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Sample records for aids control organization

  1. Promoting cancer prevention and control in community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations: are they ready?

    PubMed

    Guidry, John A; Lubetkin, Erica; Corner, Geoffrey; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Kornegay, Mark; Burkhalter, Jack E

    2014-02-01

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) serving persons living with HIV or AIDS face the challenge of an aging population with more chronic diseases. This study assessed cancer programming needs of AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut by conducting a community needs assessment. Sixty (58%) of 103 organizations completed the survey. ASOs conduct activities most related to early steps along the cancer care continuum, but they also express great interest in expanding cancer-focused programming into new areas. ASOs have resources or capacities in assisting HIV+ clients with mental health or substance abuse problems, but there exists a need for funding in undertaking or expanding cancer-focused programs. ASOs are receptive to collaborating with researchers on disseminating cancer prevention and control knowledge in their settings. Community-academic research partnerships enable resonant training and technical assistance methods to be explored that will enhance the abilities of ASOs to bring cancer-related programming to their clients.

  2. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997–2017). Methods A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. Results While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government’s priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non

  3. Computer aided manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  4. AIDS control: TN may show the way.

    PubMed

    1999-04-19

    The successful experiences of Tamil Nadu (TN) in the control and prevention of HIV/AIDS provides vital clues for the second phase of the Rs. 1,150-crore World Bank-funded national AIDS control program which will begin in July. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) is looking at TN for concrete answers in several areas before it composes its guidelines for the second phase. Key areas of focus in the second phase will be high-risk groups, control of STDs, people living with AIDS, communication structures and blood safety. NACO and the funding agency has been impressed by TN¿s method of mobilizing NGOs in the massive anti-HIV/AIDS campaign and its handling of the cost of the care. In addition to the Tamil Nadu State AIDS Control Society (TNSACS), the AIDS Prevention and Control Project of the Voluntary Health Services (supported by USAID) also contributed to the impressive performance of this State.

  5. Chinese non-governmental organizations involved in HIV/AIDS prevention and control: Intra-organizational social capital as a new analytical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danni; Mei, Guangliang; Xu, Xiaoru; Zhao, Ran; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2016-11-15

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health and social problem worldwide, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played an irreplaceable role in HIV/AIDS prevention and control. At the present time, however, NGOs have not fully participated in HIV/AIDS prevention and control in China. As an emerging focus on international academic inquiry, social capital can provide a new perspective from which to promote the growth of NGOs. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommends creating regional policies tailored to multiple and varying epidemics of HIV/AIDS. In order to provide evidence to policymakers, this paper described the basic information on NGOs and their shortage of social capital. This paper also compared the actual NGOs to "government-organized non-governmental organizations" (GONGOs). Results indicated that i) Chinese NGOs working on HIV/AIDS are short of funding and core members. GONGOs received more funding, had more core members, and built more capacity building than actual NGOs; ii) Almost half of the NGOs had a low level of trust and lacked a shared vision, networks, and support. The staff of GONGOs received more support from their organization than the staff of actual NGOs. Existing intra-organizational social capital among the staff of NGOs should be increased. Capacity building and policymaking should differentiate between actual NGOs and GONGOs. The relationship between social capital and organizational performance is a topic for further study.

  6. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    Engineering is coming to rely more and more heavily upon the computer for computations, analyses, and graphic displays which aid the design process. A general purpose simulation system, the Time-shared Automatic Control Laboratory (TACL), and a set of computer-aided design programs, Control Oriented Interactive Graphic Analysis and Design…

  7. Activist Media in Native AIDS Organizing: Theorizing the Colonial Conditions of AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgensen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author examines how activist media by Native AIDS organizers promoted anticolonial analyses of AIDS, gender, and sexuality as a contribution to scholarship on Native responses to AIDS. His discussion centers on the organizers who created media as authorities on and in their media. In contrast to recent accounts that popularize…

  8. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  9. HIV / AIDS and STDs control: new policy perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mathew, N M

    1998-01-01

    The prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is a social as well as a public health issue. This approach is reflected in new policy initiatives developed by the Government of India's National AIDS Control Organization in 1997. Future strategies will be based on a multisectoral, partnership-oriented approach. Bilateral agencies are encouraged to establish interventions in areas such as sexually transmitted disease (STD) control, condom distribution, counseling, health care, and hospice care. Special campaigns focused on youth and adolescents, including the inclusion of HIV/AIDS in the school curriculum, are planned. New strategies will be developed to address the HIV risk associated with drug abuse. The home- and community-based care of HIV/AIDS patients will be promoted, with emphasis on emotional and social support needs. Other areas to be addressed include the integration of STD control with primary health care, a blood transfusion policy, education for commercial sex workers, an end to discrimination against people with AIDS, and expansion of the national sentinel surveillance system.

  10. YY1 Control of AID-Dependent Lymphomagenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0171 TITLE: YY1 Control of AID -Dependent Lymphomagenesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Atchison, Ph.D CONTRACTING...W81XWH-14-1-0171 YY1 Control of AID -Dependent Lymphomagenesis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We hypothesize that YY1 levels control AID nuclear accumulation, AID mutation rates, and subsequent AID - mediated B cell

  11. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  12. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication.

  13. Optimal control of HIV/AIDS dynamic: Education and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2014-07-01

    A mathematical model which describes the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS is developed. The optimal control representing education and treatment for this model is explored. The existence of optimal Control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations suggest that education and treatment for the infected has a positive impact on HIV/AIDS control.

  14. Computer-aided control in nonround process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangjie; Huang, Shenghua

    1995-11-01

    Currently, un-round process (such as piston in internal-combustion engine etc.) is mainly realized by hard contact turning and ellipse milling. This paper introduces the computer-aided control in non-round process, using a high speed voice coil motor which can move to and fro in straight line to drive the cutting tool directly and so as to realize the un-round process under the control of computer. The precision can reach 1 micrometer. It exemplifies the process on convex varying elliptical piston. The best process curve is deduced. Double-CPUs are adopted to realize high speed detection and curve imitation in on-line process. IGBT is selected to drive the motor, optics grid decoder with the resolution of 0.25 micrometer for position detection. The self-adaptive control and feed forward control of sliding model on varying structure assures the request on system's dynamic response and stability. The simulation results reach the expected goal of system design.

  15. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  16. "Nothing about me, without me": participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G; Ochocka, J; Griffin, K; Lord, J

    1998-12-01

    Participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors is reviewed. We begin by tracing the origins of and defining both participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid. In so doing, the degree of correspondence between the assumptions/values of participatory action research and those of self-help/mutual aid for psychiatric consumer/survivors is examined. We argue that participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid share four values in common: (a) empowerment, (b) supportive relationships, (c) social change, and (d) learning as an ongoing process. Next, selected examples of participatory action research with psychiatric consumer/survivor-controlled self-help/mutual aid organizations which illustrate these shared values are provided. We conclude with recommendations of how the key values can be promoted in both the methodological and substantive aspects of future participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors.

