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Sample records for aids control organization

  1. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997–2017). Methods A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. Results While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government’s priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non

  2. Computer aided manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  3. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. Methods A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases: 1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. Results The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary prevention activities. Conclusions

  4. Tanzanian women's organizations respond to HIV / AIDS. Women's forum.

    PubMed

    Shariff, H

    1995-07-01

    The cumulative number of AIDS cases reported to the National AIDS Control Program from Arusha rose from 579 in 1990 to 1599 in 1994. The Women's AIDS Control Society of Arusha (CHAWAKUA) is a 3-year-old, 100-member organization which educates the public about HIV/AIDS prevention, counsels people who are HIV-seropositive, distributes condoms, and provides child care, including orphan support. CHAWAKUA's goal is to empower women to cope with HIV infection and its effects by providing a forum in which infected women can openly share their experiences and console each other. CHAWAKUA is supported by members' entry and annual fees as well as in-kind contributions of food, clothing, and medicine. A similar organization in Kilimanjaro region, KIWAKKUKI, educates female adolescents about human relations, sexuality, and the consequences of teenage sexual relations. KIWAKKUKI also works with churches, schools, and youth groups; develops educational materials; and airs radio programs about HIV/AIDS. PMID:12291827

  5. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    Engineering is coming to rely more and more heavily upon the computer for computations, analyses, and graphic displays which aid the design process. A general purpose simulation system, the Time-shared Automatic Control Laboratory (TACL), and a set of computer-aided design programs, Control Oriented Interactive Graphic Analysis and Design…

  6. Activist Media in Native AIDS Organizing: Theorizing the Colonial Conditions of AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgensen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author examines how activist media by Native AIDS organizers promoted anticolonial analyses of AIDS, gender, and sexuality as a contribution to scholarship on Native responses to AIDS. His discussion centers on the organizers who created media as authorities on and in their media. In contrast to recent accounts that popularize…

  7. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  8. Jurisdictional Control: The Regulation of Nurses' Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Susan C.

    1988-01-01

    The future of health care depends on a more unified nursing hierarchy. It makes sense to place the regulation of nurses' aides within the jurisdiction of the state nursing board, the agency charged with providing safe nursing care. Strengthening nursing's jurisdictional control will not only improve the quality of care, it will increase the…

  9. Stressors and rewards for workers in AIDS service organizations.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Craig

    2002-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of recent advances in the treatment of HIV/AIDS on AIDS service providers. The study surveyed the motivations, stressors, and rewards of workers employed in AIDS service organizations. Employees of AIDS service organizations play a valuable role in providing services to people with HIV/AIDS, and their motives and attitudes about their jobs are significantly related to the quality of care provided to clients. A total of 180 employees from nine AIDS service organizations in New York City completed a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic, motivation, stressor, and reward items. This ethnically diverse sample consisted of social service workers (56%), administrative workers (22%), health care workers (18%), and other workers (4%). Forty-two percent of respondents had been working in the AIDS field for 5 or more years. The main reasons for choosing this line of work were a desire to help others, followed by having experienced the loss of a loved one to AIDS. Overall, respondents rated the level of stressors in their jobs as moderate. The main category of stress was "lack of support" (referring to the availability of resources and support for clients). The most important individual stressors were societal attitudes towards AIDS, salary, client deaths, and administrative duties. The most highly valued reward factor associated with AIDS caregiving was "personal effectiveness." Overall, the rewards of AIDS caregiving outweighed the stressors, for respondents. Implications of these findings for administrators of AIDS service organizations are discussed. PMID:12015872

  10. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication. PMID:16849088

  11. Social Constructs and Disease: Implications for a Controlled Vocabulary for HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jeffrey T.; Gillaspy, Mary L.

    1998-01-01

    The body of knowledge associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents complexity not present in any other disease. A controlled vocabulary and classification structure used to organize the body of knowledge associated with HIV/AIDS is discussed. (Author/AEF)

  12. Optimal control of HIV/AIDS dynamic: Education and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2014-07-01

    A mathematical model which describes the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS is developed. The optimal control representing education and treatment for this model is explored. The existence of optimal Control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations suggest that education and treatment for the infected has a positive impact on HIV/AIDS control.

  13. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  14. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  15. "We talk of AIDS because we love life": a stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS organizations in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Alicen B; Brieger, William R

    This stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS service providing institutions in Argentina offers insights into the HIV/AIDS crisis in Spanish-speaking Latin America from an institutional level and makes recommendations for strengthening the work and functioning of these institutions. This stakeholder assessment was conducted to determine how HIV/AIDS prevention and management in Argentina affects and is affected by relevant HIV/AIDS institutions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 key leaders of organizations working in HIV/AIDS prevention in Buenos Aires including non-governmental, governmental, and academic institutions. Analyses of interviewee comments are presented according to four major themes: network connections, program resources, perceptions of success, and challenges. Key findings include the need for strengthening formal networks, increasing the involvement of other non-AIDS related social institutions in promoting HIV prevention, finding more sustainable funding options, working more effectively with the public sector to create policies and regulations favorable to the HIV/AIDS field, and addressing the lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS in Argentine culture. From leaders' comments, recommendations are made for strengthening the HIV/AIDS network among key institutions including adapting the UNAIDS "Three Ones" principal to create one crosssector office responsible for coordinating HIV/AIDS work, formalizing agreements with institutions outside of Buenos Aires, increasing the role of schools in HIV/AIDS awareness, and designing programs that address lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS among Argentines. PMID:18573753

  16. Teenage sexuality: implications for controlling AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, H; Lawrence, C; Tripp, J

    1989-01-01

    A study on 761 teenagers aged 15-17 years showed that 56% of both sexes had had a steady or serious relationship. For about 40% of both sexes intercourse was a part of this relationship. Teenagers know how AIDS is transmitted, but only one third indicated personal concern about the epidemic. Only a fifth anticipate a single monogamous relationship. Significantly more girls than boys are planning to have fewer partners. Of these not anticipating monogamy three quarters mentioned the use of condoms. If education is to be effective in reducing the AIDS epidemic it must be sufficiently relevant to create and maintain changes in life style and must also educate teenagers before they have established patterns of behaviour. PMID:2817942

  17. Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roat, S. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a single input/single output feedback control system design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Uses a heat exchanger temperature control loop to illustrate the various applications of the program. (ML)

  18. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  19. Investigation of piloting aids for manual control of hypersonic maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Phillips, Michael R.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of piloting aids designed to provide precise maneuver control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is described. Stringent constraints and nonintuitive high-speed flight effects associated with maneuvering in the hypersonic regime raise the question of whether manual control of such a vehicle should even be considered. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of manual control that is desirable for a vehicle maneuvering in this regime and to identify the form of aids that must be supplied to the pilot to make such control feasible. A piloted real-time motion-based simulation of a hypersonic vehicle concept was used for this study, and the investigation focused on a single representative cruise turn maneuver. Piloting aids, which consisted of an auto throttle, throttle director, autopilot, flight director, and two head-up display configurations, were developed and evaluated. Two longitudinal control response types consisting of a rate-command/attitude-hold system and a load factor-rate/load-factor-hold system were also compared. The complete set of piloting aids, which consisted of the autothrottle, throttle director, and flight director, improved the average Cooper-Harper flying qualities ratings from 8 to 2.6, even though identical inner-loop stability and control augmentation was provided in all cases. The flight director was determined to be the most critical of these aids, and the cruise turn maneuver was unachievable to adequate performance specifications in the absence of this flight director.

  20. Application of decision aid technology to command and control

    SciTech Connect

    Wanner, E.; Steigerwald, R.; Clark, D.

    1984-03-01

    The development of decision aids for command and control (C/sup 2/), including a look at the C/sup 2/ environment and objectives are reviewed. Developing computer based decision aids can involve the use of techniques ranging from simple automation of manual tasks to the use of artificial intelligence for complex automation of an expert's heuristic reasoning ability. Database management techniques, operations research and decision analysis are also useful. 7 references.

  1. Aid For Simulating Digital Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    DIVERS translator is computer program to convert descriptions of digital flight-control systems (DFCS) into computer program. Language developed to represent design charts of DFCS. Translator converts DIVERS source code into easily transportable language, while minimizing probability that results are affected by interpretation of programmer. Final translated program used as standard of comparison to verify operation of actual flight-control systems. Applicable to simulation of other control systems; for example, electrical circuits and logic processes. Written in C.

  2. Computer-Assisted Instruction in AIDS Infection Control for Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A microcomputer program to provide health care workers with instruction in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) infection control was assessed by medical residents. The experimental group (n=24) acquired more knowledge than controls (n=33). Response to the method was positive, and computer-assisted instruction is seen as useful for AIDS…

  3. Organic weed control in watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is an essential element for certified organic crop production and producers place weed control as their highest research priority within their IPM programs. The objective of these experiments was to investigate the impact of integrated organic weed control systems o...

  4. Assessing Employee Attitudes in a Community-Based AIDS Service Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Kuotsai Tom; Cruise, Peter L.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-one employees of the Comprehensive Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Program of Palm Beach County (Florida) were surveyed to explore their motives and attitudes toward their jobs, clients, and the organization. Implications for management of AIDS service organizations and program quality are discussed. (SLD)

  5. Controller evaluations of the descent advisor automation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard; Volckers, Uwe; Erzberger, Heinz

    1989-01-01

    An automation aid to assist air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting arrival times at a fix has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The automation aid, referred to as the descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent point and speed profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is interfaced with a mouse-based, menu-driven controller display that allows the air traffic controller to interactively use its accurate predictive capability to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. This paper focuses on operational issues concerning the utilization of the DA, specifically, how the DA can be used for prediction, intrail spacing, and metering. In order to evaluate the DA, a real time simulation was conducted using both current and retired controller subjects. Controllers operated in teams of two, as they do in the present environment; issues of training and team interaction will be discussed. Evaluations by controllers indicated considerable enthusiasm for the DA aid, and provided specific recommendations for using the tool effectively.

  6. Predicting Loss-of-Control Boundaries Toward a Piloting Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Jonathan; Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an approach to predicting loss-of-control with the goal of providing the pilot a decision aid focused on maintaining the pilot's control action within predicted loss-of-control boundaries. The predictive architecture combines quantitative loss-of-control boundaries, a data-based predictive control boundary estimation algorithm and an adaptive prediction method to estimate Markov model parameters in real-time. The data-based loss-of-control boundary estimation algorithm estimates the boundary of a safe set of control inputs that will keep the aircraft within the loss-of-control boundaries for a specified time horizon. The adaptive prediction model generates estimates of the system Markov Parameters, which are used by the data-based loss-of-control boundary estimation algorithm. The combined algorithm is applied to a nonlinear generic transport aircraft to illustrate the features of the architecture.

  7. A computer-aided approach to nonlinear control systhesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Anthony, Tobin

    1988-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to develop a computer-aided approach to nonlinear stability analysis and nonlinear control system design. This goal is to be obtained by refining the describing function method as a synthesis tool for nonlinear control design. The interim report outlines the approach by this study to meet these goals including an introduction to the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program which was instrumental in meeting these study objectives. A single-input describing function (SIDF) design methodology was developed in this study; coupled with the software constructed in this study, the results of this project provide a comprehensive tool for design and integration of nonlinear control systems.

  8. Creating and sustaining an effective coaching culture in home care: one organization's performance improvement related to aides and aide retention.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marki

    2011-05-01

    Relationships between aides and their supervisors are often challenging. Unproductive disciplinary conversations lead to increased dissatisfaction, low morale, high turnover, and stress levels among staff. This cycle can continue to spiral if not effectively addressed and aimed in a positive direction. This article shares the experience of an organization that addressed this concern through a performance improvement initiative. PMID:21543917

  9. Role of delay and screening in controlling AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Sudipa; Bhatia, Sumit Kaur; Gupta, Surbhi

    2016-06-01

    We propose a non-linear HIV/ AIDS model to analyse the spread and control of HIV/AIDS. The population is divided into three classes, susceptible, infective and AIDS patients. The model is developed under the assumptions of vertical transmission and time delay in infective class. Time delay is also included to show sexual maturity period of infected newborns. We study dynamics of the model and obtain the reproduction number. Now to control the epidemic, we study the model where aware infective class is also added, i.e., people are made aware of their medical status by way of screening. To make the model more realistic, we consider the situation where aware infective class also interacts with other people. The model is analysed qualitatively by stability theory of ODE. Stability analysis of both disease-free and endemic equilibrium is studied based on reproduction number. Also, it is proved that if (R0)1, R1 ≤ 1 then, disease free equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable and if (R0)1, R1 > 1 then, disease free equilibrium is unstable. Also, the stability analysis of endemic equilibrium point has been done and it is shown that for (R0)1 > 1 endemic equilibrium point is stable. Global stability analysis of endemic equilibrium point has also been done. At last, it is shown numerically that the delay in sexual maturity of infected individuals result in less number of AIDS patients.

  10. Controlling AIDS in Cuba. The logic of quarantine.

    PubMed

    Bayer, R; Healton, C

    1989-04-13

    Cuba has initiated a program to control Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that is designed to limit the spread of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by implementing compulsory elements of the public health tradition. Widespread screening for HIV infection began 3 years ago, and persons identified as infected have been sent to a sanatorium located in a Havana suburb. The program also reflects concern over the marked increase in prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Educational effects in Cuba stress that AIDS is not a disease exclusively of homosexuals and can affect any individual. Condoms are recommended for protection. In contrast to virtually every other nation, Cuba has not made education the key focus of its anti-AIDS strategy. Education is relegated to a marginal role. Key to the policy is identifying infected individuals and bringing them under medical control. Cuba's HIV surveillance program has been carried out with use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot assay, and antigen tests that have been developed domestically. The director of the Cuban AIDS Investigations Laboratory reports that nearly 3 million Cubans have been tested. It is estimated that among the 7 low-infection groups tested in Cuba, between 21 and 53 persons may have been inaccurately considered positive as a result of testing. Cuban authorities have expressed much interest in obtaining commercially available HIV screening kits -- both ELISA and Western blot assays -- as a standard against which to measure their own test. Despite the inevitability of continued viral transmission, Cuba's policy of a modified quarantine certainly will limit the toll of HIV infection markedly yet comes at a great price. For other nations, the imperatives of prevention, however important, are not the only values to be considered in the battle against AIDS. PMID:2927477

  11. A model for HIV/AIDS pandemic with optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is pandemic. It has affected nearly 60 million people since the detection of the disease in 1981 to date. In this paper basic deterministic HIV/AIDS model with mass action incidence function are developed. Stability analysis is carried out. And the disease free equilibrium of the basic model was found to be locally asymptotically stable whenever the threshold parameter (RO) value is less than one, and unstable otherwise. The model is extended by introducing two optimal control strategies namely, CD4 counts and treatment for the infective using optimal control theory. Numerical simulation was carried out in order to illustrate the analytic results.

  12. Qualitative Contributions to a Randomized Controlled Trial Addressing HIV/AIDS-Stigma in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Specialized training for healthcare professionals (HCP) in order to reduce HIV/AIDS related stigma must be part of a public health model for HIV/AIDS. Tested interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS related stigma among HCP have been mostly absent from these efforts. A qualitative approach was used to assess stigma reduction within a traditional randomized controlled design in order to better understand how our current stigma intervention worked and was understood by 2nd year medical students. After conducting a quantitative follow up survey one-year post intervention we conducted 20 in-depth qualitative interviews with a subsample of our intervention group participants as part of the overall evaluation process. Once the interviews were finished, we transcribed them and used NVivo (v.8) to organized the qualitative data. In the process of analyzing the qualitative data we identified core intervention areas participants described as useful for their training and development: (1) acquiring more HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, (2) increased skills for management of high stigma situations, and (3) the ability to identify socio-structural factors that foster HIV infection among clients. The gathered information is important in order to have a deep understanding of how attitudinal change happens as part of our intervention strategies. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Stigma, Randomized Controlled Trial, Qualitative Evaluation, Medical Students, Puerto Rico PMID:26855975

  13. 78 FR 46950 - Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... claims. \\2\\ See Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11... Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint...

  14. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  15. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  16. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  17. Global walks teach teens to fight HIV/AIDS epidemic. Organization supported entirely by volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chittick, John

    2002-09-01

    AIDS Alert asked John Chittick, EdD, executive director of TeenAIDS-PeerCorps Inc., a nonprofit organization in Boston, to discuss the global walks he founded and an abstract he presented at the 14th International AIDS Conference in Barcelona, Spain. According to the abstract, global walks began in 1999 with Chittick spreading the word by foot about HIV/AIDS in 40 countries to teen volunteers, who, in turn, were expected to educate their peers about HIV prevention. Within two years, the global walk had reached 75,000 youth, who taught HIV prevention through such techniques as Stop Action Theater, street outreach 'AIDS Attacks,' and 'AIDS Comics,' which were drawn by teens. Also, there is a Teen Advice Column available in multiple languages on the Internet. PMID:12236197

  18. Bangkok 2004. Drug control, human rights, and harm reduction in the age of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard

    2004-12-01

    In many countries, HIV prevalence among people who use illicit drugs is high. Yet many governments resist implementing effective HIV prevention measures, and drug users often lack access to care, treatment, and support, including for HIV/AIDS. Growing evidence indicates the dominant prohibitionist approach to illicit drugs is ineffective--and even counterproductive, blocking or undermining measures shown to reduce harms to drug users and to communities affected by open drug scenes. The growing debate over global drug control policy could shift us collectively away from the current, failed prescriptions to a more rational, pragmatic, and health-promoting framework of harm reduction. This article by Richard Elliott is an abridged version of a paper prepared for "Human Rights at the Margins: HIV/AIDS, Prisoners, Drug Users and the Law," a satellite meeting held in Bangkok on 9 July 2004, and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit (India). The article briefly outlines the impact of these two different policy approaches, examines international law on drug control, discusses how harm reduction reflects a human rights-based approach to drugs, and assesses some strategies for reforming global policy on illicit drugs. PMID:15812929

  19. Prevention and control of AIDS: the role of NGOs.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, P N

    1991-08-01

    Because of their ability to more easily provide services to high-risk groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) will play a critical role in any successful AIDS prevention program. Since HIV is often transmitted through behavior deemed intimate or taboo, government health officials have a difficult time reaching the affected group. But NGOs, which have a long record of involvement in the field of health and social welfare, possess several advantages over government agencies: 1) they have rich experience working at the community level; 2) their autonomous nature allows them to respond more quickly; 3) they have access to marginalized groups; 4) they generally work with the target groups to raise their self-esteem; 5) they can act as a bridge between the community and the national level; 6) they often employ innovative methods; and 7) their method of operation allows for cost- effectiveness. Furthermore, NGOs can choose their own areas of involvement according to their feasibility, past experience, and priorities. NGOs can be instrumental in providing information on HIV infection and AIDS to the public particularly to special target group populations -- the young, women of reproductive age, prostitutes, and intravenous drug users. Additionally, NGOs can work in policy advocacy, in providing training for different groups, in providing counselling and other assistance to those affected by HIV, in screening donated blood, and in caring for AIDS patients. Though offering a great vehicle for combating the epidemic, NGOs will have to overcome several obstacles, including lack of government support, and lack of funds and resources. PMID:12284229

  20. Organizational and Environmental Predictors of Job Satisfaction in Community-based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimbel, Ronald W.; Lehrman, Sue; Strosberg, Martin A.; Ziac, Veronica; Freedman, Jay; Savicki, Karen; Tackley, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Using variables measuring organizational characteristics and environmental influences, this study analyzed job satisfaction in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. Organizational characteristics were found to predict job satisfaction among employees with varying intensity based on position within the organization. Environmental influences had…

  1. Guide to Planning Health Promotion for AIDS Prevention and Control. WHO AIDS Series 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide is intended to provide planners, managers, and technical staff with guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) health promotion program. As such, it can be used in the development of a detailed AIDS health promotion action plan. The guide reviews the steps, processes,…

  2. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Boland, Thomas; Trusk, Thomas; Forgacs, Gabor; Markwald, Roger R

    2003-04-01

    Tissue engineering technology promises to solve the organ transplantation crisis. However, assembly of vascularized 3D soft organs remains a big challenge. Organ printing, which we define as computer-aided, jet-based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, offers a possible solution. Organ printing involves three sequential steps: pre-processing or development of "blueprints" for organs; processing or actual organ printing; and postprocessing or organ conditioning and accelerated organ maturation. A cell printer that can print gels, single cells and cell aggregates has been developed. Layer-by-layer sequentially placed and solidified thin layers of a thermo-reversible gel could serve as "printing paper". Combination of an engineering approach with the developmental biology concept of embryonic tissue fluidity enables the creation of a new rapid prototyping 3D organ printing technology, which will dramatically accelerate and optimize tissue and organ assembly. PMID:12679063

  3. Designing of a Digital Behind-the-Ear Hearing Aid to Meet the World Health Organization Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Penteado, Silvio Pires

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common health issue that affects nearly 10% of the world population as indicated by many international studies. The hearing impaired typically experience more frustration, anxiety, irritability, depression, and disorientation than those with normal hearing levels. The standard rehabilitation tool for hearing impairment is an electronic hearing aid whose main components are transducers (microphone and receiver) and a digital signal processor. These electronic components are manufactured by supply chain rather than by hearing aid manufacturers. Manufacturers can use custom-designed components or generic off-the-shelf components. These electronic components are available as application-specific or off-the-shelf products, with the former designed for a specific manufacturer and the latter for a generic approach. The choice of custom or generic components will affect the product specifications, pricing, manufacturing, life cycle, and marketing strategies of the product. The World Health Organization is interested in making available to developing countries hearing aids that are inexpensive to purchase and maintain. The hearing aid presented in this article was developed with these specifications in mind together with additional contemporary features such as four channels with wide dynamic range compression, an adjustable compression rate for each channel, four comfort programs, an adaptive feedback manager, and full volume control. This digital hearing aid is fitted using a personal computer with minimal hardware requirements in intuitive three-step fitting software. A trimmer-adjusted version can be developed where human and material resources are scarce. PMID:20724354

  4. Designing of a digital behind-the-ear hearing aid to meet the World Health Organization requirements.

    PubMed

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Penteado, Silvio Pires

    2010-06-01

    Hearing loss is a common health issue that affects nearly 10% of the world population as indicated by many international studies. The hearing impaired typically experience more frustration, anxiety, irritability, depression, and disorientation than those with normal hearing levels. The standard rehabilitation tool for hearing impairment is an electronic hearing aid whose main components are transducers (microphone and receiver) and a digital signal processor. These electronic components are manufactured by supply chain rather than by hearing aid manufacturers. Manufacturers can use custom-designed components or generic off-the-shelf components. These electronic components are available as application-specific or off-the-shelf products, with the former designed for a specific manufacturer and the latter for a generic approach. The choice of custom or generic components will affect the product specifications, pricing, manufacturing, life cycle, and marketing strategies of the product. The World Health Organization is interested in making available to developing countries hearing aids that are inexpensive to purchase and maintain. The hearing aid presented in this article was developed with these specifications in mind together with additional contemporary features such as four channels with wide dynamic range compression, an adjustable compression rate for each channel, four comfort programs, an adaptive feedback manager, and full volume control. This digital hearing aid is fitted using a personal computer with minimal hardware requirements in intuitive three-step fitting software. A trimmer-adjusted version can be developed where human and material resources are scarce. PMID:20724354

  5. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2013-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of…

  6. Low-Temperature, Vacuum-Aided Thermal Desorption Studies on a Simulated Organic Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect

    R. K. Farnsworth; D. R. Peterman; Gary L. Anderson; T. G. Garn

    2002-12-01

    simulated sludge. Micro boiling of VOC’s would be expected to occur in localized volumes within the organic sludge where temperatures exceed the volatile organic saturation temperature sufficiently to form vapor bubbles. Further model based evaluations reflecting the transient temperatures, local boiling, and subsequent vapor in liquid/sludge transport conditions are needed, with supporting controlled testing of the vacuum-aided thermal desorption process at small and full-scale conditions in order to fully develop this process.

  7. Role of women in prevention and control of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ram, E P; Singh, A C

    1991-04-01

    Women in India and AIDS prevention and control are discussed in terms of vulnerability, victimization, required knowledge, reproductive impact, care and prevention after birth, and the demands of the prevailing situation. A WHO world estimate is that 3 million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV out of 8-10 million. Indian women are vulnerable because of their reduced status and lack of power in private and marital life. Also, pregnant women receive blood transfusions, which may be inadequately screened, for anemia. The use of oral contraceptives with estrogen reduces immunity. The use of IUDs may cause inflammation or injury which provides a point of entry for HIV into the bloodstream. Prostitution is an outlet for lack of money, education, and skills, and places women at risk. The transmission from men to women is higher than the reverse. Every women should know their risks and modes of transmission. Women need to know that the risk of fetal infection from an HIV-positive mother is 20-40%, and that the risk is highest if HIV infection occurs or AIDS symptoms occur during pregnancy. Infant mortality from HIV may occur within the 1st several years. The following needs to be understood about reproduction and HIV: the risk of infection is very high when impregnated by an HIV male partner, and if children are desired, artificial insemination should be the preferred method. The reverse holds true, because penetrative sex without a condom allows transmission of the virus. The best option is for avoidance of childbearing if a partner has HIV. Abortion should be provided. Women need to develop the skills in language and confidence to negotiate safer sex, should be particular about choosing a loyal partner, and protect themselves by urging male condom use. The mode of transmission to babies is not from cuddling or handling. Breast feeding carries a meager risk of transmission, and should be continued if HIV infection occurs; the baby should be immunized. All

  8. Tobacco industry sponsorship of community-based public health initiatives: why AIDS and domestic violence organizations accept or refuse funds.

    PubMed

    Stone, Meg; Siegel, Michael B

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the reasons community-based public health organizations in the United States accept or refuse tobacco industry sponsorship. A formative pilot study involving 13 interviews with representatives of AIDS and Domestic Violence organizations in California or the Northeast was used. Semistructured interviews were conducted with leaders and fund-raisers working at AIDS and domestic violence organizations that either accepted grants from the tobacco industry or explicitly refused tobacco corporate support. Respondents that accepted grants did so because they believed that the tangible benefits of additional capacity to serve their constituents outweighed the minimal effect they believed refusing funds could have on tobacco control and prevention. Organizations that refused sponsorship either saw tobacco prevention as part of their mission of promoting overall health or social justice, or expressed concern about public association with the tobacco industry. Public health responses to this phenomenon are most effective when they are informed by the realities facing nonprofit leaders as they grapple with the question of whether to accept industry funds. Further research is needed to determine whether accepting sponsorship results in a change in public opinion about tobacco control. Possible interventions include creating positive publicity for organizations that refuse tobacco industry philanthropy. PMID:15643374

  9. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains. PMID:12269347

  10. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  11. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  12. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-1991 were approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control... for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.317 Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical...

  13. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-1991 were approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control... for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.317 Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical...

  14. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-1991 were approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control... for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.317 Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical...

  15. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-1991 were approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control... for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.317 Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical...

  16. Organic weed control in certified organic watermelon production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the impact of organic production systems on weed control and watermelon (Citrullus l...

  17. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  18. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  19. Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Irene; Mapstone, James

    2004-05-01

    This study aims to quantify the effect of visibility aids on the occurrence of pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries, and drivers' responses in detection and recognition. Trial reports were systematically reviewed according to predefined eligibility criteria, including randomised controlled trials or controlled before-and-after trials comparing visibility aids and no visibility aids, and of different visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist safety, and drivers' responses in detection and recognition. This included trials in which the order of interventions was randomised, or balanced using a Latin square design. Two reviewers independently assessed validity of trials and abstracted data. The main outcome measures were pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries, and drivers'/observers' responses in the detection and recognition time, distance and frequency. No trials which assessed the effect of visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries were identified. Twelve trials examined the effectiveness of daytime visibility aids and 25 trials on night time visibility aids, including 882 participants. Drivers' and observers' detection and recognition improved with visibility aids. For daytime, fluorescent materials in yellow, red and orange colours enhanced detection and recognition. "Biomotion" markings enhanced recognition. Substantial heterogeneity between the trials limits the possibility for meta-analysis. Visibility aids have the potential to improve detection and recognition and would merit further development to gain public acceptance. However, the impact of visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist safety is unknown and needs to be determined. PMID:15003574

  20. Organic control of plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic agriculture refers to agricultural production systems that are managed according to a number of standards which vary by governing body or political entity, but which share a common philosophy and set of general management practices. In popular culture, organic crop production is generally un...

  1. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  2. Describing Control in Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renihan, P. J.; Renihan, F. I.

    This paper describes the construction and application of a framework to investigate control at the policy-making level in education. The minutes of the regular meetings of 21 school boards in British Columbia were analyzed for the period January to December of 1975. Construction of the framework involved (1) definitions of control and…

  3. Safety aid use and social anxiety symptoms: The mediating role of perceived control.

    PubMed

    Korte, Kristina J; Unruh, Amanda S; Oglesby, Mary E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    The use of safety aids, cognitive or behavioral strategies used to reduce or cope with anxiety, has emerged as a key construct of interest in anxiety disorders due to their role in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. It has been suggested that individuals with anxiety engage in safety aid use to reduce their anxiety and feel more in control of a situation; however, no studies to date have examined the association between perceived control, that is, perceived level of control over internal events in anxiety provoking situations, and the use of safety aids. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association of perceived control, the use of safety aids, and symptoms of social anxiety. It was predicted that the association between safety aid use and social anxiety symptoms would be mediated by perceived control. This prediction was examined in a large sample of 281 participants. As predicted, perceived control was a significant mediator of the association between the use of safety aids and social anxiety symptoms. This effect remained significant after running a multiple mediation model with distress tolerance added as a competing mediator. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:26163719

  4. Display aids for remote control of untethered undersea vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verplank, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    A predictor display superimposed on slow-scan video or sonar data is proposed as a method to allow better remote manual control of an untethered submersible. Simulation experiments show good control under circumstances which otherwise make control practically impossible.

  5. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  6. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  7. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  8. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  9. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  10. Controlled Access Headings in EAD Finding Aids: Current Practices in Number of and Types of Headings Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a study of controlled access headings assigned to encoded archival description finding aids in the Ohio Library and Information Network Finding Aid Repository, focusing on the number of headings per finding aid and the category of terms assigned. Assigning multiple controlled access headings was widely…

  11. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: External aids that signal when to act

    PubMed Central

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-01-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft, and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence and in this study we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids we used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  12. Organizing for ontological change: The kernel of an AIDS research infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Polk, Jessica Beth

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to prepare and plan for emergent and changing objects of research? Members of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study have been investigating AIDS for over 30 years, and in that time, the disease has been repeatedly transformed. Over the years and across many changes, members have continued to study HIV disease while in the process regenerating an adaptable research organization. The key to sustaining this technoscientific flexibility has been what we call the kernel of a research infrastructure: ongoing efforts to maintain the availability of resources and services that may be brought to bear in the investigation of new objects. In the case of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, these resources are as follows: specimens and data, calibrated instruments, heterogeneous experts, and participating cohorts of gay and bisexual men. We track three ontological transformations, examining how members prepared for and responded to changes: the discovery of a novel retroviral agent (HIV), the ability to test for that agent, and the transition of the disease from fatal to chronic through pharmaceutical intervention. Respectively, we call the work, ‘technologies’, and techniques of adapting to these changes, ‘repurposing’, ‘elaborating’, and ‘extending the kernel’. PMID:26477206

  13. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-01-01

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS. PMID:3463386

  14. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-10-15

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS. PMID:3463386

  15. Computer-aided designing of automatic process control systems for thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, A. V.

    2009-10-01

    The structure of modern microprocessor systems for automated control of technological processes at cogeneration stations is considered. Methods for computer-aided designing of the lower (sensors and actuators) and upper (cabinets of computerized automation equipment) levels of an automated process control system are proposed. The composition of project documents, the structures of a project database and database of a computer-aided design system, and the way they interact with one another in the course of developing the project of an automated process control system are described. Elements of the interface between a design engineer and computer program are shown.

