wars. Sadly, those starships that seem to be within technological reach could not even travel at high relativistic speeds, as does the interstellar ramjet in Poul Anderson's Tau Zero. Warp-speeds seem to be well outside the realm of currently understood physical law; proton-fusing ramjets may never be technologically feasible. Perhaps fortunately in our terrorist-plagued world, the economics of antimatter may never be attractive for large-scale starship propulsion. But interstellar travel will be possible within a few centuries, although it will certainly not be as fast as we might prefer. If humans learn how to hibernate, perhaps we will sleep our way to the stars, as do the crew in A. E. van Vogt's Far Centaurus. However, as discussed in a landmark paper in The Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, the most feasible approach to transporting a small human population to the planets (if any) of Alpha Centauri is the worldship. Such craft have often been featured in science fiction. See for example Arthur C. Clarke's Rendezvous with Rama, and Robert A. Heinlein's Orphans of the Sky. Worldships are essentially mobile versions of the O Neill free-space habitats. Constructed mostly from lunar and/or asteroidal materials, these solar-powered, multi-kilometer-dimension structures could house 10,000 to 100,000 humans in Earth-approximating environments. Artificial gravity would be provided by habitat rotation, and cosmic ray shielding would be provided by passive methods, such as habitat atmosphere and mass shielding, or magnetic fields. A late 21st century space-habitat venture might support itself economically by constructing large solar-powered satellites to beam energy back to Earth.

  1. Testing superdeterministic conspiracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    Tests of Bell's theorem rule out local hidden variables theories. But any theorem is only as good as the assumptions that go into it, and one of these assumptions is that the experimenter can freely choose the detector settings. Without this assumption, one enters the realm of superdeterministic hidden variables theories and can no longer use Bell's theorem as a criterion. One can like or not like such superdeterministic hidden variables theories and their inevitable nonlocality, the real question is how one can test them. Here, we propose a possible experiment that could reveal superdeterminism.

  2. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  3. LinguisticBelief: a java application for linguistic evaluation using belief, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    LinguisticBelief is a Java computer code that evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. The mathematics of fuzzy sets, approximate reasoning, and belief/ plausibility are complex. Without an automated tool, this complexity precludes their application to all but the simplest of problems. LinguisticBelief automates the use of these techniques, allowing complex problems to be evaluated easily. LinguisticBelief can be used free of charge on any Windows XP machine. This report documents the use and structure of the LinguisticBelief code, and the deployment package for installation client machines.

  4. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  5. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  6. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  7. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  8. Perceived social context of AIDS in a Black township in Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness

    2003-01-01

    AIDS is only one of several life threatening social problems facing people living in poverty. HIV/AIDS prevention messages and prevention programmes should be framed within the context of relevant social problems. The current study examined public perceptions of AIDS as a relative social problem and AIDS-related socio-political beliefs among South African men and women living in a Black township of Cape Town. Participants (224 men and 276 women) completed surveys that assessed perceptions of HIV/AIDS relative to nine other social problems: lack of housing, transportation, poor sanitation, sufficient food, unemployment, discrimination, poor education, violence and crime. Participants also responded to six items assessing socio-political views of AIDS. Results showed that AIDS was perceived as a serious social problem in the township, but was perceived as less serious than crime and not different from violence and unemployment. Principal components factor analyses showed that AIDS was associated with multiple social problems and that AIDS was most closely associated with crime and violence, representing social problems that directly cause death. Although AIDS perceptions were similar to those expressed by the South African government, there was evidence for some mistrust about both what the government was doing and what it was saying about AIDS. HIV prevention messages in South Africa should be tailored to fit the perceived social context of AIDS. PMID:25871937

  9. Head Start Teachers' Beliefs about Language and Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of Head Start teachers' beliefs about early literacy and the teacher background factors that relate to these beliefs. Twenty-eight Head Start teachers were given the Preschool Teacher Literacy Beliefs Questionnaire (TBQ) and a background questionnaire. Reliable belief subscales reflecting code, oral language,…

  10. Examining Changes in Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs of Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Pre-service teachers enter teacher education with beliefs about teaching and ideas on pedagogical approaches. This research focuses on monitoring the pedagogical beliefs of a cohort of pre-service teachers' pre-existing pedagogical beliefs on important/relevant pedagogy for secondary teaching and how these beliefs changed over the course of their…

  11. Preschool Teachers' Beliefs about Children's Print Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Beliefs have often been considered important because of their relation to practice. Little is known about the literacy beliefs of preschool teachers, particularly their print literacy beliefs, even though young children's experiences with print have implications for formal schooling. Therefore, this study explored the print literacy beliefs of…

  12. Spanking Infants and Toddlers: Maternal Belief and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socolar, Rebecca R. S.; Stein, Ruth E. K.