  17. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  18. Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roat, S. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a single input/single output feedback control system design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Uses a heat exchanger temperature control loop to illustrate the various applications of the program. (ML)

  19. Investigation of piloting aids for manual control of hypersonic maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Phillips, Michael R.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of piloting aids designed to provide precise maneuver control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is described. Stringent constraints and nonintuitive high-speed flight effects associated with maneuvering in the hypersonic regime raise the question of whether manual control of such a vehicle should even be considered. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of manual control that is desirable for a vehicle maneuvering in this regime and to identify the form of aids that must be supplied to the pilot to make such control feasible. A piloted real-time motion-based simulation of a hypersonic vehicle concept was used for this study, and the investigation focused on a single representative cruise turn maneuver. Piloting aids, which consisted of an auto throttle, throttle director, autopilot, flight director, and two head-up display configurations, were developed and evaluated. Two longitudinal control response types consisting of a rate-command/attitude-hold system and a load factor-rate/load-factor-hold system were also compared. The complete set of piloting aids, which consisted of the autothrottle, throttle director, and flight director, improved the average Cooper-Harper flying qualities ratings from 8 to 2.6, even though identical inner-loop stability and control augmentation was provided in all cases. The flight director was determined to be the most critical of these aids, and the cruise turn maneuver was unachievable to adequate performance specifications in the absence of this flight director.

  20. Getting Started. Becoming Part of the AIDS Solution. A Guide for Hispanic Community-Based Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimbres, Manuel F.; McKay, Emily Gantz

    This guide is designed to help Hispanic community-based organizations (CBOs) begin Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education and prevention activities. The following barriers to AIDS education in the Hispanic community are outlined: (1) the perception that AIDS is a gay, white, male disease; (2) the social stigma associated with…

  1. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  2. Tuberculosis control in people living with HIV/AIDS 1

    PubMed Central

    Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Lopes, Lívia Maria; Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Brunello, Maria Eugênia Firmino; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the offering of health actions and services for the control of tuberculosis for people living with HIV/AIDS being followed up in the Specialized Care Services for HIV/AIDS in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Method: quantitative, exploratory survey study. Participated 253 people living with HIV/AIDS followed up by this service, considering as inclusion criteria: individuals older than 18 years living in the city and not inmates. Data collection was conducted from January 2012 to May 2013 through interviews with the support of a specific instrument. Data were analyzed using indicators and a composite index. Results: the offering of services for the control of tuberculosis in people living with HIV/AIDS by municipal services was considered as intermediate, reinforcing the need for better planning for comprehensive assistance, coordination of professionals in teams and among the services network, in addition to professional training and continuing education. Conclusion: it is necessary to implement strategies that promote shared actions between TB and HIV / AIDS programs and between different services in order to strengthen the local care network, aimed at producing an individualized care, comprehensive and responsive. PMID:27627120

  3. Assessing Employee Attitudes in a Community-Based AIDS Service Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Kuotsai Tom; Cruise, Peter L.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-one employees of the Comprehensive Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Program of Palm Beach County (Florida) were surveyed to explore their motives and attitudes toward their jobs, clients, and the organization. Implications for management of AIDS service organizations and program quality are discussed. (SLD)

  4. Sources of evidence in HIV/AIDS care: pilot study comparing family physicians and AIDS service organization staff

    PubMed Central

    Stefanski, Kasia E; Tracy, C Shawn; Upshur, Ross EG

    2004-01-01

    Background The improvement of the quality of the evidence used in treatment decision-making is especially important in the case of patients with complicated disease processes such as HIV/AIDS for which multiple treatment strategies exist with conflicting reports of efficacy. Little is known about the perceptions of distinct groups of health care workers regarding various sources of evidence and how these influence the clinical decision-making process. Our objective was to investigate how two groups of treatment information providers for people living with HIV/AIDS perceive the importance of various sources of treatment information. Methods Surveys were distributed to staff at two local AIDS service organizations and to family physicians at three community health centres treating people living with HIV/AIDS. Participants were asked to rate the importance of 10 different sources of evidence for HIV/AIDS treatment information on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Mean rating scores and relative rankings were compared. Results Findings suggest that a discordance exists between the two health information provider groups in terms of their perceptions of the various sources of evidence. Furthermore, AIDS service organization staff ranked health care professionals as the most important source of information whereas physicians deemed AIDS service organizations to be relatively unimportant. The two groups appear to share a common mistrust for information from pharmaceutical industries. Conclusions Discordance exists between medical "experts" from different backgrounds relating to their perceptions of evidence. Further investigation is warranted in order to reveal any effects on the quality of treatment information and implications in the decision-making process. Possible effects on collaboration and working relationships also warrant further exploration. PMID:15245578

  5. Organic weed control in watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is an essential element for certified organic crop production and producers place weed control as their highest research priority within their IPM programs. The objective of these experiments was to investigate the impact of integrated organic weed control systems o...

  6. Controller evaluations of the descent advisor automation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard; Volckers, Uwe; Erzberger, Heinz

    1989-01-01

    An automation aid to assist air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting arrival times at a fix has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The automation aid, referred to as the descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent point and speed profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is interfaced with a mouse-based, menu-driven controller display that allows the air traffic controller to interactively use its accurate predictive capability to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. This paper focuses on operational issues concerning the utilization of the DA, specifically, how the DA can be used for prediction, intrail spacing, and metering. In order to evaluate the DA, a real time simulation was conducted using both current and retired controller subjects. Controllers operated in teams of two, as they do in the present environment; issues of training and team interaction will be discussed. Evaluations by controllers indicated considerable enthusiasm for the DA aid, and provided specific recommendations for using the tool effectively.

  7. Creating and sustaining an effective coaching culture in home care: one organization's performance improvement related to aides and aide retention.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marki

    2011-05-01

    Relationships between aides and their supervisors are often challenging. Unproductive disciplinary conversations lead to increased dissatisfaction, low morale, high turnover, and stress levels among staff. This cycle can continue to spiral if not effectively addressed and aimed in a positive direction. This article shares the experience of an organization that addressed this concern through a performance improvement initiative.

  8. A computer-aided approach to nonlinear control systhesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Anthony, Tobin

    1988-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to develop a computer-aided approach to nonlinear stability analysis and nonlinear control system design. This goal is to be obtained by refining the describing function method as a synthesis tool for nonlinear control design. The interim report outlines the approach by this study to meet these goals including an introduction to the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program which was instrumental in meeting these study objectives. A single-input describing function (SIDF) design methodology was developed in this study; coupled with the software constructed in this study, the results of this project provide a comprehensive tool for design and integration of nonlinear control systems.

  9. Predicting Loss-of-Control Boundaries Toward a Piloting Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Jonathan; Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an approach to predicting loss-of-control with the goal of providing the pilot a decision aid focused on maintaining the pilot's control action within predicted loss-of-control boundaries. The predictive architecture combines quantitative loss-of-control boundaries, a data-based predictive control boundary estimation algorithm and an adaptive prediction method to estimate Markov model parameters in real-time. The data-based loss-of-control boundary estimation algorithm estimates the boundary of a safe set of control inputs that will keep the aircraft within the loss-of-control boundaries for a specified time horizon. The adaptive prediction model generates estimates of the system Markov Parameters, which are used by the data-based loss-of-control boundary estimation algorithm. The combined algorithm is applied to a nonlinear generic transport aircraft to illustrate the features of the architecture.