  16. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education. 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    This work represents the development of computer tools for undergraduate students. Emphasis is on automatic control theory using hybrid and digital computation. The routine calculations of control system analysis are presented as students would use them on the University of Michigan's central digital computer and the time-shared graphic terminals…

  17. Health economics: potential applications in HIV/AIDS control in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Anikpo, Emilienne; Karisa, Eddie; Mwabu, Germano

    2005-01-01

    There is growing evidence that HIV/ AIDS has enormous negative impact on health status and economic development of individuals, households, communities and nations in the African region. Thus, there is urgent need for various disciplines to demonstrate how they can contribute in curbing the spread of this deadly disease in the African region. This paper, using an extended version of Professor Alan Williams schema as the conceptual framework, attempts to demonstrate how health economics can be used to inform policy and managerial choices related to HIV/AIDS advocacy, prevention, treatment and management. It argues that the discipline of health economics (and economics generally) is extremely valuable in: measuring health impacts of the disease and interventions; evaluating the relationships between health care-seeking behaviour of individuals and health system specific attributes; the estimation of determinants of compliance of HIV/AIDS patients with treatment regimen; establishing of health institutions efficiency in combating AIDS; guiding choices of HIV/AIDS interventions; assessing the relationships between HIV/AIDS, development, poverty, and trade; programme planning, monitoring and evaluation; and assessing health system's overall performance. The paper is a modest attempt to show how the discipline of health economics can elucidate, and help in resolving practical and conceptual issues in HIV/AIDS control in Africa. PMID:17298133

  18. A Public Policy Approach to Local Models of HIV/AIDS Control in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Andreia; Costa-Couto, Maria-Helena; Thoenig, Jean-Claude; Fleury, Sonia; de Camargo, Kenneth; Larouzé, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated involvement and cooperation patterns of local Brazilian AIDS program actors and the consequences of these patterns for program implementation and sustainability. Methods. We performed a public policy analysis (documentary analysis, direct observation, semistructured interviews of health service and nongovernmental organization [NGO] actors) in 5 towns in 2 states, São Paulo and Pará. Results. Patterns suggested 3 models. In model 1, local government, NGOs, and primary health care services were involved in AIDS programs with satisfactory response to new epidemiological trends but a risk that HIV/AIDS would become low priority. In model 2, mainly because of NGO activism, HIV/AIDS remained an exceptional issue, with limited responses to new epidemiological trends and program sustainability undermined by political instability. In model 3, involvement of public agencies and NGOs was limited, with inadequate response to epidemiological trends and poor mobilization threatening program sustainability. Conclusions. Within a common national AIDS policy framework, the degree of involvement and cooperation between public and NGO actors deeply impacts population coverage and program sustainability. Specific processes are required to maintain actor mobilization without isolating AIDS programs. PMID:19372523

  19. Leading an IT Organization Out of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    With the era of control ending for campus IT organizations, leaders need to learn to use some known management approaches and methods in radically different ways. In this article, the author begins with some examples of how technology change, organizational change, and contextual change are eroding centralized control over campus information…

  20. Ethical aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies and control in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph-Matthew; Mfutso-Bengo, Eva-Maria; Masiye, Francis

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns have been overshadowed by conflicting, competing, and contradictory views between those who support condom use as a last resort and those who are against it for fear of promoting sexual immorality. We argue that abstinence and faithfulness to one partner are the best available moral solutions to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Of course, deontologists may argue that condom use might appear useful and effective in controlling HIV/AIDS; however, not everything that is useful is always good. In principle, all schools of thought and faith seem to agree on the question of faithfulness for married couples and abstinence for those who are not married. But they differ on condom use. On the ground, the situation is far more complex. We simply lack a single, entirely reliable way to resolve all disagreements regarding HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. PMID:19130297

  1. Classification Aided Analysis of Oscillatory Signatures in Controlled Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ketz, Nicholas; O'Reilly, Randal C.; Curran, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Control processes are critical for both facilitating and suppressing memory retrieval, but these processes are not well understood. The current work, inspired by a similar fMRI design (Detre et al., in press), used a modified Think/No-Think(TNT) paradigm to investigate the neural signatures of volition over enhancing and suppressing memory retrieval. Previous studies have shown memory enhancement when well-learned stimulus pairs are restudied in cued recall (“Recall or think of studied pair item”), and degradation when restudied with cued suppression (“Avoid thinking of studied pair item”). We used category-based (faces vs. scenes) multivariate classification of electroencephalography signals to determine if individual target items were successfully retrieved or suppressed. A logistic regression based on classifier output determined that retrieval activation during the cued recall/suppression period was a predictor for subsequent memory. Labeling trials with this internal measure, as opposed to their nominal Think vs. No-Think condition, revealed the classic TNT pattern of enhanced memory for successful cued-retrieval and degraded memory for cued-suppression. This classification process enabled a more selective investigation into the time-frequency signatures of control over retrieval. Comparing controlled retrieval vs. controlled suppression, results showed more prominent Theta oscillations (3 to 8 Hz) in controlled retrieval. Beta oscillations (12 to 30 Hz) were involved in high levels of both controlled retrieval and suppression, suggesting it may have a more general control-related role. These results suggest unique roles for these frequency bands in retrieval processes. PMID:23845425

  2. Involving immigrant religious organizations in HIV/AIDS prevention: The role of bonding and bridging social capital.

    PubMed

    Leung, ManChui R; Chin, John J; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna

    2016-08-01

    Immigrant religious organizations in the United States are uniquely positioned to address critical issues beyond religion because of their moral, social and cultural prominence in community life. Increasingly, religious organizations have taken on a leadership role around health issues such as decreasing HIV/AIDS stigma and misinformation. However, there are barriers for some religious leaders and organizations in adopting new health programs, especially if the issue is seen as controversial. Our study examines how social network structures among religious members influence organizational acceptance of new information or controversial ideas, like HIV/AIDS. Using social network analysis methods on data from 2841 contacts in 20 immigrant Chinese Buddhist temples and Christian churches in New York City, we tested whether an immigrant religious organization's likelihood of being involved in HIV/AIDS activities was associated with the presence of bonding or bridging social capital. These two forms of social capital have been found to mediate the levels of exposure and openness to new ideas. We found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have lower levels of bonding social capital as indicated by members having fewer ties and fewer demographic attributes in common. We also found HIV/AIDS-involved religious organizations were more likely to have higher levels of bridging social capital as indicated by members having significantly more ties to people outside of their organization. Our study highlights the importance of looking beyond religion type and leadership attributes to social network structures among members in order to better explain organization-level receptiveness to HIV/AIDS involvement. PMID:27372709

  3. At the intersection of HIV/AIDS and cancer: a qualitative needs assessment of community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Jack E; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2013-08-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Community-based participatory research was applied to engage ASOs in exploring their capacities and needs for integrating cancer-focused programming into their services. Focus groups were conducted with a community advisory board (CAB) representing 10 community-based organizations serving PLWHA. Three 90-minute, serial focus groups were conducted with a mean number of seven participants. Topics explored CAB members' organizational capacities and needs in cancer prevention, detection, treatment, and survivorship. Transcript analyses identified six themes: (a) agencies have limited experience with cancer-focused programs, which were not framed as cancer specific; (b) agencies need resources and collaborative partnerships to effectively incorporate cancer services; (c) staff and clients must be educated about the relevance of cancer to HIV/AIDS; (d) agencies want to know about linkages between HIV/AIDS and cancer; (e) cancer care providers should be culturally competent; and (f) agencies see opportunities to improve their services through research participation but are wary. Agency capacities were strong in relationships with clients and cultural competency, a holistic view of PLWHA health, expertise in prevention activities, and eagerness to be on the cutting edge of knowledge. Cancer education and prevention were of greatest interest and considered most feasible, suggesting that future projects develop accordingly. These findings suggest a high level of receptivity to expanding or initiating cancer-focused activities but with a clear need for education and awareness building

  4. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Pittenger, L.C.; McDonald, J.S.; Cramer, P.G.; Herget, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed.

  5. Control of HIV/AIDS infection system with drug dosages design via robust H(∞) fuzzy controller.

    PubMed

    Assawinchaichote, Wudhichai

    2015-01-01

    The designing of H∞ fuzzy controller for HIV/AIDS infected dynamic system has been considered in this paper. With TS fuzzy model and LMIs approach, the proposed controller is obtained for such a system. A set of sufficient conditions of the H∞ controller is given to ensure the closed-loop system asymptotic stability and the prescribed H∞ performance level. Finally, the effectiveness of the fuzzy controller design approach is finally presented through the simulation results. PMID:26405968

  6. 38 CFR 39.11 - State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations. 39.11 Section 39.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  7. 38 CFR 39.11 - State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations. 39.11 Section 39.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  8. 38 CFR 39.11 - State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations. 39.11 Section 39.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  9. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. 68.415 Section 68.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK...

  10. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. 68.415 Section 68.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK...

  11. Computer-Aided Air-Traffic Control In The Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    Developmental computer-aided system for automated management and control of arrival traffic at large airport includes three integrated subsystems. One subsystem, called Traffic Management Advisor, another subsystem, called Descent Advisor, and third subsystem, called Final Approach Spacing Tool. Data base that includes current wind measurements and mathematical models of performances of types of aircraft contributes to effective operation of system.

  12. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards. 68.317 Section 68.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval §...

  13. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  14. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  15. Computer aided design of digital controller for radial active magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Zhong; Shen, Zupei; Zhang, Zuming; Zhao, Hongbin

    1992-01-01

    A five degree of freedom Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system is developed which is controlled by digital controllers. The model of the radial AMB system is linearized and the state equation is derived. Based on the state variables feedback theory, digital controllers are designed. The performance of the controllers are evaluated according to experimental results. The Computer Aided Design (CAD) method is used to design controllers for magnetic bearings. The controllers are implemented with a digital signal processing (DSP) system. The control algorithms are realized with real-time programs. It is very easy to change the controller by changing or modifying the programs. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of the controlled magnetic system, a special experiment was carried out. Also, the online Recursive Least Squares (RLS) parameter identification method is studied. It can be realized with the digital controllers. Online parameter identification is essential for the realization of an adaptive controller.

  16. Computer aided design of digital controller for radial active magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhong; Shen, Zupei; Zhang, Zuming; Zhao, Hongbin

    1992-05-01

    A five degree of freedom Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system is developed which is controlled by digital controllers. The model of the radial AMB system is linearized and the state equation is derived. Based on the state variables feedback theory, digital controllers are designed. The performance of the controllers are evaluated according to experimental results. The Computer Aided Design (CAD) method is used to design controllers for magnetic bearings. The controllers are implemented with a digital signal processing (DSP) system. The control algorithms are realized with real-time programs. It is very easy to change the controller by changing or modifying the programs. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of the controlled magnetic system, a special experiment was carried out. Also, the online Recursive Least Squares (RLS) parameter identification method is studied. It can be realized with the digital controllers. Online parameter identification is essential for the realization of an adaptive controller.

  17. The reference ear modeling method for internally feedback controlled digital hearing aid chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Seung Jin; Cho, Namjun; Song, Seong-Jun; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2007-01-01

    A reference ear modeling method for the real-time feedback controlled digital hearing aid chip is proposed and implemented. In order to reduce the modeling complexity and enhance the programmability, new ear modeling method using the acoustic filter theory is adopted to the digital hearing aid. To achieve the fully internal gain fitting and verification system, the responses from the damaged ear and the reference ear model are compared and the new gain parameters are processed for the multi-channel DSP. The digital hearing aid chip with reference ear model is fabricated in 0.18 microm CMOS technology, has a core area of 3.1 mm x 1.2 mm and dissipates less than 120 muA. PMID:18003331

  18. Randomized controlled trial of a scoring aid to improve GCS scoring by EMS providers (Brief Report)

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amanda Lynn; Hart, Kimberly Ward; Lindsell, Christopher John; McMullan, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel frequently use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to assess injured and critically ill patients. This study assessed the accuracy of EMS providers’ GCS scoring as well as the improvement in GCS assessment with the use of a scoring aid. Methods This randomized, controlled study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) of an urban, academic trauma center. Emergency medical technicians or paramedics who transported a patient to the ED were randomly assessed one of nine written scenarios, either with or without a GCS scoring aid. Scenarios were created by consensus of expert attending emergency medicine, EMS, and neurocritical care physicians with universal consensus agreement on GCS scores. Chi-square and student’s t-tests were used to compare groups. Results Of 180 participants, 178 completed the study. Overall, 73/178 (41%) participants gave a GCS score that matched the expert consensus score. GCS was correct in 22/88 (25%) of cases without the scoring aid. GCS was correct in 51/90 (57%) of cases with the scoring aid. Most (69%) of total GCS scores fell within one point of the expert consensus GCS score. Differences in accuracy were most pronounced in scenarios with a correct GCS of 12 or below. Sub-component accuracy was: eye 62%, verbal 70%, and motor 51%. Conclusion In this study, 60% of EMS participants provided inaccurate GCS estimates. Use of a GCS scoring aid improved accuracy of EMS GCS assessments. PMID:25199613

  19. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  20. Perceived Control, Specific At-Risk and General Fear of AIDS: Intraracial Variation among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Johnson, Theodora E. Maxwell

    1991-01-01

    Explores relationships between perceived control of life of 375 African-American college students and both specific and general fears of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). African-American students have relatively variable responses, but feeling in control is related to lower levels of specific and general fears of AIDS. (SLD)

  1. Missed opportunities for religious organizations to support people living with HIV/AIDS: findings from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Watt, Melissa H; Maman, Suzanne; Jacobson, Mark; Laiser, John; John, Muze

    2009-05-01

    Religious beliefs play an important role in the lives of Tanzanians, but little is known about the influence of religion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study shares perspectives of PLWHA and identifies opportunities for religious organizations to support the psychological well-being of this group. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 through semistructured interviews with 36 clients (8 Muslims and 28 Christians) receiving free antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Arusha, Tanzania. Swahili-speaking interviewers asked about participation in religion, change in religious engagement since HIV diagnosis, and what role faith plays in living with HIV and taking ARVs. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Atlas t.i. The findings revealed that patients' personal faith positively influenced their experiences living with HIV, but that religious organizations had neutral or negative influences. On the positive side, prayer gave hope to live with HIV, and religious faith increased after diagnosis. Some respondents said that prayer supported their adherence to medications. On the other hand, few disclosed their HIV status in their religious communities, expressing fear of stigma. Most had heard that prayer can cure HIV, and two expected to be cured. While it was common to hear messages about HIV prevention from churches or mosques, few had heard messages about living with HIV. The findings point to missed opportunities by religious organizations to support PLWHA, particularly the need to ensure that messages about HIV are not stigmatizing; share information about HIV treatment; introduce role models of PLWHA; and emphasize that prayers and medical care go hand-in-hand. PMID:19335171

  2. Missed Opportunities for Religious Organizations to Support People Living with HIV/AIDS: Findings from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maman, Suzanne; Jacobson, Mark; Laiser, John; John, Muze

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Religious beliefs play an important role in the lives of Tanzanians, but little is known about the influence of religion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study shares perspectives of PLWHA and identifies opportunities for religious organizations to support the psychological well-being of this group. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 through semistructured interviews with 36 clients (8 Muslims and 28 Christians) receiving free antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Arusha, Tanzania. Swahili-speaking interviewers asked about participation in religion, change in religious engagement since HIV diagnosis, and what role faith plays in living with HIV and taking ARVs. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Atlas t.i. The findings revealed that patients' personal faith positively influenced their experiences living with HIV, but that religious organizations had neutral or negative influences. On the positive side, prayer gave hope to live with HIV, and religious faith increased after diagnosis. Some respondents said that prayer supported their adherence to medications. On the other hand, few disclosed their HIV status in their religious communities, expressing fear of stigma. Most had heard that prayer can cure HIV, and two expected to be cured. While it was common to hear messages about HIV prevention from churches or mosques, few had heard messages about living with HIV. The findings point to missed opportunities by religious organizations to support PLWHA, particularly the need to ensure that messages about HIV are not stigmatizing; share information about HIV treatment; introduce role models of PLWHA; and emphasize that prayers and medical care go hand-in-hand. PMID:19335171

  3. Organic residues as immobilizing agents in aided phytostabilization: (II) effects on soil biochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, P; Palma, P; Gonçalves, A P; Fernandes, R M; de Varennes, A; Vallini, G; Duarte, E; Cunha-Queda, A C

    2009-03-01

    Sewage sludge (SS), municipal solid waste compost, and garden waste compost (GWC) were used as immobilizing agents in aided phytostabilization of an acid metal-contaminated soil affected by mining activities. The organic residues were applied at 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha(-1) (dry weight basis) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was used as a "green cover". We studied the effects of the treatments on soil phytotoxicity and enzymatic activities, and on the composition and toxicity of the soil leachate towards Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna. Application of SS led to the greatest values of dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and urease activities, corresponding to the greatest overall microbial and biochemical activity in amended soils. Conversely, GWC did not increase these enzymatic activities, relative to the unamended soil, or enhance ryegrass growth. Cellulase activity increased with increasing application rates of the amendments tested, but decreased at the highest SS application rate. The organic amendments were able to suppress soil toxicity to levels that did not affect D. magna, when applied at 50 and 100 Mg ha(-1), but SS, at the same application rates, increased the soil leachate toxicity towards V. fischeri. Moreover, ryegrass showed some phytotoxic symptoms when 100 Mg ha(-1) of SS were applied. This study showed the importance of an integrated evaluation of soil quality on remediation processes. Although SS immobilized trace metals and corrected soil acidity, improving soil biochemical status, when used at high application rates it led to toxicity of soil leachate towards V. fischeri, decreased soil cellulase activity and impaired ryegrass growth. PMID:19091381

  4. Use of computer aided drafting for analysis and control of posture in manual work.

    PubMed

    Ulin, S S; Armstrong, T J; Radwin, R G

    1990-06-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) in conjunction with digitised anthropometric manikins can be used for analysis and control of stressful work postures, one of the most frequently cited occupational risk factors of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. This paper describes the use of macros for manipulating manikins and workstation components and for designing the workplace. AutoCAD, a popular computer aided design software package, was used to demonstrate the feasibility of these concepts. Specifically, macros are used for drawing work equipment using parametric designs, manipulating manikins and analysing jobs. In comparing the macros to the use of primitive CAD commands, the macros not only decrease the amount of time needed to create workstation components, but they also make the task easier for the user and decrease the risk of errors. Despite the limitation of anthropometric data and manikins, CAD is an effective method for identifying postural stresses and redesigning the workstation to control the identified stresses. PMID:15676770

  5. A therapeutic community for HIV-infected persons: an approach for prevention and control of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Warnnissorn, T

    1995-10-01

    The Therapeutic Community (TC) for HIV-infected persons is neither a hospital nor a confinement for people with HIV. Actually it is a family of friends who are in the same boat and a place of education to teach them about AIDS and relevant subjects necessary for their life in the future, and to help establish new values and life styles for them using TC tools which are adapted from the DAYTOP TC in U.S.A. The purpose was not only to build the residents, but also to encourage them to do their part in contributing to build up a better and safer society that will help to save the lives of others from AIDS. Correct knowledge in AIDS, together with the quality of honesty, responsibility and other basic attitudes that the residents acquire through the program will enable them to become a creative force in the prevention and control of AIDS. The author would say that words alone will not describe the whole TC. It requires self experience through the program in order to learn TC and understand it. PMID:8576664

  6. Prevention, control and treatment of HIV-AIDS among injecting drug use in Bandung, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Alisjahbana, Bachti; Susanto, Herman; Roesli, Rully; Yusuf, Hadi; Hinduan, Zahrotur; Mase, Johannes C; Surahman, Eri; van der Ven, Andre

    2009-07-01

    Indonesia is facing a growing HIV-epidemic that in many areas is driven by injecting drug use (IDU). IDUs underutilize health services, partly because of legal aspects which also cause that many are held in prison, where further HIV- transmission may take place. Most HIV-infected patients present with advanced HIV-AIDS and many deaths before starting antiretroviral treatment. The growing HIV-epidemic in Indonesia has socio-economical implications for individual patients as well as for the health system and for society. IMPACT, a multidisciplinary university-based program in Bandung, West-Java, integrates HIV-prevention and treatment, combining research and implementation. Biomedical, public health and sociobehavioral expertise is used for educational programs for adolescents; scaling-up HIV-testing, harm reduction strategies and care for HIV/AIDS in hospital, community and prison; and institutional as well as individual capacity building related to IDU and HIV/AIDS. It is expected that these activities can make a significant contribution to control of HIV-AIDS in the context of injecting drug use in West-Java and Indonesia as a whole. PMID:19920301

  7. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    PubMed

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution. PMID:25160200

  8. Sentinel: An Expert System Decision Aid For A Command, Control And Communications Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobat, Daniel L.; Rogers, Steven K.; Cross, Stephen E.

    1986-03-01

    The growing complexity and quantity of information used in command, control and communications (C3) networks makes it essential to reduce the workload on the operators of these networks. SENTINEL is an expert system which functions as a decision aid for the strategic missile warning officer, using a simulation of a C3 network that involves multiple missile launches and up to 20 countries. In this research, a blackboard model expert system using rule bases and object oriented programming techniques was developed that permits SENTINEL to deal with uncertainty and offer several layers of explanation. SENTINEL deals with uncertainty by using Cohen's endorsement theory and the pattern recognition techniques of feature sets and prototypes. SENTINEL analyzes the causes of reported events into higher level, yet less precise forms to offer an abstract layer of explanation. The results are applicable to further expert system or decision aid development for C3 networks.

  9. Compatibility and consistency in display-control systems - Implications for aircraft decision aid design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we contrast display-control movement relations defined in terms of stimulus-response (physical) compatibility with those defined by stimulus-cognitive compatibility, and we relate these findings to the issue of command versus status levels of decision aid support. A second issue addressed is the cost of inconsistency across multiple display-control mappings. Subjects performed a flight control task while responding to one to four analog indicators, formatted as either command or status displays. The results suggest that there is an advantage for the status format when subjects are required to verbally report the state of the indicator(s), but no advantage was found for either format when subjects were required to manually correct the indicated state. The data point to the importance of display-control consistency and suggest that it may even outweigh that of compatibility.

  10. Decision Aid to Technologically Enhance Shared decision making (DATES): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinicians face challenges in promoting colorectal cancer screening due to multiple competing demands. A decision aid that clarifies patient preferences and improves decision quality can aid shared decision making and be effective at increasing colorectal cancer screening rates. However, exactly how such an intervention improves shared decision making is unclear. This study, funded by the National Cancer Institute, seeks to provide detailed understanding of how an interactive decision aid that elicits patient’s risks and preferences impacts patient-clinician communication and shared decision making, and ultimately colorectal cancer screening adherence. Methods/Design This is a two-armed single-blinded randomized controlled trial with the target of 300 patients per arm. The setting is eleven community and three academic primary care practices in Metro Detroit. Patients are men and women aged between 50 and 75 years who are not up to date on colorectal cancer screening. ColoDATES Web (intervention arm), a decision aid that incorporates interactive personal risk assessment and preference clarification tools, is compared to a non-interactive website that matches ColoDATES Web in content but does not contain interactive tools (control arm). Primary outcomes are patient uptake of colorectal cancer screening; patient decision quality (knowledge, preference clarification, intent); clinician’s degree of shared decision making; and patient-clinician concordance in the screening test chosen. Secondary outcome incorporates a Structural Equation Modeling approach to understand the mechanism of the causal pathway and test the validity of the proposed conceptual model based on Theory of Planned Behavior. Clinicians and those performing the analysis are blinded to arms. Discussion The central hypothesis is that ColoDATES Web will improve colorectal cancer screening adherence through improvement in patient behavioral factors, shared decision making between the

  11. Flexible Organic Transistors with Controlled Nanomorphology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung Hoon; Hsu, Ben B Y; Patel, Shrayesh N; Labram, John; Luo, Chan; Bazan, Guillermo C; Heeger, Alan J

    2016-01-13

    We report the controlled nanomorphology of semiconducting polymers on chemically and mechanically stable nanogrooved polymer substrates. By employing silicon dioxide thin films with finely adjusted thicknesses on nanogrooved polymer substrates, semiconducting polymer thin films oriented and aligned along the nanogrooves were obtained. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) fabricated from the oriented semiconducting polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo-[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), yielded saturation hole mobilities as high as 19.3 cm(2) V(-1 )s(-1), and the flexible "plastic" transistors demonstrated excellent mechanical stability under various bending conditions. These results represent important progress for solution-processed flexible OFETs and demonstrate that directed self-assembly of semiconducting polymers can be achieved by soft nanostructures. PMID:26645364

  12. Organic photovoltaic cells with controlled polarization sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Awartani, Omar; O'Connor, Brendan T.; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2014-03-03

    In this study, we demonstrate linearly polarized organic photovoltaic cells with a well-controlled level of polarization sensitivity. The polarized devices were created through the application of a large uniaxial strain to the bulk heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene):Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) film and printing the plastically deformed active layer onto a PEDOT:PSS and indium tin oxide coated glass substrate. The P3HT:PCBM layer is processed such that it is able to accommodate high strains (over 100%) without fracture. After printing the strained films, thermal annealing is used to optimize solar cell performance while maintaining polarization sensitivity. A dichroic ratio and short circuit current ratio of ≈6.1 and ≈1.6 were achieved, respectively.

  13. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  14. AIDS and the lung. 1--AIDS, aprons, and elbow grease: preventing the nosocomial spread of human immunodeficiency virus and associated organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, P J; Collins, J V

    1989-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) other than by direct inoculation or sexual contact is extremely rare. HIV has, however, been found on fibreoptic bronchoscopes used on patients with AIDS and there is a clear theoretical risk of transmission by bronchoscopy. Applied experiments have underlined the importance of cleaning equipment thoroughly and have shown the limitations of disinfection. Infection control policies should be revised to meet the following four basic requirements: (1) all precautions should apply to all patients alike--that is, whether infectious or not; (2) equipment should be cleaned thoroughly in detergent immediately after use to remove body secretions and reduce contamination; (3) staff who may be exposed to body secretions should wear simple barrier clothing routinely; and (4) contaminated bronchoscopes should be disinfected for 20 minutes in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde after cleaning. PMID:2688178

  15. Stochastic control of light UAV at landing with the aid of bearing-only observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris

    2015-12-01

    This work considers the tracking of the UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle) at landing on unprepared field. Despite the advantages in UAV guidance the autonomous landing remains to be one of most serious problems. The principal difficulties are the absence of the precise UAV position measurements with respect to the landing field and the action of external atmospheric perturbations (turbulence and wind). So the control problem for UAV landing is the nonlinear stochastic one with incomplete information. The aim of the article is the development of stochastic control algorithms based on pseudomeasurement Kalman filter in the problem of the UAV autonomous landing with the aid of ground-based optical/radio radars in the case of strong wind and large initial error of the UAV entrance into the area covered by radars. The novelty of the article is the joint control-observation algorithm based on unbiased pseudomeasurement Kalman filter which provides the quadratic characteristics of the estimation errors. The later property is highly important for the UAV control based on the data fusion from INS (inertial navigation system) and the bearing observations obtained from external terrain based locators. The principal difficulty in the UAV landing control is the absence of the direct control tools at the terrain end, so the possible control can be based on the angular-range data obtained by terrain locators which must be transmitted from terrain location station to the UAV control unit. Thus the stochastic approach looks very effective in this challenging problem of the UAV landing.

  16. Current substances for organic weed control in vegetables or what do we have in our organic weed control tool box?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is the top research priority among organic producers. Organic producers have a short, but growing list of organic approved herbicides. The purpose of this publication is to provide general overview of weed control options for organic crop production. Research has demonstrated that co...

  17. Advantages and disadvantages for receiving Internet-based HIV/AIDS interventions at home or at community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Green, Shana M; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years, public health interventions have become technology based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions (EBIs). The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to EBIs such as healthy relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based healthy relationships video groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community-based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of home or CBO delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure, and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall, privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective. PMID:26357907

  18. A memory and organizational aid improves AD research consent capacity: Results of a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rubright, Jonathan; Sankar, Pamela; Casarett, David J; Gur, Ruben; Xie, Sharon X; Karlawish, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Objectives AD patients' early and progressive cognitive impairments hinder their capacity to provide informed consent. Unfortunately, the limited research on techniques to improve capacity has shown mixed results. Therefore, we tested whether a memory and organizational aid improves AD patient performance on measures of capacity and competency to give informed consent. Design, Setting, and Participants AD patients randomly assigned to standard consent, or standard plus a memory and organizational aid. Intervention Memory and organizational aid summarized at a 6th grade reading level the content of information mandated under the Common Rule's informed consent disclosure requirements. Measurements Three psychiatrists without access to patient data independently reviewed MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) interview transcripts to judge whether the patient was capable of providing informed consent. The agreement of at least two of three experts defined a participant as capable of providing informed consent. Secondary outcomes are MacCAT-CR measures of understanding, appreciation and reasoning, and comparison to cognitively normal older adult norms. Results AD intervention and control groups were similar in terms of age, education, and cognitive status. The intervention group was more likely to be judged competent than control group and had higher scores on MacCAT-CR measure of understanding. The intervention had no effect on measures of appreciation or reasoning. Conclusions A consent process that addresses an AD patients' deficits in memory and attention can improve capacity to give informed consent for early phase AD research. The results also validate the MacCAT-CR as an instrument to measure capacity, especially the understanding subscale. PMID:20808101

  19. A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual.

    PubMed

    Wantland, Dean J; Holzemer, William L; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Willard, Suzanne S; Arudo, John; Kirksey, Kenn M; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Rosa, María E; Robinson, Linda L; Nicholas, Patrice K; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Human, Sarie; Rivero, Marta M; Maryland, Mary; Huang, Emily

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates whether using an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual with self-care strategies for 21 common symptoms, compared to a basic nutrition manual, had an effect on reducing symptom frequency and intensity. A 775-person, repeated measures, randomized controlled trial was conducted over three months in 12 sites from the United States, Puerto Rico, and Africa to assess the relationship between symptom intensity with predictors for differences in initial symptom status and change over time. A mixed model growth analysis showed a significantly greater decline in symptom frequency and intensity for the group using the symptom management manual (intervention) compared to those using the nutrition manual (control) (t=2.36, P=0.018). The models identified three significant predictors for increased initial symptom intensities and in intensity change over time: (1) protease inhibitor-based therapy (increased mean intensity by 28%); (2) having comorbid illness (nearly twice the mean intensity); and (3) being Hispanic receiving care in the United States (increased the mean intensity by 2.5 times). In addition, the symptom manual showed a significantly higher helpfulness rating and was used more often compared to the nutrition manual. The reduction in symptom intensity scores provides evidence of the need for palliation of symptoms in individuals with HIV/AIDS, as well as symptoms and treatment side effects associated with other illnesses. The information from this study may help health care providers become more aware of self-management strategies that are useful to persons with HIV/AIDS and help them to assist patients in making informed choices. PMID:18400461

  20. Validation of space/ground antenna control algorithms using a computer-aided design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1995-01-01

    The validation of the algorithms for controlling the space-to-ground antenna subsystem for Space Station Alpha is an important step in assuring reliable communications. These algorithms have been developed and tested using a simulation environment based on a computer-aided design tool that can provide a time-based execution framework with variable environmental parameters. Our work this summer has involved the exploration of this environment and the documentation of the procedures used to validate these algorithms. We have installed a variety of tools in a laboratory of the Tracking and Communications division for reproducing the simulation experiments carried out on these algorithms to verify that they do meet their requirements for controlling the antenna systems. In this report, we describe the processes used in these simulations and our work in validating the tests used.

  1. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  2. Getting Involved: Exploring Latino GBT Volunteerism and Activism in AIDS and LGBT Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Vázquez, Raquel; Benjamin, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the community involvement (e.g., volunteerism, activism) of Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons (GBT) in two areas: AIDS/GLBT and other general causes. Drawing from volunteering and identity theories, we explore: Who is likely to get involved? What factors affect variation in the levels of involvement? Where do Latino GBT participate and what do they do? Data come from a cross-sectional sample (N=643) of Latino GBT in Chicago and San Francisco. We find high levels of involvement, but primarily focused on AIDS/GLBT. Involvement appears to be driven by income, early involvement, role modeling, and childhood stigmatization of gender nonconformity. PMID:26451081

  3. Effectiveness of quality-control aids in verifying K-9-team explosive detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallowell, Susan F.; Fischer, Douglas S.; Brasher, Jeffrey D.; Malone, Robert L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Rae, Cathy

    1997-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9 team detection performance for explosives used as training aids and QCAs configurations of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCA configuration of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCAs. The configurations were a paper patch impregnated with a solution of the explosive, a cloth pouch filed with small amounts of solid explosive, and the non-hazardous explosive for security training and testing material. The DTE was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, where the K-9 teams undergo initial training. Six FAA certified operational teams participated. All explosives and QCAs were presented to the K-9 teams using a 10 scent box protocol. The results show that K-9 team as are more sensitive to explosives than the candidate QCAs. More importantly, it was discovered that the explosives at Lackland AFB are cross-contaminated, meaning that explosives possessed volatile artifacts from other explosives. There are two potential hypotheses explaining why the dogs did not detect the QCAs. First, the cross-contamination of Lackland training explosives may mean that K-9 teams are only trained to detect the explosives with the most volatile chemical signatures. Alternatively, the QCA configurations may have been below the trained detection threshold of the K-9s. It is recommended that K-9 teams train on uncontaminated odors from properly designed QCAs to ensure that dogs respond to the appropriate explosive components, and not some

  4. Certified Nurses' Aide Job-Related Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This document, which is designed for students preparing to become a certified nurses' aide, contains instructional text and learning activities organized in nine sections. The following topics are covered: the role of the certified nurse's aide (job duties, personal health, professionalism, code of ethics); infection control (the infection…

  5. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Rodrick M; Fullilove, Mindy T; Fullilove, Robert E; Wallace, Deborah N

    2007-01-01

    We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking--essentially an institutional collective consciousness--while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience--dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States. PMID:17324268

  6. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: Understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Rodrick M; Fullilove, Mindy T; Fullilove, Robert E; Wallace, Deborah N

    2007-01-01

    We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking – essentially an institutional collective consciousness – while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience – dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States. PMID:17324268

  7. Computer aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  8. Organic weed control for cantaloupe methods comparison trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective weed control is needed for successful melon production. Synthetic herbicides that are available for non-organic melon production cannot be used in organic production. In addition to organic producers' needs, herbicide use is not always practical in many garden situations, whether organic o...

  9. Methodology for assessing the performance of urine absorbing aids in controlling malodour release.

    PubMed

    Sironi, S; Capelli, L; Dentoni, L; Del Rosso, R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of comparing the performance of different absorbent aids in terms of odour control by discussing a suitable methodology for product evaluation. To overcome the problems of low test reproducibility owing to biological urine variability, the first step of the work consisted of the identification and the production of artificial urine having a constant and stable composition over time, moreover preventing sensorial assessors from any risk of biological contamination. Sensorial measurements were performed to optimize the similarity between artificial and biological urine, especially as far as the composition of the volatile component and therefore of the odour properties are concerned. The assessment of absorbent articles performance to control urine malodour includes both the concentration and the hedonic tone of the odour released by the article itself loaded with synthetic urine. Analyses were run on different products, which can be grouped into two different classes: absorbing aids with or without odour control technology (OCT) respectively. Results show that, despite of the presence or absence of OCT on absorbing products, their odour concentrations are almost identical, being comprised between 10 000 and 12 000 ouE m(-3) . For this reason, it is evident that odour concentration is not suitable as the sole parameter for comparison of different absorbing products. Instead, the hedonic odour tone (odour pleasantness/unpleasantness) relevant to the different product typologies (that is products with and without OCT) should be used as an additional discriminating factor for this kind of comparative tests. PMID:23237491

  10. Mental health first aid training in a workplace setting: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN13249129

    PubMed Central

    Kitchener, Betty A; Jorm, Anthony F

    2004-01-01

    Background The Mental Health First Aid training course was favorably evaluated in an uncontrolled trial in 2002 showing improvements in participants' mental health literacy, including knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence and help provided to others. This article reports the first randomized controlled trial of this course. Methods Data are reported on 301 participants randomized to either participate immediately in a course or to be wait-listed for 5 months before undertaking the training. The participants were employees in two large government departments in Canberra, Australia, where the courses were conducted during participants' work time. Data were analyzed according to an intention-to-treat approach. Results The trial found a number of benefits from this training course, including greater confidence in providing help to others, greater likelihood of advising people to seek professional help, improved concordance with health professionals about treatments, and decreased stigmatizing attitudes. An additional unexpected but exciting finding was an improvement in the mental health of the participants themselves. Conclusions The Mental Health First Aid training has shown itself to be not only an effective way to improve participants' mental health literacy but also to improve their own mental health. It is a course that has high applicability across the community. PMID:15310395

  11. Reducing prospective memory error and costs in simulated air traffic control: External aids, extending practice, and removing perceived memory requirements.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Chapman, Melissa; Smith, Rebekah E

    2016-09-01

    In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts. For the PM task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting aircraft. In Experiment 1, when no aids were provided, PM errors and costs were not reduced by practice. When aids were provided, costs observed early in practice were eliminated with practice, but residual PM errors remained. Experiment 2 provided more limited practice with aids, but instructions that did not frame the PM task as a "memory" task led to high PM accuracy without costs. Attention-allocation policies that participants set based on expected PM demands were modified as individuals were increasingly exposed to reliable aids, or were given instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. These findings have implications for the design of aids for individuals who monitor multi-item dynamic displays. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608067

  12. Use of graphics in decision aids for telerobotic control: (Parts 5-8 of an 8-part MIT progress report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Thomas B.; Roseborough, James B.; Das, Hari; Chin, Kan-Ping; Inoue, Seiichi

    1989-01-01

    Four separate projects recently completed or in progress at the MIT Man-Machine Systems Laboratory are summarized. They are: a decision aid for retrieving a tumbling satellite in space; kinematic control and graphic display of redundant teleoperators; real time terrain/object generation: a quad-tree approach; and two dimensional control for three dimensional obstacle avoidance.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual for depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Eller, Lucille S; Kirksey, Kenn M; Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Holzemer, William L; Wantland, Dean J; Willard, Suzanne S; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), and are associated with poorer health outcomes. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of the HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual self-care symptom management strategies compared with a nutrition manual on depressive symptoms in an international sample of PLWH. The sample consisted of a sub-group (N=222) of participants in a larger study symptom management study who reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms of the intervention (n=124) and control (n=98) groups were compared over three months: baseline, one-month, and two-months. Use and effectiveness of specific strategies were examined. Depressive symptom frequency at baseline varied significantly by country (χ (2) 12.9; p=0.04). Within the intervention group there were significant differences across time in depressive symptom frequency [F(2, 207) = 3.27, p=0.05], intensity [F(2, 91) = 4.6, p=0.01], and impact [F(2, 252) = 2.92, p= 0.05), and these were significantly lower at one month but not at two months, suggesting that self-care strategies are effective in reducing depressive symptoms, however effects may be short term. Most used and most effective self-care strategies were distraction techniques and prayer. This study suggests that people living with HIV can be taught and will employ self-care strategies for management of depressive symptoms and that these strategies are effective in reducing these symptoms. Self-care strategies are noninvasive, have no side-effects, and can be readily taught as an adjunct to other forms of treatment. Studies are needed to identify the most effective self-care strategies and quantify optimum dose and frequency of use as a basis for evidence-based practice. PMID:22880943

  14. Intelligent tutoring and aiding in satellite ground control. Ph.D. Thesis - Georgia Inst. of Tech., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Rose W.; Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    In supervisory control systems such as satellite ground control, there is a need for human-centered automation where the focus is to understand and enhance the human-system interaction experience in the complex task environment. Operator support in the form of off-line intelligent tutoring and on-line intelligent aiding is one approach towards this effort. The tutor/aid paradigm is proposed here as a design approach that integrates the two aspects of operator support in one system for technically oriented adults in complex domains. This paper also presents GT-VITA, a proof-of-concept graphical, interactive, intelligent tutoring system that is a first attempt to illustrate the tutoring aspect of the tutor/aid paradigm in the domain of satellite ground control. Evaluation on GT-VITA is conducted with NASA personnel with very positive results. GT-VITA is presented being fielded as it is at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  15. Enhancing Community-Based Organizations' Capacity for HIV/AIDS Education and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Robert M.; Daniels, Pamela; Yancey, Elleen M.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Berry, Jamillah; Clark, Nicole; Dawaghreh, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic potential of community-based organizations to promote health, prevent disease, and address racial, ethnic, and socio-economic disparities in local communities is well recognized. However, many CBOs, particularly, small- to medium-size organizations, lack the capacity to plan, implement, and evaluate their successes. Moreover, little…

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs

  17. Crystallization control of organic dyes in self-organized microdomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthaus, Olaf; Kaga, Kazuaki; Kageyama, Hiroaki

    2004-09-01

    A dewetting process of an evaporating solution is used to form micrometer-sized amorphous droplets, or domes, of the solute on substrates such as silicon, mica, glass, and indium-tin-oxide. The dome size can be controlled by the casting conditions. Higher concentration and slower evaporation of the solvent leads to larger domes. Upon annealing, the dyes may crystallize and form polycrystalline or single crystalline domes or crystalline fibers. Photophysical properties of the domes were investigated and it was found that the absorption and fluorescence spectra depend on the aggregate kind (polycrystalline or single crystalline) and the dome size.