    1995-01-01

    Interviewed mothers about spanking infants and toddlers to determine beliefs and practice and relationships between factors affecting these beliefs and practices. Found that context of the spanking affects spanking beliefs and practice and that beliefs about spanking rather than impulse largely explain the prevalence of spanking for children under…

  13. Gifted Students' Implicit Beliefs about Intelligence and Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makel, Matthew C.; Snyder, Kate E.; Thomas, Chandler; Malone, Patrick S.; Putallaz, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Growing attention is being paid to individuals' implicit beliefs about the nature of intelligence. However, implicit beliefs about giftedness are currently underexamined. In the current study, we examined academically gifted adolescents' implicit beliefs about both intelligence and giftedness. Overall, participants' implicit beliefs about…

  14. Irrational Beliefs and the Arousal of Emotional Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the extent to which endorsement of irrational beliefs as measured by Jones' Irrational Beliefs Test was associated with emotional distress. Results showed beliefs relevant to stress were more associated with negative cognitions, while fear of negative evaluation was more associated with distress than were irrational beliefs. (JAC)

  15. Beliefs into Practice: A Religious Inquiry into Teacher Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    In the field of teacher knowledge, "beliefs" is a large term narrowly constructed. The beliefs theorized, researched, and discussed are beliefs about technique, methodology, curriculum, classroom management, professional development, and similarly. Spiritual and religious beliefs are for the most part omitted. This study argues that they should be…

  16. University Students' Beliefs about Learning English and French in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diab, Rula L.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs about language learning of Lebanese English as a Foreign Language university students, compared their beliefs about learning different target languages, namely, English and French, and investigated within-group variation in these students' beliefs. A modified version of Horwitz's "Beliefs about Language Learning…

  17. Parents' Motivational Beliefs about Their Involvement in Young Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Ali Kemal

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to assess Turkish parents' motivational beliefs, including their role activity and self-efficacy beliefs about their involvement in young children's education. The impact of demographic characteristics on these motivational beliefs was also explored. Parents' motivational beliefs about their involvement were measured by using the…

  18. Ten Mismatches between Teachers' Beliefs and Written Feedback Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy

    2009-01-01

    Research on teachers' beliefs has demonstrated that beliefs have an important impact on teachers' practice. In teacher feedback research, however, not much is known about teachers' beliefs and the extent to which they influence practice. This article reports on the findings from a study that investigated teachers' beliefs and practice in written…

  19. Educational Beliefs of Supreme Court Justices in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ronald T.

    The educational beliefs of Supreme Court Justices in the 1980s are examined, i.e., the explicitly stated beliefs, rather than any inferred beliefs based on legal decisions. In particular, the focus is on beliefs expressed only in the major Court opinions rendered in the 1980s. Issues discussed include the definition of education, its relation to…

  20. Managing Risk and Experiencing Danger: Tensions between Government AIDS Education Policy and Young Women's Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Janet; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Government AIDS education programs in Britain have focused on nonheterosexual behavior. Protection of population depends on changes in high-risk sexual practices among heterosexuals. The part played by young women has received little attention. Reviews data from a survey of young women's sexual beliefs and behavior and suggests that appropriate…

  1. HIV/AIDS Knowledge in College Students: The Implications for Individuals and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Amy L.; Prince, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of college students investigated their HIV/AIDS knowledge. Results indicated that significant sex differences existed on most subscales. Important gaps in students' knowledge include lack of awareness of HIV transmission through oral sex or from mother to infant, belief that donating blood can cause one to contract HIV, and lack of…

  2. Predictors of Medication Adherence in an AIDS Clinical Trial: Patient and Clinician Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Lisa E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents data from an AIDS clinical trial that evaluated 238 (60 percent nonwhite) patients infected with HIV and their clinician's perceptions of medication adherence and visit attendance in relationship to lifestyle, psychosocial, and health belief model (HBM) variables. Twelve sites collected data via a prospective, multisite…

  3. Cracking the Student Aid Code: Parent and Student Perspectives on Paying for College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Paying for college is a challenge for many Americans and navigating the financial aid process can be very difficult, especially for low-income and first-generation college students. The College Board commissioned research to learn more about students' and parents' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about the importance of a college education and how…

  4. [An offspring of love. Freud on belief].