  10. Give Me a Like: How HIV/AIDS Nonprofit Organizations Can Engage Their Audience on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chao; Lin, Yi-Pin; Saxton, Gregory D

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid proliferation and adoption of social media among healthcare professionals and organizations, social media-based HIV/AIDS intervention programs have become increasingly popular. However, the question of the effectiveness of the HIV/AIDS messages disseminated on social media has received scant attention in the literature. The current study applies content analysis to examine the relationship between Facebook messaging strategies employed by 110 HIV/AIDS nonprofit organizations and audience reactions in the form of liking, commenting, and sharing behavior. The results reveal that HIV/AIDS nonprofit organizations often use informational messages as one-way communication with their audience instead of dialogic interactions. Some specific types of messages, such as medication-focused messages, engender better audience engagement; in contrast, event-related messages and call-to-action messages appear to translate into lower corresponding audience reactions. The findings provide guidance to HIV/AIDS organizations in developing effective social media communication strategies.

  11. Role of delay and screening in controlling AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Sudipa; Bhatia, Sumit Kaur; Gupta, Surbhi

    2016-06-01

    We propose a non-linear HIV/ AIDS model to analyse the spread and control of HIV/AIDS. The population is divided into three classes, susceptible, infective and AIDS patients. The model is developed under the assumptions of vertical transmission and time delay in infective class. Time delay is also included to show sexual maturity period of infected newborns. We study dynamics of the model and obtain the reproduction number. Now to control the epidemic, we study the model where aware infective class is also added, i.e., people are made aware of their medical status by way of screening. To make the model more realistic, we consider the situation where aware infective class also interacts with other people. The model is analysed qualitatively by stability theory of ODE. Stability analysis of both disease-free and endemic equilibrium is studied based on reproduction number. Also, it is proved that if (R0)1, R1 ≤ 1 then, disease free equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable and if (R0)1, R1 > 1 then, disease free equilibrium is unstable. Also, the stability analysis of endemic equilibrium point has been done and it is shown that for (R0)1 > 1 endemic equilibrium point is stable. Global stability analysis of endemic equilibrium point has also been done. At last, it is shown numerically that the delay in sexual maturity of infected individuals result in less number of AIDS patients.

  12. A model for HIV/AIDS pandemic with optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is pandemic. It has affected nearly 60 million people since the detection of the disease in 1981 to date. In this paper basic deterministic HIV/AIDS model with mass action incidence function are developed. Stability analysis is carried out. And the disease free equilibrium of the basic model was found to be locally asymptotically stable whenever the threshold parameter (RO) value is less than one, and unstable otherwise. The model is extended by introducing two optimal control strategies namely, CD4 counts and treatment for the infective using optimal control theory. Numerical simulation was carried out in order to illustrate the analytic results.

  13. Private Assistance in Outdoor Recreation. A Directory of Organizations Providing Aid to Individuals and Public Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    In an effort to aid private recreation area developers and operators, and other individuals interested in outdoor recreation, this Bureau of Outdoor Recreation publication lists a number of professional societies and national organizations providing low-cost publications and other aids to planning, development, and operation of outdoor recreation…

  14. 78 FR 46950 - Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Ecobaby Organics, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... Write ``Ecobaby Organics, File No. 122 3129'' on your comment and file your comment online at https... consider your comment, we must receive it on or before August 26, 2013. Write ``Ecobaby Organics, File...

  15. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  16. Bangkok 2004. Drug control, human rights, and harm reduction in the age of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard

    2004-12-01

    In many countries, HIV prevalence among people who use illicit drugs is high. Yet many governments resist implementing effective HIV prevention measures, and drug users often lack access to care, treatment, and support, including for HIV/AIDS. Growing evidence indicates the dominant prohibitionist approach to illicit drugs is ineffective--and even counterproductive, blocking or undermining measures shown to reduce harms to drug users and to communities affected by open drug scenes. The growing debate over global drug control policy could shift us collectively away from the current, failed prescriptions to a more rational, pragmatic, and health-promoting framework of harm reduction. This article by Richard Elliott is an abridged version of a paper prepared for "Human Rights at the Margins: HIV/AIDS, Prisoners, Drug Users and the Law," a satellite meeting held in Bangkok on 9 July 2004, and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit (India). The article briefly outlines the impact of these two different policy approaches, examines international law on drug control, discusses how harm reduction reflects a human rights-based approach to drugs, and assesses some strategies for reforming global policy on illicit drugs.

  17. The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Monitoring the Global AIDS Response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Mallouris, Christoforos; Lee, Kelley; Alfvén, Tobias

    2016-10-12

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) are recognized as playing an exceptional role in the global AIDS response. However, there is little detailed research to date on how they contribute to specific governance functions. This article uses Haas' framework on global governance functions to map CSO's participation in the monitoring of global commitments to the AIDS response by institutions and states. Drawing on key informant interviews and primary documents, it focuses specifically on CSO participation in Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting and in Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria processes. It argues that the AIDS response is unique within global health governance, in that CSOs fulfill both formal and informal monitoring functions, and considers the strengths and weaknesses of these contributions. It concludes that future global health governance arrangements should include provisions and resources for monitoring by CSOs because their participation creates more inclusive global health governance and contributes to strengthening commitments to human rights.

  18. Organizational and Environmental Predictors of Job Satisfaction in Community-based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimbel, Ronald W.; Lehrman, Sue; Strosberg, Martin A.; Ziac, Veronica; Freedman, Jay; Savicki, Karen; Tackley, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Using variables measuring organizational characteristics and environmental influences, this study analyzed job satisfaction in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. Organizational characteristics were found to predict job satisfaction among employees with varying intensity based on position within the organization. Environmental influences had…

  19. Guide to Planning Health Promotion for AIDS Prevention and Control. WHO AIDS Series 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide is intended to provide planners, managers, and technical staff with guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) health promotion program. As such, it can be used in the development of a detailed AIDS health promotion action plan. The guide reviews the steps, processes,…

  20. AIDS: Information/Education Plan to Prevent and Control AIDS in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents a comprehensive Public Health Service plan for informing and educating the American public about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The plan specifies the audiences to be addressed by this effort, the basic elements of AIDS information and education, and the means by which this education will be accomplished. Mass…

  1. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Boland, Thomas; Trusk, Thomas; Forgacs, Gabor; Markwald, Roger R

    2003-04-01

    Tissue engineering technology promises to solve the organ transplantation crisis. However, assembly of vascularized 3D soft organs remains a big challenge. Organ printing, which we define as computer-aided, jet-based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, offers a possible solution. Organ printing involves three sequential steps: pre-processing or development of "blueprints" for organs; processing or actual organ printing; and postprocessing or organ conditioning and accelerated organ maturation. A cell printer that can print gels, single cells and cell aggregates has been developed. Layer-by-layer sequentially placed and solidified thin layers of a thermo-reversible gel could serve as "printing paper". Combination of an engineering approach with the developmental biology concept of embryonic tissue fluidity enables the creation of a new rapid prototyping 3D organ printing technology, which will dramatically accelerate and optimize tissue and organ assembly.

  2. Designing of a digital behind-the-ear hearing aid to meet the World Health Organization requirements.

    PubMed

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Penteado, Silvio Pires

    2010-06-01

    Hearing loss is a common health issue that affects nearly 10% of the world population as indicated by many international studies. The hearing impaired typically experience more frustration, anxiety, irritability, depression, and disorientation than those with normal hearing levels. The standard rehabilitation tool for hearing impairment is an electronic hearing aid whose main components are transducers (microphone and receiver) and a digital signal processor. These electronic components are manufactured by supply chain rather than by hearing aid manufacturers. Manufacturers can use custom-designed components or generic off-the-shelf components. These electronic components are available as application-specific or off-the-shelf products, with the former designed for a specific manufacturer and the latter for a generic approach. The choice of custom or generic components will affect the product specifications, pricing, manufacturing, life cycle, and marketing strategies of the product. The World Health Organization is interested in making available to developing countries hearing aids that are inexpensive to purchase and maintain. The hearing aid presented in this article was developed with these specifications in mind together with additional contemporary features such as four channels with wide dynamic range compression, an adjustable compression rate for each channel, four comfort programs, an adaptive feedback manager, and full volume control. This digital hearing aid is fitted using a personal computer with minimal hardware requirements in intuitive three-step fitting software. A trimmer-adjusted version can be developed where human and material resources are scarce.