  18. Use of online safety decision aid by abused women: effect on decisional conflict in randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eden, Karen B.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Messing, Jill T.; Bloom, Tina L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Gielen, Andrea C.; Clough, Amber S.; Barnes-Hoyt, Jamie S.; Glass, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An Internet safety decision aid was developed to help abused women understand their risk for repeat and near-lethal intimate partner violence, clarify priorities related to safety, and develop an action plan customized to these priorities. Purpose The overall purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a safety decision aid compared with usual safety planning (control) delivered through a secure website, using a multi-state randomized controlled trial design. The paper evaluated the effectiveness of the safety decision aid in reducing decisional conflict after a single use by abused women. Design Randomized controlled trial referred to as IRIS, Internet Resource for Intervention and Safety Participants Abused women who spoke English (N = 708) were enrolled in a four-state, randomized controlled trial. Intervention and Control The intervention was an interactive safety decision aid with personalized safety plan; the control condition was usual safety planning resources. Both were delivered to participants through the secure study website. Main Outcome Measures This paper compared women’s decisional conflict about safety: total decisional conflict and the four subscales of this measure (feeling: uninformed, uncertain, unclear about safety priorities; and sensing lack of support) between intervention/control conditions. Data were collected 3/2011–5/2013 and analyzed 1/2014–3/2014. Results Immediately following the first use of the interactive safety decision aid, intervention women had significantly lower total decisional conflict than control women, controlling for baseline value of decisional conflict (p=0.002, effect size=.12). After controlling for baseline values, the safety decision aid group had significantly greater reduction in feeling uncertain (p=0.006, effect size=.07), and in feeling unsupported (p=0.008, effect size=.07) about safety than the usual safety planning group. Conclusions Abused women randomized to the safety

  19. Assisting gay men to maintain safer sex: an evaluation of an AIDS service organization's safer sex maintenance program.

    PubMed

    Miller, R L

    1995-01-01

    As the second decade of the AIDS crisis unfolds, increasing concern has been raised that the widespread adoption of condom use that occurred among gay men in the 1980s is not being maintained. Most interventions to promote condom use among gay men are delivered by community-based organizations via programs that are virtually undocumented; little is known about their effectiveness, or the processes by which they may work. This study describes safer sex practices among self-identified gay men following their participation in an intervention developed and implemented by a community-based organization. The intervention was designed to enhance men's attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy expectations to maintain safer sex. Among 150 men with complete data at both assessments, self-reported condom use was low. Men reported using condoms more consistently for anal sexual behavior than oral sexual behavior, but there were men who reported consistent unprotected anal sexual intercourse. The intervention had little impact on patterns of behavior over time, although desired changes in attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy expectations were evidenced following the intervention. The results suggest the importance of assisting community-based organizations to document program models. Findings also suggest that community-based organizations can develop interventions to successfully enhance factors that theoretically support maintenance of safer sexual behaviors. PMID:8664098

  20. Organ Size Control by Hippo and TOR Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tumaneng, Karen; Russell, Ryan C.; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2013-01-01

    The determination of final organ size is a highly coordinated and complex process that relies on the precise regulation of cell number and/or cell size. Perturbation of organ size control contributes to many human diseases, including hypertrophy, degenerative diseases, and cancer. Hippo and TOR are among the key signaling pathways involved in the regulation of organ size through their respective functions in the regulation of cell number and cell size. Here, we review the general mechanisms that regulate organ growth, describe how Hippo and TOR control key aspects of growth, and discuss recent findings that highlight a possible coordination between Hippo and TOR in organ size regulation. PMID:22575479

  1. Keeping a tight grip on the reins: donor control over aid coordination and management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Buse, K

    1999-09-01

    A long-standing consensus that aid coordination should be owned by recipient authorities has been eclipsed by accord on the desirability of recipient management of aid along-side domestic resources. Nonetheless, in many low and lower-middle income countries, donors remain remarkably uncoordinated; where attempts at coordination are made, they are often donor-driven, and only a small proportion of aid is directly managed by recipients. This paper draws on evidence from an in-depth review of aid to the health sector in Bangladesh to analyze the systems by which external resources are managed. Based on interviews with key stakeholders, a questionnaire survey and analysis of documentary sources, the factors constraining the government from assuming a more active role in aid management are explored. The results suggest that donor perceptions of weak government capacity, inadequate accountability and compromised integrity only partially account for the propensity for donor leadership. Equally important is the consideration that aid coordination has a markedly political dimension. Stakeholders are well aware of the power, influence and leverage which aid coordination confers, an awareness which colours the desire of some stakeholders to lead aid coordination processes, and conditions the extent and manner by which others wish to be involved. It is argued that recipient management of external aid is dependent on major changes in the attitudes and behaviours of recipients and donors alike. PMID:10621239

  2. RoCoMAR: Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-01-01

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay. PMID:23881134

  3. Organic vegetable weed control research in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lane Agriculture Research Center is operated by Oklahoma State University and the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Located in southeastern Oklahoma, 13 resident scientists work cooperatively to develop production practices for organic vegetable production. On...

  4. The need for artificial intelligence as an aid in controlling a manufacturing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyand, J.

    AI applications to industrial production and planning are discussed and illustrated with diagrams and drawings. Applications examined include flexible automation of manufacturing processes (robots with open manual control, robots programmable to meet product specifications, self-regulated robots, and robots capable of learning), flexible fault detection and diagnostics, production control, and overall planning and management (product strategies, marketing, determination of development capacity, site selection, project organization, and technology investment strategies). For the case of robots, problems in the design and operation of a state-of-the-art machine-tool cell (for hole boring, milling, and joining) are analyzed in detail.

  5. A Family History of Psychopathology Modifies the Decrement in Cognitive Control among Patients with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lance O.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HIV/AIDS on cognitive control and to determine if the effect is modified by familial risk for either alcohol or mood disorders. Sixty HIV-1 seropositive and 75 seronegative volunteers were assigned to four subgroups defined by the crossing of a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the…

  6. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  7. The Role of Teachers in Sex Education and the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshi, Daniel C.; Nakalema, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Research was undertaken to assess the role of primary school teachers with regard to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were responded to by 210 teachers drawn from primary schools in Eastern Nigeria (with pupils aged 6-15 years). These were supplemented by focus group discussions and…

  8. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In…

  9. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

  10. Risk Perception of HIV/AIDS and Low Self-Control Trait: Explaining Preventative Behaviors Among Iranian University Students

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Safooreh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Fathi, Behrouz; Shirzadi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of developed countries there are progressive trend about HIV/AIDS and its’ aspects of transmission in the low socio-economic societies. The aim of this was to explain the youth's behavior in adopting HIV/AIDS related preventive behaviors in a sample of Iranian university students by emphasizing on fear appeals approaches alongside examining the role of self-control trait for explaining adoption on danger or fear control processes based on Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Methods: A sample of 156 randomly selected university students in Jolfa, Iran was recruited in a predictive cross-sectional study by application of a researcher-designed questionnaire through self-report data collection manner. Sexual high risk behaviors, the EPPM variables, self-control trait, and general self-efficacy were measured as theoretical framework. Results: Findings indicated that 31.3% of participants were in the fear control process versus 68.7% in danger control about HIV/AIDS and also the presence of multi-sex partners and amphetamine consumption amongst the participants. Low self-control trait and low perceived susceptibility significantly were related to having a history of multi-sex partners while high level of self-efficacy significantly increased the probability of condom use. Conclusion: Findings of the study were indicative of the protective role of high level of self-control, perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy factors on youth's high-risk behaviors and their preventative skills as well. PMID:26573026

  11. Computer-Aided Design of Organic Host Architectures for Selective Chemosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2009-01-01

    Selective organic hosts provide the foundation for the development of many types of sensors. The deliberate design of host molecules with predetermined selectivity, however, remains a challenge in supramolecular chemistry. To address this issue we have developed a de novo structure-based design approach for the unbiased construction of complementary host architectures. This chapter summarizes recent progress including improvements on a computer software program, HostDesigner, specifically tailored to discover host architectures for small guest molecules. HostDesigner is capable of generating and evaluating millions of candidate structures in minutes on a desktop personal computer, allowing a user to rapidly identify three-dimensional architectures that are structurally organized for binding a targeted guest species. The efficacy of this computational methodology is illustrated with a search for cation hosts containing aliphatic ether oxygen groups and anion hosts containing urea groups.

  12. The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control

    PubMed Central

    Biesma, Regien G; Brugha, Ruairí; Harmer, Andrew; Walsh, Aisling; Spicer, Neil; Walt, Gill

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews country-level evidence about the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs), which have had profound effects on recipient country health systems in middle and low income countries. We have selected three initiatives that account for an estimated two-thirds of external funding earmarked for HIV/AIDS control in resource-poor countries: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Program (MAP) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper draws on 31 original country-specific and cross-country articles and reports, based on country-level fieldwork conducted between 2002 and 2007. Positive effects have included a rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery, greater stakeholder participation, and channelling of funds to non-governmental stakeholders, mainly NGOs and faith-based bodies. Negative effects include distortion of recipient countries’ national policies, notably through distracting governments from coordinated efforts to strengthen health systems and re-verticalization of planning, management and monitoring and evaluation systems. Sub-national and district studies are needed to assess the degree to which GHIs are learning to align with and build the capacities of countries to respond to HIV/AIDS; whether marginalized populations access and benefit from GHI-funded programmes; and about the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability of the HIV and AIDS programmes funded by the GHIs. Three multi-country sets of evaluations, which will be reporting in 2009, will answer some of these questions. PMID:19491291

  13. Organ size control: lessons from Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Iswar K.

    2015-01-01

    Of fundamental interest to biologists is how organs achieve a reproducible size during development. Studies of the developing Drosophila wing have provided many key insights that will help give a conceptual understanding of the process beyond the fly. In the wing, there is evidence for both “top-down” mechanisms, where signals emanating from small subsets of cells direct global proliferation, and “”bottom-up” mechanisms, where the final size is an emergent property of local cell-cell interactions. Mechanical forces also appear to have an important role along with the Hippo pathway, which may integrate multiple types of inputs to regulate the extent of growth. PMID:26267393

  14. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  15. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  16. AIDS Prevention and Control: Invited Presentations and Papers from the World Summit of Ministers of Health on Programmes for AIDS Prevention (London, England, January 26-28, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Papers from the World Summit of Ministers of Health on Programmes for AIDS Prevention in this book include: (1) "Global AIDS: Epidemiology, Impact, Projections, Global Strategy," (Jonathan Mann); (2) "Modes of Transmission: The Basis for Prevention Strategies," (Donald Acheson); (3) "National AIDS Information Programme in France," (Alain…

  17. Relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS and birth control.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2006-07-01

    Although prior research shows that substantial proportions of African Americans hold conspiracy beliefs, little is known about the subgroups of African Americans most likely to endorse such beliefs. We examined the relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to their conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS and birth control. Anonymous telephone surveys were conducted with a targeted random-digit-dial sample of 500 African Americans (15-44 years) in the contiguous United States. Respondents reported agreement with statements capturing beliefs in HIV/AIDS conspiracies (one scale) and birth control conspiracies (two scales). Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, employment, income, number of people income supports, number of living children, marital/cohabitation status, religiosity and black identity. Multivariate analyses indicated that stronger HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs were significantly associated with male gender, black identity and lower income. Male gender and lower education were significantly related to black genocide conspiracy beliefs, and male gender and high religiosity were significantly related to contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs. The set of sociodemographic characteristics explained a moderately small amount of the variance in conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS (R2 range=0.07-0.12) and birth control (R2 range=0.05-0.09). Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not isolated to specific segments of the African-American population. PMID:16895286

  18. Relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS and birth control.

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Although prior research shows that substantial proportions of African Americans hold conspiracy beliefs, little is known about the subgroups of African Americans most likely to endorse such beliefs. We examined the relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to their conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS and birth control. Anonymous telephone surveys were conducted with a targeted random-digit-dial sample of 500 African Americans (15-44 years) in the contiguous United States. Respondents reported agreement with statements capturing beliefs in HIV/AIDS conspiracies (one scale) and birth control conspiracies (two scales). Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, employment, income, number of people income supports, number of living children, marital/cohabitation status, religiosity and black identity. Multivariate analyses indicated that stronger HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs were significantly associated with male gender, black identity and lower income. Male gender and lower education were significantly related to black genocide conspiracy beliefs, and male gender and high religiosity were significantly related to contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs. The set of sociodemographic characteristics explained a moderately small amount of the variance in conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS (R2 range=0.07-0.12) and birth control (R2 range=0.05-0.09). Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not isolated to specific segments of the African-American population. PMID:16895286

  19. Organic weed control in Cowpea: Summer 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea is a major vegetable crop within the state of Oklahoma. It is utilized as both a processing crop by the canning industry and as a fresh market crop for farmer’s and roadside markets. Traditionally weed control in this crop is primarily handled with preemergence and some postemergence herbicid...

  20. Final-Approach Spacing Aids (FASA) evaluation for terminal-area, time-based air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Capron, William R.; Lohr, Gary W.; Crawford, Daniel J.; Tang, Dershuen A.; Rodgers, William G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A jointly funded (NASA/FAA) real-time simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to gather comparative performance data among three candidate final-approach spacing aid (FASA) display formats. Several objective measures of controller performance and their display eye-scan behavior as well as subjective workload and rating questionnaires were used. For each of two representative pattern-speed procedures (a 170-knot procedure and a 210-knot procedure with speed control aiding), data were gathered, via twelve FAA controllers, using four final-controller display format conditions (manual/ARTS 3, graphic marker, DICE countdown, and centerline slot marker). Measured runway separations were more precise with both the graphic marker and DICE countdown formats than with the centerline slot marker and both (graphic and DICE) improved precision relative to the manual/ARTS 3 format. For three separate rating criteria, the subject controllers ranked the FASA formats in the same order: graphic marker, DICE countdown, and centerline slot marker. The increased precision measured with the 210-knot pattern-speed procedure may indicate the potential for the application of speed-control aiding where higher pattern speeds are practical after the base-to-final turn. Also presented are key FASA issues, a rationale for the formats selected for testing, and their description.

  1. Theory aided design and analysis of dielectric and semiconductor components for organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibenedetto, Sara Arlene

    Perfluoroacyl/acyl-derivatized quaterthiophens are developed and synthesized. The frontier molecular orbital energies of these compounds are studied by optical spectroscopy and electrochemistry while solid-state/film properties are investigated by thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) performance parameters are discussed in terms of the interplay between semiconductor molecular energetics and film morphologies/microstructures. The majority charge carrier type and mobility exhibit a strong correlation with the regiochemistry of perfluoroarene incorporation. In quaterthiophene-based semiconductors, carbonyl-functionalization allows tuning of the majority carrier type from p-type to ambipolar and to n-type. In situ conversion of a p-type semiconducting film to n-type film is also demonstrated. The design of chemical and film microstructural alternative hybrid organic-inorganic gate dielectrics is described using the classic Clausius-Mossotti relation. The Maxwell-Wagner effective medium model is used to compute the effective dielectric permittivity of two types of dielectrics self-assembled nanodielectrics (SANDs) and crosslinked polymer blends (CPBs). In these calculations showing good agreement between theory and experiment, it is found that greater capacitances should be achievable with mixed composites than with layered composites. With this insight, a series of mixed metal oxide-polyolefin nanocomposites is synthesized via in-situ olefin polymerization using the single-site metallocene catalysts. By integrating organic and inorganic constituents, the resulting hybrid material exhibit high permittivity (from the inorganic inclusions) and high breakdown strength, mechanical flexibility, and facile processability (from the polymer matrices). In order to better optimize the capacitance and leakage current of hybrid organic-inorganic dielectrics, the capacitance, leakage current and OFET gate

  2. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  3. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  4. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  5. Knowledge of and Opinions on HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Front-Line Service Providers at Canadian AIDS Service Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Heather; Wilton, James; Sharma, Malika; Fowler, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Oral daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada) is approved in the United States for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) but has generated controversy in the media and within HIV-affected communities. We conducted an online survey about PrEP-related knowledge, experience, opinions, and learning needs, and received 160 responses from service providers at Canadian AIDS Service Organizations. Respondents were cautiously optimistic about PrEP and 48.8% believed that PrEP warranted Health Canada approval. In multivariable logistic regression, support for PrEP approval was associated with more years working in HIV (odds ratio=1.89 per decade, 95% CI=1.10, 3.25), low baseline familiarity with PrEP (OR=3.24, 95% CI=1.01, 14.41), and knowing someone who had used PrEP (OR=4.39, 95% CI=1.28,15.08). Participants major concerns about PrEP were similar to those highlighted in other publications, and some issues specific to certain target populations were raised. Several participants (26.2%) had been asked about PrEP in the past year and 10.6% knew of one or more Canadian who had used PrEP. Despite clients' interest, most participants thought that they (60.6%) or their organization (63.1%) did not have enough current knowledge about PrEP, highlighting the need for further education on this novel HIV prevention strategy. PMID:23731254

  6. A response to Edzi (AIDS): Malawi faith-based organizations' impact on HIV prevention and care.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Teri; Schell, Ellen; Rankin, Sally; Phiri, Joel; Fiedler, Rachel; Chakanza, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    African faith-based organization (FBO) leaders influence their members' HIV knowledge, beliefs, and practices, but their roles in HIV prevention and care are poorly understood. This article expands the work of Garner (2000) to test the impact of FBO influence on member risk and care behaviors, embedding it in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys were collected from five FBOs (Christian and Muslim) in Malawi and analyzed using mixed methods. Contrary to Garner, we found that the level of power and influence of the FBO had no significant impact on the risk-taking behaviors of members; however, leaders' HIV knowledge predicted members' behaviors. Stigmatizing attitudes of leaders significantly decreased members' care behaviors, but FBO hierarchy tended to increase members' care behaviors. The power of local church and mosque leaders to influence behavior could be exploited more effectively by nurses by providing support, knowledge, and encouragement to churches and mosques. PMID:22959480

  7. Weed control through seedling abrasion with an organic fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many tools exist to control weeds in organic crops, and each has utility in specific situations. Nevertheless, surveys of organic farmers indicate that weed management often is second only to labor supply as their main bottleneck for success. Consequently, new tactics for managing weeds are desirabl...

  8. Management Planning and Control: Supporting Knowledge-Intensive Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herremans, Irene M.; Isaac, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop propositions for empirical validation regarding appropriate management planning and control systems (MPACS) in knowledge-intensive organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The propositions were developed from interviews with members of a knowledge-intensive virtual organization that is known for…

  9. Modelling the effects of condom use and antiretroviral therapy in controlling HIV/AIDS among heterosexuals, homosexuals and bisexuals.

    PubMed

    Malunguza, Noble; Mushayabasa, Steady; Chiyaka, Christinah; Mukandavire, Zindoga

    2010-09-01

    A deterministic compartmental sex-structured HIV/AIDS model for assessing the effects of homosexuals and bisexuals in heterosexual settings in which homosexuality and bisexuality issues have remained taboo is presented. We extend the model to focus on the effects of condom use as a single strategy approach in HIV prevention in the absence of any other intervention strategies. Initially, we model the use of male condoms, followed by incorporating the use of both the female and male condoms. The model includes two primary factors in condom use to control HIV which are condom efficacy and compliance. Reproductive numbers for these models are computed and compared to assess the effectiveness of male and female condom use in a community. We also extend the basic model to consider the effects of antiretroviral therapy as a single strategy. The results from the study show that condoms can reduce the number of secondary infectives and thus can slow the development of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Further, we note from the study that treatment of AIDS patients may enlarge the epidemic when the treatment drugs are not 100% effective and when treated AIDS patients indulge in risky sexual behaviour. Thus, the treatment with amelioration of AIDS patients should be accompanied with intense public health educational programs, which are capable of changing the attitude of treated AIDS patients towards safe sex. It is also shown from the study that the use of condoms in settings with the treatment may help in reducing the number of secondary infections thus slowing the epidemic. PMID:20721763

  10. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    PubMed

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-01-01

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  11. Predictive Mapping of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G.; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for mapping soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to predict SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to predict topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the predictive accuracy. PMID:26473739

  12. Organization features of the work control quality improvement project

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, R.

    1994-12-31

    One consequence of {open_quotes}reengineering{close_quotes} - the systematic review, design, and implementation of process, technology, and organization - is improvement in process efficiency. This improvement also causes change in organization size and function. This paper describes some of the key changes to organizational function brought about by Duke Power Company`s reengineering of the work control process. The fundamental principle observed during the Duke nuclear stations` recent organizational realignment is focus on the process. The process of work control must satisfy the customer needs of the station equipment owners. The changes to the organization serve to fulfill the numerous process requirements.

  13. Sensory control of normal movement and of movement aided by neural prostheses.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    Signals from sensory receptors in muscles and skin enter the central nervous system (CNS), where they contribute to kinaesthesia and the generation of motor commands. Many lines of evidence indicate that sensory input from skin receptors, muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs play the predominant role in this regard. Yet in spite of over 100 years of research on this topic, some quite fundamental questions remain unresolved. How does the CNS choose to use the ability to control muscle spindle sensitivity during voluntary movements? Do spinal reflexes contribute usefully to load compensation, given that the feedback gain must be quite low to avoid instability? To what extent do signals from skin stretch receptors contribute? This article provides a brief review of various theories, past and present, that address these questions. To what extent has the knowledge gained resulted in clinical applications? Muscles paralyzed as a result of spinal cord injury or stroke can be activated by electrical stimulation delivered by neuroprostheses. In practice, at most two or three sensors can be deployed on the human body, providing only a small fraction of the information supplied by the tens of thousands of sensory receptors in animals. Most of the neuroprostheses developed so far do not provide continuous feedback control. Instead, they switch from one state to another when signals from their one or two sensors meet pre-set thresholds (finite state control). The inherent springiness of electrically activated muscle provides a crucial form of feedback control that helps smooth the resulting movements. In spite of the dissimilarities, parallels can be found between feedback control in neuroprostheses and in animals and this can provide surprising insights in both directions. PMID:26047134

  14. Perpendicular cultivation for improved weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive cultivation in organic peanut is partially effective, but in-row weed control remains problematic. In an attempt to improve in-row weed control, trials were conducted to determine the feasibility of early-season cultivation perpendicular to row direction using a tine weeder when integrate...

  15. A controlled study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB intervention with faith healers in Vhembe District, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mashamba, Tshilidzi; Peltzer, Karl; Maluleke, Thelma X; Sodi, Tholene

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith healers affiliated with the United African Apostolic Church (UAAC) in the Thulamela and Musina municipalities of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 103 faith healers were included in this study, 58 were systematically assigned to an intervention and 45 to a control group. The intervention group received training for 2 days. At follow-up after 2 months, intervention effects were significant for HIV knowledge and to a lesser extent TB knowledge. No significant improvement was found in HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) management strategies such as HIV/STI risk behaviour counselling, referral of clients for HIV testing, keeping condoms at stock in church, and church community HIV/AIDS/STI education. It is important to note that faith healers address some of the major known behavioural risk and protective factors such as partner reduction and condom use. Therefore, faith healers could be more widely utilized in HIV prevention programmes as risk reduction counsellors, in particular on matters of community-level education. PMID:22754060

  16. Joining forces for food security - Linking earth observation and crowd-sourcing for improved decision-support to aid organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enenkel, M.; Dorigo, W.; See, L. M.; Vinck, P.; Pham, P.

    2013-12-01

    Droughts statistically exceed all other natural disasters in spatio-temporal extent, number of people affected or financial loss. Triggered by crop failure, food insecurity is a major manifestation of agricultural drought and water scarcity. However, other socio-economic precursors, such as chronically low levels of disaster preparedness, hampered access to food security or a lack of social safety nets are equally important factors. Consequently, this study is focused on two complementary developments - a new satellite-derived agricultural drought index and a mobile phone application. The Combined Drought Index (CDI) is enhanced by replacing field measurements of temperature and rainfall modelled/assimilated data. The vegetation component is replaced by a smoothed NDVI dataset. A soil moisture component is introduced to close the gap between rainfall deficiencies and the first visible impacts of atmospheric anomalies on vegetation. The mobile phone application enables the validation of drought index outputs and gives aid organizations an opportunity to increase the speed of socio-economic vulnerability assessments. Supported by Doctors without Borders (MSF) this approach aims at decreasing uncertainties in decision-making via a more holistic risk framework.

  17. USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented. PMID:12284337

  18. A review of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's response to the HIV/AIDS crisis among Blacks in the United States, 1981-2009.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Jones, Rhondette L; Wolitski, Richard J; Cleveland, Janet C; Dean, Hazel D; Fenton, Kevin A

    2009-10-01

    Among US racial/ethnic groups, Blacks are at the highest risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched the Heightened National Response to Address the HIV/AIDS Crisis Among African Americans, which seeks to engage public and nonpublic partners in a synergistic effort to prevent HIV among Blacks. The CDC also recently launched Act Against AIDS, a campaign to refocus attention on the domestic HIV/AIDS crisis. Although the CDC's efforts to combat HIV/AIDS among Blacks have achieved some success, more must be done to address this crisis. New initiatives include President Obama's goal of developing a National HIV/AIDS Strategy to reduce HIV incidence, decrease HIV-related health disparities, and increase access to care, especially among Blacks and other disproportionately affected populations. PMID:19797748

  19. [Definition and Control Indicators of Volatile Organic Compounds in China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Che, Fei; Zhao, Guo-hua; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the most complex of a wide range of pollutants that harms human health and ecological environment. However, various countries around the world differ on its definition and control indicators. Its definition, control indicators and monitoring methods of our country and local standards were also different. Based on detailed analysis of the definitions and control indicators of VOCs, the recommendations were proposed: the definition of VOCs should be different according to the different concerns between "air quality management" and "pollution emissions management"; base on different control way from production source, technological process, terminal emission, total discharge control, the control indicators system consists of 10 indicators; to formulate industry VOCs emissions standards, the most effective control way and indicators should be chosen according to characteristics of production process, way of VOCs emissions and possible control measures, etc. PMID:26717719

  20. AIDS as a social phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bennett, F J

    1987-01-01

    AIDS as a new lethal and at present incurable sexually transmitted disease is already having remarkable social repercussions not yet fully explicit and hence it can be termed a social phenomenon. Political, behavioural, economic and legal reactions and social responses such as stigmatization, changes in the sick role and the growth of voluntary organizations and international collaboration are described. Communication, education and information aspects of AIDS are considered using material from the press and it is clear that a massive educational approach to modify behaviour must be the basis for a control programme. PMID:3317877

  1. Controlling epileptiform activity with organic electronic ion pumps.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adam; Rivnay, Jonathan; Kergoat, Loïg; Jonsson, Amanda; Inal, Sahika; Uguz, Ilke; Ferro, Marc; Ivanov, Anton; Sjöström, Theresia Arbring; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G; Bernard, Christophe

    2015-05-27

    In treating epilepsy, the ideal solution is to act at a seizure's onset, but only in the affected regions of the brain. Here, an organic electronic ion pump is demonstrated, which directly delivers on-demand pure molecules to specific brain regions. State-of-the-art organic devices and classical pharmacology are combined to control pathological activity in vitro, and the results are verified with electrophysiological recordings. PMID:25866154

  2. Spatial organization of cortical and spinal neurons controlling motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Ariel J; Lewallen, Kathryn A; Pfaff, Samuel L

    2013-01-01

    A major task of the central nervous system (CNS) is to control behavioral actions, which necessitates a precise regulation of muscle activity. The final components of the circuitry controlling muscles are the motorneurons, which settle into pools in the ventral horn of the spinal cord in positions that mirror the musculature organization within the body. This ‘musculotopic’ motor-map then becomes the internal CNS reference for the neuronal circuits that control motor commands. This review describes recent progress in defining the neuroanatomical organization of the higher-order motor circuits in the cortex and spinal cord, and our current understanding of the integrative features that contribute to complex motor behaviors. We highlight emerging evidence that cortical and spinal motor command centers are loosely organized with respect to the musculotopic spatial-map, but these centers also incorporate organizational features that associate with the function of different muscle groups during commonly enacted behaviors. PMID:22841417

  3. Job Turnover and Job Satisfaction among Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Howard M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Interviewed 234 aides in seven nursing homes concerning job turnover rate, job satisfaction, and perception of milieu. A positive association found between turnover rate and aides' perceptions of the homes' order, organization, and control suggested that job turnover would lessen with more involvement in the decision-making process. (JAC)

  4. The impact of nursing leadership and management on the control of HIV/AIDS: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Nawafleh, Hani; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on an aspect of a larger ethnographic study that sought to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on the practice of primary care nurses in Jordan. Nursing leadership and the style of management adopted by senior nursing and medical administrators at the Ministry of Heath were identified as factors impacting on the practice of the nurses and their capacity to raise community awareness and contribute to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. The study was undertaken in three rural and three urban primary health care centres (PHCC). Data collection included participant observation, key informant interviews, and document analysis. These data informed the development of descriptive ethnographic accounts that allowed for the subsequent identification of common and divergent themes reflective of factors recognized as influencing the practice of the nurse participants. PMID:23181375

  5. Robust computer-aided synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems with varying plant dynamics via AUTOCON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefkowitz, C. P.; Tekawy, J. A.; Pujara, P. K.; Safonov, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    AUTOCON is an automated computer-aided design tool for the synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems based upon user-defined control parameter optimization. Violations in stability and performance requirements are computed from constraints on Single Input/Single Output (SISO) open- and closed-loop transfer function frequency responses, and from constraints on the singular-value frequency responses of Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) transfer functions, for all critical plant variations. Optimum nonlinear programming algorithms are used in the search for local constrained solutions in which violations in stability and performance are caused either to vanish or be minimized for a proper selection of the control parameters. Classical control system stability and performance design can, in this way, be combined with modern multivariable robustness methods to offer general frequency response loop-shaping via a computer-aided design tool. Complete Nichols, Nyquist, Bode, singular-value Bode magnitude and transient response plots are produced, including user-defined boundary responses. AUTOCON is used to synthesize and optimize the lateral/directional flight control system for a typical high-performance aircraft.

  6. Decoding the organization of spinal circuits that control locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Kiehn, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Unravelling the functional operation of neuronal networks and linking cellular activity to specific behavioural outcomes are among the biggest challenges in neuroscience. In this broad field of research, substantial progress has been made in studies of the spinal networks that control locomotion. Through united efforts using electrophysiological and molecular genetic network approaches and behavioural studies in phylogenetically diverse experimental models, the organization of locomotor networks has begun to be decoded. The emergent themes from this research are that the locomotor networks have a modular organization with distinct transmitter and molecular codes and that their organization is reconfigured with changes to the speed of locomotion or changes in gait. PMID:26935168

  7. GT-MSOCC - A domain for research on human-computer interaction and decision aiding in supervisory control systems. [Georgia Tech - Multisatellite Operations Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    The Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center (GT-MSOCC), a real-time interactive simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system for unmanned earth-orbiting satellites, is described. The GT-MSOCC program for investigating a range of modeling, decision aiding, and workstation design issues related to the human-computer interaction is discussed. A GT-MSOCC operator function model is described in which operator actions, both cognitive and manual, are represented as the lowest level discrete control network nodes, and operator action nodes are linked to information needs or system reconfiguration commands.

  8. Measuring fetal volume during late first trimester by three-dimensional ultrasonography using virtual organ computer-aided analysis.

    PubMed

    Barra, Daniela A; Lima, Jailson C; Mauad Filho, Francisco; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Martins, Wellington P

    2013-09-01

    Our aim was to determine whether rotating the fetus over its largest axis and reducing the rotational step angle can improve reliability/agreement of fetal volume measurements obtained with three-dimensional ultrasonography (3-DUS). Two observers acquired three 3-DUS data sets for a fetus with a crown-rump length between 45 and 84 mm. These observers determined the fetal volume using virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL), by three different methods, with a rotational step angle of 30°: (1) minimal manipulation of the 3-DUS data set, fetus rotated over any axis; (2) manipulation of the 3-DUS data set until the fetus could be seen in a standardized manner, fetus rotated over its anteroposterior axis; (3) same 3-DUS data set manipulation, fetus rotated over its longitudinal axis. Intra- and inter-observer reliability/agreement was determined with intra-class correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, we tested the method that provided the best reliability/agreement results using 15° and 9° of rotational step angles. The time taken to manipulate 3-DUS and determine fetal volume was recorded. The best intra- and inter-observer reliability/agreement results were observed when the fetus was rotated over its longitudinal axis. Reducing rotational step angle to 15° or 9° did not further improve reliability/agreement. The observer took approximately 1 min to determine fetal volume using this method. Our findings indicate that fetal volume should be determined by rotating the fetus over its longitudinal axis, at a rotational step angle of 30°, which is relatively fast and allows analysis of fetal volume with good reliability and agreement. PMID:23791355

  9. Social, cultural and demographic aspects of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, R C

    1987-12-01

    Both on national and international levels, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a formidable challenge to social institutions and to cultural assumptions. Its effect thus far, in what must be considered the very early stages of a protracted and unprecedented epidemic, has been to exacerbate existing social tensions and divisions over a surprisingly wide field. Though international leadership by the World Health Organization has been met with an unusually high degree of multinational cooperation, AIDS has also stimulated a degree of xenophobia and racial friction that, if allowed to grow, could handicap global AIDS control and prevention efforts. PMID:3433754

  10. Controlling insect pests & diseases in organic pecan and peach production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of insect pests and diseases can cause severe damage in orchard crops such as pecan and peach. David Shapiro-Ilan and Clive Bock from the USDA-ARS Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory in Byron GA provided information on current or potential organic solutions to control the key insect pest...