    PubMed

    Will, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    This paper elucidates Freud's ideas of belief and believing. By investigating the semantic field, it discusses the place of his theory of religion in the context of his thought. It argues for a consistent model which does not stem from antireligious prejudice but meshes with his whole thinking. For Freud religious belief was a special case of the general attitude of believing. He situated it within a three-stage development of the individual as well as of humanity, starting with a state of magical-animistic thinking in autoerotism and narcissism and leading, via object-dependency and a belief in omnipotent parental figures, to emancipation through rationality and critical judgement. The origin of belief in wishing accounts for the believer's lack of judgement and submission to religious authorities. In the end some of the advantages and disadvantages of Freud's model are highlighted. PMID:17333718

  5. Health beliefs and behaviors of Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Ide, B A; Sanli, T

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes perceptions of familiarity with symptoms and beliefs about illnesses based on interviews with 50 Saudi women. The sample was young, with 82% under the age of 40, and not well educated by Western standards, with one-third being illiterate and 80% having no more than a primary school education. More than half lived in households of six or more. Although there was greater awareness of germs as causative factors in illness than previous studies in Saudi Arabia had demonstrated, beliefs in multiple causes, including religious beliefs about disease causation, persisted. There was an apparent lack of understanding of specific causes of various illnesses or of the rationale for preventive measures. This lack of understanding may be related to the low education levels and/or deeply ingrained cultural beliefs. PMID:1475998

  6. Belief network algorithms: A study of performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jitnah, N.

    1996-12-31

    This abstract gives an overview of the work. We present a survey of Belief Network algorithms and propose a domain characterization system to be used as a basis for algorithm comparison and for predicting algorithm performance.

  7. Exceptional epidemics: AIDS still deserves a global response

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There has been a renewed debate over whether AIDS deserves an exceptional response. We argue that as AIDS is having differentiated impacts depending on the scale of the epidemic, and population groups impacted, and so responses must be tailored accordingly. AIDS is exceptional, but not everywhere. Exceptionalism developed as a Western reaction to a once poorly understood epidemic, but remains relevant in the current multi-dimensional global response. The attack on AIDS exceptionalism has arisen because of the amount of funding targeted to the disease and the belief that AIDS activists prioritize it above other health issues. The strongest detractors of exceptionalism claim that the AIDS response has undermined health systems in developing countries. We agree that in countries with low prevalence, AIDS should be normalised and treated as a public health issue--but responses must forcefully address human rights and tackle the stigma and discrimination faced by marginalized groups. Similarly, AIDS should be normalized in countries with mid-level prevalence, except when life-long treatment is dependent on outside resources--as is the case with most African countries--because treatment dependency creates unique sustainability challenges. AIDS always requires an exceptional response in countries with high prevalence (over 10 percent). In these settings there is substantial morbidity, filling hospitals and increasing care burdens; and increased mortality, which most visibly reduces life expectancy. The idea that exceptionalism is somehow wrong is an oversimplification. The AIDS response can not be mounted in isolation; it is part of the development agenda. It must be based on human rights principles, and it must aim to improve health and well-being of societies as a whole. PMID:19912658

  8. Deconstructing the notion of 'belief' in psychology: commentary on 'beyond belief'.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Delefosse, Marie

    2012-10-01

    The article by John Cromby raises pertinent issues concerning the exclusively cognitive approach of 'belief' as well as regarding the very variable and vague definition of this notion. Beliefs in the area of Health do not stem from the mere cognitive sector. They are not purely discursive in nature either. Beliefs are rooted in experienced embodiment and influenced by the unique story of each subject. However, the reader sometimes regrets the lack of development on the nature of the links between three different levels: the cognitive, the affective and the social one. The notion of 'belief' in Psychology remains to be deconstructed. PMID:22912504

  9. Nestedness of beliefs: Examining a prospective elementary teacher's belief system about science teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Lynn A.