  3. Designing of a Digital Behind-the-Ear Hearing Aid to Meet the World Health Organization Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Penteado, Silvio Pires

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common health issue that affects nearly 10% of the world population as indicated by many international studies. The hearing impaired typically experience more frustration, anxiety, irritability, depression, and disorientation than those with normal hearing levels. The standard rehabilitation tool for hearing impairment is an electronic hearing aid whose main components are transducers (microphone and receiver) and a digital signal processor. These electronic components are manufactured by supply chain rather than by hearing aid manufacturers. Manufacturers can use custom-designed components or generic off-the-shelf components. These electronic components are available as application-specific or off-the-shelf products, with the former designed for a specific manufacturer and the latter for a generic approach. The choice of custom or generic components will affect the product specifications, pricing, manufacturing, life cycle, and marketing strategies of the product. The World Health Organization is interested in making available to developing countries hearing aids that are inexpensive to purchase and maintain. The hearing aid presented in this article was developed with these specifications in mind together with additional contemporary features such as four channels with wide dynamic range compression, an adjustable compression rate for each channel, four comfort programs, an adaptive feedback manager, and full volume control. This digital hearing aid is fitted using a personal computer with minimal hardware requirements in intuitive three-step fitting software. A trimmer-adjusted version can be developed where human and material resources are scarce. PMID:20724354

  4. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2013-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of…

  5. National AIDS Control Organisation's human resource capacity building initiatives for better response to HIV/AIDS in India.

    PubMed

    Kavya, Sharma; Sanjay, Zodpey; Syed Zahiruddin, Quazi; Abhay, Gaidhane; Shailendra, Sawleshwarkar; Sunil, Khaparde

    2011-01-01

    Human resource capacity building is a key strategy in the design, delivery, sustainability and scale up HIV treatment and prevention programmes. The review aims to present human resource capacity building initiatives undertaken by the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) and to discuss the available opportunities in India.There was minimal emphasis on human resource capacity building in National AIDS control programme (NACP)-I. The focus of capacity building in NACP-II was on strengthening the capacity of partners implementing various HIV/AIDS interventions. NACP-III (2007-2012) focussed on capacity building as a priority agenda. Other than short-term training programmes, NACP-III is strengthening the capacity of partners through the State Training and Resource Centre, Technical Support Unit, District AIDS Prevention Control Unit, Fellowship Programme and Network of Indian Institutions for HIV/AIDS Research.Various opportunities to enhance and consolidate capacity building responses in HIV/AIDS in India may include mainstreaming of capacity building, appropriate management of knowledge and resources, effective delivery of training, measuring and documenting impact,accreditation of programmes and institutes,use of information technology, identifying and implementing innovations and working for sustainability.Growing demand for capacity-building in HIV/AIDS needs substantial efforts to ensure that these are implemented effectively and efficiently. NACO had made significant strides in these regards, but at the same time there are arduous challenges like measuring impact, quality, documentation, operational research, and sustainability. NACO is formulating Phase-IV of NACP. This review will provide feedback to the NACO for strengthening its strategic document for human resource capacity building.

  6. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control... for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.317 Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards. (a) An analog telephone complies with the Commission's volume control requirements if the...

  7. [1986-2006: 20 years of failed international policy to control AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2007-10-01

    Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations involved in fighting AIDS in Africa have been wrong for 20 years. Despite this failure that was publicly avowed for the first time by a high UNAIDS official in Brazzaville in March 2006, the international community continues to propose a strategy based exclusively on organizational and financial solutions for a highly complex human tragedy that requires a much more comprehensive, coordinated public health approach. Organization of the fight against AIDS has taken many forms over the period between 1986 and 2006. The WHO Global Programme against AIDS program initiated only five years after the beginning of the epidemic in the United States was followed ten years later by the joint United Nations program named UNAIDS. The period between 2000 and 2006 saw a growing number of worldwide initiatives outside the framework of the United Nations. With programs based on cooperation of bilateral agencies, the European Commission, and the World Bank with expert technical agencies and civilian representatives, the whole international community felt that they were "in the driver's seat ". However analysis of the strategy deployed against AIDS during this period shows a shift from "total emphasis on prevention" (1986-1996) to "total emphasis on ARV treatment" (1996-2006). This shift occurred with no assessment of the benefits of the previous strategy for the main users, i.e., the populations of Africa and health care officials. Financial pledges have considerably increased in the context of global public partnerships such as the Global Fund against HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, with no change in the overall strategic vision to control the pandemic. There has been a total lack of planning and leadership in controlling the pandemic. Even though we failed to treat 3 million people before the end of 2005 within the framework of the "3x5" initiative despite the availability of ARV in Africa since 1998, WHO called for

  8. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  9. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  10. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  11. Organization and administration of the NIDCD/VA Hearing Aid Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Henderson, William G; Larson, Vernon D; Williams, David; Leuthke, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    This article describes the organization and administration of the NIDCD/VA Hearing Aid Clinical Trial. The trial involved a total of 360 patients with bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss from eight VA Medical Centers to study three different hearing aid circuits in a three-period, three-treatment crossover design. Strong central coordination of such a complex multi-center clinical trial is essential to its success. The trial took more than 5 years to design, implement, and complete. This timeline is also described.

  12. Fostering Supportive Environments: A Case Study of Public Pedagogy in a Community-Based AIDS Service Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the significance of public pedagogy for how community-based organizations that provide prevention, support, and educational services to people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS operate. The article reports on a case study analysis of a local AIDS service organization (ASO) in a small town in Ontario, Canada. The…

  13. HIV/AIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www. ...

  14. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  15. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance - control of corruption and democratic accountability - on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001-2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below -2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.

  16. Organic weed control in certified organic watermelon production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the impact of organic production systems on weed control and watermelon (Citrullus l...

  17. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  18. Tobacco control policies of oncology nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2004-05-01

    Nurses, the largest group of health care professionals, and the policies of nursing organizations, have tremendous potential to promote health and tobacco control. Policies addressing tobacco use have been implemented by a variety of national and international nursing organizations. This article reviews existing tobacco control policies in oncology nursing organizations.

  19. Creating "communicative spaces": a case of NGO community organizing for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This study uses the case study method to investigate the processes used by a local nongovernmental organization called the Society for People's Action for Development to organize sex workers in the slums of Bangalore, India, for HIV/AIDS prevention. The nongovernmental organization-facilitated HIV/AIDS program is based on the new paradigm of community organizing that encourages community participation and capacity building. Grounded in the culture-centered approach, this study documents the processes used to organize the women, while highlighting the role of communication in these processes. The study identifies 4 primary processes used to mobilize the community, namely collectivization, community awareness and sensitization, capacity building, and providing legal education and support. Each of these processes highlights the importance of attending to the economic, social, and political realities that shape the health of women. The common thread linking these processes together is the notion of "voice." More specifically, each process serves as a catalyst to produce discursive practices that enable women to provide support to each other, increase awareness in the community about the problems that they face, build self-reliance through financial skills training and communication training, and defend their legal rights. In addition, the study suggests that the primary role of nongovernmental organizations should be the creation of "communicative spaces," which are discursive and material spaces within marginalized communities and mainstream society where cultural participants can identify problems (oftentimes beyond the realm of health), manage solutions to those problems, and advocate for health and social change.