  11. Cover crop and organic weed control integration in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased adoption of conservation tillage in organic vegetable production requires more information on the role of various cover crops in weed control, tomato quality and yield. An experiment was established in autumn 2005 and 2006 at the North Alabama Horticulture Experiment Station, Cullman,...

  12. The organization of perception and action in complex control skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard A.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to describe the perceptual, cognitive, and action processes that account for highly skilled human performance in complex task environments. In order to study such a performance in a controlled setting, a laboratory task was constructed and three experiments were performed using human subjects. A general framework was developed for describing the organization of perceptual, cognitive, and action process.

  13. 22 CFR 228.13 - Foreign government-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign government-controlled organizations. 228.13 Section 228.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity and Service Procurement Transactions for...

  14. 22 CFR 228.13 - Foreign government-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign government-controlled organizations. 228.13 Section 228.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity and Service Procurement Transactions for...

  15. 22 CFR 228.13 - Foreign government-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign government-controlled organizations. 228.13 Section 228.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity and Service Procurement Transactions for...

  16. TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROLLING CHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot plant study was conducted by the City of Thornton, Colorado, to evaluate techniques for controlling chlorinated organic compounds formed in drinking water as a result of breakpoint, or free, chlorination. The pilot plant was operated for 46 months using the raw water sour...

  17. Surviving protein quality control catastrophes--from cells to organisms.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kim; Bertolotti, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Organisms have evolved mechanisms to cope with and adapt to unexpected challenges and harsh conditions. Unfolded or misfolded proteins represent a threat for cells and organisms, and the deposition of misfolded proteins is a defining feature of many age-related human diseases, including the increasingly prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. These protein misfolding diseases are devastating and currently cannot be cured, but are hopefully not incurable. In fact, the aggregation-prone and potentially harmful proteins at the origins of protein misfolding diseases are expressed throughout life, whereas the diseases are late onset. This reveals that cells and organisms are normally resilient to disease-causing proteins and survive the threat of misfolded proteins up to a point. This Commentary will outline the limits of the cellular resilience to protein misfolding, and discuss the possibility of pushing these limits to help cells and organisms to survive the threat of misfolding proteins and to avoid protein quality control catastrophes. PMID:26483388

  18. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haruk, Alexander M.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design. PMID:26110382

  19. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability. PMID:17159469

  20. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  1. Control of volume resistivity in inorganic organic separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Control of resistivity in NASA inorganic-organic separators is achieved by incorporating small percentages of high surface area, fine particle silica with other ingredients in the separator coating. The volume resistivity is predictable from the surface area of filler particles in the coating. The approach is applied to two polymer- plasticizer -filler coating systems, where the filler content of each is below the generally acknowledged critical pigment volume concentration of the coating. Application of these coating systems to 0.0254 cm thick (10-mil) fuel cell grade asbestos sheet produces inexpensive, flexible, microporous separators that perform as well as the original inorganic-organic concept, the Astropower separator.

  2. Dynamically fluctuating hope, despair and hopelessness along the HIV/AIDS continuum as described by caregivers in voluntary organizations in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kylmä, J; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K; Lähdevirta, J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the dynamics of hope in a) people fearing a diagnosis of HIV or living with HIV/AIDS and b) their significant others, from the perspective of caregivers working in voluntary organizations in Finland. Individual interviews with eight caregivers were analysed using the grounded theory method. Living with the fluctuating waves of hope, despair, and hopelessness based on factors constructing them emerged as the core category describing the dynamics of hope in a person fearing a diagnosis of HIV, becoming aware of HIV contagion, and living with HIV/AIDS. Mirroring the fluctuating waves of hope, despair, and hopelessness based on factors constructing them emerged as the core category describing the dynamics of hope in a significant other of a person fearing a diagnosis of HIV, or living with HIV/AIDS. It is important to take into consideration the dynamics of hope in taking care of people fearing a diagnosis of HIV or living with HIV/AIDS and their significant others. PMID:11885154

  3. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  4. Prevention of low back pain and its consequences among nurses’ aides in elderly care: a stepped-wedge multi-faceted cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A high prevalence of low back pain has persisted over the years despite extensive primary prevention initiatives among nurses’ aides. Many single-faceted interventions addressing just one aspect of low back pain have been carried out at workplaces, but with low success rate. This may be due to the multi-factorial origin of low back pain. Participatory ergonomics, cognitive behavioral training and physical training have previously shown promising effects on prevention and rehabilitation of low back pain. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to examine whether a multi-faceted workplace intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioral training can prevent low back pain and its consequences among nurses’ aides. External resources for the participating workplace and a strong commitment from the management and the organization support the intervention. Methods/design To overcome implementation barriers within usual randomized controlled trial designed workplace interventions, this study uses a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial design with 4 groups. The intervention is delivered to the groups at random along four successive time periods three months apart. The intervention lasts three months and integrates participatory ergonomics, physical training and cognitive behavioral training tailored to the target group. Local physiotherapists and occupational therapists conduct the intervention after having received standardized training. Primary outcomes are low back pain and its consequences measured monthly by text messages up to three months after initiation of the intervention. Discussion Intervention effectiveness trials for preventing low back pain and its consequences in workplaces with physically demanding work are few, primarily single-faceted, with strict adherence to a traditional randomized controlled trial design that may hamper implementation and compliance, and have mostly been

  5. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  6. AESOP: A computer-aided design program for linear multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtinen, B.; Geyser, L. C.

    1982-01-01

    An interactive computer program (AESOP) which solves quadratic optimal control and is discussed. The program can also be used to perform system analysis calculations such as transient and frequency responses, controllability, observability, etc., in support of the control and filter design computations.

  7. Controls on metal exposure to aquatic organisms in urban streams.

    PubMed

    Turpin-Nagel, Katelyn; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-08-10

    Streams in urban ecosystems receive metal inputs primarily from stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent. The relative contribution of these metal sources to stream impairment is difficult to discern based on simple water characteristics and biological surveys. Stream impairment in these systems is often indicated by reduced abundance and diversity of aquatic insects, which tend to be more sensitive to chronic metal exposures. Metal species and controls on metal species in both the waterborne and dietborne exposure pathways to aquatic organisms are reviewed here. In addition, ecological changes that can control dietborne species are discussed. A main focus is on how organic matter from different anthropogenic sources may control both aqueous metal speciation as well as interaction with various inorganic or microbiological surfaces in streams. Most of the reviewed research focuses on Cu, Zn or Pb as those are the primary metals of concern in developed systems and Cu and Pb have unique and strong interactions with organic matter. Recommendations for further research are described in the context of exposure species, dynamics of exposure, stoichiometry, or advanced analytical tools, and regulatory implications are discussed. PMID:27170052

  8. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  9. Control methods for aiding a pilot during STOL engine failure transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. R.; Debra, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate autopilot control laws that control the engine failure transient sink rates by demonstrating the engineering application of modern state variable control theory were defined. The results of approximate modal analysis were compared to those derived from full state analyses provided from computer design solutions. The aircraft was described, and a state variable model of its longitudinal dynamic motion due to engine and control variations was defined. The classical fast and slow modes were assumed to be sufficiently different to define reduced order approximations of the aircraft motion amendable to hand analysis control definition methods. The original state equations of motion were also applied to a large scale state variable control design program, in particular OPTSYS. The resulting control laws were compared with respect to their relative responses, ease of application, and meeting the desired performance objectives.

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Clinical Decision Aid to Improve Access to Kidney Transplantation: iChoose Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, Rachel E.; Basu, Mohua; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla D.; Wolf, Michael; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John J.; Chiles, Mariana; Russell, Allison; McPherson, Laura; Gander, Jennifer; Pastan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, as it substantially increases a patient's survival and is cost saving compared to a lifetime of dialysis. However, transplantation is not universally chosen by patients with renal failure, and limited knowledge about the survival benefit of transplantation vs. dialysis may play a role. We created a mobile application clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney to improve access to individualized prognosis information comparing dialysis and transplantation outcomes. We describe the iChoose Kidney study, a randomized controlled trial designed to test the clinical efficacy of a mobile health decision aid among end-stage renal disease patients referred for kidney transplantation at three large, diverse transplant centers across the U.S. Approximately 450 patients will be randomized to receive either: (1) standard of care or “usual” transplantation education, or (2) standard of care plus iChoose Kidney. The primary outcome is change in knowledge about the survival benefit of kidney transplantation vs. dialysis from baseline to immediate follow-up; secondary outcomes include change in treatment preferences, improved decisional conflict, and increased access to kidney transplantation. Analyses are also planned to examine effectiveness across subgroups of race, socioeconomic status, health literacy and health numeracy. Engaging patients in health care choices can increase patient empowerment and improve knowledge and understanding of treatment choices. If the effectiveness of iChoose Kidney has a greater impact on patients with low health literacy, lower socioeconomic status, and minority race, this decision aid could help reduce disparities in access to kidney transplantation.

  11. Computer Aided Reference Services in the Academic Library: Experiences in Organizing and Operating an Online Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Ryan E.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the development of the Computer-Aided Reference Services (CARS) division of the University of Utah Libraries' reference department. Development, organizational structure, site selection, equipment, management, staffing and training considerations, promotion and marketing, budget and pricing, record keeping, statistics, and evaluation…

  12. Educational psychology in medical learning: a randomised controlled trial of two aide memoires for the recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, E; Voisey, S; Hughes, S; Higgins, B; McQuillan, P

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Although mnemonics are commonly used in medical education there are few data on their effectiveness. A RCT was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a new aide memoire, "EMD-aide", would be superior to the conventional "4Hs+4Ts" mnemonic in facilitating recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation (EMD) among house officers. Method: "EMD-aide", organises causes of EMD by frequency of occurrence and ease of reversibility: four groups organised by shape, colour, position, numbering, clockwise sequence, and use of arrows. Eight hospitals were randomised in a controlled trial and 149 house officers were then recruited by telephone. Baseline ability to recall causes of EMD was recorded at one minute and overall. House officers were then sent a copy of either "4Hs+4Ts" or "EMD-aide" according to randomisation group. Recall ability was retested at one month. Results: 68 of 80 and 51 of 69 house officers completed the study in the "4Hs+4Ts" and "EMD-aide" groups respectively (NS) with similar baseline recall. After intervention median number of recalled causes was greater in the "EMD-aide" group, eight compared with seven at one minute (p = 0.034) and eight compared with seven overall, p = 0.067. Recall of all eight causes was more common in "EMD-aide" group, 54% compared with 35%, p = 0.054, and these house officers spent longer examining their aide memoire, p<0.001. Conclusions: "EMD-aide" may be superior to "4Hs+4Ts" in facilitating the recall of the causes of electromechanical dissociation. Educational psychology of medical learning and the use of aide memoires in general are worthy of further study. PMID:15208230

  13. A current mode feed-forward gain control system for a 0.8 V CMOS hearing aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanyang, Li; Haigang, Yang; Fei, Liu; Tao, Yin

    2011-06-01

    A current mode feed-forward gain control (CMFGC) technique is presented, which is applied in the front-end system of a hearing aid chip. Compared with conventional automatic gain control (AGC), CMFGC significantly improves the total harmonic distortion (THD) by digital gain control. To attain the digital gain control codes according to the extremely weak output signal from the microphone, a rectifier and a state controller implemented in current mode are proposed. A prototype chip has been designed based on a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process. The measurement results show that the supply voltage can be as low as 0.6 V. And with the 0.8 V supply voltage, the THD is improved and below 0.06% (-64 dB) at the output level of 500 mVp-p, yet the power consumption is limited to 40 μW. In addition, the input referred noise is only 4 μVrms and the maximum gain is maintained at 33 dB.

  14. Parallel Control of Velocity Control and Energy-Saving Control for a Hydraulic Valve-Controlled Cylinder System Using Self-Organizing Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Chien, Yu-Wei

    Conventional hydraulic valve-controlled systems that incorporate positive displacement pumps and relief valves have a problem of low energy efficiency. The objective of the research is to implement parallel control of energy-saving control in an electro-hydraulic load-sensing system and velocity control in a hydraulic valve-controlled cylinder system to achieve both high velocity control accuracy and low input power simultaneously. The overall control system is a two-input two-output system. For that, the control strategy of self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode control (SOFSMC) is developed in this study to reduce the fuzzy rule number and to self-organize on-line the fuzzy rules. To compare the energy-saving performance, the velocity control is implemented under three different energy-saving control systems, such as load-sensing control system, constant supply pressure control system and conventional hydraulic system. The parallel control of the velocity control and energy-saving control by the SOFSMC is implemented experimentally.

  15. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  16. Sericea Lespedeza as an Aid in the Control of Coccidiosis in Lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have determined that feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal (SL) can effectively control coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n = 76) were weaned (103 days of age) in May and fed 2% of body weight daily of alfalfa pellets (control) or SL with or without Corrid added to drinkin...

  17. Development of Electronic Load Controllers for Free-Piston Stirling Convertors Aided by Stirling Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor: the Stirling cycle engine, heat source, linear alternator, controller, and load. So far, it has been used in evaluating the performance of electronic controller designs. Three different controller design concepts were simulated using the model: 1) Controllers with parasitic direct current loading. 2) Controllers with parasitic alternating current loading. 3) Controllers that maintain a reference current. The free-piston Stirling convertor is an electromechanical device that operates at resonance. It is the function of the electronic load controller to ensure that the electrical load seen by the machine is always great enough to keep the amplitude of the piston and alternator oscillation at the rated value. This is done by regulating the load on the output bus. The controller monitors the instantaneous voltage, regulating it by switching loads called parasitic loads onto the bus whenever the bus voltage is too high and removing them whenever the voltage is too low. In the first type of controller, the monitor-ing and switching are done on the direct-current (dc) bus. In the second type, the alternating current bus is used. The model allows designers to test a controller concept before investing time in hardware. The simulation code used to develop the model also offers detailed models of digital and analog electronic components so that the resulting designs are realistic enough to translate directly into hardware circuits.

  18. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems. PMID:20596021

  19. A combined nuclear and nucleolar localization motif in activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) controls immunoglobulin class switching.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Ericsson, Ida; Torseth, Kathrin; Methot, Stephen P; Sundheim, Ottar; Liabakk, Nina B; Slupphaug, Geir; Di Noia, Javier M; Krokan, Hans E; Kavli, Bodil

    2013-01-23

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a DNA mutator enzyme essential for adaptive immunity. AID initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination (CSR) by deaminating cytosine to uracil in specific immunoglobulin (Ig) gene regions. However, other loci, including cancer-related genes, are also targeted. Thus, tight regulation of AID is crucial to balance immunity versus disease such as cancer. AID is regulated by several mechanisms including nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Here we have studied nuclear import kinetics and subnuclear trafficking of AID in live cells and characterized in detail its nuclear localization signal. Importantly, we find that the nuclear localization signal motif also directs AID to nucleoli where it colocalizes with its interaction partner, catenin-β-like 1 (CTNNBL1), and physically associates with nucleolin and nucleophosmin. Moreover, we demonstrate that release of AID from nucleoli is dependent on its C-terminal motif. Finally, we find that CSR efficiency correlates strongly with the arithmetic product of AID nuclear import rate and DNA deamination activity. Our findings suggest that directional nucleolar transit is important for the physiological function of AID and demonstrate that nuclear/nucleolar import and DNA cytosine deamination together define the biological activity of AID. This is the first study on subnuclear trafficking of AID and demonstrates a new level in its complex regulation. In addition, our results resolve the problem related to dissociation of deamination activity and CSR activity of AID mutants. PMID:23183374

  20. Geometrical and Mechanical Properties Control Actin Filament Organization

    PubMed Central

    Ennomani, Hajer; Théry, Manuel; Nedelec, Francois; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The different actin structures governing eukaryotic cell shape and movement are not only determined by the properties of the actin filaments and associated proteins, but also by geometrical constraints. We recently demonstrated that limiting nucleation to specific regions was sufficient to obtain actin networks with different organization. To further investigate how spatially constrained actin nucleation determines the emergent actin organization, we performed detailed simulations of the actin filament system using Cytosim. We first calibrated the steric interaction between filaments, by matching, in simulations and experiments, the bundled actin organization observed with a rectangular bar of nucleating factor. We then studied the overall organization of actin filaments generated by more complex pattern geometries used experimentally. We found that the fraction of parallel versus antiparallel bundles is determined by the mechanical properties of actin filament or bundles and the efficiency of nucleation. Thus nucleation geometry, actin filaments local interactions, bundle rigidity, and nucleation efficiency are the key parameters controlling the emergent actin architecture. We finally simulated more complex nucleation patterns and performed the corresponding experiments to confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. PMID:26016478

  1. Opinion dynamics in networked command and control organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao; Zhang, Shaoyun; Qian, Lidong

    2013-10-01

    An opinion dynamics model for a Command and Control (C2) organization is essential for simulating combat system effectiveness. However, few studies have addressed opinion evolution in C2 simulation. With the goal of overcoming this research gap, this paper proposes an opinion exchange model, which is illustrated through a practical example of an Armored Division network. The model is divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous aspects: the former is mainly characterized by communication rules and types, while the latter is extended with the influence of multi-level opinion leaders. After carrying out the simulation of the two main models, the results show that the opinion evolution of the hierarchical leveled C2 organization with descending influence is much more complex and unpredictable than that of social networks.

  2. Oceanic biogeochemical controls on global dynamics of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Dachs, Jordi; Lohmann, Rainer; Ockenden, Wendy A; Méjanelle, Laurence; Eisenreich, Steven J; Jones, Kevin C

    2002-10-15

    Understanding and quantifying the global dynamics and sinks of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is important to assess their environmental impact and fate. Air-surface exchange processes, where temperature plays a central role in controlling volatilization and deposition, are of key importance in controlling global POP dynamics. The present study is an assessment of the role of oceanic biogeochemical processes, notably phytoplankton uptake and vertical fluxes of particles, on the global dynamics of POPs. Field measurements of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and furans (PCDFs) are combined with remote sensing estimations of oceanic temperature, wind speed, and chlorophyll, to model the interactions between air-water exchange, phytoplankton uptake, and export of organic matter and POPs out of the mixed surface ocean layer. Deposition is enhanced in the mid-high latitudes and is driven by sinking marine particulate matter, rather than by a cold condensation effect. However, the relative contribution of the biological pump is a function of the physical-chemical properties of POPs. It is concluded that oceanic biogeochemical processes play a critical role in controlling the global dynamics and the ultimate sink of POPs. PMID:12387392

  3. Taming Self-Organization Dynamics to Dramatically Control Porous Architectures.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ronan; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

    2016-03-22

    We demonstrate templating of functional materials with unexpected and intricate micro- and nanostructures by controlling the condensation, packing, and evaporation of water droplets on a polymer solution. Spontaneous evaporation of a polymer solution induces cooling of the liquid surface and water microdroplet condensation from the ambient vapor. These droplets pack together and act as a template to imprint an entangled polymer film. This breath figure (BF) phenomenon is an example of self-organization that involves the long-range ordering of droplets. Equilibrium-based analysis provides many insights into contact angles and drop stability of individual drops, but the BF phenomenon remains poorly understood thus far, preventing translation to real applications. Here we investigate the dynamics of this phenomenon to separate out the competing influences and then introduce a modulation scheme to ultimately manipulate the water vapor-liquid equilibrium independently from the solvent evaporation. This approach to BF control provides insights into the mechanism, a rationale for microstructure design, and evidence for the benefits of dynamical control of self-organization systems. We finally present dramatically different porous architectures from this approach reminiscent of microscale Petri dishes, conical flasks, and test tubes. PMID:26828573

  4. Control and Implementation of a Powered Lower Limb Orthosis to Aid Walking in Paraplegic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Hugo A.; Farris, Ryan J.; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a powered lower-limb orthosis that is intended to provide gait assistance to spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals by providing assistive torques at both hip and knee joints, along with a user interface and control structure that enables control of the powered orthosis via upper-body influence. The orthosis and control structure was experimentally implemented on a paraplegic subject (T10 complete) in order to provide a preliminary characterization of its capability to provide basic walking. Data and video is presented from these initial trials, which indicates that the orthosis and controller are able to effectively provide walking within parallel bars at an average speed of 0.8 km/hr. PMID:22275679

  5. Policies for solidarity. A personal view of the Second International Conference for non governmental organizations working on AIDS, Paris 1-4 November 1990.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S

    1991-01-01

    A summary of events at the Second International Conference for Non-Governmental Organizations working on AIDS, held in Paris November 1-4, 1990 is presented with comments on the effectiveness of arrangement, planning and sessions. The meeting was fraught with obstacles, the worst of which was a change of venue from San Francisco to Paris at the last minute, with serious consequences to speakers whose U.S. travel funds had to be found elsewhere. The goal of the conference was to facilitate international networking among AIDS Service, national and regional organizations. To this end 44 sessions were held informally. Plenary sessions were marked by moving presentations of such items as an international memorial quilt, and topics such as how children and women are affected by HIV, and how human rights abuses are often unseen. The need for solidarity among NGOs was stressed by Dr. J. Mann, who noted that NGOs perform up to half the health care in some countries. The major substance of the conference was 5 Seminar tracks of 5.5 hours duration on the topics of services and care, education and prevention, drugs and treatment, human rights, and organizational development. Human rights recognized internationally were described, but in some places lack of resources makes them a privilege. Illegal drug programs, decriminalization and research on cultural obstacles were within the broad range of issues addressed under services and care. While traditional symptomatic treatments and older drugs such as gentian violet as a treatment for candidiasis are being developed in African countries, serious social problems arise when people sell their possessions for a few doses of AZT or Kemron there. In the seminars on organizational development useful exchanges between major donors and project organizers explored professional methods of applying for grants, as well as accounting for funds spent later. ICASO the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations was ratified and a

  6. Computer-aided control of water activity for lipase-catalyzed esterification in solvent-free systems.

    PubMed

    Won, K; Lee, S B

    2001-01-01

    . In addition, from the fact that the final yields increased with decreasing a(w), computer-aided water activity control was performed with a set-point change. By controlling a(w) at 0.55 during initial reaction phase, followed by a step change of a(w) from 0.55 to 0 after 11 h of reaction, it was possible to enhance the final conversion to 100%. PMID:11312702

  7. Control analysis applied to the whole body: control by body organs over plasma concentrations and organ fluxes of substances in the blood.

    PubMed

    Brown, G C

    1994-01-01

    Metabolic control analysis is adapted as a method for describing and analysing the control by organs in the body over the fluxes and concentrations of substances carried in the blood. This physiological control analysis can most usefully be applied to substances with fluxes into and out of organs that are uniquely dependent only on their plasma concentrations. The organ flux of a substance is defined as the steady-state net flux of a substance into a particular organ. The organ flux control coefficients quantify the extent to which a particular organ controls the flux of a substance into the same or another particular organ. Organ concentration control coefficients quantify the extent to which an organ controls the steady-state concentration of a substance in the blood. The control coefficients are additive and obey summation, connectivity and branching theorems. Thus the control coefficients can be determined experimentally by measuring the sensitivities (elasticities) of organ fluxes to the plasma concentration of the substance. As an example of the application of these concepts, the control of ketone-body metabolism in vivo is analysed using data from the literature. PMID:8280089

  8. Vision-aided Monitoring and Control of Thermal Spray, Spray Forming, and Welding Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agapakis, John E.; Bolstad, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Vision is one of the most powerful forms of non-contact sensing for monitoring and control of manufacturing processes. However, processes involving an arc plasma or flame such as welding or thermal spraying pose particularly challenging problems to conventional vision sensing and processing techniques. The arc or plasma is not typically limited to a single spectral region and thus cannot be easily filtered out optically. This paper presents an innovative vision sensing system that uses intense stroboscopic illumination to overpower the arc light and produce a video image that is free of arc light or glare and dedicated image processing and analysis schemes that can enhance the video images or extract features of interest and produce quantitative process measures which can be used for process monitoring and control. Results of two SBIR programs sponsored by NASA and DOE and focusing on the application of this innovative vision sensing and processing technology to thermal spraying and welding process monitoring and control are discussed.

  9. An Open Source Rapid Computer Aided Control System Design Toolchain Using Scilab, Scicos and RTAI Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchpan-Lerust-Juéry, L.

    2007-08-01

    Current and next generation on-board computer systems tend to implement real-time embedded control applications (e.g. Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem (AOCS), Packet Utililization Standard (PUS), spacecraft autonomy . . . ) which must meet high standards of Reliability and Predictability as well as Safety. All these requirements require a considerable amount of effort and cost for Space Sofware Industry. This paper, in a first part, presents a free Open Source integrated solution to develop RTAI applications from analysis, design, simulation and direct implementation using code generation based on Open Source and in its second part summarises this suggested approach, its results and the conclusion for further work.

  10. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  11. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  12. The application of variable universe fuzzy PID controller in computer-aided alignment of lithography projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei; Zheng, Meng; Li, Yanqiu

    2013-12-01

    A variable universe fuzzy PID algorithm is designed to control the misalignment of the lithography projection optics to meet the requirement of high image quality. This paper first simulates the alignment of Schwarzschild objective designed by us. Secondly, the variable universe fuzzy PID control is introduced to feed back the misalignment of Schwarzschild objective to the control system to drive the stage which holds the objective. So the position can be adjusted automatically. This feedback scheme can adjust the variables' universe self-adaptively by using fuzzy rules so that the concrete function and parameters of the contraction-expansion factor are not necessary. Finally, the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulations. The results show that, variable universe fuzzy PID method exhibits better performance in both improving response speed and decreasing overshoot compared to conventional PID and fuzzy PID control methods. In addition, the interference signal can be effectively restrained. It is concluded that this method can improve the dynamic and static properties of system and meet the requirement of fast response.

  13. Immune responses during spontaneous control of HIV and AIDS: what is the hope for a cure?

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Cirion, A.; Jacquelin, B.; Barré-Sinoussi, F.; Müller-Trutwin, M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV research has made rapid progress and led to remarkable achievements in recent decades, the most important of which are combination antiretroviral therapies (cART). However, in the absence of a vaccine, the pandemic continues, and additional strategies are needed. The ‘towards an HIV cure’ initiative aims to eradicate HIV or at least bring about a lasting remission of infection during which the host can control viral replication in the absence of cART. Cases of spontaneous and treatment-induced control of infection offer substantial hope. Here, we describe the scientific knowledge that is lacking, and the priorities that have been established for research into a cure. We discuss in detail the immunological lessons that can be learned by studying natural human and animal models of protection and spontaneous control of viraemia or of disease progression. In particular, we describe the insights we have gained into the immune mechanisms of virus control, the impact of early virus–host interactions and why chronic inflammation, a hallmark of HIV infection, is an obstacle to a cure. Finally, we enumerate current interventions aimed towards improving the host immune response. PMID:24821922

  14. Modified optimal control pilot model for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development of a modified optimal control pilot model based upon the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison. This model is input compatible with the OCM and retains other key aspects of the OCM, such as a linear quadratic solution for the pilot gains with inclusion of control rate in the cost function, a Kalman estimator, and the ability to account for attention allocation and perception threshold effects. An algorithm designed for each implementation in current dynamic systems analysis and design software is presented. Example results based upon the analysis of a tracking task using three basic dynamic systems are compared with measured results and with similar analyses performed with the OCM and two previously proposed simplified optimal pilot models. The pilot frequency responses and error statistics obtained with this modified optimal control model are shown to compare more favorably to the measured experimental results than the other previously proposed simplified models evaluated.

  15. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  16. Sericea lespdeza as an aid in the control of Emeria spp. in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Orlik, S T; Acharya, M; Garza, J J; Mosjidis, J A

    2013-03-31

    The objective was to examine the effects of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal (SL) on control of coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n=76) were weaned (102.7±1.4 d of age) in May (spring) and randomly assigned in a 2×2 factorial design to receive 2% of BW/d of alfalfa pellets (control) or SL with or without amprolium added to drinking water (n=38/level or 19/treatment). Fecal oocyst counts (FOC), egg counts (FEC), and fecal score (1=solid pellets; 5=slurry) were determined every 7d between weaning and 21 d post-weaning. In Exp. 2, twin rearing ewes were randomly assigned to two groups, and their naturally infected lambs were fed a control creep supplement (16% CP; n=40) or SL pellets (14% CP; n=32) 30 d before weaning. Intake of SL was initially low (100g/lamb daily) and increased to 454 g/lamb daily after weaning. Lambs were weaned at 103.6±0.9 d of age and moved to semi-confinement. The FEC, FOC, packed cell volume (PCV), fecal score, and dag score (soiling around rear of lamb; 1=no soiling; 5=heavy soiling) were determined at d -14, 0 (weaning), 7, 14, and 21. In Exp. 3, lambs were randomly assigned to a control or SL diet (n=12/diet) fed at 1.4 kg/d for 22d and inoculated with 50,000 sporulated oocysts on d 8, 11, and 13. The FEC, FOC, and fecal score were determined every 2 to 3d between d 1 and 29 (d 0=first day of dietary treatment). Data on all experiments were analyzed using mixed models. The FOC and FEC data were log transformed. Chi squared analysis was used to determine differences in incidence of treatment (sulfadimethoxine) for coccidiosis in Exp. 1 and 2. In Exp. 1, FOC and FEC were similar between dietary groups, and FOC declined more rapidly in amprolium treated lambs following weaning (P<0.001). Fecal score was higher in the control compared with the SL fed lambs (P=0.05), suggesting more signs of coccidiosis in control lambs. In Exp. 2, FOC was similar initially but was reduced in SL fed lambs by weaning and remained

  17. Nothing prepared me to manage AIDS.

    PubMed

    Banas, G E

    1992-01-01

    Articles and seminars about AIDS in the workplace are not adequate preparation for the genuine problems faced by actual managers in real organizations. There are no easy, win-win solutions to the impossible dilemmas AIDS presents, only various forms of damage control and, at best, more or less humane compromises. Gary Banas knows. Over a period of four years, two of his direct reports developed AIDS, and he watched them suffer through debility, slowly deteriorating performance, and eventual death. He also watched the gradual decline of their subordinates' productivity and morale. He found that, to different degrees, both men refused to acknowledge their illness and their decreasing organizational effectiveness. One of them resisted the author's efforts to give him an easier job at no loss in salary. Both insisted on confidentiality long after the rumor mill had identified their problem. In the course of these two consecutive ordeals, Banas discovered that AIDS patients fall into no single, neat category. AIDS is not an issue but a disease, and the people who get it are human beings first and victims second. He also learned that AIDS affects everyone around the sick individual and that almost every choice a manager makes will injure someone. Finally, he came to understand that while managers have an unequivocal obligation to treat AIDS-afflicted employees with compassion and respect, they have an equally unequivocal obligation to keep their organizations functioning. "Don't let anyone kid you," Banas warns. "When you confront AIDS in the workplace, you will face untenable choices that seem to pit your obligation to humanity against your obligation to your organization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10119719

  18. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands.

    PubMed

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-11-27

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands. PMID:23150589

  19. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands. PMID:23150589

  20. Mobile phones to support adherence to antiretroviral therapy: what would it cost the Indian National AIDS Control Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rashmi; Bogg, Lennart; Shet, Anita; Kumar, Dodderi Sunil; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions) to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Methods The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both) were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27–1.77) per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scale-up of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in the context of the

  1. Feedback control for noise-aided parallel micromanipulation of several particles using dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zemánek, Jiří; Michálek, Tomáš; Hurák, Zdeněk

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes a novel control strategy for simultaneous manipulation of several microscale particles over a planar microelectrode array using dielectrophoresis. The approach is based on a combination of numerical nonlinear optimization, which gives a systematic computational procedure for finding the voltages applied to the individual electrodes, and exploitation of the intrinsic noise, which compensates for the loss of controllability when two identical particles are exposed to identical forces. Although interesting on its own, the proposed functionality can also be seen as a preliminary achievement in a quest for a technique for separation of two particles. The approach is tested experimentally with polystyrene beads (50 microns in diameter) immersed in deionized water on a flat microelectrode array with parallel electrodes. A digital camera and computer vision algorithm are used to measure the positions. Two distinguishing features of the proposed control strategy are that the range of motion is not limited to interelectrode gaps and that independent manipulation of several particles simultaneously is feasible even on a simple microelectrode array. PMID:25875804

  2. Workshop on Latin American women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    A 3-day workshop organized by the National Institute of Public Health (Mexico) examined the situation of women and AIDS in Latin America and developed a research agenda on this topic. AIDS incidence rates among women in the region in 1993 ranged from a low of 7.7 per million in the Southern Cone to 30.4 per million in Brazil. The workshop addressed 6 main topics: 1) cultural characteristics prevalent in Latin American countries that impede women's ability to negotiate safer sexual practices; 2) the need for integration of family planning, sexually transmitted disease (including AIDS), and maternal-child health services; 3) defense of the human rights of women with HIV/AIDS; 4) the different roles of official AIDS control programs, the mass media, organized religion, and international agencies in the struggle against AIDS; 5) the impact of deepening poverty and social polarization on HIV risk factors; and 6) the effect of drug traffic and consumption on HIV transmission in Latin American women. Proposed to address these issues was the creation of a Latin American research group that would take advantage of existing regional networks and projects. PMID:12293161

  3. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  4. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  5. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  6. Quantum state estimation and feedback control aided by weak measurement reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, Hermann; Du Toit, Pieter; Burd, Shaun; Konrad, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    We investigate state and frequency estimation of an oscillating qubit using weak POVM measurements. By employing a Fourier transform frequency estimator combined with a strategy of unitary reversal of the weak measurements, it is shown that for sufficiently strong measurements these reversals lead to improved frequency estimation. This approach opens new prospects for feedback control of qubit dynamics. This work was sponsored in part by grants from the South African National Research Foundation (Grant no. 86061) and from the United States Airforce Office of Scientific Research (Award no. FA9550-14-1-0151).