    2003-11-01

    This study, conducted from a constructivist perspective, examined the belief system of a prospective elementary teacher (Barbara) about science teaching and learning as she developed professional knowledge within the context of reflective science teacher education. From an analysis of interviews, observation, and written documents, I constructed a profile of Barbara's beliefs that consisted of three foundational and three dualistic beliefs. Her foundational beliefs concerned (a) the value of science and science teaching, (b) the nature of scientific concepts and goals of science instruction, and (c) control in the science classroom. Barbara held dualistic beliefs about (a) how children learn science, (b) the science students' role, and (c) the science teacher's role. Her dualistic beliefs formed two contradictory nests of beliefs. One nest, grounded in lifelong science learner experiences, reflected a didactic teaching orientation and predominantly guided her practice. The second nest, not well grounded in experience, embraced a hands-on approach and predominantly guided her vision of practice. The findings accentuate the complexity and nestedness of teachers' belief systems and underscore the significance of identifying prospective teachers' beliefs, espoused and enacted, for designing teacher preparation programs.

  10. Patient Deception: Nursing Students' Beliefs and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Drew A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined nursing students' beliefs about indicators of deception and their attitudes toward patient deception. Fifty-eight participants from various nursing programs at a southwestern university completed a Detection of Deception Questionnaire and Attitudes Toward Patient Deception Scale. Findings indicated that nursing students have a number of inaccurate beliefs about deception and possess a number of negative attitudes toward patients who lie. Implications for nursing education are discussed. PMID:25783815

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Egyptian industrial and tourist workers towards HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M

    2008-01-01

    This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085

  12. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  13. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  14. Language Promotes False-Belief Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Pyers, Jennie E.; Senghas, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Developmental studies have identified a strong correlation in the timing of language development and false-belief understanding. However, the nature of this relationship remains unresolved. Does language promote false-belief understanding, or does it merely facilitate development that could occur independently, albeit on a delayed timescale? We examined language development and false-belief understanding in deaf learners of an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. The use of mental-state vocabulary and performance on a low-verbal false-belief task were assessed, over 2 years, in adult and adolescent users of Nicaraguan Sign Language. Results show that those adults who acquired a nascent form of the language during childhood produce few mental-state signs and fail to exhibit false-belief understanding. Furthermore, those whose language developed over the period of the study correspondingly developed in false-belief understanding. Thus, language learning, over and above social experience, drives the development of a mature theory of mind. PMID:19515119

  15. Rethinking the learning of belief network probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R.

    1996-03-01

    Belief networks are a powerful tool for knowledge discovery that provide concise, understandable probabilistic models of data. There are methods grounded in probability theory to incrementally update the relationships described by the belief network when new information is seen, to perform complex inferences over any set of variables in the data, to incorporate domain expertise and prior knowledge into the model, and to automatically learn the model from data. This paper concentrates on part of the belief network induction problem, that of learning the quantitative structure (the conditional probabilities), given the qualitative structure. In particular, the current practice of rote learning the probabilities in belief networks can be significantly improved upon. We advance the idea of applying any learning algorithm to the task of conditional probability learning in belief networks, discuss potential benefits, and show results of applying neural networks and other algorithms to a medium sized car insurance belief network. The results demonstrate from 10 to 100% improvements in model error rates over the current approaches.

  16. Gravity, God and Ghosts? Parents' Beliefs in Science, Religion, and the Paranormal and the Encouragement of Beliefs in Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Gregory S.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, the present study examined parents' beliefs regarding the development of children's beliefs about science, religion, and the paranormal. The study also investigated parental encouragement of children's beliefs, as well as parents' own beliefs within these domains. Results revealed that parents make distinctions between…

  17. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  18. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  19. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  20. Health Aides Serve...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huscher, John

    1976-01-01

    The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

  1. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  2. A New AIDS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of young people are affected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). An effective AIDS education program must address functional knowledge, relevant skills, and motivation. The program must be comprehensive and taught by trained teachers. Lists a source of an annotated…

  3. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  4. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  5. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  6. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  7. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Torno, M S; Babapour, R; Gurevitch, A; Witt, M D