  20. Color Coding Organic Chemicals for Inventory Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wystrach, V. P.; George, Babu

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system in which organic chemicals are recoded for inventory control and reshelving purposes. The system works well in undergraduate organic chemistry or biology laboratories but can be expanded to handle a larger and more complicated inventory. (JN)

  1. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  2. Organic control of plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic agriculture refers to agricultural production systems that are managed according to a number of standards which vary by governing body or political entity, but which share a common philosophy and set of general management practices. In popular culture, organic crop production is generally un...

  3. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  4. Exploring the Role of Ad Hoc Grassroots Organizations Providing Humanitarian Aid on Lesvos, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kitching, George Tjensvoll; J. Haavik, Hanne; Tandstad, Birgit J.; Zaman, Muhammad; Darj, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Syrian refugees displaced into Turkey have attempted high-risk sea migrations to reach safer destinations in Europe, most often initially arriving on the Greek island of Lesvos. These refugees were often in need of basic humanitarian assistance that has been provided in part by a new category of ad hoc grassroots organizations (AHGOs). The aim of this study was to understand the internal and external operations of these AHGOs and their role on Lesvos. Methods: The experiences of AHGOs were investigated through a qualitative research design utilizing semi-structured interviews with organization leaders and spokespersons. AHGOs identified through media and social media sources as new Lesvos-specific organizations were purposively invited to complete an interview over phone, Skype or email. Data analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed by Systematic Text Condensation. Results: Forty-one organizations were contacted and 13 interviews were conducted. Most organizations were formed in autumn 2015 responding to the greater influx of refugees and migrants at that time and reported an absence of professional humanitarian agencies providing aid on Lesvos. Three categories emerged from the material. Features of organizations; Features of volunteers and; Evolution of AHGOs. The organizations perceived themselves capable of evaluating needs, mobilizing resources, funding and providing quick response. The volunteers came with limited humanitarian experience and from a wide variety of nationalities and professional backgrounds, and the organizations developed while on Lesvos. Discussion: Knowledge from our findings of AHGOs response to this complex disaster on Lesvos could be utilized in future catastrophes. We conclude that AHGOs may prove effective at providing humanitarian aid in a surge response when international non-governmental organizations are unable to respond quickly. In future complex disasters AHGOs should be recognized as new humanitarian

  5. Safety aid use and social anxiety symptoms: The mediating role of perceived control.

    PubMed

    Korte, Kristina J; Unruh, Amanda S; Oglesby, Mary E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    The use of safety aids, cognitive or behavioral strategies used to reduce or cope with anxiety, has emerged as a key construct of interest in anxiety disorders due to their role in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. It has been suggested that individuals with anxiety engage in safety aid use to reduce their anxiety and feel more in control of a situation; however, no studies to date have examined the association between perceived control, that is, perceived level of control over internal events in anxiety provoking situations, and the use of safety aids. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association of perceived control, the use of safety aids, and symptoms of social anxiety. It was predicted that the association between safety aid use and social anxiety symptoms would be mediated by perceived control. This prediction was examined in a large sample of 281 participants. As predicted, perceived control was a significant mediator of the association between the use of safety aids and social anxiety symptoms. This effect remained significant after running a multiple mediation model with distress tolerance added as a competing mediator. Implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Display aids for remote control of untethered undersea vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verplank, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    A predictor display superimposed on slow-scan video or sonar data is proposed as a method to allow better remote manual control of an untethered submersible. Simulation experiments show good control under circumstances which otherwise make control practically impossible.

  7. Organizing for ontological change: The kernel of an AIDS research infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Ribes, David; Polk, Jessica Beth

    2015-04-01

    Is it possible to prepare and plan for emergent and changing objects of research? Members of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study have been investigating AIDS for over 30 years, and in that time, the disease has been repeatedly transformed. Over the years and across many changes, members have continued to study HIV disease while in the process regenerating an adaptable research organization. The key to sustaining this technoscientific flexibility has been what we call the kernel of a research infrastructure: ongoing efforts to maintain the availability of resources and services that may be brought to bear in the investigation of new objects. In the case of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, these resources are as follows: specimens and data, calibrated instruments, heterogeneous experts, and participating cohorts of gay and bisexual men. We track three ontological transformations, examining how members prepared for and responded to changes: the discovery of a novel retroviral agent (HIV), the ability to test for that agent, and the transition of the disease from fatal to chronic through pharmaceutical intervention. Respectively, we call the work, 'technologies', and techniques of adapting to these changes, 'repurposing', 'elaborating', and 'extending the kernel'.

  8. Organizing for ontological change: The kernel of an AIDS research infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Polk, Jessica Beth

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to prepare and plan for emergent and changing objects of research? Members of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study have been investigating AIDS for over 30 years, and in that time, the disease has been repeatedly transformed. Over the years and across many changes, members have continued to study HIV disease while in the process regenerating an adaptable research organization. The key to sustaining this technoscientific flexibility has been what we call the kernel of a research infrastructure: ongoing efforts to maintain the availability of resources and services that may be brought to bear in the investigation of new objects. In the case of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, these resources are as follows: specimens and data, calibrated instruments, heterogeneous experts, and participating cohorts of gay and bisexual men. We track three ontological transformations, examining how members prepared for and responded to changes: the discovery of a novel retroviral agent (HIV), the ability to test for that agent, and the transition of the disease from fatal to chronic through pharmaceutical intervention. Respectively, we call the work, ‘technologies’, and techniques of adapting to these changes, ‘repurposing’, ‘elaborating’, and ‘extending the kernel’. PMID:26477206

  9. Controlled Access Headings in EAD Finding Aids: Current Practices in Number of and Types of Headings Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a study of controlled access headings assigned to encoded archival description finding aids in the Ohio Library and Information Network Finding Aid Repository, focusing on the number of headings per finding aid and the category of terms assigned. Assigning multiple controlled access headings was widely…

  10. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  11. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  12. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  13. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  14. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  15. Grapevine downy mildew control in organic farming.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Spera, G; Lolletti, D

    2005-01-01

    Cupric products at low dose and alternative compounds have been tested to control the downy mildew in an organic vineyard. It has found that copper compounds control downy mildew in a satisfactory way, reducing, at the same time, the dose of copper metal. The alternative products were not satisfactory to control Plasmopara viticola.