  7. Association of Cytomegalovirus End-Organ Disease with Stroke in People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Jen, Ian; Chen, Marcelo; Chuang, Pei-Hung; Liu, Yen-Ling; Sharp, Gerald B.; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection might increase the risk of cardiovascular event. However, data on the link between incident stroke and co-infections of CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are limited and inconsistent. This nationwide population-based cohort study analyzed the association of CMV end-organ disease and stroke among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods From January 1, 1998, this study identified adult HIV individuals with and without CMV end-organ disease in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All patients were observed for incident stroke and were followed until December 31, 2012. Time-dependent analysis was used to evaluate associations of CMV end-organ disease with stroke. Results Of the 22,581 PLWHA identified (439 with CMV end-organ disease and 22,142 without CMV end-organ disease), 228 (1.01%) had all-cause stroke during a mean follow-up period of 4.85 years, including 169 (0.75%) with ischemic stroke and 59 (0.26%) with hemorrhagic stroke. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, opportunistic infections after HIV diagnosis, and antiretroviral treatment, CMV end-organ disease was found to be an independent risk factor for incident all-cause stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70 to 5.55). When stroke type was considered, CMV end-organ disease was significantly positively associated with the risk of ischemic stroke (AHR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.49 to 6.62) but not hemorrhagic stroke (AHR, 2.52; 95% CI, 0.64 to 9.91). Conclusions This study suggested that CMV end-organ disease was an independent predictor of ischemic stroke among PLWHA. PMID:26986005

  8. Domestic Rodent Control Training Manual: A Training Aid for the Rodent Control Category for Certification of Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, William R., Jr.; And Others

    This training manual, designed for training applicants who wish to obtain certification in pesticide application relative to rodent control, covers the following topics: economic factors, public health factors, biological characteristics of domestic rodents, rat and mouse signs, trapping, repellents, poisons, baits, poisoned water, dumps, sewers,…

  9. Current-voltage characteristics of organic semiconductors: Interfacial control between organic layers and electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takeshi

    2007-12-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic molecular glasses and solution processable materials embedded between two electrodes were studied to find materials possessing high charge-carrier mobilities and to design organic memory devices. The comparison studies between TOF, FET and SCLC measurements confirm the validity of using analyses of I-V characteristics to determine the mobility of organic semiconductors. Hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives tri-substituted by electron withdrawing groups were characterized as potential electron transporting molecular glasses. The presence of two isomers has important implications for film morphology and effective mobility. The statistical isomer mixture of hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatized with pentafluoro-phenylmethyl ester is able to form amorphous films, and electron mobilities with the range of 10--2 cm2/Vs are observed in their I-V characteristics. Single-layer organic memory devices consisting of a polymer layer embedded between an Al electrode and ITO modified with Ag nanodots (Ag-NDs) prepared by a solution-based surface assembly demonstrated a potential capability as nonvolatile organic memory device with high ON/OFF switching ratios of 10 4. This level of performance could be achieved by modifying the ITO electrodes with some Ag-NDs that act as trapping sites, reducing the current in the OFF state. Based upon the observed electrical characteristics, the currents of the low-resistance state can be attributed to a tunneling through low-resistance pathways of metal particles originating from the metal top electrode in the organic layer and that the high-resistance state is controlled by charge trapping by the metal particles including Ag-NDs. In an alternative approach, complex films of AgNO3: hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives were studied as the active layers for all-solution processed and air-stable organic memory devices. Rewritable memory effects were observed in the devices comprised of a thin polymer

  10. Introduction: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Epi-Aids--a fond recollection.

    PubMed

    Koplan, Jeffrey P; Foege, William H

    2011-12-01

    The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) has served the United States and the world for >58 years by being an extraordinary apprenticeship in the fundamentals of practical field epidemiology: a training program, a professional entry point, the basis for lifelong careers, and a closely supervised and mentored opportunity for research, analysis, and community service. Epidemic-assistance investigations, a key element of the EIS experience, are the written summaries of each field investigation undertaken by the EIS officer. The resulting reports enter the record of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provide scientific feedback to the state and locality where the epidemic or health problem occurred, and often form the basis for a subsequent manuscript to be submitted to a peer-reviewed medical journal. The EIS Program was created in 1951 to be a defense against potential bioterrorism, serve the immediate needs for field investigation, and provide for future workforce demands by combining epidemiology and laboratory science. During the past 60 years, CDC and public health practitioners have broadened their areas of responsibility by adding programs in reproductive health, environmental health, chronic diseases, nutrition, injury control and prevention, and noncommunicable disease risk factors. Epidemic-assistance investigations have evolved similarly. The papers in this Journal supplement reflect the evolution of public health responsibilities and the growth and development of CDC. They are a testimony to the value of clear, concise information and analysis, communicated to those who need to know as a public health and societal good. PMID:22135388

  11. Using Tactile Learning Aids for Students with Visual Impairments in a First-Semester Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Thomas; Ovadia, Ronit

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes two techniques for rendering visual concepts encountered in an organic chemistry course into tactile representations for students who have low vision. The techniques--which utilize commercially available products--facilitate communication of organic chemistry between student and instructor. (Contains 1 figure, 2 tables and 1…

  12. Using Tactile Learning Aids for Students with Visual Impairments in a First-Semester Organic Chemistry Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Thomas; Ovadia, Ronit

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes two techniques for rendering visual concepts encountered in an organic chemistry course into tactile representations for students who have low vision. The techniques—which utilize commercially available products—facilitate communication of organic chemistry between student and instructor.

  13. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In this study, domain ontology about the field of lead-lag compensator design has been built and used for automatic exercise generation, graphical user interface population and interaction with the user at any level of detail, including explanations about why things occur. An application called Onto-CELE (ontology-based control engineering learning environment) uses the ontology for implementing a learning environment that can be used for self and lifelong learning purposes. The experience has shown that the use of knowledge models as the basis for educational software applications is capable of showing students the whole complexity of the analysis and design processes at any level of detail. A practical experience with postgraduate students has shown the mentioned benefits and possibilities of the approach.

  14. A systematic review of missed opportunities for improving tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS control in Sub-saharan Africa: what is still missed by health experts?

    PubMed Central

    Keugoung, Basile; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fotsing, Richard; Macq, Jean; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis are major public health problems. In 2010, 64% of the 34 million of people infected with HIV were reported to be living in sub-Saharan Africa. Only 41% of eligible HIV-positive people had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Regarding tuberculosis, in 2010, the region had 12% of the world's population but reported 26% of the 8.8 million incident cases and 254000 tuberculosis-related deaths. This paper aims to review missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis prevention and care. We conducted a systematic review in PubMed using the terms ‘missed’(Title) AND ‘opportunities’(Title). We included systematic review and original research articles done in sub-Saharan Africa on missed opportunities in HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care. Missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care can be classified into five categories: i) patient and community; ii) health professional; iii) health facility; iv) local health system; and v) vertical programme (HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis control programmes). None of the reviewed studies identified any missed opportunities related to health system strengthening. Opportunities that are missed hamper tuberculosis and/or HIV/AIDS care in sub-Saharan Africa where health systems remain weak. What is still missing in the analysis of health experts is the acknowledgement that opportunities that are missed to strengthen health systems also undermine tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and care. Studying why these opportunities are missed will help to understand the rationales behind the missed opportunities, and customize adequate strategies to seize them and for effective diseases control. PMID:25478041

  15. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  16. [Confidentiality in HIV-infection/AIDS--a comment on the Communicable Disease Control Act].

    PubMed

    Frich, J C

    1995-05-10

    The new Communicable Diseases Control Act has come into force in Norway. It makes it compulsory for a physician to warn a third party if it is obvious that a HIV-positive patient, with a high degree of certainty, puts the third party at risk of being infected with HIV. Some philosophers characterize medical confidentiality as an intransigent and absolute obligation, others as a prima facie duty. This article supports the latter view, but the author still argues that strict conditions have to be fulfilled before a physician should consider breaking medical confidentiality: The doctor must try repeatedly to gain the consent or co-operation of the patient involved. Possible negative long-term consequences for the preventive HIV-work support strict medical confidentiality. PMID:7770859

  17. Controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic: current status and global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Demberg, Thorsten; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the current status of the global HIV pandemic and strategies to bring it under control. It updates numerous preventive approaches including behavioral interventions, male circumcision (MC), pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PREP and PEP), vaccines, and microbicides. The manuscript summarizes current anti-retroviral treatment options, their impact in the western world, and difficulties faced by emerging and resource-limited nations in providing and maintaining appropriate treatment regimens. Current clinical and pre-clinical approaches toward a cure for HIV are described, including new drug compounds that target viral reservoirs and gene therapy approaches aimed at altering susceptibility to HIV infection. Recent progress in vaccine development is summarized, including novel approaches and new discoveries. PMID:22912636

  18. Computer Aided Biomanufacturing of Mechanically Robust Pure Collagen Meshes with Controlled Macroporosity

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Anowarul; Chapin, Katherine; Younesi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    Reconciliation of high strength and high porosity in pure collagen based structures is a major barrier in collagen’s use in load-bearing applications. The current study developed a CAD/CAM based electrocompaction method to manufacture highly porous patterned scaffolds using pure collagen. Utilization of computerized scaffold design and fabrication allows the integration of mesh-scaffolds with controlled pore size, shape and spacing. Mechanical properties of fabricated collagen meshes were investigated as a function of number of patterned layers, and with different pore geometries. The tensile stiffness, tensile strength and modulus ranges from 10-50 N/cm, 1-6 MPa and 5-40 MPa respectively for all the scaffold groups. These results are within the range of practical usability of different tissue engineering application such as tendon, hernia, stress urinary incontinence or thoracic wall reconstruction. Moreover, 3-fold increase in the layer number resulted in more than 5-fold increases in failure load, toughness and stiffness which suggests that by changing the number of layers and shape of the structure, mechanical properties can be modulated for the aforementioned tissue engineering application. These patterned scaffolds offer a porosity ranging from 0.8-1.5 mm in size, a range that is commensurate with pore sizes of repair meshes in the market. The connected macroporosity of the scaffolds facilitated cell-seeding such that cells populated the entire scaffold at the time of seeding. After 3 days of culture, cell nuclei became elongated. These results indicate that the patterned electrochemical deposition method in this study was able to develop mechanically robust, highly porous collagen scaffolds with controlled porosity which not only tries to solve one of the major tissue engineering problems in a fundamental level but also has a significant potential to be used in different tissue engineering applications. PMID:26200002

  19. Computer aided biomanufacturing of mechanically robust pure collagen meshes with controlled macroporosity.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anowarul; Chapin, Katherine; Younesi, Mousa; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-09-01

    Reconciliation of high strength and high porosity in pure collagen based structures is a major barrier in collagen's use in load-bearing applications. The current study developed a CAD/CAM based electrocompaction method to manufacture highly porous patterned scaffolds using pure collagen. Utilization of computerized scaffold design and fabrication allows the integration of mesh-scaffolds with controlled pore size, shape and spacing. Mechanical properties of fabricated collagen meshes were investigated as a function of number of patterned layers, and with different pore geometries. The tensile stiffness, tensile strength and modulus ranges from 10-50 N cm(-1), 1-6 MPa and 5-40 MPa respectively for all the scaffold groups. These results are within the range of practical usability of different tissue engineering application such as tendon, hernia, stress urinary incontinence or thoracic wall reconstruction. Moreover, 3-fold increase in the layer number resulted in more than 5-fold increases in failure load, toughness and stiffness which suggests that by changing the number of layers and shape of the structure, mechanical properties can be modulated for the aforementioned tissue engineering application. These patterned scaffolds offer a porosity ranging from 0.8 to 1.5 mm in size, a range that is commensurate with pore sizes of repair meshes in the market. The connected macroporosity of the scaffolds facilitated cell-seeding such that cells populated the entire scaffold at the time of seeding. After 3 d of culture, cell nuclei became elongated. These results indicate that the patterned electrochemical deposition method in this study was able to develop mechanically robust, highly porous collagen scaffolds with controlled porosity which not only tries to solve one of the major tissue engineering problems at a fundamental level but also has a significant potential to be used in different tissue engineering applications. PMID:26200002

  20. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group.

    PubMed

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-03-15

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p < 0.0001) and medium household income (RR = 1.05; [95%IC: 1.01-1.09]; p = 0.0074) were independently associated with attendance for screening. This large-scale study demonstrates that the decision aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated. PMID:26883201

  1. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group

    PubMed Central

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p < 0.0001) and medium household income (RR = 1.05; [95%IC: 1.01-1.09]; p = 0.0074) were independently associated with attendance for screening. This large-scale study demonstrates that the decision aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated. PMID:26883201

  2. Controlled partial interpenetration in metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Alan; Liu, Lujia; Tapperwijn, Stefanus J; Perl, David; Coudert, François-Xavier; Van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Verbiest, Thierry; van der Veen, Monique A; Telfer, Shane G

    2016-03-01

    Interpenetration, the entwining of multiple lattices, is a common phenomenon in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Typically, in interpenetrated MOFs the sub-lattices are fully occupied. Here we report a family of MOFs in which one sub-lattice is fully occupied and the occupancy level of the other can be controlled during synthesis to produce frameworks with variable levels of partial interpenetration. We also report an 'autocatenation' process, a transformation of non-interpenetrated lattices into doubly interpenetrated frameworks via progressively higher degrees of interpenetration that involves no external reagents. Autocatenation maintains crystallinity and can be triggered either thermally or by shear forces. The ligand used to construct these MOFs is chiral, and both racemic and enantiopure partially interpenetrated frameworks can be accessed. X-ray diffraction, nonlinear optical microscopy and theoretical calculations offer insights into the structures and dynamic behaviour of these materials and the growth mechanisms of interpenetrated MOFs. PMID:26892557

  3. Molecular controls on kaolinite surface charge and organic acid adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, P.V.; Cygan, R.T.; Nagy, K.L.; Ward, D.B.

    1996-10-01

    pH-dependent multi-site kaolinite surface charge can be explained by proton donor-acceptor reactions occurring simultaneously on Si and Al sites exposed on edge sites. Si site acidity at the kaolinite-solution interface differs minimally from that of pure SiO{sub 2}, whereas Al sites became appreciably more acidic when a part of the kaolinite matrix. Independent evidence from scanning force microscopy points to a higher percentage of edge surface area due to thicker particles and basal surface steps than previously assumed. Molecular modeling of the proton-relaxed kaolinite structure has been used to establish the elevated acidity of edge Al sites, to independently confirm the crystallochemical controls on surface acidity, and to establish likely bonding geometries for adsorbed organic acids, such as oxalate.

  4. Controlled partial interpenetration in metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Alan; Liu, Lujia; Tapperwijn, Stefanus J.; Perl, David; Coudert, François-Xavier; van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Verbiest, Thierry; van der Veen, Monique A.; Telfer, Shane G.

    2016-03-01

    Interpenetration, the entwining of multiple lattices, is a common phenomenon in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Typically, in interpenetrated MOFs the sub-lattices are fully occupied. Here we report a family of MOFs in which one sub-lattice is fully occupied and the occupancy level of the other can be controlled during synthesis to produce frameworks with variable levels of partial interpenetration. We also report an ‘autocatenation’ process, a transformation of non-interpenetrated lattices into doubly interpenetrated frameworks via progressively higher degrees of interpenetration that involves no external reagents. Autocatenation maintains crystallinity and can be triggered either thermally or by shear forces. The ligand used to construct these MOFs is chiral, and both racemic and enantiopure partially interpenetrated frameworks can be accessed. X-ray diffraction, nonlinear optical microscopy and theoretical calculations offer insights into the structures and dynamic behaviour of these materials and the growth mechanisms of interpenetrated MOFs.

  5. Fuel-Controlled Reassembly of Metal–Organic Architectures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many examples exist of biological self-assembled structures that restructure in response to external stimuli, then return to their previous state over a defined time scale, but most synthetic investigations so far have focused on systems that switch between states representing energetic minima upon stimulus application. Here we report an approach in which triphenylphosphine is used as a chemical fuel to maintain CuI-based self-assembled metallosupramolecular architectures for defined periods of time. This method was used to exert control over the threading and dethreading of the ring of a pseudorotaxane’s axle, as well as to direct the uptake and release of a guest from a metal–organic host. Management of the amount of fuel and catalyst added allowed for time-dependent regulation of product concentration. PMID:26779566

  6. Efficient control of population structure in model organism association mapping.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Min; Zaitlen, Noah A; Wade, Claire M; Kirby, Andrew; Heckerman, David; Daly, Mark J; Eskin, Eleazar

    2008-03-01

    Genomewide association mapping in model organisms such as inbred mouse strains is a promising approach for the identification of risk factors related to human diseases. However, genetic association studies in inbred model organisms are confronted by the problem of complex population structure among strains. This induces inflated false positive rates, which cannot be corrected using standard approaches applied in human association studies such as genomic control or structured association. Recent studies demonstrated that mixed models successfully correct for the genetic relatedness in association mapping in maize and Arabidopsis panel data sets. However, the currently available mixed-model methods suffer from computational inefficiency. In this article, we propose a new method, efficient mixed-model association (EMMA), which corrects for population structure and genetic relatedness in model organism association mapping. Our method takes advantage of the specific nature of the optimization problem in applying mixed models for association mapping, which allows us to substantially increase the computational speed and reliability of the results. We applied EMMA to in silico whole-genome association mapping of inbred mouse strains involving hundreds of thousands of SNPs, in addition to Arabidopsis and maize data sets. We also performed extensive simulation studies to estimate the statistical power of EMMA under various SNP effects, varying degrees of population structure, and differing numbers of multiple measurements per strain. Despite the limited power of inbred mouse association mapping due to the limited number of available inbred strains, we are able to identify significantly associated SNPs, which fall into known QTL or genes identified through previous studies while avoiding an inflation of false positives. An R package implementation and webserver of our EMMA method are publicly available. PMID:18385116

  7. Beyond Faith-Based Organizations: Using Comparative Institutional Ethnography to Understand Religious Responses to HIV and AIDS in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Laura; Wittlin, Natalie; Garcia, Jonathan; Terto Jr, Veriano; Parker, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Religious institutions, which contribute to understanding of and mobilization in response to illness, play a major role in structuring social, political, and cultural responses to HIV and AIDS. We used institutional ethnography to explore how religious traditions—Catholic, Evangelical, and Afro-Brazilian—in Brazil have influenced HIV prevention, treatment, and care at the local and national levels over time. We present a typology of Brazil's division of labor and uncover overlapping foci grounded in religious ideology and tradition: care of people living with HIV among Catholics and Afro-Brazilians, abstinence education among Catholics and Evangelicals, prevention within marginalized communities among Evangelicals and Afro-Brazilians, and access to treatment among all traditions. We conclude that institutional ethnography, which allows for multilevel and interlevel analysis, is a useful methodology. PMID:21493944

  8. Surface modification of organic polymers with bioactive titanium oxide without the aid of a silane-coupling agent.

    PubMed

    Balas, F; Kokubo, T; Kawashita, M; Nakamura, T

    2007-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), and poly(epsilon-caprolactam) (Nylon 6) were successfully modified with a thin crystalline titanium oxide layer on their surfaces by a simple dipping into a titanium alkoxide solution and a subsequent soak in hot HCl solution, without the aid of a silane-coupling agent. The surface modified polymers formed a bone-like apatite layer in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within a period of 2 days. PE, PET, and Nylon 6 formed an apatite layer faster and had a higher adhesive strength to the apatite. Three-dimensional fabrics with open spaces in various sizes containing such surface modified polymer fibers are expected to be useful as bone substitutes, since they may be able to form apatite on their constituent fibers in the living body, and thus, integrate with living bone. PMID:17277978

  9. Temporal Control of Plant Organ Growth by TCP Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengbo; Irish, Vivian F

    2015-06-29

    The Arabidopsis petal is a simple laminar organ whose development is largely impervious to environmental effects, making it an excellent model for dissecting the regulation of cell-cycle progression and post-mitotic cell expansion that together sculpt organ form. Arabidopsis petals grow via basipetal waves of cell division, followed by a phase of cell expansion. RABBIT EARS (RBE) encodes a C2H2 zinc finger transcriptional repressor and is required for petal development. During the early phase of petal initiation, RBE regulates a microRNA164-dependent pathway that controls cell proliferation at the petal primordium boundaries. The effects of rbe mutations on petal lamina growth suggest that RBE is also required to regulate later developmental events during petal organogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that, early in petal development, RBE represses the transcription of a suite of CIN-TCP genes that in turn act to inhibit the number and duration of cell divisions; the temporal alleviation of that repression results in the transition from cell division to post-mitotic cell expansion and concomitant petal maturation. PMID:26073137

  10. The Impact of Numerical Control Technology and Computer Aided Manufacturing on Curriculum Development in Industrial Education and Technology. A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Klaus Dieter

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of Numerical Control Technology and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (NC/CAM) in American industry on industrial education and engineering technology education. The specific purpose was to identify a data base and rationale for curriculum development in NC/CAM through a comparison of views by…

  11. Longitudinal Effects of Coping on Outcome in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Ghebremichael, Musie; Zhang, Heping; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…

  12. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 1: Communication Aids. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for disabled and elderly individuals, the directory focuses on communication aids. The book's six chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by function, input/output…

  13. En route position and time control of aircraft using Kalman filtering of radio aid data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Christensen, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    Fixed-time-of-arrival (FTA) guidance and navigation is investigated as a possible technique capable of operation within much more stringent en route separation standards and offering significant advantages in safety, higher traffic densities, and improved scheduling reliability, both en route and in the terminal areas. This study investigated the application of FTA guidance previously used in spacecraft guidance. These FTA guidance techniques have been modified and are employed to compute the velocity corrections necessary to return an aircraft to a specified great-circle reference path in order to exercise en route time and position control throughout the entire flight. The necessary position and velocity estimates to accomplish this task are provided by Kalman filtering of data from Loran-C, VORTAC/TACAN, Doppler radar, radio or barometric altitude,and altitude rate. The guidance and navigation system was evaluated using a digital simulation of the cruise phase of supersonic and subsonic flights between San Francisco and New York City, and between New York City and London.

  14. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: transmission, virology and therapeutic targeting to aid in outbreak control

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Batool, Maria; Shah, Masaud; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes high fever, cough, acute respiratory tract infection and multiorgan dysfunction that may eventually lead to the death of the infected individuals. MERS-CoV is thought to be transmitted to humans through dromedary camels. The occurrence of the virus was first reported in the Middle East and it subsequently spread to several parts of the world. Since 2012, about 1368 infections, including ~487 deaths, have been reported worldwide. Notably, the recent human-to-human ‘superspreading' of MERS-CoV in hospitals in South Korea has raised a major global health concern. The fatality rate in MERS-CoV infection is four times higher compared with that of the closely related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Currently, no drug has been clinically approved to control MERS-CoV infection. In this study, we highlight the potential drug targets that can be used to develop anti-MERS-CoV therapeutics. PMID:26315600

  15. Laser printing hierarchical structures with the aid of controlled capillary-driven self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanlei; Lao, Zhaoxin; Cumming, Benjamin P.; Wu, Dong; Li, Jiawen; Liang, Haiyi; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Capillary force is often regarded as detrimental because it may cause undesired distortion or even destruction to micro/nanostructures during a fabrication process, and thus many efforts have been made to eliminate its negative effects. From a different perspective, capillary force can be artfully used to construct specific complex architectures. Here, we propose a laser printing capillary-assisted self-assembly strategy for fabricating regular periodic structures. Microscale pillars are first produced by localized femtosecond laser polymerization and are subsequently assembled into periodic hierarchical architectures with the assistance of controlled capillary forces in an evaporating liquid. Spatial arrangements, pillar heights, and evaporation processes are readily tuned to achieve designable ordered assemblies with various geometries. Reversibility of the assembly is also revealed by breaking the balance between the intermolecular force and the elastic standing force. We further demonstrate the functionality of the hierarchical structures as a nontrivial tool for the selective trapping and releasing of microparticles, opening up a potential for the development of in situ transportation systems for microobjects. PMID:26038541

  16. Resource Mobilization for Health Advocacy: Afro-Brazilian Religious Organizations and HIV Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2010-01-01

    Brazil’s national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N=18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N=12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N=5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N=5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  17. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  18. Automated confidence ranked classification of randomized controlled trial articles: an aid to evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Smalheiser, Neil R; McDonagh, Marian S; Yu, Clement; Adams, Clive E; Davis, John M; Yu, Philip S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: For many literature review tasks, including systematic review (SR) and other aspects of evidence-based medicine, it is important to know whether an article describes a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Current manual annotation is not complete or flexible enough for the SR process. In this work, highly accurate machine learning predictive models were built that include confidence predictions of whether an article is an RCT. Materials and Methods: The LibSVM classifier was used with forward selection of potential feature sets on a large human-related subset of MEDLINE to create a classification model requiring only the citation, abstract, and MeSH terms for each article. Results: The model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.973 and mean squared error of 0.013 on the held out year 2011 data. Accurate confidence estimates were confirmed on a manually reviewed set of test articles. A second model not requiring MeSH terms was also created, and performs almost as well. Discussion: Both models accurately rank and predict article RCT confidence. Using the model and the manually reviewed samples, it is estimated that about 8000 (3%) additional RCTs can be identified in MEDLINE, and that 5% of articles tagged as RCTs in Medline may not be identified. Conclusion: Retagging human-related studies with a continuously valued RCT confidence is potentially more useful for article ranking and review than a simple yes/no prediction. The automated RCT tagging tool should offer significant savings of time and effort during the process of writing SRs, and is a key component of a multistep text mining pipeline that we are building to streamline SR workflow. In addition, the model may be useful for identifying errors in MEDLINE publication types. The RCT confidence predictions described here have been made available to users as a web service with a user query form front end at: http://arrowsmith.psych

  19. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  20. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  1. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance. PMID:12159261

  2. Capability index--a statistical process control tool to aid in udder health control in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Menezes, J C

    2004-08-01

    Bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) averages have been used to evaluate udder health both at the individual or the herd level as well as milk quality and hygiene. The authors show that the BMSCC average is not the best tool to be used in udder health control programs and that it can be replaced with advantage by the capability index (Cpk). The Cpk is a statistical process control tool traditionally used by engineers to validate, monitor, and predict the expected behavior of processes or machines. The BMSCC data of 13 consecutive months of production from 414 dairy herds as well as SCC from all cows in the DHI program from 264 herds in the same period were collected. The Cpk and the annual BMSCC average (AAVG) of all the herds were calculated. Confronting the herd's performance explained by the Cpk and AAVG with the European Union (EU) official limit for BMSCC of 400,000 cells/mL, it was noticed that the Cpk accurately classified the compliance of the 414 farms, whereas the AAVG misclassified 166 (40%) of the 414 selected farms. The annual prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SMP) of each herd was calculated with individual SCC data from the same 13-mo period. Cows with more than 200,000 SCC/mL were considered as having subclinical mastitis. A logistic regression model to relate the Cpk and the herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence was calculated. The model is: SMPe = 0.475 e(-0.5286 x Cpk). The validation of the model was carried out evaluating the relation between the observed SMP and the predicted SMPe, in terms of the linear correlation coefficient (R2) and the mean difference between SMP and SMPe (i.e., mean square error of prediction). The validation suggests that our model can be used to estimate the herd's SMP with the herd's Cpk. The Cpk equation relates the herd's BMSCC with the EU official SCC limit, thus the logistic regression model enables the adoption of critical limits for subclinical mastitis, taking into consideration the legal standard for SCC

  3. Assistive control system using continuous myoelectric signal in robot-aided arm training for patients after stroke.

    PubMed

    Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Li, Le

    2008-08-01

    In some stroke rehabilitation programs, robotic systems have been used to aid the patient to train. In this study, a myoelectrically controlled robotic system with 1 degree-of-freedom was developed to assist elbow training in a horizontal plane with intention involvement for people after stroke. The system could provide continuous assistance in extension torque, which was proportional to the amplitude of the subject's electromyographic (EMG) signal from the triceps, and could provide resistive torques during movement. This study investigated the system's effect on restoring the upper limb functions of eight subjects after chronic stroke in a twenty-session rehabilitation training program. In each session, there were 18 trials comprising different combinations of assistive and resistive torques and an evaluation trial. Each trial consisted of five cycles of repetitive elbow flexion and extension between 90 degrees and 0 degrees at a constant velocity of 10 degrees/s. With the assistive extension torque, subjects could reach a more extended position in the first session. After 20 sessions of training, there were statistically significant improvements in the modified Ashworth scale, Fugl-Meyer scale for shoulder and elbow, motor status scale, elbow extension range, muscle strength, and root mean square error between actual elbow angle and target angle. The results showed that the twenty-session training program improved upper limb functions. PMID:18701384

  4. The Calgary-Cambridge Referenced Observation Guides: an aid to defining the curriculum and organizing the teaching in communication training programmes.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, S M; Silverman, J D

    1996-03-01

    Effective communication between doctor and patient is a core clinical skill. It is increasingly recognized that it should and can be taught with the same rigour as other basic medical sciences. To validate this teaching, it is important to define the content of communication training programmes by stating clearly what is to be learnt. We therefore describe a practical teaching tool, the Calgary-Cambridge Referenced Observation Guides, that delineates and structures the skills which aid doctor-patient communication. We provide detailed references to substantiate the research and theoretical basis of these individual skills. The guides form the foundation of a sound communication curriculum and are offered as a starting point for programme directors, facilitators and learners at all levels. We describe how these guides can also be used on an everyday basis to help facilitators teach and students learn within the experiential methodology that has been shown to be central to communication training. The learner-centred and opportunistic approach used in communication teaching makes it difficult for learners to piece together their evolving understanding of communication. The guides give practical help in countering this problem by providing: an easily accessible aide-mémoire; a recording instrument that makes feedback more systematic; and an overall conceptual framework within which to organize the numerous skills that are discovered one by one as the communication curriculum unfolds. PMID:8736242

  5. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  6. Soil organic carbon mining versus priming - controls of soil organic carbon stocks along a management gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanes, M. Carmen; Reinsch, Sabine; Glanville, Helen C.; Jones, Davey L.; Carreira, José A.; Pastrana, David N.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2015-04-01

    Soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) are assumed to be connected stoichiometrically and C:N(:P) ratios are frequently used to interpret the soils nutrient status. However, plants are capable of initiating the supply of nutrients by releasing rhizodeposits into the soil, thereby stimulating soil organic matter decomposition mediated by the rhizosphere microbial community. To test the relative importance of the two mechanisms across a fertility gradient in the UK we carried out a laboratory experiment. Intact soil cores from two depths (0-15 cm and 85-100 cm) were incubated and C, N and P were added in all possible combinations resulting in a total of 216 soil cores. Soil respiration was measured (1 h incubation, 10 oC) nine times over a 2 week period. Preliminary results indicate that all soils were C limited at the surface as measured as increased soil CO2 efflux. N additions increased soil respiration only marginally, whereas C+N stimulated microbial activity on the surface, and was even more pronounced in the deeper soil layer. Belowground responses to C+P were small and even smaller for N+P but similar for both soil depths. Our results indicate nutrient controls on soil organic matter turnover differ not only across a management/fertility gradient but also vertically down the soil profile.

  7. Strategies for cancer control on an organ-site basis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of research information has been generated regarding cancer incidence rates and underlying risk factors. Since incidence:mortality ratios are generally less than 2:1 and often approach equivalence there clearly is a need for particular emphasis on preventive measures and early detection. Whether the latter should be through screening or education for improved awareness will depend on the socioeconomic conditions and the organ site. The location within the body, physiological factors and the cell type, whether essentially glandular or squamous, and the particular risk and protective factors operating in the particular social context will all impact on what measures can be recommended. Here the focus is on primary and secondary prevention of cancers in the various regions of Asia, taking into account similarities and differences in etiology for organs/tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the urinary system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the thyroid and non-Hogkins lymphomas and leukemias. Globocan 2002 data on incidence and mortality and all of the findings reviewed in the Regional Reviews were taken into account in compiling this overview. The chief recommendations are education in the developing world, to overcome the problem of late presentation at hospital (reflected by high mortality/incidence ratios), betel and tobacco control for the oral cavity and pharynx, reduce salt intake and targeting of Helicobacter pylori for the stomach, reduction in food intake, improvement in the diet and more exercise for the colorectum, kidney, prostate, breast, ovary and endometrium, reduction in smoking and exposure to other fumes for the lung, increase in water intake, particularly for the urinary bladder, and avoidance of parasites for the special cases of the urinary bladder and intrahepatic bile ducts. The cancer registry could be a major resource for development of further research capacity, with selection of suitable

  8. Main factors controlling microbial community structure, growth and activity after reclamation of a tailing pond with aided phytostabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Faz, Ángel; Bååth, Erland

    2015-04-01

    Reclamation on bare tailing ponds has the potential to represent soil genesis in Technosols favoring the understanding of the changes of microbial communities and function. In this study we used phytostabilization aided with calcium carbonate and pig slurry/manure to reclaim an acidic bare tailing pond with the aim of investigating the effect of amending and different species on microbial community structure and function. We sampled after two years of amending and planting: unamended tailing soil (UTS), non-rhizospheric amended tailing soil (ATS), rhizospheric soil from four species, and non-rhizospheric native forest soil (NS), which acted as reference. The application of amendments increased pH up to neutrality, organic carbon (Corg), C/N and aggregate stability, while decreased salinity and heavy metals availability. No effect of rhizosphere was observed on physicochemical properties, metals immobilization and microbial community structure and function. To account for confounding effects due to soil organic matter, microbial properties were expressed per Corg. The high increments in pH and Corg have been the main factors driving changes in microbial community structure and function. Bacterial biomass was higher in UTS, without significant differences among the rest of soils. Fungal biomass followed the trend UTS < ATS = rhizospheric soils < NS. Bacterial growth increased and fungal growth decreased with increasing pH, despite the high availability of metals at low pH. Enzyme activities were lower in UTS, being β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase activities highly correlated with bacterial growth. Microbial activities were not correlated with the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals, indicating that microbial function is not strongly affected by these metals, likely due to the efficiency of the reclamation procedure to reduce metals toxicity. Changes in microbial community composition were largely explained by changes in pH, heavy metals availability and Corg

  9. Cultivation strategies for weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed management in organic peanut production is difficult and costly. Previous research demonstrated limitations of propane flaming and OMRI-approved herbicides suitable use in organic production. Furthermore, related studies clearly showed the inability to manage weeds in reduced-tillage organic ...