    2000-02-01

    Acanthamoeba is a recognized pathogen in the immunocompromised patient, commonly presenting as chronic or subacute encephalitis. However, cutaneous disease in the absence of CNS involvement is increasingly recognized, especially in the setting of chronic, nonhealing skin lesions in the patient with AIDS. We describe a patient with AIDS and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and review our experience with treatment and diagnosis. PMID:10640931

  8. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  9. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  10. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  11. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  12. Games and Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This document is filled with suggestions for inexpensive teacher-made classroom aids that can be used for concept reinforcement with the total class, a small group, or individual students. The games and teaching aids provided, allow instructors to provide the motivational drill to develop speed and accuracy for basic computational skills. The…

  13. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  14. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  15. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  16. Anticipated affective reactions and prevention of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Richard, R; van der Pligt, J; de Vries, N

    1995-03-01

    Controlling the AIDs epidemic may depend largely upon health education aimed at adolescents. A number of approaches have been applied to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventive behaviour in adolescents, including the health belief model (Becker, 1974), protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), and the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1985, 1991). Since sexual behaviour is heavily influenced by emotions, a possible shortcoming of these models is that little attention is given to affective processes. In this study we investigated the role of anticipated, post-behavioural, affective reactions to (un)safe sexual behaviours in the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). The results showed that anticipated affective reactions such as worry and regret predicted behavioural expectations over and above the components of the TPB. The implications for our understanding of adolescent sexual behaviour and for campaigns aimed at the reduction of risky sexual practices will be discussed. PMID:7735735

  17. AIDS prevention program for Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Castro de Alvarez, V

    1990-04-01

    Historically women are considered the family's primary care provider and biologically, they are the link in the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Because of this dual role, they need programs that are culturally sensitive and effective. Many Latinas do not perceive themselves to be at risk despite the educational resources available to them. This article examines cultural factors that influence risk perception and behavioral changes in response to educational intervention. Interviews and literature review were used in assessing availability, applicability and cultural sensitivity of AIDS prevention programs. Effective programs need to be culturally sensitive to gender role expectation and the role of motherhood for Latinas. Educators expressed the belief that women benefit most from programs that help them implement the behaviors that will help protect them. Programs must be cognizant of the cultures' demand for respect and modesty while providing factual information/instruction. PMID:2270255

  18. What do Different Beliefs Tell us? An Examination of Factual, Opinion-Based, and Religious Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Heiphetz, Larisa; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Harris, Paul L.; Banaji, Mahzarin R.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults differentiate statements of religious belief from statements of fact and opinion, but the basis of that differentiation remains unclear. Across three experiments, adults and 8-10-year-old children heard statements of factual, opinion-based, and religious belief. Adults and children judged that statements of factual belief revealed more about the world, statements of opinion revealed more about individuals, and statements of religious belief provided information about both. Children—unlike adults—judged that statements of religious belief revealed more about the world than the believer. These results led to three conclusions. First, judgments concerning the relative amount of information statements of religious belief provide about individuals change across development, perhaps because adults have more experience with diversity. Second, recognizing that statements of religious belief provide information about both the world and the believer does not require protracted learning. Third, statements of religious belief are interpreted as amalgams of factual and opinion-based statements. PMID:24748720

  19. Assessing Teachers' Multicultural and Egalitarian Beliefs: The Teacher Cultural Beliefs Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachfeld, Axinja; Hahn, Adam; Schroeder, Sascha; Anders, Yvonne; Stanat, Petra; Kunter, Mareike

    2011-01-01

    The article describes the newly developed Teacher Cultural Beliefs Scale (TCBS). The TCBS assesses multicultural and egalitarian beliefs about diversity, both of which reflect favorable attitudes toward immigrant students, but differ with regard to how cultural diversity is believed to be best accommodated in schools. Results from a first study…

  20. Epistemological Beliefs Are Standards for Adaptive Learning: A Functional Theory about Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromme, Rainer; Pieschl, Stephanie; Stahl, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies reveal a close relationship between epistemological beliefs (EBs) and metacognition. For example, more "sophisticated" beliefs are associated with more self-reported monitoring strategies. This relationship is also advocated theoretically. Nevertheless, exactly "how" and "why" EBs impact learning is still an open question. In…