  16. Analysis for organic residues from aids to polymerization used to make plastics intended for food contact.

    PubMed

    Fordham, P J; Gramshaw, J W; Castle, L

    2001-05-01

    Polymers intended for food contact use have been analysed for organic residues which could be attributed to a range of substances employed as polymerization aids (e.g. initiators and catalysts). A wide range of polymers was extracted with solvents and the extracts analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The overwhelming majority of substances identified were not derived from aids to polymerization but were oligomers, additives and adventitious contaminants. However, a small number of substances were identified as initiator residues. These included tetramethylsuccinonitrile (TMSN) which was observed in two polymers and it derived from recombination of two azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) initiator radicals. Methyl benzoate, benzoic acid, biphenyl and phenyl benzoate were detected in one poly(methyl methacrylate) sample and in two polyvinylchlorides and they are thought to be derived from benzoyl peroxide initiator. TMSN was subsequently targeted for analysis of poly-(methyl methacrylate) plastics using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR) and GC-MS. NMR detected the presence of cyanoisopropyl radical residues in the plastic at 470-3400 mg/kg whereas GC-MS detected TMSN at only 65-540 mg/kg in the samples. It is concluded that the bulk of cyanoisopropyl residues detected by NMR were either polymer-bound or were the products of side-reactions of the initiator radical. The migration of TMSN itself into the food simulants 3% aqueous acetic acid, 15% aqueous ethanol, and olive oil, at 40 degrees C for 10 days, was measured using GC-MS. Migration was very low with < 1 microg/kg released from a finished article (a drinking straw) and < 5 microg/kg from resin pellets. The overall conclusions from this work are that organic residues from aids to polymerization are generally found at reassuringly low levels in plastics intended for food contact and their potential for migration to foods is correspondingly low.

  17. Enhancing community-based organizations' capacity for HIV/AIDS education and prevention.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Robert M; Daniels, Pamela; Yancey, Elleen M; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Berry, Jamillah; Clark, Nicole; Dawaghreh, Ahmad

    2009-08-01

    The catalytic potential of community-based organizations to promote health, prevent disease, and address racial, ethnic, and socio-economic disparities in local communities is well recognized. However, many CBOs, particularly, small- to medium-size organizations, lack the capacity to plan, implement, and evaluate their successes. Moreover, little assistance has been provided to enhance their capacity and the effectiveness of technical assistance to enhance capacity is likewise limited. A unique private-academic partnership is described that simultaneously conducted program evaluation and addressed the capacity needs of 24 CBOs funded by the Pfizer Foundation Southern HIV/AIDS Prevention Initiative. Assessments of key program staff members at 12 and 18 months after the initial cross-site program assessment survey indicated a significant improvement in the CBOs' knowledge, skills, and abilities and a substantial reduction in their technical assistance needs for HIV/AIDS prevention. Full participation of CBOs in technical assistance and a concurrent empowerment evaluation framework were necessary to enhance prevention capacity.

  18. [Analysis on funds application of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS response and government financial investment in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Zhu, Y X; Wang, P; Liu, P; Li, J F; Sha, S; Yang, W Z; Li, H

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To understand the government financial investments to community based organizations (CBO) involved in HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention of China and its influencing factors. Methods: Questionnaire of the situation of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention were designed, and filled by the staff of Provincial Health Administrative Departments of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). The research focused on the fields of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), including intervention on HIV/AIDS high risk population (female sex worker (FSW), man who sex with man (MSM), drug user (DU) and case management and care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)). 29 valid questionnaires were collecting, with Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions not filled. Questionnaire included financial supports from local governments, transfer payment from central government for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 2014, and unit cost for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention. Multivariate analysis was conducted on the project application and financial investment of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention in 2014. Results: The total amount of CBO to apply for participation in AIDS prevention and control was 64 482 828 Yuan in 2014. The actual total amount of investment was 50 616 367 Yuan, The investment came from the central government funding, the provincial level government funding, the prefecture and county level government funding investment and other sources of funding. 22 of 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) received the funds from the central government finance, and median of investment funds 500 000 Yuan. 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) gained the funds from the provincial government finance, and median of investment funds 350 000 Yuan. 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) got the funds

  19. Graphical Input Methodology for Computer Aided Analysis of Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Control Data Corporation (CDC) CYBER series computer (Ref 4,8). It is designed to run as an INTERCOM job under the NOS/BE operating system (Ref 1,3,5,9...19147-3, Contract- 5- -7. Seattle, Washington, Boeing Areospace Company, 1979. 8. Control Data Corporation . Fortran Extended Version 4 Reference...Manual. Pub. No. 614978%0, Revsion D. Sunnyvale,-California: Publications and Graphics n Division, 1978. 9. Control Data Corporation . INTERCOM Version 4

  20. Health economics: potential applications in HIV/AIDS control in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Anikpo, Emilienne; Karisa, Eddie; Mwabu, Germano

    2005-01-01

    There is growing evidence that HIV/ AIDS has enormous negative impact on health status and economic development of individuals, households, communities and nations in the African region. Thus, there is urgent need for various disciplines to demonstrate how they can contribute in curbing the spread of this deadly disease in the African region. This paper, using an extended version of Professor Alan Williams schema as the conceptual framework, attempts to demonstrate how health economics can be used to inform policy and managerial choices related to HIV/AIDS advocacy, prevention, treatment and management. It argues that the discipline of health economics (and economics generally) is extremely valuable in: measuring health impacts of the disease and interventions; evaluating the relationships between health care-seeking behaviour of individuals and health system specific attributes; the estimation of determinants of compliance of HIV/AIDS patients with treatment regimen; establishing of health institutions efficiency in combating AIDS; guiding choices of HIV/AIDS interventions; assessing the relationships between HIV/AIDS, development, poverty, and trade; programme planning, monitoring and evaluation; and assessing health system's overall performance. The paper is a modest attempt to show how the discipline of health economics can elucidate, and help in resolving practical and conceptual issues in HIV/AIDS control in Africa.

  1. Hearing Loss, Control, and Demographic Factors Influencing Hearing Aid Use among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garstecki, Dean C.; Erler, Susan F.

    1998-01-01

    Older adults (N=131) with hearing loss completed measures of hearing, hearing handicap, psychological control, depression, and ego strength. Older adults who accepted advice from hearing professionals to acquire and use hearing aids differed from those not accepting such advice on measures of hearing sensitivity, psychological control, and…

  2. Computer Simulated Visual and Tactile Feedback as an Aid to Manipulator and Vehicle Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-08

    STATEMENT ........................ 8 Artificial Intellegence Versus Supervisory Control ....... 8 Computer Generation of Operator Feedback...operator. Artificial Intelligence Versus Supervisory Control The use of computers to aid human operators can be divided into two catagories: artificial ...operator. Artificial intelligence ( A. I. ) attempts to give the computer maximum intelligence and to replace all operator functions by the computer

  3. A Public Policy Approach to Local Models of HIV/AIDS Control in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Andreia; Costa-Couto, Maria-Helena; Thoenig, Jean-Claude; Fleury, Sonia; de Camargo, Kenneth; Larouzé, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated involvement and cooperation patterns of local Brazilian AIDS program actors and the consequences of these patterns for program implementation and sustainability. Methods. We performed a public policy analysis (documentary analysis, direct observation, semistructured interviews of health service and nongovernmental organization [NGO] actors) in 5 towns in 2 states, São Paulo and Pará. Results. Patterns suggested 3 models. In model 1, local government, NGOs, and primary health care services were involved in AIDS programs with satisfactory response to new epidemiological trends but a risk that HIV/AIDS would become low priority. In model 2, mainly because of NGO activism, HIV/AIDS remained an exceptional issue, with limited responses to new epidemiological trends and program sustainability undermined by political instability. In model 3, involvement of public agencies and NGOs was limited, with inadequate response to epidemiological trends and poor mobilization threatening program sustainability. Conclusions. Within a common national AIDS policy framework, the degree of involvement and cooperation between public and NGO actors deeply impacts population coverage and program sustainability. Specific processes are required to maintain actor mobilization without isolating AIDS programs. PMID:19372523