  10. Aromatic Interactions as Control Elements in Stereoselective Organic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Conspectus This Account describes how attractive interaction of aromatic rings with other groups can influence and control the stereoselectivity of many reactions. Recent developments in theory have led to improved accuracy in the modeling of aromatic interactions. Quantum mechanical modeling can now provide insights into the roles of these interactions at a level of detail not previously accessible, both for ground-state species and for transition states of chemical reactions. In this Account, we show how transition-state modeling led to the discovery of the influence of aryl groups on the stereoselectivities of several types of organic reactions. These reaction types include asymmetric dihydroxylations, transfer hydrogenations, hetero-Diels–Alder reactions, acyl transfers, and Claisen rearrangements. Our recent studies have led to a novel mechanistic picture for two classes of (4+3) cycloadditions, both of which involve reactions of furans with oxyallyl intermediates. The first class of cycloadditions, developed by Hsung, features neutral oxyallyls containing a chiral oxazolidinone auxiliary. Originally, these cycloadditions were thought rely on differential steric crowding of the two faces of a planar intermediate. Computations reveal a different picture and show that cycloadditions with furan takes place preferentially through the more crowded transition state, with furan adding on the same side as the oxazolidinone’s Ph substituent. The crowded transition state is stabilized by a CH–π interaction between furan and Ph, worth about 2.0 kcal/mol. Stereocontrol in a second class of (4+3) cycloadditions, involving chiral alkoxy siloxyallyl cations, also is controlled by attractive interactions with aromatic rings. Alkoxy groups derived from chiral α-methylbenzyl alcohols are found to favor crowded transition states, where a CH–π interaction is again present between furan and Ar. The cationic cycloadditions are stepwise, while the Hsung cycloadditions are

  11. Five-year results of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial of posterior computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Passia, N; Stampf, S; Strub, J R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical outcome of shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic full-coverage crowns on premolars and molars in comparison with conventional gold crowns over a 5-year period. Two hundred and twenty-three patients were included and randomly divided into two treatment groups. One hundred and twenty-three patients were restored with 123 ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns, and 100 patients received 100 gold crowns, which served as the control. All crowns were conventionally cemented with glass-ionomer cement. After an observation period of 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months, the survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns was 98·3%, 92·0%, 84·7%, 79% and 73·2% and for the gold crowns, 99%, 97·9%, 95·7%, 94·6% and 92·3%, respectively. The difference between the test and control group was statistically significant (P = 0·0027). The gold crowns showed a better marginal integrity with less marginal discoloration than the ceramic crowns. The most common failure in the ceramic crown group was fracture of the crown. The 60-month results of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial suggest that the use of these shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns in posterior tooth restorations cannot be recommended. PMID:23745725

  12. Vortex pairing and organized structures in axisymmetric jets under controlled excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Hussain, A. K. M. F.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of experiments which have been carried out in a circular air jet facility consisting of two settling chambers in sequence. Sinusoidal perturbations in the exit profile are introduced at controlled frequencies and amplitudes with the aid of a loudspeaker attached to the wall of the first chamber. It was found that vortex pairing in circular jets can occur in two distinct modes, including the shear layer mode and the jet mode. Amplitude variations, the conditions for strong vortex pairing, and the spectral evolution downstream are illustrated with the aid of graphs.

  13. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-6 - Control by using organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... organization. 109-27.5104-6 Section 109-27.5104-6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... organization. (a) After receipt, the using organization shall provide necessary controls for precious metals... quantities at the actual point of use. (b) Each using organization shall maintain a log showing...

  14. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  15. Awareness and utilization of HIV services of an AIDS community-based organization in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Yap, Ivan; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin H

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, homosexuality is illegal; little is known about access to HIV prevention services among Malaysian men who have sex with men (MSM). We analysed PT Foundation outreach data to describe the profiles among MSM who accessed PT Foundation services and to examine factors associated with being aware of PT Foundation and having visited the organization. A survey was administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur from March-December 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of participants who were and were not aware of the PT Foundation. Binary logistic regression was used to identify correlates of MSM visiting the PT Foundation among those who had heard of the organization. Of 614 MSM, this study found significantly higher awareness of the PT Foundation among MSM who perceived they had "good" HIV knowledge (p = .026) and participants who reported always using condoms (p = .009). MSM who reported being paid for sex were 2.81 times as likely to visit the PT Foundation compared to men who did not. A subgroup of MSM known to be at high risk for HIV infection is accessing prevention services. Future studies should uncover motivations and barriers of accessing these services among MSM in Malaysia. PMID:24676132

  16. Ionothermal Synthesis of MnAPO-SOD Molecular Sieve without the Aid of Organic Structure-Directing Agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yasong; Li, Dawei; Ma, Huaijun; Xu, Renshun

    2016-02-15

    An SOD-type metalloaluminophosphate molecular sieve (denoted as SOD-Mn) was ionothermally synthesized by introducing manganese(II) cations into the reaction mixture via MnO-acid or MnO2-reductant reactions. Composition and structure analyses results show that two kinds of manganese(II) cations exist in the SOD-Mn structure. Part of the manganese(II) cations isomorphously substitute the framework aluminum(III) with a substitution degree of ∼30%. The rest of the manganese(II) cations occupy a fraction of the sod cages in their hydrated forms. A comprehensive investigation of the synthesis parameters, crystal sizes, and crystallization kinetics indicates that the in situ released hydrated manganese(II) cations direct the formation of SOD-Mn. Such structure-directing effect may be inhibited by both the fluorination of manganese(II) cations and the water accumulation during crystallization. In the fluoride anion-containing reaction mixture with a low ionic liquid content, the crystallization process is strongly suppressed, and large SOD-Mn single crystals of over 200 μm in size are yielded. SOD-Mn is free from organics and shows improved thermal stability compared with metalloaluminophosphates synthesized by using organic structure-directing agents. PMID:26821274

  17. Managing professional work: three models of control for health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, W R

    1982-01-01

    Three arrangements for structuring the work of professional participants in professional organizations are described, contrasted and evaluated. Arguments are illustrated by application to the organization of physicians within hospitals. The primary rationale, the support structures that have fostered its development, the key structural features and the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement are described. The effect on these arrangements of structures and forces external to any particular professional organization is emphasized. PMID:6749761

  18. Expanding the partnership. The private sector's role in HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P

    1996-07-01

    The public sector supports most HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities in developing countries, with significant funding provided by the US Agency for International Development, the Overseas Development Authority, the European Community, and international banking institutions such as the World Bank. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international private voluntary organizations (PVOs) implement many of the grassroots prevention and care efforts in developing countries, but often require support from donor agencies. While the private commercial sector has played a minor role in supporting HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, a number of local and multinational companies are beginning to recognize the importance of protecting their workers from HIV infection. These companies are motivated by a sense of moral obligation and/or view HIV/AIDS prevention as a cost-effective investment. Mainly affecting the most economically productive age groups, the HIV/AIDS epidemic will have a significant impact upon private industry. Workplace-based prevention programs and policies, private sector resources for HIV/AIDS prevention and care, how HIV/AIDS programs can benefit from the private sector's experience in commercial service delivery, research and development, and corporate direct cash and in-kind contributions to government and NGO HIV/AIDS prevention activities are discussed. The AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's Businesses Managing AIDS Project helps owners and managers understand the potential impact of HIV/AIDS upon their businesses and the benefits of HIV/AIDS prevention. PMID:12347592

  19. Dissolved organic matter kinetically controls mercury bioavailability to bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chiasson-Gould, Sophie A; Blais, Jules M; Poulain, Alexandre J

    2014-03-18

    Predicting the bioavailability of inorganic mercury (Hg) to bacteria that produce the potent bioaccumulative neurotoxin monomethylmercury remains one of the greatest challenges in predicting the environmental fate and transport of Hg. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) affects mercury methylation due to its influence on cell physiology (as a potential nutrient) and its influence on Hg(II) speciation in solution (as a complexing agent), therefore controlling Hg bioavailability. We assessed the role of DOM on Hg(II) bioavailability to a gram-negative bacterium bioreporter under oxic pseudo- and nonequilibrium conditions, using defined media and field samples spanning a wide range of DOM levels. Our results showed that Hg(II) was considerably more bioavailable under nonequilibrium conditions than when DOM was absent or when Hg(II) and DOM had reached pseudoequilibrium (24 h) prior to cell exposure. Under these enhanced uptake conditions, Hg(II) bioavailability followed a bell shaped curve as DOM concentrations increased, both for defined media and natural water samples, consistent with bioaccumulation results in a companion paper (this issue) observed for amphipods. Experiments also suggest that DOM may not only provide shuttle molecules facilitating Hg uptake, but also alter cell wall properties to facilitate the first steps toward Hg(II) internalization. We propose the existence of a short-lived yet critical time window (<24 h) during which DOM facilitates the entry of newly deposited Hg(II) into aquatic food webs, suggesting that the bulk of mercury incorporation in aquatic food webs would occur within hours following its deposition from the atmosphere. PMID:24524696

  20. Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--worldwide.

    PubMed

    1988-05-13

    As of March 21, 1988, 136 countries or territories throughout the world had reported a total of 84,256 cases of AIDS to the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) (formerly the Special Programme on AIDS) of the World Health Organization (WHO). 37 countries or territories had reported no AIDS cases. Reports are based on either the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/WHO surveillance definition, the WHO clinical definition, or a physician's diagnosis. From 1979 through March 21, 1988, the number of AIDS cases increased markedly in all geographic regions. The cumulative world total increased from 11,965 in 1984 to 25,150 in 1985 (a 11% increase) and to 48,413 in 1986 (a 92% increase). Because of reporting lags, the global total of AIDS cases reported for 1987 is not yet complete; however, as of March 21, 1988, 34,913 cases had been reported for 1987 (a 72% increase). Data on the distribution of AIDS cases by region are presented, followed by a discussion of the findings. Regions include: Americas, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Asia, and eastern Mediterranean countries. Epidemiologic studies indicate 3 broad yet distinct geographic patterns of transmission. Pattern I is typical of industrialized countries with large numbers of reported AIDS cases, such as North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Latin America. In these areas, most cases occur among homosexual or bisexual males and urban intravenous (IV) drug users. Pattern II is observed in areas of central, eastern, and southern Africa and in some Carribean countries. In these areas, most cases occur among heterosexuals. Pattern III is found in areas of Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and most of the Pacific. Only small numbers of cases have been reported in these areas. PMID:3129644

  1. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA) with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Discussion Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149 PMID:22216905

  2. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  3. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  4. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  5. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  6. The Role of Personalised Choice in Decision Support: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Decision Aid for Prostate Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Salkeld, Glenn; Cunich, Michelle; Dowie, Jack; Howard, Kirsten; Patel, Manish I.; Mann, Graham; Lipworth, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Importance Decision support tools can assist people to apply population-based evidence on benefits and harms to individual health decisions. A key question is whether “personalising” choice within decisions aids leads to better decision quality. Objective To assess the effect of personalising the content of a decision aid for prostate cancer screening using the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Australia. Participants 1,970 men aged 40–69 years were approached to participate in the trial. Intervention 1,447 men were randomly allocated to either a standard decision aid with a fixed set of five attributes or a personalised decision aid with choice over the inclusion of up to 10 attributes. Outcome Measures To determine whether there was a difference between the two groups in terms of: 1) the emergent opinion (generated by the decision aid) to have a PSA test or not; 2) self-rated decision quality after completing the online decision aid; 3) their intention to undergo screening in the next 12 months. We also wanted to determine whether men in the personalised choice group made use of the extra decision attributes. Results 5% of men in the fixed attribute group scored ‘Have a PSA test’ as the opinion generated by the aid, as compared to 62% of men in the personalised choice group (χ2 = 569.38, 2df, p< 0001). Those men who used the personalised decision aid had slightly higher decision quality (t = 2.157, df = 1444, p = 0.031). The men in the personalised choice group made extensive use of the additional decision attributes. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of their stated intention to undergo screening in the next 12 months. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that personalised decision support systems could be an important development in shared decision-making and patient-centered care. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN

  7. Impact of a printed decision aid on patients’ intention to undergo prostate cancer screening: a multicentre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Viet-Thi; Kisseleva-Romanova, Elena; Rigal, Laurent; Falcoff, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite recommendations against systematic screening for prostate cancer, 70% of patients still request prostate-specific antigen testing. Aim To assess the impact of a decision aid on patients’ intention to undergo prostate cancer screening. Design and setting Randomised controlled trial with two-arm parallel groups in 86 general practices in urban and rural areas in France. Method Males aged 50–75 years were randomised to receive either the decision aid (intervention group) or usual care (control group). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients’ intending to undergo prostate cancer screening, assessed immediately after reading the decision aid. The reasons underlying their choice were elicited and the proportion of patients citing each reason to undergo, or not undergo, prostate cancer screening were compared between the two arms. Results A total of 1170 patients were randomised (588 in the intervention arm) from November 2012 to February 2013. The proportion of patients who intended to be tested for prostate cancer in the intervention arm (123 patients [20.9%]) was significantly reduced compared with the control arm (57 patients [9.8%]) (difference 11.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.0 to 15.2, P<0.0001). In the intervention group, a lower proportion of individuals expressed that cancer screening would protect them from the disease, compared with the control group (P<0.0001), while a greater proportion of individuals stated that prostate cancer screening would not benefit their health (P<0.0001) and may involve procedures with harmful side effects (P = 0.0005). Conclusion The decision aid improved participants’ informed decision making and reduced their intent to undergo prostate cancer screening. PMID:25918334

  8. Directory of National Organizations Concerned with Land Pollution Control, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 204 national organizations, agencies, institutes, and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  9. Directory of National Organizations Concerned With Land Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 133 national organizations, agencies, institutes and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  10. Organic Analyses in Water Quality Control Programs. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This document is a lecture/laboratory manual dealing with the analysis of selected organic pollutants. It is intended for use by those having little or no experience in the field, but having one year (or equivalent) of college organic chemistry, and having basic laboratory skills (volumetric glassware, titration, analytical and trip balances).…

  11. Controlling the porosity of microporous silica by sol-gel processing using an organic template approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.; Cao, G.Z.; Kale, R.P.; Delattre, L.; Lopez, G.P.; Brinker, C.J. |

    1996-12-31

    The authors use an organic template approach to prepare microporous silica with controlled pore size and narrow pore size distributions. This was accomplished by fabricating relatively dense hybrid silica matrices incorporating organic template ligands by sol-gel synthesis and then removing the organic ligands to create a microporous silica network. Comparison of computer simulation results and experimental data indicated that using this fugitive template approach, pore volume can be controlled by the amount of organic template added to the system, and pore size can be controlled by the size of the organic ligands.

  12. 'Public enemy no. 1': Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response - a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate how tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: (1) During the 1990s, Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the USA, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; (2) In both Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in sub-Saharan Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high-profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist

  13. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  14. AIDS public health communication: a new challenge for communicators.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A

    1987-01-01

    Communicators have gained valuable experience which can contribute to the control of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), yet AIDS prevention and control needs to progress beyond all that has been achieved in the best of programs. The topic is sensitive, and AIDS is itself often a political issue. The behavior to be changed is deeply rooted. It is a global problem and requires appropriate knowledge and targeted behavior change throughout the entire adult population of the world. Combating AIDS requires that every communication lesson of the past be adapted, for education and communication are the only vaccine against AIDS. The community of communicators working in the health sector has evolved beyond a simple paradigm, and the term public health communication is used to suggest this evolution. Public health communication means the systematic attempt to influence health practices of large populations positively, using principles and methods of mass communication, instructional design, health education, social marketing, behavioral analysis, anthropology, and related public health and social sciences. The term implies reliance on multiple channels, coordinated to introduce sustained change in specific practices crucial to realizing a public health impact. The World Health Organization is coordinating worldwide action as well as facilitating the formation of national AIDS prevention and control committees and plans of action in countries which request their assistance. Major international organizations along with thousands of local institutions are at work developing their own complementary action plans. Each will have a significant public health communication component. PMID:12281285

  15. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy

  16. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  17. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  18. Control of organic substances in water and waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.B.

    1983-04-01

    The presence of organic substances of industrial origin in waste waters, storm runoff, and in surface and groundwaters may not always be an unmitigated evil--but, it is safe to say, it never is good. In 1976, EPA was required to give special emphasis to 129 priority pollutants that present probable hazard in the water resource. Of these 129 priority pollutants, 114 are organic. This document is comprised of 14 chapters, each prepared by a specialist. Chapter 1, Fundamental Considerations in the Removal of Organic Substances in Water is, in essence, an examination of a wide spectrum of physical-chemical principles that are being used, are under study, or may in the future be adapted for use in the separation of organic pollutants in waters.

  19. Weed control options for organically grown vine crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic melon production requires effective weed management practices for achieving acceptable crop yield and quality. Research conducted in 2010 in southeastern Oklahoma (Lane, OK) compared several possible weed management strategies for cantaloupe. Treatments included black plastic mulch, black wo...

  20. Screen-aided CO 2 control (SACC): a middle ground between FACE and open-top chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadley, P. W.; Niklaus, P.; Stocker, R.; Körner, Ch.

    We have developed a novel CO 2 exposure system for natural vegetation that is a middle ground between Free Air CO 2 Enrichment (FACE) and traditional open-top chambers (OTC). Screen-Aided CO 2 Control (SACC) technology uses much less CO 2 per experiment and per replicate than FACE and is superior to OTCs in terms of its effects on microclimate. A SACC unit consists of a thin metal frame, a clear plastic "screen", and a pipe at the base of the screen through which CO 2 enriched jets of air are directed into the unit. There is a gap between the ground and the bottom of the pipe and the screen is relatively short in comparison to the maximum height of the vegetation. Our SACC units are hexagonal and enclose a ground area of 1.27 m 2. SACC works in the following way: 1) the screen breaks the wind and creates turbulent mixing within the unit, 2) the mixing of the outside air with the CO 2 enriched jets of air generates relatively uniform CO 2 concentrations within the screened-in vegetation, and 3) a fully automated system monitors CO 2 concentrations and adjusts CO 2 injection rates for each unit every ca. 10 minutes to maintain preset CO 2 concentrations. Twenty-four hour means of CO 2 concentrations in the middle of a unit are typically maintained within 1 μl l -1 of their set points. Spatial variation and short-term fluctuations in CO 2 concentration are similar to those in OTCs and FACE. CO 2 consumption at our site is 5 kg CO 2 day -1 replicate -1 for a total of ca. 30 tons per year for 20 elevated CO 2 SACC units. Compared to OTCs, SACC units have reduced temperature peaks at full sunlight, minimal effects on solar radiation, reduced rainfall interception by chamber walls, and freer access of small animals to experimental plots. We believe that SACC is the best method for exposing short stature vegetation to elevated CO 2 when financial constraints do not allow for a properly replicated FACE experiment.

  1. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  2. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  3. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for the management of pain in labour and childbirth [ISRCTN52287533

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Christine L; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Nassar, Natasha; Trevena, Lyndal; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    Background Women report fear of pain in childbirth and often lack complete information on analgesic options prior to labour. Preferences for pain relief should be discussed before labour begins. A woman's antepartum decision to use pain relief is likely influenced by her cultural background, friends, family, the media, literature and her antenatal caregivers. Pregnant women report that information about analgesia was most commonly derived from hearsay and least commonly from health professionals. Decision aids are emerging as a promising tool to assist practitioners and their patients in evidence-based decision making. Decision aids are designed to assist patients and their doctors in making informed decisions using information that is unbiased and based on high quality research evidence. Decision aids are non-directive in the sense that they do not aim to steer the user towards any one option, but rather to support decision making which is informed and consistent with personal values. Methods/design We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a Pain Relief for Labour decision aid, with and without an audio-component, compared to a pamphlet in a three-arm randomised controlled trial. Approximately 600 women expecting their first baby and planning a vaginal birth will be recruited for the trial. The primary outcomes of the study are decisional conflict (uncertainty about a course of action), knowledge, anxiety and satisfaction with decision-making and will be assessed using self-administered questionnaires. The decision aid is not intended to influence the type of analgesia used during labour, however we will monitor health service utilisation rates and maternal and perinatal outcomes. This study is funded by a competitive peer-reviewed grant from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (No. 253635). Discussion The Pain Relief for Labour decision aid was developed using the Ottawa Decision Support Framework and systematic reviews of the evidence

  4. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  5. AIDS: Implications for Homosexual Self-Help and Support Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro-Alfonso, Jose

    The Colectivo de Concientizacion Gay, a homosexual and lesbian organization in Puerto Rico, developed a brief analysis of what has happened since symptoms associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first reported by the Centers for Disease Control in 1981; the analysis also included implications for the gay community. Since…

  6. Characterization of infectious aerosols in health care facilities: an aid to effective engineering controls and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Cole, E C; Cook, C E

    1998-08-01

    Assessment of strategies for engineering controls for the prevention of airborne infectious disease transmission to patients and to health care and related workers requires consideration of the factors relevant to aerosol characterization. These factors include aerosol generation, particle size and concentrations, organism viability, infectivity and virulence, airflow and climate, and environmental sampling and analysis. The major focus on attention to engineering controls comes from recent increases in tuberculosis, particularly the multidrug-resistant varieties in the general hospital population, the severely immunocompromised, and those in at-risk and confined environments such as prisons, long-term care facilities, and shelters for the homeless. Many workers are in close contact with persons who have active, undiagnosed, or insufficiently treated tuberculosis. Additionally, patients and health care workers may be exposed to a variety of pathogenic human viruses, opportunistic fungi, and bacteria. This report therefore focuses on the nature of infectious aerosol transmission in an attempt to determine which factors can be systematically addressed to result in proven, applied engineering approaches to the control of infectious aerosols in hospital and health care facility environments. The infectious aerosols of consideration are those that are generated as particles of respirable size by both human and environmental sources and that have the capability of remaining viable and airborne for extended periods in the indoor environment. This definition precludes skin and mucous membrane exposures occurring from splashes (rather than true aerosols) of blood or body fluids containing infectious disease agents. There are no epidemiologic or laboratory studies documenting the transmission of bloodborne virus by way of aerosols. PMID:9721404

  7. The Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS, TB and Vector-borne Diseases in Informal Settlements: Challenges, Opportunities and Insights

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Susan P.; Becker, Daniel; Edmundo, Katia; Mugisha, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Today’s urban settings are redefining the field of public health. The complex dynamics of cities, with their concentration of the poorest and most vulnerable (even within the developed world) pose an urgent challenge to the health community. While retaining fidelity to the core principles of disease prevention and control, major adjustments are needed in the systems and approaches to effectively reach those with the greatest health risks (and the least resilience) within today’s urban environment. This is particularly relevant to infectious disease prevention and control. Controlling and preventing HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and vector-borne diseases like malaria are among the key global health priorities, particularly in poor urban settings. The challenge in slums and informal settlements is not in identifying which interventions work, but rather in ensuring that informal settlers: (1) are captured in health statistics that define disease epidemiology and (2) are provided opportunities equal to the rest of the population to access proven interventions. Growing international attention to the plight of slum dwellers and informal settlers, embodied by Goal 7 Target 11 of the Millennium Development Goals, and the considerable resources being mobilized by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and malaria, among others, provide an unprecedented potential opportunity for countries to seriously address the structural and intermediate determinants of poor health in these settings. Viewed within the framework of the “social determinants of disease” model, preventing and controlling HIV/AIDS, TB and vector-borne diseases requires broad and integrated interventions that address the underlying causes of inequity that result in poorer health and worse health outcomes for the urban poor. We examine insights into effective approaches to disease control and prevention within poor urban settings under a comprehensive social development agenda. PMID:17431796

  8. Syphilis 1855 and HIV-AIDS 2007: Historical reflections on the tendency to blame human anatomy for the action of micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Darby, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss the parallels between responses to syphilis in nineteenth century Britain and HIV/AIDS in contemporary Africa. In each case, an incurable disease connected with sexual behaviour aroused fear, stigmatisation and moralistic responses, as well as a desperate scramble to find an effective means of control. In both cases, circumcision of adult males, and then of children or infants, was proposed as the key tactic. In the ensuing debates over the effectiveness and propriety of this approach, three questions occupied health authorities in both Victorian Britain and the contemporary world: (1) Were circumcised men at significantly lower risk of these diseases? (2) If there was evidence pointing to an affirmative answer, was it altered anatomy or different behaviour that explained the difference? (3) Given that circumcision was a surgical procedure with attendant risks of infection, was it possible that circumcision spread syphilis or HIV? I show that in both situations the answers to these questions were inconclusive, argue that circumcision played little or no role in the eventual control of syphilis and suggest that attention to nineteenth century debates may assist contemporary policy-makers to avoid the treatment dead-ends and ethical transgressions that marked the war on syphilis. PMID:25268631

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Free HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Through a Community-Based AIDS Service Organization in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Thielman, Nathan M.; Chu, Helen Y.; Ostermann, Jan; Itemba, Dafrosa K.; Mgonja, Anna; Mtweve, Sabina; Bartlett, John A.; Shao, John F.; Crump, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of fee-based and free testing strategies at an HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) program integrated into a community-based AIDS service organization in Moshi, Tanzania. Methods. We waived the usual fee schedule during a 2-week free, advertised VCT campaign; analyzed the number of clients testing per day during prefree, free, and postfree testing periods; and estimated the cost-effectiveness of limited and sustained free testing strategies. Results. The number of clients testing per day increased from 4.1 during the prefree testing interval to 15.0 during the free testing campaign (P<.0001) and remained significantly increased at 7.1 (P<.0001) after resumption of the standard fees. HIV seroprevalence (16.7%) and risk behaviors were unchanged over these intervals. Modeled over 1 year, the costs per infection averted with the standard fee schedule, with a 2-week free VCT campaign, and with sustained free VCT year-round were $170, $105, and $92, respectively, and the costs per disability-adjusted life year gained were $8.72, $5.40, and $4.72, respectively. Conclusions. The provision of free VCT enhances both the number of clients testing per day and its cost-effectiveness in resource-limited settings. PMID:16317205

  10. A review and assessment of non-governmental organization-based STD/AIDS education and prevention projects for marginalized groups.

    PubMed

    Crane, S F; Carswell, J W

    1992-06-01

    A review of projects run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in primarily developing countries, which have aimed to provide STD/AIDS education and prevention skills to various marginalized groups, reveals that past quantitative and formative research has failed to identify key programmatic factors which lead to more successful project implementation and sustainability. In observations, interviews with field staff, visits to program sites and information drawn from the literature, a variety of methods to reach a wide range of groups such as men who have sex with men, prostitutes, clients of prostitutes, prisoners, street children, migrant workers and refugees are explored. Factors found to facilitate project success include the following: at least one full-time committed staff member; respectful treatment and appropriate motivation of the target group; suitable and sufficient equipment and supplies (particularly condoms); planning ahead for the participation of HIV-positive individuals and ways to meet their needs; focusing on qualitative rather than quantitative evaluation; planning in advance beyond a 9 or 12 month 'model'. Despite some evidence that marginalized groups can be successfully motivated to practise safer sex through prevention education, long-term behaviour change still presents major challenges--even when specific conditions are met. PMID:10171671

  11. Variants of guided self-organization for robot control.

    PubMed

    Martius, Georg; Herrmann, J Michael

    2012-09-01

    Autonomous robots can generate exploratory behavior by self-organization of the sensorimotor loop. We show that the behavioral manifold that is covered in this way can be modified in a goal-dependent way without reducing the self-induced activity of the robot. We present three strategies for guided self-organization, namely by using external rewards, a problem-specific error function, or assumptions about the symmetries of the desired behavior. The strategies are analyzed for two different robots in a physically realistic simulation. PMID:22116785

  12. The use of conspicuity aids by cyclists and risk of crashes involving other road users: a protocol for a population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids') are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. Methods/Design A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. Discussion This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users. PMID:20105286

  13. 36 CFR 1211.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  14. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  15. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  16. 10 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  17. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  18. 10 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  19. 45 CFR 2555.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  20. Strategic planning and control in small health organizations.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C P

    1976-01-01

    It is the end of the second quarter, and the controller announces that the fiscal year's funds for equipment and supplies are fully expended. The executive director hits the roof--he has promised the radiology department a new piece of x-ray apparatus. An ongoing planning-and-control procedure would have foreseen and prevented this shortfall. PMID:10241297

  1. REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT TO CONTROL INORGANIC AND VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the versatility of reverse osmosis for removing a wide range of contaminants, U.S. EPA (Drinking Water Research Division) has been conducting laboratory and field studies to determine its effectiveness on specific inorganic and organic contaminants of concern to the wa...

  2. Spectrum-controllable color sensors using organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, K.; Moriizumi, T.

    1981-10-01

    An organic color sensor was fabricated by using p- and n-type dyes. The cell has a layered structure of Zn0/merocyanine/rhodamine B, which acts as an n-p-n- photodiode. The spectral sensitivity of the cell was changed remarkably by bias voltage, and a good separation of the spectral responses was obtained in the visible-spectrum region.

  3. CONTROLLING ORGANICS WITH GAC: A COST AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amendments to the US Safe Drinking Water Act require extensive evaluation of the feasibility or removing organic compounds using granular activated carbon (GAC). To meet deadlines for this technology evaluation, the US Environmental Prtotection Agency has combined the use of ...

  4. Options for pest and disease control in organic pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although organic pecans typically command a higher wholesale and retail price, their production presents a unique set of challenges. Among these are issues of pest and disease management - it is not simply a modification of the conventional, pest and disease management paradigm. Despite these pest ...

  5. Organic weed control with vinegar: Application volumes and adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary results have indicated that vinegar has potential as an organic herbicide, but further research is needed to increase our understanding of the relationship between acetic acid concentrations, application volumes, adjuvants, weed species, and weed maturity on effectiveness of vinegar to c...

  6. CONTROL OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES IN WATER AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of organic substances of industrial origin in wastewaters, storm runoff and in surface and groundwaters may not always be an unmitigated evil--but, it is safe to say, it never is good. In 1976, EPA was required to give special emphasis to 129 'priority pollutants' th...

  7. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than two decades ago, researchers identified benzo(a)pyrene and other organic species in the emissions from incineration of solid waste. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and-furans (CDD/CDF) were first detected in municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions in 1977. Since then, C...

  8. Weed control efficacy with ammonium nonanoate for organic vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision application of herbicides is important to vegetable producers because of the limited number of herbicides available and the potential for crop injury. Racer® (ammonium nonanoate) is a contact herbicide labeled for food use and is now labeled as a bio-herbicide for organically grown food c...

  9. Especially for Teens: Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... which controls the function of female reproductive organs. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Pelvic Exam: ...

  10. Comparing the effect of a decision aid plus patient navigation with usual care on colorectal cancer screening completion in vulnerable populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening can reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. However, screening is underutilized in vulnerable patient populations, particularly among Latinos. Patient-directed decision aids can increase CRC screening knowledge, self-efficacy, and intent; however, their effect on actual screening test completion tends to be modest. This is probably because decision aids do not address some of the patient-specific barriers that prevent successful completion of CRC screening in these populations. These individual barriers might be addressed though patient navigation interventions. This study will test a combined decision aid and patient navigator intervention on screening completion in diverse populations of vulnerable primary care patients. Methods/Design We will conduct a multisite, randomized controlled trial with patient-level randomization. Planned enrollment is 300 patients aged 50 to 75 years at average CRC risk presenting for appointments at two primary clinics in North Carolina and New Mexico. Intervention participants will view a video decision aid immediately before the clinic visit. The 14 to 16 minute video presents information about fecal occult blood tests and colonoscopy and will be viewed on a portable computer tablet in English or Spanish. Clinic-based patient navigators are bilingual and bicultural and will provide both face-to-face and telephone-based navigation. Control participants will view an unrelated food safety video and receive usual care. The primary outcome is completion of a CRC screening test at six months. Planned subgroup analyses include examining intervention effectiveness in Latinos, who will be oversampled. Secondarily, the trial will evaluate the intervention effects on knowledge of CRC screening, self-efficacy, intent, and patient-provider communication. The study will also examine whether patient ethnicity, acculturation, language preference, or health insurance status moderate the intervention effect on

  11. Roles of Hippo signaling pathway in size control of organ regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Tamura, Koji

    2015-05-01

    Animals have an intrinsic regeneration ability for injured tissues and organs. Species that have high regeneration ability such as newts can regenerate an organ with exactly the same size and shape as those of the original one. It has been unclear how a regenerating organ grows and ceases growth at an appropriate size. Organ size control in regeneration is seen in various organs of various species that have high regeneration ability. In animal species that do not have sufficient regeneration ability, a wound heals (the injury is closed, but lost parts are not regenerated), but an organ cannot be restored to its original size. On the other hand, perturbation of regeneration sometimes results in oversized or extra structures. In this sense, organ size control plays essential roles in proper regeneration. In this article, we introduce the concept of size control in organ regeneration regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway. We focused on the transcriptional regulator Yap, which shuttles between the nuclei and cytoplasm to exert a regulatory function in a context-dependent manner. The Yap-mediated Hippo pathway is thought to sense cell density, extracellular matrix (ECM) contact and cell position and to regulate gene expression for control of organ size. This mechanism can reasonably explain size control of organ regeneration. PMID:25867864

  12. A Controlled Pre-Post Evaluation of a Computer-based HIV/AIDS Education on Students' Sexual Behaviors, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Musiimenta, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional approaches to sexuality and HIV education which can be constrained by the sensitive nature of the subject, Information Technology (IT) can be an innovative teaching tool that can be used to educate people about HIV. This is especially relevant to interventions targeting young people; the population group fond of using IT, and the same group that is more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Yet, there are significantly few empirical studies that rigorously evaluated computer-assisted school-based HIV/AIDS interventions in developing countries. The modest studies conducted in this area have largely been conducted in developed countries, leaving little known about the effectiveness of such interventions in low resource settings, which moreover host the majority of HIV/AIDS infections. This research addresses this gap by conducting a controlled pre-post intervention evaluation of the impacts of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a computer-assisted HIV/AIDS intervention implemented in schools in Uganda. The research question was: did the WSWM intervention significantly influence students' sexual behaviors, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy? To address this question, questionnaires were simultaneously administering to 146 students in an intervention group (the group receiving the WSWM intervention) and 146 students in a comparison group (the group who did not receive the WSWM intervention), before (February 2009) and after the intervention (December 2009). Findings indicate that the intervention significantly improved students' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes self-efficacy, sex abstinence and fidelity, but had no significant impact on condom use. The major reason for non-use of condoms was lack of knowledge about condom use which can be attributed to teachers' failure and inabilities to demonstrate condom use in class. To address this challenge, intervention teachers should be continuously trained in skills-based and interactive sexuality education. This

  13. Controlling Rapid Change Through Systems Engineering the Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Wheeler, Rebecca; Zak, Haya

    2000-01-01

    A new approach to change management has been developed and applied at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). It's main focus is on aligning the organization with the strategic plan; and understanding the internal organizational relationships that impact change, which ultimately determine an organizations ability to be transformed and renewed The new approach regards the strategic plan of a company as the standard by which progress and achievement are measured. Purposeful interventions should generate a company movement along a strategic course, and tracking that movement is essential for managing change. This paper presents an overview of DYNOMO, or the DYNamic Organizational MOdel which was developed to assist in the measurement and analysis of organizational state. The paper concludes with summaries of two applications.

  14. A randomized controlled comparison of NAL and DSL prescriptions for young children: Hearing-aid characteristics and performance outcomes at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa YC; Dillon, Harvey; Hou, Sanna; Zhang, Vicky; Day, Julia; Crowe, Kathryn; Marnane, Vivienne; Street, Laura; Burns, Lauren; Van Buynder, Patricia; Flynn, Christopher; Thomson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of choice of prescription and other child-, family- and intervention-related factors on speech, language, and functional performance of hearing-impaired children by three years of age. Design and study sample A randomized controlled design was implemented as part of a population-based, longitudinal study on outcomes of children with hearing impairment (LOCHI) in Australia. Two hundred and eighteen children were randomly assigned to either the NAL or the DSL prescription for first fitting of hearing aids. Their performance outcomes were evaluated. Results Prescriptive targets were closely matched in children's hearing aids. There were not significant differences in children's language, speech production, or functional performance between prescriptions. Parents' ratings of children's device usage and loudness discomfort were not significantly different between prescription groups. Functional performance within the first year of fitting together with degree of hearing loss, presence of additional disabilities, and maternal education explained 44% of variation in language ability of children by three years of age. Conclusions There was no significant association between choice of hearing-aid prescription and variance in children's outcomes at three years of age. In contrast, additional disability, maternal educational level, and early functional performance were significant predictive factors of children's outcomes. PMID:22934930

  15. AID AND SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to an assault by foreign organisms, peripheral B cells can change their antibody affinity and isotype by somatically mutating their genomic DNA. The ability of a cell to modify its DNA is exceptional in light of the potential consequences of genetic alterations to cause human disease and cancer. Thus, as expected, this mechanism of antibody diversity is tightly regulated and coordinated through one protein, activation induced deaminase (AID). AID produces diversity by converting cytosine to uracil within the immunoglobulin loci. The deoxyuracil residue is mutagenic when paired with deoxyguanosine, since it mimics thymidine during DNA replication. Additionally, B cells can manipulate the DNA repair pathways so that deoxyuracils are not faithfully repaired. Therefore, an intricate balance exists which is regulated at multiple stages to promote mutation of immunoglobulin genes, while retaining integrity of the rest of the genome. Here we discuss and summarize the current understanding of how AID functions to cause somatic hypermutation. PMID:20510733

  16. Enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoate production from organic wastes via process control.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alejandro; Montaño, Liliana; Amaya, Rodolfo

    2014-03-01

    This work explores the use of a model-based control scheme to enhance the productivity of polyhroxyalkanoate (PHA) production in a mixed culture two-stage system fed with synthetic wastewater. The controller supplies pulses of substrate while regulating the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and uses the data to fit a dynamic mathematical model, which in turn is used to predict the time until the next pulse addition. Experiments in a bench scale system first determined the optimal DO set-point and initial substrate concentration. Then the proposed feedback control strategy was compared with a simpler empiric algorithm. The results show that a substrate conversion rate of 1.370±0.598mgPHA/mgCOD/d was achieved. The proposed strategy can also indicate when to stop the accumulation of PHA upon saturation, which occurred with a PHA content of 71.0±7.2wt.%. PMID:24508903

  17. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Edemikpong, N B

    1990-01-01

    While the origin of the AIDS virus remains controversial, it is indisputable that AIDS is spreading worldwide. By June 1987, the World Health Organization estimated that 50 million Africans were infected with HIV and that the disease was epidemic in many parts of the continent. However, African governments chose to deny the threat of the disease. The AIDS crisis has diverted resources from other vital areas of disease prevention, health promotion, and research. Whereas AIDS is spread in developed nations by sexual promiscuity, by drug addicts sharing unclean hypodermic needles, and by homosexual behavior, in Africa cultural factors contribute to the transmission of AIDS. Female genital mutilation leads to extensive laceration of the female genitals upon initiation of sexual intercourse and/or to substitution of anal sex during the weeks and months before vaginal penetration can be achieved. In addition, the reuse of the same knives during the mutilation can spread HIV infection. Other factors that contribute to the spread of HIV in Africa include the patriarchal practice of polygamy, the subordinate position of women that makes them unable to insist on protection during intercourse, and a failure to screen blood used in transfusions. With all of these risk factors at play, women at the grassroots level must be equipped with the health education that is the only available tool to fight AIDS. Women's organizations can provide information and education to people at risk of acquiring HIV, counsel infected persons, ensure the safety of the blood supply, and work to overcome harmful traditional practices. PMID:12317073

  18. Explaining variation in gun control policy advocacy tactics among local organizations.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda C; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well four organizational characteristics (structure, resources, motivation, or political capacity) explained local organizations' use of a variety of advocacy tactics aimed at promoting state gun control laws. In 1998, 679 local organizations were identified as potentially active on state gun control issues; a questionnaire was mailed to each group's leader. Seventy-nine percent (n = 538) responded to the survey, with 81% (n = 207) of eligible organizations completing questionnaires. The four organizational characteristics explained approximately half the variation in local groups' use of a wide range of advocacy tactics. Organizations with stronger motivation to address the gun control issue and greater political capacity engaged in more diverse gun control advocacy tactics; the authors found organizational structure and resources unlikely to be related. Leaders of advocacy organizations should consider ways to encourage members' motivations on the issue while fostering greater capacity for political action. PMID:19731501

  19. Utilizing Rapid Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis Typing To Aid Control of Hospital-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection: a Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Susan; Marriott, Claire; Parsons, Helen; Waddington, Claire; Gossain, Savita; Szczepura, Ala; Stallard, Nigel; Hawkey, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The early identification of outbreaks is crucial for the control of Clostridium difficile infection. This study aimed to determine if the number of hospital-acquired C. difficile infections could be reduced by rapidly typing C. difficile strains using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) compared to typing using PCR ribotyping. A total of 16 hospitals were recruited to the study, and all periods of increased incidence (PIIs) of C. difficile infection were identified. The hospitals were randomized into two study arms, the test and the control, with all isolates typed in the test using MLVA and in the control using PCR ribotyping. Following a PII, each hospital received a structured questionnaire regarding control measures implemented or stopped prior to or following the typing results. During the study period, there were a total of 1,682 hospital-apportioned C. difficile toxin-positive cases, with 868 in the control and 814 in the test, with modeling demonstrating no differences between the two arms. A total of 245 PIIs occurred, involving 785 patients. There was a significant difference in the mean turnaround time between the ribotyping and MLVA typing (13.6 and 5.3 days, respectively [P < 0.001]). The discriminatory ability of MLVA was greater than ribotyping, with 85 outbreaks being confirmed by ribotyping and 62 by MLVA. In the test arm, 40.6% of respondents strongly agreed that the typing result had aided their management of clusters, as opposed to 9.9% in the control. The study demonstrated the utility of rapidly typing C. difficile strains, demonstrating that it aided the management of clusters, enabling effective targeting of infection control resources. PMID:22837319

  20. Distributed Self-Organizing Intelligent Control For Dendritic Robotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Alexander Y. K.

    1990-02-01

    A new control methodology is presented to effectively operate a robotic system with redundant degrees of freedom. The utilized Decomposed Optimization Technique (DOT) is part of the AISP (An Intelligent Spatial Planner) development. DOT considers the robotic system as several connected subsystems with locally distributed intelligence. Each subsystem has certain degrees of freedom to pursue local optimum state. The resulting parallel distributed processing architecture presents a flexible structure to accommodate sophisticated manipulators with higher level of difficulty. The employed robot dynamics model for each subsystem is generically simple such that the corresponded read-time control scheme can incorporate self-correction mechanism in parameter identification.

  1. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

  2. Method for controlling viscosity of organic liquid and compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Kitano, K.; Duvdevani, I.; Schulz, D.N.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a method of viscosifying an organic liquid from about 10 to about 10,000 cps for polymer concentrations of less than about 10.0 wt.%. The method comprises adding a sufficient quantity of a hydrolyzed ester containing copolymer of an alpha-olefin and a vinyl alkylenecarboxylil acid copolymerized in the presence of a Ziegler-Natta catalyst having an acid content of from about 0.01 to 10 mole percent and a molecular weight of about 100,000 to about 10,000,000.

  3. Engineering Aid 1 & C. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual is written primarily to aid in the training of personnel to meet the professional qualifications of the engineering aid, first class and chief. In chapter one, the trainee becomes familiar with the rewards and responsibilities of an engineering aid. Chapter two deals with principles of SEABEE administration, the organization and…

  4. ACT2 peer-driven intervention increases enrollment into HIV/AIDS medical studies among African-Americans/Blacks and Hispanics: A cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M.; Belkin, Mindy; Ritchie, Amanda; Leonard, Noelle; Riedel, Marion; Banfield, Angela; Colon, Pablo; Elharrar, Vanessa; Kagan, Jonathan; Mildvan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV/AIDS (“AABH-PLHA”) are under-represented in HIV/AIDS medical studies (HAMS). This paper evaluates the efficacy of a social/behavioral intervention to increase rates of screening for and enrollment into HAMS in these populations. Participants (N=540) were enrolled into a cluster randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to overcome multi-level barriers to HAMS. Primary endpoints were rates of screening for and enrollment into therapeutic/treatment-oriented and observational studies. Intervention arm participants were 30 times more likely to be screened than controls (49.3% vs. 3.7%; p < .001). Half (55.5%) of those screened were eligible for HAMS, primarily observational studies. Nine out of ten found eligible enrolled (91.7%), almost all into observational studies (95.2%), compared to no enrollments among controls. Achieving appropriate representation of AABH-PLHA in HAMS necessitates modification of study inclusion criteria to increase the proportion found eligible for therapeutic HAMS, in addition to social/behavioral interventions. PMID:24961193

  5. ACT2 peer-driven intervention increases enrollment into HIV/AIDS medical studies among African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M; Belkin, Mindy; Ritchie, Amanda; Leonard, Noelle; Riedel, Marion; Banfield, Angela; Colon, Pablo; Elharrar, Vanessa; Kagan, Jonathan; Mildvan, Donna

    2014-12-01

    African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV/AIDS ("AABH-PLHA") are under-represented in HIV/AIDS medical studies (HAMS). This paper evaluates the efficacy of a social/behavioral intervention to increase rates of screening for and enrollment into HAMS in these populations. Participants (N = 540) were enrolled into a cluster randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to overcome multi-level barriers to HAMS. Primary endpoints were rates of screening for and enrollment into therapeutic/treatment-oriented and observational studies. Intervention arm participants were 30 times more likely to be screened than controls (49.3 % vs. 3.7 %; p < .001). Half (55.5 %) of those screened were eligible for HAMS, primarily observational studies. Nine out of ten found eligible enrolled (91.7 %), almost all into observational studies (95.2 %), compared to no enrollments among controls. Achieving appropriate representation of AABH-PLHA in HAMS necessitates modification of study inclusion criteria to increase the proportion found eligible for therapeutic HAMS, in addition to social/behavioral interventions. PMID:24961193

  6. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  7. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  8. Management of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

    The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…

  9. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  10. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and…

  11. The organization and control of an evolving interdependent population.

    PubMed

    Vural, Dervis C; Isakov, Alexander; Mahadevan, L

    2015-07-01

    Starting with Darwin, biologists have asked how populations evolve from a low fitness state that is evolutionarily stable to a high fitness state that is not. Specifically of interest is the emergence of cooperation and multicellularity where the fitness of individuals often appears in conflict with that of the population. Theories of social evolution and evolutionary game theory have produced a number of fruitful results employing two-state two-body frameworks. In this study, we depart from this tradition and instead consider a multi-player, multi-state evolutionary game, in which the fitness of an agent is determined by its relationship to an arbitrary number of other agents. We show that populations organize themselves in one of four distinct phases of interdependence depending on one parameter, selection strength. Some of these phases involve the formation of specialized large-scale structures. We then describe how the evolution of independence can be manipulated through various external perturbations. PMID:26040593

  12. The organization and control of an evolving interdependent population

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Dervis C.; Isakov, Alexander; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Starting with Darwin, biologists have asked how populations evolve from a low fitness state that is evolutionarily stable to a high fitness state that is not. Specifically of interest is the emergence of cooperation and multicellularity where the fitness of individuals often appears in conflict with that of the population. Theories of social evolution and evolutionary game theory have produced a number of fruitful results employing two-state two-body frameworks. In this study, we depart from this tradition and instead consider a multi-player, multi-state evolutionary game, in which the fitness of an agent is determined by its relationship to an arbitrary number of other agents. We show that populations organize themselves in one of four distinct phases of interdependence depending on one parameter, selection strength. Some of these phases involve the formation of specialized large-scale structures. We then describe how the evolution of independence can be manipulated through various external perturbations. PMID:26040593

  13. Neural Control of Non-vasomotor Organs in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hurr, Chansol; Young, Colin N

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension affects over 25 % of the population with the incidence continuing to rise, due in part to the growing obesity epidemic. Chronic elevations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) are a hallmark of the disease and contribute to elevations in blood pressure through influences on the vasculature, kidney, and heart (i.e., neurogenic hypertension). In this regard, a number of central nervous system mechanisms and neural pathways have emerged as crucial in chronically elevating SNA. However, it is important to consider that "sympathetic signatures" are present, with differential increases in SNA to regional organs that are dependent upon the disease progression. Here, we discuss recent findings on the central nervous system mechanisms and autonomic regulatory networks involved in neurogenic hypertension, in both non-obesity- and obesity-associated hypertension, with an emphasis on angiotensin-II, salt, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and the adipokine leptin. PMID:26957306

  14. Size-Controlled Dissolution of Organic-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Marinakos, Stella M.; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Michel, F. Marc; Brown, Jr., Gordon E.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2012-04-02

    The solubility of Ag NPs can affect their toxicity and persistence in the environment. We measured the solubility of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having particle diameters ranging from 5 to 80 nm that were synthesized using various methods, and with different organic polymer coatings including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and gum arabic. The size and morphology of Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis were used to determine the local structure around Ag and evaluate changes in crystal lattice parameters and structure as a function of NP size. Ag NP solubility dispersed in 1 mM NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 8 was found to be well correlated with particle size based on the distribution of measured TEM sizes as predicted by the modified Kelvin equation. Solubility of Ag NPs was not affected by the synthesis method and coating as much as by their size. Based on the modified Kelvin equation, the surface tension of Ag NPs was found to be {approx}1 J/m{sup 2}, which is expected for bulk fcc (face centered cubic) silver. Analysis of XAFS, X-ray scattering, and PDFs confirm that the lattice parameter, {alpha}, of the fcc crystal structure of Ag NPs did not change with particle size for Ag NPs as small as 6 nm, indicating the absence of lattice strain. These results are consistent with the finding that Ag NP solubility can be estimated based on TEM-derived particle size using the modified Kelvin equation for particles in the size range of 5-40 nm in diameter.

  15. Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walleczek, Jan

    2006-04-01

    The frontiers and challenges of biodynamics research Jan Walleczek; Part I. Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology and Response to Stimuli: 1. External signals and internal oscillation dynamics - principal aspects and response of stimulated rhythmic processes Friedemann Kaiser; 2. Nonlinear dynamics in biochemical and biophysical systems: from enzyme kinetics to epilepsy Raima Larter, Robert Worth and Brent Speelman; 3. Fractal mechanisms in neural control: human heartbeat and gait dynamics in health and disease Chung-Kang Peng, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff and Ary L. Goldberger; 4. Self-organising dynamics in human coordination and perception Mingzhou Ding, Yanqing Chen, J. A. Scott Kelso and Betty Tuller; 5. Signal processing in biochemical reaction networks Adam P. Arkin; Part II. Nonlinear Sensitivity of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Stimuli: 6. Electrical signal detection and noise in systems with long-range coherence Paul C. Gailey; 7. Oscillatory signals in migrating neutrophils: effects of time-varying chemical and electrical fields Howard R. Petty; 8. Enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical amplification in response to static and oscillating magnetic fields Jan Walleczek and Clemens F. Eichwald; 9. Magnetic field sensitivity in the hippocampus Stefan Engström, Suzanne Bawin and W. Ross Adey; Part III. Stochastic Noise-Induced Dynamics and Transport in Biological Systems: 10. Stochastic resonance: looking forward Frank Moss; 11. Stochastic resonance and small-amplitude signal transduction in voltage-gated ion channels Sergey M. Bezrukov and Igor Vodyanoy; 12. Ratchets, rectifiers and demons: the constructive role of noise in free energy and signal transduction R. Dean Astumian; 13. Cellular transduction of periodic and stochastic energy signals by electroconformational coupling Tian Y. Tsong; Part IV. Nonlinear Control of Biological and Other Excitable Systems: 14. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems Kenneth Showalter; 15. Electromagnetic fields and biological

  16. Control of patterning, growth, and differentiation by floral organ identity genes.

    PubMed

    Sablowski, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In spite of the different morphologies of sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels, all these floral organs are believed to be modified versions of a ground-state organ similar to the leaf. Modifications of the ground-state developmental programme are orchestrated by different combinations of MADS-domain transcription factors encoded by floral organ identity genes. In recent years, much has been revealed about the gene regulatory networks controlled by the floral organ identity genes and about the genetic pathways that control leaf development. This review examines how floral organ identity is connected with the control of morphogenesis and differentiation of shoot organs, focusing on the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Direct links have emerged between floral organ identity genes and genes involved in abaxial-adaxial patterning, organ boundary formation, tissue growth, and cell differentiation. In parallel, predictive models have been developed to explain how the activity of regulatory genes can be coordinated by intercellular signalling and constrained by tissue mechanics. When combined, these advances provide a unique opportunity for revealing exactly how leaf-like organs have been 'metamorphosed' into floral organs during evolution and showing crucial regulatory points in the generation of plant form. PMID:25609826

  17. Organization and control of genes encoding catabolic enzymes in Rhizobiaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, D.; Ornston, L.N.

    1993-03-01

    Rhizobiaceae, a diverse bacterial group comprising rhizobia and agrobacteria, symbiotic partnership with plants form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plant roots or are plant pathogens. Phenolic compounds produced by plants serve as inducers of rhizobial nodulation genes and agrobacterial virulence genes reflect their capacity to utilize numerous aromatics, including phenolics, as a source of carbon and energy. In many microbes the aerobic degradation of numerous aromatic compounds to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is achieved by the [beta]-ketoadipate pathway. Our initial studies focused on the organization and regulation of the ketoadipate pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have cloned, identified and characterized a novel regulatory gene that modulates expression of an adjacent pca (protocatechuate) structural gene, pcaD. Regulation of pcaD is mediated by the regulatory gene, termed pcaQ, in concert with the intermediate [beta]-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. [beta]-carboxy-cis,cismuconate is an unstable chemical, not marketed commercially, and it is unlikely to permeate Escherichia coli cells if supplied in media. Because of these factors, characterization of pcaQ in E. coli required an in vivo delivery system for [beta]-carboxycis,cis-muconate. This was accomplished by designing an E. coli strain that expressed an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus pcaA gene for conversion of protocatechuate to [beta]-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate.

  18. Factors controlling volatile organic compounds in dwellings in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, M; Galbally, I E; Molloy, S B; Selleck, P W; Keywood, M D; Lawson, S J; Powell, J C; Gillett, R W; Dunne, E

    2016-04-01

    This study characterized indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and investigated the effects of the dwelling characteristics, building materials, occupant activities, and environmental conditions on indoor VOC concentrations in 40 dwellings located in Melbourne, Australia, in 2008 and 2009. A total of 97 VOCs were identified. Nine VOCs, n-butane, 2-methylbutane, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, d-limonene, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetic acid, accounted for 68% of the sum of all VOCs. The median indoor concentrations of all VOCs were greater than those measured outdoors. The occupant density was positively associated with indoor VOC concentrations via occupant activities, including respiration and combustion. Terpenes were associated with the use of household cleaning and laundry products. A petroleum-like indoor VOC signature of alkanes and aromatics was associated with the proximity of major roads. The indoor VOC concentrations were negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with ventilation. Levels of VOCs in these Australian dwellings were lower than those from previous studies in North America and Europe, probably due to a combination of an ongoing temporal decrease in indoor VOC concentrations and the leakier nature of Australian dwellings. PMID:25788118

  19. Hydrogelation and Crystallization of Sodium Deoxycholate Controlled by Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Guihua; Hu, Yuanyuan; Sui, Jianfei; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2016-02-16

    The gelation and crystallization behavior of a biological surfactant, sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), mixed with l-taric acid (L-TA) in water is described in detail. With the variation of molar ratio of L-TA to NaDC (r = nL-TA/nNaDC) and total concentration of the mixtures, the transition from sol to gel was observed. SEM images showed that the density of nanofibers gradually increases over the sol-gel transition. The microstructures of the hydrogels are three-dimensional networks of densely packed nanofibers with lengths extending to several micrometers. One week after preparation, regular crystallized nanospheres formed along the length of the nanofibers, and it was typical among the transparent hydrogels induced by organic acids with pKa1 value <3.4. Small-angle X-ray diffraction demonstrated differences in the molecular packing between transparent and turbid gels, indicating a variable hydrogen bond mode between NaDC molecules. PMID:26783993

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ying; Pan, Xingfang; Zhang, Sai; Jin, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongqiang; Han, Dexin; Wang, Guirong; Hu, Qunliang; Kang, Jingqing; Ding, Shasha; Yang, Yi; Bu, Huaien; Guo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP) have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients' basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26339271

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Ying; Pan, Xingfang; Zhang, Sai; Jin, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongqiang; Han, Dexin; Wang, Guirong; Hu, Qunliang; Kang, Jingqing; Ding, Shasha; Yang, Yi; Bu, Huaien; Guo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP) have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients' basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26339271

  2. EFFECTS OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRACTICES ON WEED CONTROL IN A PERENNIAL CROPPING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vineyard weed communities were examined under the influence of an organic weed control practice, soil cultivation with a Clemens cultivator, and applications of the herbicide, glyphosate. Experimental treatments (winter-spring glyphosate, spring cultivation, fall-spring cultivation, fall cultivatio...

  3. Protein functionalized nanomaterials for flow control, biocatalysis and architectural organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nednoor, Pramod

    This dissertation work describes the construction of biomolecule-functionalized nanomaterials for applications in ion channel mimics, biocatalysis and supramolecular architectures. The core entrances of an aligned carbon nanotube membrane were functionalized with a desthiobiotin derivative that binds reversibly to streptavidin, thereby enabling a reversible closing/opening of the core entrance. Ionic flux through the CNT membrane was monitored using optically absorbing charged marker molecules. The flux was reduced by a factor of 24 when the desthiobiotin on the CNT was coordinated with streptavidin; release of streptavidin increased the flux, demonstrating a reversible ion-channel flow. Analysis of solutions of released streptavidin showed approximately 16 bound streptavidin molecules per CNT tip. Following on similar lines, a nine residue synthetic peptide containing a serine residue [G-R-T-G-R-R-N-S-I-NH2], which is a specific substrate of Protein Kinase A was functionalized at the tip of carbon nanotubes to obtain a biomimetic system where phosphorylation regulates ligand-gated ion channels. Phosphorylation of the serine residue with a kinase led to the binding of a monoclonal anti-phosphoserine antibody. This binding event controlled the ionic flow through the pores. Dephosphorylating the serine residue with an alkaline phosphatase prevented the antibody from binding, thereby altering the flow through the channels. The transport of oppositely charged molecules through the CNT membrane was quantified. Nanoscale materials (i.e., nanoparticles and nanorods) are an attractive platform for applications in biotransformations and biosensors. Conjugation of a fullerene derivative to a mutant subtilisin was demonstrated, and the effect of the fullerene on the enzyme activity was determined. The fullerene-conjugated enzyme had improved catalytic properties in comparison to subtilisin immobilized on nonporous silica. Further, the pH profile of free and fullerene

  4. Complexity and Control in Entropic and Stochastic Self-Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we are primarily interested in developing advanced entropic and stochastic models of military command and control (C2). The underpinning thesis here stands in sharp contrast to much grand historical theorizing based on the idea of discovering some inexorable laws of historical destiny; this belief shows up as efforts to predict the future by uncovering `trends' and treating them as `laws' as well as in narratives attributing causes to anything and everything except randomness that are constructed - of course - with the full benefits of hindsight. Instead, our approach expressly allows for the fact that significant combinations of events might arise purely randomly, and the observed realized outcome is merely one path of events among potentially innumerable unrealized possibilities. Entropy - an order parameter by which we may quantify uncertainty, information content, complexity, or relative inadequacy of historical determinism, depending on our point of view at the time - is therefore a central concern in our conceptualization.

  5. Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. L.; Reader, H. E.; Powers, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine systems, the effect of UVR on carbon availability and subsequent bacterial production varies widely, ranging from a +200% increase to a -75% decrease (Mopper and Kieber, 2002). Evidence suggests that the largely negative or “no-effect” samples are from oligotrophic waters and that terrestrially influenced samples experience a more positive effect on the biolability of carbon after irradiation. To quantify the effects of photochemistry on the biolability of DOC in a terrestrially influenced system, a quarterly sampling effort was undertaken at three estuarine locations off the coast of Georgia, USA for a total of 14 apparent quantum yield (AQY) determinations. Large expanses of salt marsh on the coast of Georgia, create a large non-point source of DOC to the coastal ocean. Sapelo Sound, the northernmost sampling site, is dominated by offshore waters and receives little to no freshwater input throughout the year. Altamaha Sound, the southernmost sampling site, is strongly influenced by the Altamaha River, which drains the largest watershed in the state of Georgia. Doboy Sound, situated between these two sites, is largely marine dominated but is influenced by fresh water during periods of high river flow. Each sample was 0.2um filter-sterilized before irradiation in a Suntest Solar Simulator; using optical filters to create 7 distinct radiance spectra in 15 samples for determination of AQY spectra for release of biolabile DOC. Irradiated samples were consequently inoculated with the natural microbial community concentrated

  6. Silk Fibroin as an Organic Polymer for Controlled Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann,S.; Wong Po Foo, C.; Rossetti, F.; Textor, M.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.; Kaplan, D.; Merkle, H.; Meinel, L.

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical utility of silk fibroin (SF) materials for drug delivery was investigated. SF films were prepared from aqueous solutions of the fibroin protein polymer and crystallinity was induced and controlled by methanol treatment. Dextrans of different molecular weights, as well as proteins, were physically entrapped into the drug delivery device during processing into films. Drug release kinetics were evaluated as a function of dextran molecular weight, and film crystallinity. Treatment with methanol resulted in an increase in {beta}-sheet structure, an increase in crystallinity and an increase in film surface hydrophobicity determined by FTIR, X-ray and contact angle techniques, respectively. The increase in crystallinity resulted in the sustained release of dextrans of molecular weights ranging from 4 to 40 kDa, whereas for less crystalline films sustained release was confined to the 40 kDa dextran. Protein release from the films was studied with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and lysozyme (Lys) as model compounds. Enzyme release from the less crystalline films resulted in a biphasic release pattern, characterized by an initial release within the first 36 h, followed by a lag phase and continuous release between days 3 and 11. No initial burst was observed for films with higher crystallinity and subsequent release patterns followed linear kinetics for HRP, or no substantial release for Lys. In conclusion, SF is an interesting polymer for drug delivery of polysaccharides and bioactive proteins due to the controllable level of crystallinity and the ability to process the biomaterial in biocompatible fashion under ambient conditions to avoid damage to labile compounds to be delivered.

  7. 26 CFR 1.501(k)-1 - Communist-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Communist-controlled organizations. 1.501(k)-1 Section 1.501(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(k)-1...

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(k)-1 - Communist-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Communist-controlled organizations. 1.501(k)-1 Section 1.501(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(k)-1...

  9. 26 CFR 1.501(k)-1 - Communist-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Communist-controlled organizations. 1.501(k)-1 Section 1.501(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(k)-1...

  10. 26 CFR 1.501(k)-1 - Communist-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Communist-controlled organizations. 1.501(k)-1 Section 1.501(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(k)-1...

  11. Precision placement of corn gluten meal for weed control in organic vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic vegetable producers continue to rank weeds as one of their most troublesome, time consuming, and costly production problems. As a result of the limited number of organically approved weed control herbicides, the precision placement of these materials increases their potential usefulness thr...

  12. Tine cultivation effects on weed control, productivity, and economics of peanut under organic management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying effective weed control regimes for organic peanut has become paramount for improving the feasibility of organic production. Tine cultivation is a proven effective method at reducing in-row weed populations in several crops. Field trials were therefore conducted in 2008 and 2009 to asse...

  13. 24 CFR 3.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  14. 45 CFR 618.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  15. 31 CFR 28.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to... organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent with the..., identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with a specific tenet of the...

  16. 13 CFR 113.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  17. 31 CFR 28.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to... organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent with the..., identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with a specific tenet of the...

  18. 24 CFR 3.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  19. 38 CFR 23.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  20. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  1. 13 CFR 113.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  2. 13 CFR 113.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  3. 45 CFR 618.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  4. Precision placement of corn gluten meal for weed control in organic vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers of organic vegetables continue to rank weeds as one of their most troublesome, time consuming, and costly production problems. As a result of the limited number of organically approved weed control herbicides, the precision placement of these materials increases their potential usefulness...

  5. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... organizations. 15a.12 Section 15a.12 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... institution which is controlled by a religious organization to the extent application of this part would not... institution which wishes to claim the exemption set forth in paragraph (a) of this section shall do so...

  6. Organic methods for control of pecan weevil: Results of the first year's field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated organic tactics for control of pecan weevil were investigated in large field plot tests. The experiment was conducted at two locations: USDA-ARS Research Lab in Byron, GA and Cleveland farms in Fort Valley, GA. Results from the first year field trials indicated that organic tactics for ...

  7. 26 CFR 1.501(k)-1 - Communist-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communist-controlled organizations. 1.501(k)-1 Section 1.501(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(k)-1...

  8. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 15a.12 Section 15a.12 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... identifying the provisions of this part which conflict with a specific tenet of the religious organization....

  9. Hydrological controls on rate of organic matter mineralization in peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Arnold, Chelsea; Asefaw Berhe, Asmeret

    2016-04-01

    The predominant factor that ties together the formation and persistence of peat soils across regions is their dependence on localized hydrology. Hydrology also plays a dominant role in the relative strength of peatlands as sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide and sources of methane, and thus on peatland net climate impact. Drying of peat soils by climate change and/or drainage is typically followed by reduction in methane emissions. However, this may easily be offset by the increase in carbon dioxide production. Therefore, mechanistic understanding of peatland hydrology and its association with carbon cycling is a prerequisite for assessing vulnerability of peats to disturbances and for incorporating the associated feedbacks in carbon-climate models. We will present physically based model that ties together the structure of peat soils (mainly pore size distribution and mechanical stability) to rates of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition over a wide range of soil water potentials. Peats consist of hierarchical structure with clear separation of the pores into a population of micropores within clumps of organic matter and/or soil aggregates and a group of macropores between clumps and/or aggregates. This essentially partitions the carbon stock in peat soils in to multiple pools that become mineralizable at disparate water potential ranges. While the carbon in macropores can readily be decomposed by aerobic microorganisms when the soil is only slightly drained, the carbon in fine pores remains largely protected from aerobic microbes until the water potential exceeds a threshold that lets in oxygen. In this presentation we will show the mathematical development of the model and illustrative examples that compare projections with data derived from the literature.

  10. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  11. Control of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel with the Self-Organizing Feature Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    A predictive, multiple model control strategy is developed based on an ensemble of local linear models of the nonlinear system dynamics for a transonic wind tunnel. The local linear models are estimated directly from the weights of a Self Organizing Feature Map (SOFM). Local linear modeling of nonlinear autonomous systems with the SOFM is extended to a control framework where the modeled system is nonautonomous, driven by an exogenous input. This extension to a control framework is based on the consideration of a finite number of subregions in the control space. Multiple self organizing feature maps collectively model the global response of the wind tunnel to a finite set of representative prototype controls. These prototype controls partition the control space and incorporate experimental knowledge gained from decades of operation. Each SOFM models the combination of the tunnel with one of the representative controls, over the entire range of operation. The SOFM based linear models are used to predict the tunnel response to a larger family of control sequences which are clustered on the representative prototypes. The control sequence which corresponds to the prediction that best satisfies the requirements on the system output is applied as the external driving signal. Each SOFM provides a codebook representation of the tunnel dynamics corresponding to a prototype control. Different dynamic regimes are organized into topological neighborhoods where the adjacent entries in the codebook represent the minimization of a similarity metric which is the essence of the self organizing feature of the map. Thus, the SOFM is additionally employed to identify the local dynamical regime, and consequently implements a switching scheme than selects the best available model for the applied control. Experimental results of controlling the wind tunnel, with the proposed method, during operational runs where strict research requirements on the control of the Mach number were met, are

  12. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  13. Control of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel with the Self-Organizing Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    A predictive, multiple model control strategy is developed based on an ensemble of local linear models of the nonlinear system dynamics for a transonic wind tunnel. The local linear models are estimated directly from the weights of a self-organizing map (SOM). Multiple self-organizing maps collectively model the global response of the wind tunnel to a finite set of representative prototype controls. These prototype controls partition the control space and incorporate experiential knowledge gained from decades of operation. Each SOM models the combination of the tunnel with one of the representative controls, over the entire range of operation. The SOM based linear models are used to predict the tunnel response to a larger family of control sequences which are clustered on the representative prototypes. The control sequence which corresponds to the prediction that best satisfies the requirements on the system output is applied as the external driving signal.

  14. Predictive Multiple Model Switching Control with the Self-Organizing Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    A predictive, multiple model control strategy is developed by extension of self-organizing map (SOM) local dynamic modeling of nonlinear autonomous systems to a control framework. Multiple SOMs collectively model the global response of a nonautonomous system to a finite set of representative prototype controls. Each SOM provides a codebook representation of the dynamics corresponding to a prototype control. Different dynamic regimes are organized into topological neighborhoods where the adjacent entries in the codebook represent the global minimization of a similarity metric. The SOM is additionally employed to identify the local dynamical regime, and consequently implements a switching scheme that selects the best available model for the applied control. SOM based linear models are used to predict the response to a larger family of control sequences which are clustered on the representative prototypes. The control sequence which corresponds to the prediction that best satisfies the requirements on the system output is applied as the external driving signal.

  15. A Macro-to-Micro Interface for the Control of Cellular Organization

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Elliot E.; Li, Chun; Agrawal, Amit; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial organization of cellular communities plays a fundamental role in determining intercellular communication and emergent behavior. However, few tools exist to modulate tissue organization at the scale of individual cells, particularly in the case of dynamic manipulation. Micromechanical reconfigurable culture achieves dynamic control of tissue organization by culturing adherent cells on microfabricated plates that can be shifted to reorganize the arrangement of the cells. While biological studies utilizing this approach have been previously reported, this paper focuses on the engineering of the device, including the mechanism for translating manual manipulation to precise microscale position control, fault-tolerant design for manufacture, and the synthetic-to-living interface. PMID:26167106

  16. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  17. [New developments in hearing aid technology].

    PubMed

    Kompis, M

    2004-01-01

    The last decade has seen numerous and significant improvements in hearing aid technology. Digital hearing aids are becoming increasingly common and have already replaced a considerable portion of the hearing aids using the older analogue technology. Efficient noise reduction methods, most notably multi-microphone systems for hearing aids, can increase speech intelligibility in adverse listening situations and noisy environments. Accessories, such as e.g. wireless classroom communication systems (FM systems) and remote controls are becoming smaller and less visible. As a consequence of the increased complexity of modern hearing aids, however, hearing aid fitting has become considerably more complex. PMID:14997998

  18. Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  19. Cultural practices to improve in-row weed control with cultivation in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation is a proven effective means of weed control in organic peanut. However, weeds in-row often escape control. Research trials were conducted in Ty Ty, GA to modify cultural practices to help peanut suppress weed emergence in-row. Modified cultural practices were three row pattern/seeding...

  20. Advances in Brassicaceae seed meal formulation and application for replant disease control in organic apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform and sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease. Trials were established at multiple sites to evaluate the efficacy of seed meal formulations for control of this disease in organic production sy...

  1. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions. (a... campaign, and to annually promulgate the National Drug Control Strategy. (b) ONDCP is headed by the.... (d) The Office of Public Affairs is responsible for providing information to the press and to...

  2. Pelargonic acid for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation using a tine weeder is a proven means to manage weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. If the initial cultivation is delayed, emerged weeds are not controlled by the tine weeder. In these cases, herbicides derived from natural products could be used to control the emerged we...