  4. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2014-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Community-based participatory research was applied to engage ASOs in exploring their capacities and needs for integrating cancer-focused programming into their services. Focus groups were conducted with a community advisory board (CAB) representing 10 community-based organizations serving PLWHA. Three 90-minute, serial focus groups were conducted with a mean number of seven participants. Topics explored CAB members’ organizational capacities and needs in cancer prevention, detection, treatment, and survivorship. Transcript analyses identified six themes: (a) agencies have limited experience with cancer-focused programs, which were not framed as cancer specific; (b) agencies need resources and collaborative partnerships to effectively incorporate cancer services; (c) staff and clients must be educated about the relevance of cancer to HIV/AIDS; (d) agencies want to know about linkages between HIV/AIDS and cancer; (e) cancer care providers should be culturally competent; and (f) agencies see opportunities to improve their services through research participation but are wary. Agency capacities were strong in relationships with clients and cultural competency, a holistic view of PLWHA health, expertise in prevention activities, and eagerness to be on the cutting edge of knowledge. Cancer education and prevention were of greatest interest and considered most feasible, suggesting that future projects develop accordingly. These findings suggest a high level of receptivity to expanding or initiating cancer-focused activities but with a clear need for education and awareness building

  5. At the intersection of HIV/AIDS and cancer: a qualitative needs assessment of community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Jack E; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2013-08-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Community-based participatory research was applied to engage ASOs in exploring their capacities and needs for integrating cancer-focused programming into their services. Focus groups were conducted with a community advisory board (CAB) representing 10 community-based organizations serving PLWHA. Three 90-minute, serial focus groups were conducted with a mean number of seven participants. Topics explored CAB members' organizational capacities and needs in cancer prevention, detection, treatment, and survivorship. Transcript analyses identified six themes: (a) agencies have limited experience with cancer-focused programs, which were not framed as cancer specific; (b) agencies need resources and collaborative partnerships to effectively incorporate cancer services; (c) staff and clients must be educated about the relevance of cancer to HIV/AIDS; (d) agencies want to know about linkages between HIV/AIDS and cancer; (e) cancer care providers should be culturally competent; and (f) agencies see opportunities to improve their services through research participation but are wary. Agency capacities were strong in relationships with clients and cultural competency, a holistic view of PLWHA health, expertise in prevention activities, and eagerness to be on the cutting edge of knowledge. Cancer education and prevention were of greatest interest and considered most feasible, suggesting that future projects develop accordingly. These findings suggest a high level of receptivity to expanding or initiating cancer-focused activities but with a clear need for education and awareness building

  6. Computer-aided-analysis of linear control system robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Ray, Laura R.

    1990-01-01

    Stochastic robustness is a simple technique used to estimate the stability and performance robustness of linear, time-invariant systems. The use of high-speed graphics workstations and control system design software in stochastic robustness analysis is discussed and demonstrated. It is shown that stochastic robustness makes good use of modern computational and graphic tools, and it is easily implemented using commercial control system design and analysis software.

  7. Estimation of Japanese international financial assistance for HIV/AIDS control for 2003-2007: difficulties and limitations of data collection.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koichiro; Yonemoto, Kiyoshi; Takei, Teiji; Izazola-Licea, Jose; Gobet, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to: (1) collect relevant data and estimate Japanese international financial assistance for HIV/AIDS control; (2) discuss the difficulties in collecting relevant data and the limitations of the collected data; and (3) conduct a comparative analysis on the estimated data with OECD and Kaiser Family Foundation aggregate data. The point is that we have comprehensively collected and estimated the data on Japanese international expenditures for HIV/AIDS control while there is no reliable data that is totally managed and published. In addition, we discuss the difficulties and limitations of data collection: unpublished data; insufficient data; inseparable data; problems of exchange rates; gaps between disbursement and commitment; and difference in year period among calendar, fiscal and organization-specific years. Furthermore, we show the risk of underestimating the Japanese international contribution to HIV/AIDS control on the basis of OECD and Kaiser data. In this respect, it is significant to comprehensively collect and estimate the data on Japanese international assistance for HIV/AIDS control. Finally, we derive the implication that it is crucial for a relevant international organization and/or individual countries to comprehensively collect and administer data for international cooperation in the development of health policies for HIV/AIDS.

  8. Leading an IT Organization Out of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    With the era of control ending for campus IT organizations, leaders need to learn to use some known management approaches and methods in radically different ways. In this article, the author begins with some examples of how technology change, organizational change, and contextual change are eroding centralized control over campus information…

  9. Computer-Aided Design of Robust Decentralized Controllers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    Zames 1981), (Callier and Desoer 1982) and (Vidyasagar 1985). Theorem 2.4.Given a plant P, let DS (P) denote the set of all decentralized stabilizing...determine whether there is a controller that satisfies these conditions. The first part was solved by Doyle and Stein (1981), Chen and Desoer (1982...of RHP poles of P and of P0 Theorem 3.1 (Doyle and Stein 1981, Chen and Desoer 1982) A controller C that stabilizes P0 also stabilizes all plants in

  10. 38 CFR 39.11 - State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations. 39.11 Section 39.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  11. 38 CFR 39.11 - State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations. 39.11 Section 39.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  12. 38 CFR 39.11 - State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State or Tribal Organization to retain control of operations. 39.11 Section 39.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  13. Mosul Air Traffic Control Tower and Navigational Aids, Mosul, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-25

    Range ( DVOR ) • Ground-to-air radio communications systems • Glide-Slope/Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) Lights • Wind Direction Indicator...16 • Doppler VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range ( DVOR ) • Glide-Slope/Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) Lights • Wind Direction Indicator...Contractor Quality Control DVOR Doppler VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range ER Engineering Regulation FOB Forward Operating Base GRN Gulf Region North

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in east Africa: challenges and possibilities for prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Mhalu, F S; Lyamuya, E

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency infection and AIDS are a major recent microbial infection in east Africa with serious health and socioeconomic impacts in the region. At present HIV infection and AIDS account for more than 50% of adult medical admissions into some of the national and provincial hospitals as well as for 10-15% of paediatric admissions. AIDS is also at present the commonest cause of death among those aged 15-45 years. Tuberculosis, a closely associated disease to HIV infection, has increased more than three fold in some countries in the region. The prevalence of HIV infection currently ranges from 10-30% among adults in urban areas and from less than 1% to 25% in adults in rural areas; since this prevalence is still rising, the full impact of the AIDS problem in east Africa is yet to be realised. This is different from the situation in many developed countries where AIDS is no longer a priority health issue and where peak prevalences of the infection have been reached. The differences in HIV prevalences between east Africa and developed countries are due to poverty, ignorance, high prevalence of other STDs and associated cultural and traditional practices which prevail and facilitate HIV transmission in the region. While more than 80% of HIV infection in east Africa is transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, 5-15% of cases are perinatally transmitted and the remaining cases are transmitted through blood and blood products. While a lot of scientific advances have been made in immunopathology of AIDS, diagnostics and in social behavioural studies, we are still a long way towards getting curative therapy and or effective preventive vaccines. Recent discovery that use of zidovudine can significantly reduce perinatal HIV transmission is an additional breakthrough. While knowledge and tools for preventing HIV transmission are available in the world, prospects for AIDS control in east Africa appear gloomy unless major efforts are made in the reduction of

  15. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  16. Computer-Aided Air-Traffic Control In The Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    Developmental computer-aided system for automated management and control of arrival traffic at large airport includes three integrated subsystems. One subsystem, called Traffic Management Advisor, another subsystem, called Descent Advisor, and third subsystem, called Final Approach Spacing Tool. Data base that includes current wind measurements and mathematical models of performances of types of aircraft contributes to effective operation of system.