  3. Organizing for Social Change within Concertive Control Systems: Member Identification, Empowerment, and the Masking of Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Michael J.; Auwal, Mohammad A.; Singhal, Arvind

    1997-01-01

    Uses concertive control theory to examine why members and workers identify so strongly with the Grameen ("rural") Bank, how the organization offers opportunities for empowerment, and how control systems operate within the bank account for its success. Examines how identification with the Grameen influences member and worker evaluation of…

  4. Sensory Organization of Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) compare functional balance performance and sensory organization of postural control between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and (2) determine the association between postural control and participation diversity among children with DCD. We recruited 81 children with DCD and 67 typically…

  5. Enhancing adolescent self-efficacy and collective efficacy through public engagement around HIV/AIDS competence: a multilevel, cluster randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Mary; Brennan, Robert T; Earls, Felton

    2012-09-01

    The potential capacity of children to confront the HIV/AIDS pandemic is rarely considered. Interventions to address the impact of the pandemic on children and adolescents commonly target only their vulnerabilities. We evaluated the Young Citizens Program, an adolescent-centered health promotion curriculum designed to increase self- and collective efficacy through public education and community mobilization across a municipality in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. The theoretical framework for the program integrates aspects of human capability, communicative action, social ecology and social cognition. The design consists of a cluster randomized-controlled trial (CRCT). Fifteen pairs of matched geopolitically defined neighborhoods of roughly 2000-4000 residents were randomly allocated to treatment and control arms. Within each neighborhood cluster, 24 randomly selected adolescents, ages 9-14, deliberated on topics of social ecology, citizenship, community health and HIV/AIDS competence. Building on their acquired understanding and confidence, they dramatized the scientific basis and social context of HIV infection, testing and treatment in their communities over a 28-week period. The curriculum comprised 5 modules: Group Formation, Understanding our Community, Health and our Community, Making Assessments and Taking Action in our Community and Inter-Acting in our Community. Adolescent participants and adult residents representative of their neighborhoods were surveyed before and after the intervention; data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. In treatment neighborhoods, adolescents increased their deliberative and communicative efficacy and adults showed higher collective efficacy for children. Following the CRCT assessments, the control group received the same curriculum. In the Kilimanjaro Region, the Young Citizens Program is becoming recognized as a structural, health promotion approach through which adolescent self-efficacy and child collective efficacy

  6. Hearing-aid automatic gain control adapting to two sound sources in the environment, using three time constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordqvist, Peter; Leijon, Arne

    2004-11-01

    A hearing aid AGC algorithm is presented that uses a richer representation of the sound environment than previous algorithms. The proposed algorithm is designed to (1) adapt slowly (in approximately 10 s) between different listening environments, e.g., when the user leaves a single talker lecture for a multi-babble coffee-break; (2) switch rapidly (about 100 ms) between different dominant sound sources within one listening situation, such as the change from the user's own voice to a distant speaker's voice in a quiet conference room; (3) instantly reduce gain for strong transient sounds and then quickly return to the previous gain setting; and (4) not change the gain in silent pauses but instead keep the gain setting of the previous sound source. An acoustic evaluation showed that the algorithm worked as intended. The algorithm was evaluated together with a reference algorithm in a pilot field test. When evaluated by nine users in a set of speech recognition tests, the algorithm showed similar results to the reference algorithm. .

  7. Size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as self-organized organic-inorganic composite materials.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Viorel Marin; Ng, Chuen-How; Wilke, Max; Tiersch, Brigitte; Fratzl, Peter; Peter, Martin G

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents some results concerning the size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles obtained in aqueous media in a biopolymer matrix from soluble precursors salts. Taking the inspiration from nature, where composite materials made of a polymer matrix and inorganic fillers are often found, e.g. bone, shell of crustaceans, shell of eggs, etc., the feasibility on making composite materials containing chitosan and nanosized hydroxyapatite was investigated. A stepwise co-precipitation approach was used to obtain different types of composites by means of different ratio between components. The synthesis of hydroxyapatite was carried out in the chitosan matrix from calcium chloride and sodium dihydrogenphosphate in alkaline solutions at moderate pH of 10-11 for 24 h. Our research is focused on studying and understanding the structure of this class of composites, aiming at the development of novel materials, controlled at the nanolevel scale. The X-ray diffraction technique was employed in order to study the kinetic of hydroxyapatite formation in the chitosan matrix as well as to determine the HAp crystallite sizes in the composite samples. The hydroxyapatite synthesized using this route was found to be nano-sized (15-50 nm). Moreover, applying an original approach to analyze the (002) XRD diffraction peak profile of hydroxyapatite by using a sum of two Gauss functions, the bimodal distribution of nanosized hydroxyapatite within the chitosan matrix was revealed. Two types of size distribution domains such as cluster-like (between 200 and 400 nm), which are the habitat of ''small'' hydroxyapatite nanocrystallites and scattered-like, which are the habitat of ''large'' hydroxyapatite nanocrystallites was probed by TEM and CSLM. The structural features of composites suggest that self-assembly processes might be involved. The composites contain nanosized hydroxyapatite with structural features close to those of biological apatites that make them attractive for bone

  8. On HIV Prevalence and AIDS Deaths in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwala, B. D.

    2008-05-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India had estimated, before this year, that there were 5.134 million HIV positive people in India at the end of 2004 and that they were increasing at the rate of more than a quarter of a million people every year. In a recent publication, we estimated that, if the number of reported AIDS cases in India are only 50% efficient, i.e. if the number of actual AIDS cases in India is no more than twice the reported number, then the number of HIV positive people in India should have been no more than 2.5 million at the end of 2004. Many other people in the epidemiology community have the same point of view. Now, the government of India is also of the same view and "The latest data released by the government shows that the country has around 2 to 3 million people with HIV, much lower than last year's figure of 5.7 million". However, our assumption that the actual number of AIDS cases in India is only about twice the number reported, has been questioned, and it has been suggested that the Indian system of AIDS reporting is woefully inaccurate and the actual number of AIDS cases there could be three, four or even five times the reported number. In this paper, we consider this suggestion and show that, even if the actual number of AIDS cases was three, four, or even five, times the reported number, the number of HIV positive people in India, at the end of 2004, should still be no more than 2.5 million. This is because our previous estimate was an over estimate and had room to accommodate considerably more number of AIDS cases. We also estimate the number of AIDS deaths in India and show that it should be considerably less than those estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

  9. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    PubMed

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms. PMID:12282686

  10. Self-organizing CMAC control for a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Min; Chen, Te-Yu

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a self-organizing control system based on cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) for a class of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed control system merges a CMAC and sliding-mode control (SMC), so the input space dimension of CMAC can be simplified. The structure of CMAC will be self-organized; that is, the layers of CMAC will grow or prune systematically and their receptive functions can be automatically adjusted. The control system consists of a self-organizing CMAC (SOCM) and a robust controller. SOCM containing a CMAC uncertainty observer is used as the principal controller and the robust controller is designed to dispel the effect of approximation error. The gradient-descent method is used to online tune the parameters of CMAC and the Lyapunov function is applied to guarantee the stability of the system. A simulation study of inverted double pendulums system and an experimental result of linear ultrasonic motor motion control show that favorable tracking performance can be achieved by using the proposed control system. PMID:19398404

  11. Solving rational matrix equations in the state space with applications to computer-aided control-system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, A. K.; Sastry, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of solving a class of linear matrix equations over various rings is proposed, using results from linear geometric control theory. An algorithm, successfully implemented, is presented, along with non-trivial numerical examples. Applications of the method to the algebraic control system design methodology are discussed.

  12. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries....

  13. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries....

  14. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries....

  15. Taekwondo Training Improves Sensory Organization and Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tsang, William W. N.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer postural control and are more susceptible to falls and injuries than their healthy counterparts. Sports training may improve sensory organization and balance ability in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three months of Taekwondo (TKD) training on the…

  16. CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 1. ASSESSMENT OF CATALYTIC INCINERATION AND COMPETING CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is part of a two-phase EPA effort to assess the performance, suitability, and costs of various technologies to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In Phase 1, information was assembled from the literature on the use and cost of using catalytic incin...

  17. AIDS education for a low literate audience in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Msimuko, A K

    1988-04-01

    A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials. PMID:12315435

  18. The Contribution of Network Organization and Integration to the Development of Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Marek, Scott; Hwang, Kai; Foran, William; Hallquist, Michael N; Luna, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive control, which continues to mature throughout adolescence, is supported by the ability for well-defined organized brain networks to flexibly integrate information. However, the development of intrinsic brain network organization and its relationship to observed improvements in cognitive control are not well understood. In the present study, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), graph theory, the antisaccade task, and rigorous head motion control to characterize and relate developmental changes in network organization, connectivity strength, and integration to inhibitory control development. Subjects were 192 10-26-y-olds who were imaged during 5 min of rest. In contrast to initial studies, our results indicate that network organization is stable throughout adolescence. However, cross-network integration, predominantly of the cingulo-opercular/salience network, increased with age. Importantly, this increased integration of the cingulo-opercular/salience network significantly moderated the robust effect of age on the latency to initiate a correct inhibitory control response. These results provide compelling evidence that the transition to adult-level inhibitory control is dependent upon the refinement and strengthening of integration between specialized networks. Our findings support a novel, two-stage model of neural development, in which networks stabilize prior to adolescence and subsequently increase their integration to support the cross-domain incorporation of information processing critical for mature cognitive control. PMID:26713863

  19. The Contribution of Network Organization and Integration to the Development of Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Scott; Hwang, Kai; Foran, William; Hallquist, Michael N.; Luna, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cognitive control, which continues to mature throughout adolescence, is supported by the ability for well-defined organized brain networks to flexibly integrate information. However, the development of intrinsic brain network organization and its relationship to observed improvements in cognitive control are not well understood. In the present study, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), graph theory, the antisaccade task, and rigorous head motion control to characterize and relate developmental changes in network organization, connectivity strength, and integration to inhibitory control development. Subjects were 192 10–26-y-olds who were imaged during 5 min of rest. In contrast to initial studies, our results indicate that network organization is stable throughout adolescence. However, cross-network integration, predominantly of the cingulo-opercular/salience network, increased with age. Importantly, this increased integration of the cingulo-opercular/salience network significantly moderated the robust effect of age on the latency to initiate a correct inhibitory control response. These results provide compelling evidence that the transition to adult-level inhibitory control is dependent upon the refinement and strengthening of integration between specialized networks. Our findings support a novel, two-stage model of neural development, in which networks stabilize prior to adolescence and subsequently increase their integration to support the cross-domain incorporation of information processing critical for mature cognitive control. PMID:26713863

  20. Handbook of Student Financial Aid: Programs, Procedures, and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; And Others

    The full range of topics relevant to student financial aid are covered in this book by a variety of experts in financial aid administration and scholarship. The volume details how to organize, implement and assess a financial aid program--including how to determine student need, deal with student bankruptcy and aid termination, and improve…

  1. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-01-01

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size. PMID:27048938

  2. SCFSAP controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-01-01

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size. PMID:27048938

  3. Impact of automated decision aids on performance, operator behaviour and workload in a simulated supervisory control task.

    PubMed

    Röttger, Stefan; Bali, Krisztina; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-05-01

    In studies reporting automation effects on overall system performance and on the operator, the methods used to measure workload often did not appropriately reflect the complexity of this construct. The present study addresses the impact of automation on operator workload and behaviour in process control fault management. Workload effects were assessed with subjective, cardiovascular and secondary task performance indicators. Interactions with the interface of the process control simulation directed at gathering information and controlling the system were recorded. Automation made operators more efficient, allowing faster fault management with less information sampling and control actions. Subjective workload ratings were significantly lower in the assisted conditions as compared to manual, which was not reflected in cardiovascular and secondary task measures. Participants' information sampling activity did not differ between medium and high level of automation. Results suggest that participants paid constantly high attention to their task even with highly automated support. PMID:19296323

  4. Communication: Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms: Controlling the photoisomerization yield of retinal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, R. D.; Arango, C. A.; Reyes, A.

    2016-07-01

    We recently proposed a Quantum Optimal Control (QOC) method constrained to build pulses from analytical pulse shapes [R. D. Guerrero et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143(12), 124108 (2015)]. This approach was applied to control the dissociation channel yields of the diatomic molecule KH, considering three potential energy curves and one degree of freedom. In this work, we utilized this methodology to study the strong field control of the cis-trans photoisomerization of 11-cis retinal. This more complex system was modeled with a Hamiltonian comprising two potential energy surfaces and two degrees of freedom. The resulting optimal pulse, made of 6 linearly chirped pulses, was capable of controlling the population of the trans isomer on the ground electronic surface for nearly 200 fs. The simplicity of the pulse generated with our QOC approach offers two clear advantages: a direct analysis of the sequence of events occurring during the driven dynamics, and its reproducibility in the laboratory with current laser technologies.

  5. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  6. Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid Training in Sweden. A Randomized Controlled Trial with a Six-Month and Two-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background According to a recent report from the European Brain Council and the European Colleague of Neuropsychopharmacology the one year prevalence of some kind of mental disorder is around 27% among the adult population in Europe. Research has shown a lack of mental health literacy in the population in general and it is thus important to find ways to improve the public's knowledge and skills to provide first hand support to people with mental disorders. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a training program that has shown positive changes in knowledge and helping behavior. This study investigates if MHFA training in a Swedish context provides a sustained improvement in knowledge about mental disorders, a better ability to be helpful in contacts with people who are ill and if it changes attitudes in a positive direction. Methods and Findings The introduction of the training program was made in accordance with the constructor's instructions. Participants were mainly public sector employees from a county in the west of Sweden. The study was a randomized controlled trial with an experiment group (n = 199) and a control group (n = 207) placed on a waiting list during a 6-month follow-up. A two-year follow-up was conducted for participants (n = 155) from both the intervention and waiting list group who had completed the training and during the follow-up been in contact with persons with mental disorders. The intervention group improved in knowledge as well as in confidence in providing help for someone in need. The two-year follow-up showed that the improvements were to a great extent maintained. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid might raise the level of awareness of mental disorders and have an influence on the number of people who can receive professional treatment for their problems. PMID:24964164

  7. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  8. Tube-welder aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Simple tools assist in setting up and welding tubes. Welder aids can be easily made to fit given tube diameter. Finished set can be used repeatedly to fix electrode-to-weld gap and mark sleeve and joint positions. Tools are readily made in tube-manufacturing plants and pay for themselves in short time in reduced labor costs and quality control: Conventional measurements are too slow for mass production and are prone to errors.

  9. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  10. Construct validity of the walk ratio as a measure of gait control in people with multiple sclerosis without mobility aids.

    PubMed

    Kalron, Alon

    2016-06-01

    Ambulatory limitations are a key component of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Various tools are employed to assess walking performance in PwMS; however, no ideal measure has as yet been attained. In this situation, a walk ratio might be more advantageous compared with other gait measures. The walk ratio, a simple index for describing temporal and spatial co-ordination, denotes the relationship between step length and cadence during walking. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the walk ratio and measures of other theoretically related constructs. The walk ratio was studied using the GAITRite™ system (CIR Systems, Inc. Havertown, USA). The study group included 229 PwMS (143 women) and a mean disease duration of 5.8 (SD=7.1) years. The walk ratio score of the total sample was 5.3 (SD=0.8). Significant differences based on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores (F=11.616, P<0.001) were observed between the neurological disability subgroups. Scores of the very mild (EDSS 0-2.0), mild (EDSS 2.5-4.0) and moderate (EDSS 4.5-5.5) groups were 5.5 (SD=0.7), 5.2 (SD=0.7), 4.9 (SD=0.9), respectively. In terms of fall status, the MS fallers demonstrated a significant lower walk ratio compared to the MS non-fallers; 5.1 (SD=0.8) vs. 5.5 (SD=0.7); P<0.001. Modest significant correlation scores were found between walk ratio and ambulation tests. Scores were slightly higher in the short walking tests, timed 25-foot walk and timed up and go tests (Pearson's rho=0.369, 0.364) compared to the 6 and 2-min walk time tests (Pearson's rho=0.344, 0.308). Collectively, the current study supports the construct validity of the walk ratio index in PwMS without mobility aids. PMID:27264412

  11. Creation of ''Quantum Platelets'' via Strain-Controlled Self-Organization at Steps

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Adam; Liu, Feng; Petrovykh, D. Y.; Lin, J.-L.; Viernow, J.; Himpsel, F. J.; Lagally, M. G.

    2000-12-18

    We demonstrate, by both theory and experiment, the strain-induced self-organized formation of ''quantum platelets,'' monolayer-thick islands of finite dimensions. They form at the early stage of heteroepitaxial growth on a substrate with regularly spaced steps, and align along the steps. In the direction perpendicular to substrate steps, the island position and spacing can be preselected through substrate miscut. Along the steps, the island size and density are controlled by self-organized growth.

  12. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  13. Nonlinear organic plasmonics: Applications to optical control of Coulomb blocking in nanojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Fainberg, B. D.; Li, G.

    2015-08-03

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here, we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses that enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. Our consideration is based on the model of the interaction of strong (phase modulated) laser pulse with organic molecules developed by one of the authors before, extended to the dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions in the condensed matter. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  14. Nonlinear organic plasmonics: Applications to optical control of Coulomb blocking in nanojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainberg, B. D.; Li, G.

    2015-08-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here, we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses that enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. Our consideration is based on the model of the interaction of strong (phase modulated) laser pulse with organic molecules developed by one of the authors before, extended to the dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions in the condensed matter. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  15. Communication: Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms: Controlling the photoisomerization yield of retinal.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R D; Arango, C A; Reyes, A

    2016-07-21

    We recently proposed a Quantum Optimal Control (QOC) method constrained to build pulses from analytical pulse shapes [R. D. Guerrero et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143(12), 124108 (2015)]. This approach was applied to control the dissociation channel yields of the diatomic molecule KH, considering three potential energy curves and one degree of freedom. In this work, we utilized this methodology to study the strong field control of the cis-trans photoisomerization of 11-cis retinal. This more complex system was modeled with a Hamiltonian comprising two potential energy surfaces and two degrees of freedom. The resulting optimal pulse, made of 6 linearly chirped pulses, was capable of controlling the population of the trans isomer on the ground electronic surface for nearly 200 fs. The simplicity of the pulse generated with our QOC approach offers two clear advantages: a direct analysis of the sequence of events occurring during the driven dynamics, and its reproducibility in the laboratory with current laser technologies. PMID:27448862

  16. Quantitative evaluation of emission control of primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Hu, M.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, X.; Schauer, J. J.; Zhang, R.

    2012-12-01

    To explore the primary and secondary sources of fine organic particles after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12-h PM2.5 concentrations were measured at one urban and one upwind rural site during the CAREBeijing-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in Beijing and surrounding region) summer field campaign. The PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5±43.6μg m3 and 64.3±36.2μg m-3 at the urban site and rural site, respectively, which were the lowest in recent years due to the implementation of drastic control measures and favorable weather conditions. Five primary and four secondary fine organic particle sources were quantified using a CMB (chemical mass balance) model and tracer-yield method. Compared with previous studies in Beijing, the contribution of vehicle emission increased, with diesel engines contributing 16.2±5.9% and 14.5±4.1% to the total organic carbon (OC) concentrations and gasoline vehicles accounting for 10.3±8.7% and 7.9±6.2% of the OC concentrations at two sites. Due to the implementation of emission control measures, the OC concentrations from important primary sources have been reduced, and secondary formation has become an important contributor to fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% and 24% in the urban and regional area, and reductions in the contribution from coal combustion were 57% and 7%, respectively. These results demonstrate the emission control measures significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, the control effectiveness of secondary organic particles was not significant.

  17. Control of Separation and Diameter of Ag Nanorods through Self-organized Seeds.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul R; Stagon, Stephen P; Huang, Hanchen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a mechanism of controlling the diameter and separation of metallic nanorods from physical vapor deposition through self-organized seeds and experimentally demonstrates the feasibility using Ag as the prototype metal, In as the seed, and Si the substrate. Being non-wetting on Si substrates, deposited In atoms self-organize into islands. Subsequently deposited Ag atoms attach to In islands, rather than to Si substrates, due to preferential bonding and geometrical shadowing. The experimental results show that self-organized In seeds of 5 nm nominal thickness give rise to the best separation and the smallest diameter of Ag nanorods. PMID:26585104

  18. Control of Separation and Diameter of Ag Nanorods through Self-organized Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Paul R.; Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a mechanism of controlling the diameter and separation of metallic nanorods from physical vapor deposition through self-organized seeds and experimentally demonstrates the feasibility using Ag as the prototype metal, In as the seed, and Si the substrate. Being non-wetting on Si substrates, deposited In atoms self-organize into islands. Subsequently deposited Ag atoms attach to In islands, rather than to Si substrates, due to preferential bonding and geometrical shadowing. The experimental results show that self-organized In seeds of 5 nm nominal thickness give rise to the best separation and the smallest diameter of Ag nanorods. PMID:26585104

  19. A self-organizing and self-tuning fuzzy logic controller for field oriented control of induction motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Ashrafzadeh, F.; Nowicki, E.P.; Salmon, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper proposes a design approach for a self-organizing self-tuning fuzzy logic controller, and is applied to the design of a field oriented drive system. The basic structure of a fuzzy logic controller is outlined and the design problems associated with the conventional trial-and-error schemes are addressed. The suitability of the genetic algorithm optimization technique as a means to determine and optimize the fuzzy logic controller design is discussed. In the proposed approach normalization factors and/or membership function parameters and/or the controller policy, are translated into bit-strings. These bit-strings are processed by the genetic algorithm and if the selection process as well as the objective function are chosen properly, a near-optimal solution can be found. To examine the efficiency of the proposed approach, a self-tuning and self-organizing fuzzy logic controller for an indirect field oriented induction motor drive is designed in both a sequential and a concurrent manner. A particular objective function (i.e., a performance index) is chosen to achieve a high dynamic performance. The simulation results demonstrate a significant enhancement in shortening the development time, and improving system performance over a manually tuned fuzzy logic controller.

  20. Global feedback control of Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, S.; Nakao, H.; Mikhailov, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Results of the first systematic study on feedback control of nonequilibrium pattern formation in networks are reported. Effects of global feedback control on Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor system have been investigated. The feedback signal was introduced into one of the parameters of the system and was proportional to the amplitude of the developing Turing pattern. Without the control, the Turing instability corresponded to a subcritical bifurcation and hysteresis effects were observed. Sufficiently strong feedback control rendered, however, the bifurcation supercritical and eliminated the hysteresis effects.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Usefulness of Mobile Text Phone Messages to Improve the Quality of Care of HIV and AIDS Patients in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Lange, Innocent; Fon, Peter Nde; Nguedia Assob, Jules Clement; Tanue, Elvis Asangbeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV and AIDS are major public health problems in the world and Africa. In Cameroon, the HIV prevalence is 5.1%. Cellphones have been found to be useful in the provision of modern health care services using short message services (SMS). This study assessed the effectiveness of SMS in improving the adherence of people living with HIV and AIDS to their treatment and care in Cameroon. Methods: This intervention study used a randomized controlled trial design. Ninety participants seeking treatment at the Nkwen Baptist Health Center were recruited between August and September 2011 using a purposive sampling method. They were randomly allocated into the intervention and control groups, each containing 45 participants. In the intervention group, each participant received four SMSs per week at equal intervals for four weeks. The patients were investigated for adherence to ARVs by evaluating the number of times treatment and medication refill appointments were missed. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire before and after intervention and analysed on STATA. Results: The baseline survey indicated that there were 55(61.1%) females and 35(38.9%) males aged 23 - 62 years; the mean age was 38.77 ± 1.08. Most participants were teachers [12 (13.3%)], farmers [11 (12.2%)], and businessmen [24 (26.7%)]. Adherence to ARVs was 64.4% in the intervention group and 44.2% in the control group (p = 0.05). 2(4.4%) patients in the control group failed to respect their drug refill appointments while all the 45(100%) participants in the intervention group respected their drug refill appointments. 54.17% of married people and 42.9% of the participants with primary and secondary levels of education missed their treatment. Key reasons for missing treatment were late home coming (54%), forgetfulness (22.5%), and travelling out of station without medication (17.5%). Other factors responsible for non-adherence included involvement in outdoor business (60

  2. HIV / AIDS and the law.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights. PMID:12222382

  3. An extended self-organizing map network for modeling and control of pulse jet fabric filters.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Chiu, M S

    2001-07-01

    Pulse jet fabric filters (PJFFs) have become an attractive option of particulate collection utilities, because they can meet stringent particulate emission limits regardless of variation in operating conditions. Despite their wide applications, the present control algorithm for PJFFs can best be described as rudimentary. In this paper, a modeling and control strategy based on the local model network (LMN) is proposed. An extended self-organizing map (ESOM) network is developed to construct the LMN model of the filtration process using the filter's input-output data. Subsequently, these ESOM local models are incorporated into the design of local generalized predictive controllers (GPC), and the proposed controller design is obtained as the weighted sum of these local controllers. Simulation results show that the proposed controller design yields a better performance than both conventional GPC and proportional plus integral (PI) controllers yield. PMID:15658222

  4. Computer aided screening of secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4): a potential control for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Shamshari, Waseem Akhtar; Ur-Rahman, Mahmood; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a life threatening disease and scientists are doing their best to find a cost effective and permanent treatment of this malady. The recent trend is to control the disease by target base inhibiting of enzymes or proteins. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is found to cause five times more risk of diabetes when expressed above average levels. This study was therefore designed to analyze the SFRP4 and to find its potential inhibitors. SFRP4 was analyzed by bio-informatics tools of sequence tool and structure tool. A total of three potential inhibitors of SFRP4 were found, namely cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril. These inhibitors showed significant interactions with SFRP4 as compared to other inhibitors as well as control (acetohexamide). The findings suggest the possible treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 by inhibiting the SFRP4 using the inhibitors cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril. PMID:25019556

  5. Sensitivity analysis as an aid in modelling and control of (poorly-defined) ecological systems. [closed ecological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornberger, G. M.; Rastetter, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review of the use of sensitivity analyses in modelling nonlinear, ill-defined systems, such as ecological interactions is presented. Discussions of previous work, and a proposed scheme for generalized sensitivity analysis applicable to ill-defined systems are included. This scheme considers classes of mathematical models, problem-defining behavior, analysis procedures (especially the use of Monte-Carlo methods), sensitivity ranking of parameters, and extension to control system design.

  6. [The AIDS myth in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mosquera, B

    1997-01-01

    The lack of knowledge and awareness about HIV in Venezuela is causing anxiety. Most Venezuelans still believe that AIDS is a disease that only homosexuals get and others believe that it is a punishment from God. To take control of the situation, adolescents need to be given prevention education, and the government needs to stop the false rumors. The Latin American AIDS Koalition (LAAK) and Venezuelans in the United States are working on providing education to the public and medications to people living with HIV/AIDS in Venezuela. Telephone numbers are provided for more information. PMID:11364949

  7. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    PubMed

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future. PMID:12316939

  8. AIDS activists arrested in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-05-27

    Health activists in India are outraged over the arrests of 11 AIDS activists belonging to the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Sahyog. These AIDS activists were charged with obscenity and rioting. Rioting broke out when the local print media published details of a report entitled ¿AIDS and Us¿ that was produced by Sahyog in Hindi. The report tackled prevalent sexual practices, very low level of awareness, and other risk factors related to contracting HIV infection or developing AIDS in the rural areas of the Almora district. Critics charged the activists with destroying the image of the people of the region, portraying them as promiscuous and practicing high-risk sexual behavior. Consequently, Sahyog issued a statement of apology and promised to withdraw the report, but the district administration still banned their work in the area. Several NGOs also feel that the presentation of the report should have been more cautious. PMID:10827034

  9. Metal-organic framework tethering PNIPAM for ON-OFF controlled release in solution.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Shunjiro; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2015-05-21

    A smart metal-organic framework (MOF) exhibiting controlled release was achieved by modification with a thermoresponsive polymer (PNIPAM) via a surface-selective post-synthetic modification technique. Simple temperature variation readily switches "open" (lower temperature) and "closed" (higher temperature) states of the polymer-modified MOF through conformational change of PNIPAM grafted onto the MOF, resulting in controlled release of the included guest molecules such as resorufin, caffeine, and procainamide. PMID:25896867

  10. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  11. A multifaceted workplace intervention for low back pain in nurses' aides: a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans; Søgaard, Karen; Birk Jørgensen, Marie

    2015-09-01

    This study established the effectiveness of a workplace multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and cognitive-behavioural training (CBT) for low back pain (LBP). Between November 2012 and May 2014, we conducted a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial with 594 workers from eldercare workplaces (nursing homes and home care) randomised to 4 successive time periods, 3 months apart. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of 19 sessions in total (physical training [12 sessions], CBT [2 sessions], and participatory ergonomics [5 sessions]). Low back pain was the outcome and was measured as days, intensity (worst pain on a 0-10 numeric rank scale), and bothersomeness (days) by monthly text messages. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the intervention effect. Analyses were performed according to intention to treat, including all eligible randomised participants, and were adjusted for baseline values of the outcome. The linear mixed models yielded significant effects on LBP days of -0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.19 to -0.38), LBP intensity of -0.4 (95% CI, -0.60 to -0.26), and bothersomeness days of -0.5 (95% CI, -0.85 to -0.13) after the intervention compared with the control group. This study shows that a multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and CBT can reduce LBP among workers in eldercare. Thus, multifaceted interventions may be relevant for improving LBP in a working population. PMID:25993549

  12. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh. PMID:12285939

  13. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nariddh, M C

    1994-08-01

    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs. PMID:12345639

  14. Controlled deposition or organic semiconductor single crystals and its application in field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuhong

    single crystals are selectively nucleated on patterned templates of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. Several organic semiconductor materials are successfully patterned, including p-type pentacene, tetracene, sexiphenylene, and sexithiophene, as well as n-type tetracyanoquinodimethane. This study suggests that the selective growth of crystals onto patterned carbon nanotubes is most likely due to the coarse topography of the CNT bundles. Moreover, I observe that the crystals nucleate from CNT bundles and grow onto CNT bundles in a conformal fashion. The crystal growth can be directly applied onto transistor source-drain electrodes and arrays of organic single-crystal field effect transistors are demonstrated. To investigate the impact of CNTs on device performance, CNT bundles are incorporated into thin-film FETs and a mobility enhancement of organic semiconductors is observed. In the third approach, organic single crystals with well controlled sizes and shapes are successfully grown using patterned Au films as templates. It is observed that sexithiophene crystals nucleate from the edge or the top surface of Au films and then grow two dimensionally on SiO2 surface. The sizes and shapes of sexithiophene crystals are precisely determined by that of the Au patterns. After removing Au templates, large arrays of sexithiophene crystals with controlled sizes and various shapes such as stripes, squares, hexagons, etc. are achieved. Top-contact FETs made of sexithiophene ribbons are demonstrated. Besides organic single crystals, Au templates can also act as templates to pattern vapor- and solution-deposited organic semiconductor thin films. Patterned organic thin-film FETs exhibit superior performance compared to unpatterned devices. Finally, oriented growth of organic semiconductor single crystals on templates with various features is studied. On substrates with aligned features, such as friction-transferred poly(tetrafluoroethylene) thin films, organic semiconductor thin films

  15. Implements and cultivation frequency to improve in-row weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic peanut production is difficult and costly, which limits expansion of the production system. Sweep cultivation in the row middles is effective, but weeds remain in the crop row causing yield loss. Research trials were conducted in Tifton, GA to evaluate implements and freque...

  16. 40 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 5.205 Section 5.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  17. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1317.205 Section 1317.205 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN...

  18. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1317.205 Section 1317.205 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  19. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1317.205 Section 1317.205 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  20. 44 CFR 19.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  1. 29 CFR 36.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  2. 15 CFR 8a.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any... the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent with the religious..., identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with a specific tenet of the...

  3. 6 CFR 17.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any... the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent with the religious..., identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with a specific tenet of the...

  4. 45 CFR 618.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 618.205 Section 618.205 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  5. 43 CFR 41.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 41.205 Section 41.205 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage...

  6. 44 CFR 19.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  7. 10 CFR 1042.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  8. 29 CFR 36.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  9. 10 CFR 1042.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  10. 29 CFR 36.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1026 - Work for a church or qualified church-controlled organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work for a church or qualified church-controlled organization. 404.1026 Section 404.1026 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1026 Work for a church or qualified...

  12. Mulching methods impact on herb production and weed control in a certified organic production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control challenges for horticulture production are formidable; however, these challenges are even greater for those considering organic crop production. Black plastic as a weed barrier is widely used and effective. The expense associated with black plastic, as well as the ecological impact of...

  13. CONTROL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER BY IN-WELL AERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    At a 0.1 mgd well contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), principally trichloroethylene (TCE), several in-well aeration schemes were evaluated as control technologies. The well was logged by the USGS to define possible zones of VOC entry. A straddle packer an...

  14. Implications of Japanese Total Quality Control for Western Organizations: Dimensions of an Intercultural Hybrid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Investigates Total Quality Control (TQC) as a companywide, pivotal, and unifying philosophy for quality production and human interaction in Japanese organizations. Stresses the central role of communication processes. Challenges business communication scholars to incorporate TQC as a macro framework in dissections of the quality movement within…

  15. SHIFTS IN VINEYARD WEED SEED BANK COMPOSITION IN REPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL WEED CONTROL PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this research was to compare the organic weed control practice, soil cultivation, to the conventional practice, applications of the herbicide, glyphosate, in terms of their effects on weed seed bank in a vineyard system. The experiment was conducted in a commercial winegrape vineyard in t...

  16. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 106.12 Section 106.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION...

  17. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 106.12 Section 106.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION...

  18. Organic methods for control of insect pests and diseases of pecan and peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of insect pests and diseases can cause severe damage in orchard crops such as pecan and peach. Drs. David Shapiro-Ilan and Clive Bock from the USDA-ARS Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory in Byron GA will provide information on organic solutions to control the key insect pests and diseas...

  19. How to control optical activity in organic-silver hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco; Noguez, Cecilia

    2016-08-14

    The mechanisms that originate and control optical activity in organic-metal hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) are identified using a time-perturbed density functional theory. Electronic circular dichroism (CD) is studied in terms of the intrinsic chirality of the ligands, the number of ligands and the induced chirality by the arrangement of the ligands on the NP. Left-handed cysteine and achiral methylthio ligands adsorbed on an icosahedral silver NP are investigated. The analysis of CD allows the identification of the spectral regions when the induced chirality by the ligand array dominates over the intrinsic chirality of the ligands, determining conditions for CD control and enlargement. These results would be significant in the discussion of experimental CD spectra of organic-metal hybrid NPs, which might allow the development of new strategies to improve the sensitivity of chiroptical spectroscopies for the identification of bio and organic molecules. PMID:27406401

  20. Bimetallic Metal-Organic Frameworks for Controlled Catalytic Graphitization of Nanoporous Carbons

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jing; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Zhang, Huabin; Malgras, Victor; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Kobayashi, Naoya; Tominaka, Satoshi; Ide, Yusuke; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Single metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), constructed from the coordination between one-fold metal ions and organic linkers, show limited functionalities when used as precursors for nanoporous carbon materials. Herein, we propose to merge the advantages of zinc and cobalt metals ions into one single MOF crystal (i.e., bimetallic MOFs). The organic linkers that coordinate with cobalt ions tend to yield graphitic carbons after carbonization, unlike those bridging with zinc ions, due to the controlled catalytic graphitization by the cobalt nanoparticles. In this work, we demonstrate a feasible method to achieve nanoporous carbon materials with tailored properties, including specific surface area, pore size distribution, degree of graphitization, and content of heteroatoms. The bimetallic-MOF-derived nanoporous carbon are systematically characterized, highlighting the importance of precisely controlling the properties of the carbon materials. This can be done by finely tuning the components in the bimetallic MOF precursors, and thus designing optimal carbon materials for specific applications. PMID:27471193