  17. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. 68.415 Section 68.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK...

  18. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards. 68.317 Section 68.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK...

  19. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  20. Pilot test of a patient decision aid about liver transplant organ quality.

    PubMed

    Volk, Michael L; Roney, Meghan; Fagerlin, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Prior studies have shown that patients are reluctant to accept donor-specific risks, and transplant professionals lack an effective and time-efficient means of obtaining informed consent. We designed and pilot-tested a Web-based patient decision aid (DA) on organ quality. The DA was administered to 53 liver transplant candidates (median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score = 14, range = 7-26), and they took a mean of 15 minutes to complete it. Questions about knowledge and attitudes were asked before and after the DA. Subjects' knowledge improved, with 53% and 60% correctly answering questions about hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus transmission before the DA and 94% and 100%, respectively, correctly answering them afterward (P < 0.001). The accuracy of mortality prediction also improved from a mean 3-month mortality estimate of 22% before the DA to 12% afterward (P < 0.001). After the DA, subjects felt that it was more likely that they might be offered a less-than-perfect liver (P = 0.001), and they were more likely to consider accepting such a liver (P < 0.001). In conclusion, implementing a Web-based patient DA is feasible and improves knowledge among liver transplant candidates. The use of this tool may decrease candidates' reluctance to accept extended criteria organs.

  1. Computer aided design of digital controller for radial active magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Zhong; Shen, Zupei; Zhang, Zuming; Zhao, Hongbin

    1992-01-01

    A five degree of freedom Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system is developed which is controlled by digital controllers. The model of the radial AMB system is linearized and the state equation is derived. Based on the state variables feedback theory, digital controllers are designed. The performance of the controllers are evaluated according to experimental results. The Computer Aided Design (CAD) method is used to design controllers for magnetic bearings. The controllers are implemented with a digital signal processing (DSP) system. The control algorithms are realized with real-time programs. It is very easy to change the controller by changing or modifying the programs. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of the controlled magnetic system, a special experiment was carried out. Also, the online Recursive Least Squares (RLS) parameter identification method is studied. It can be realized with the digital controllers. Online parameter identification is essential for the realization of an adaptive controller.

  2. Use of computer aided drafting for analysis and control of posture in manual work.

    PubMed

    Ulin, S S; Armstrong, T J; Radwin, R G

    1990-06-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) in conjunction with digitised anthropometric manikins can be used for analysis and control of stressful work postures, one of the most frequently cited occupational risk factors of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. This paper describes the use of macros for manipulating manikins and workstation components and for designing the workplace. AutoCAD, a popular computer aided design software package, was used to demonstrate the feasibility of these concepts. Specifically, macros are used for drawing work equipment using parametric designs, manipulating manikins and analysing jobs. In comparing the macros to the use of primitive CAD commands, the macros not only decrease the amount of time needed to create workstation components, but they also make the task easier for the user and decrease the risk of errors. Despite the limitation of anthropometric data and manikins, CAD is an effective method for identifying postural stresses and redesigning the workstation to control the identified stresses.

  3. Umbanda healers as effective AIDS educators: case-control study in Brazilian urban slums (favelas).

    PubMed

    Nations, M K; de Souza, M A

    1997-01-01

    During a 12-month period (November 1994-October 1995), Afro-Brazilian Umbanda healers (Pais-de-Santo) taught 126 fellow healers from 51 Umbanda centres (terreiros) located in seven overcrowded slums (favelas) (population 104-343) in Brazil's northeast, the biomedical prevention of AIDS, including safe sex practices, avoidance of ritual blood behaviours and sterilization of cutting instruments. A face-to-face educational intervention by healers, marginalized in society yet respected by devotees, which blended traditional healing-its language, codes, symbols and images- and scientific medicine and addressed social injustices and discrimination was utilized in this project supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, National Program in STDs/AIDS. Significant increases (P < 0.001) in AIDS awareness, knowledge about risky HIV behaviour, information about correct condom use, and acceptance of lower-risk, alternative ritual blood practices and decreases (P < 0.001) in prejudicial attitudes related to HIV transmission were found among mobilized healers as compared to 100 untrained controls. Respected Afro-Brazilian Pais-de-Santo can be creative and effective partners in national HIV prevention programmes when they are equipped with biomedical information about AIDS.

  4. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    PubMed

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution.

  5. Time, dual roles, and departments of public health: lessons learned in CBPR by an AIDS service organization.

    PubMed

    Cole, Christopher A; Edelman, E Jennifer; Boshnack, Nicholas; Jenkins, Heidi; Richardson, Wanda; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to inform the development and implementation of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment strategies. However, there is a paucity of literature describing CBPR from the perspective of community-based organizations (CBOs), specifically AIDS service organizations (ASO). Focusing on the perspective of the executive director (ED) from the partnering ASO, we describe in this paper lessons learned during Project Counseling Others About Contacts and Exposures with HIV (COACH), a CBPR, qualitative study intended to examine perspectives and experiences of professionals and clients regarding partner notification (PN) for HIV. Specifically, we describe opportunities and challenges associated with the time investment, balancing a dual role of service provider and researcher, and partnering with the department of public health. This description of the perspective of the ED from the ASO and the associated lessons learned may inform the actions of other CBOs, including ASOs, considering partnering with academic institutions for CBPR.

  6. Setting AIDS priorities: the need for a closer alliance of public health and clinical approaches toward the control of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, K

    1988-01-01

    The approach to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) taken by public health departments and clinicians varies. Public health programs often neglect the human side of AIDS while clinicians often overlook public health issues. Current research on AIDS has failed to address many fundamental questions including: the biology of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in semen; whether present antiretroviral therapy has any effect on sexual infectivity; and whether adequate counseling was given to persons in HIV discordant partner studies. These unanswered basic questions highlight how research efforts framed from clinical, basic science, or public health viewpoints may have too narrow a focus. Three suggestions are made: 1) additional studies about the biology of HIV in the genital tract need to be conducted; 2) clinical trials studying drug therapy of HIV infection need to assess effect on HIV in the genital tract; 3) clinicians involved in studies and care of HIV infection need to implement educational strategies minimizing transmission of HIV from their patients. More interaction between public health and clinical approaches toward AIDS is needed. PMID:3407822

  7. Spatially controlled amyloid reactions using organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Hammarström, Per; Berggren, Magnus; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2010-10-04

    Abnormal protein aggregates, so called amyloid fibrils, are mainly known as pathological hallmarks of a wide range of diseases, but in addition these robust well-ordered self-assembled natural nanostructures can also be utilized for creating distinct nanomaterials for bioelectronic devices. However, current methods for producing amyloid fibrils in vitro offer no spatial control. Herein, we demonstrate a new way to produce and spatially control the assembly of amyloid-like structures using an organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) to pump distinct cations to a reservoir containing a negatively charged polypeptide. The morphology and kinetics of the created proteinaceous nanomaterials depends on the ion and current used, which we leveraged to create layers incorporating different conjugated thiophene derivatives, one fluorescent (p-FTAA) and one conducting (PEDOT-S). We anticipate that this new application for the OEIP will be useful for both biological studies of amyloid assembly and fibrillogenesis as well as for creating new bioelectronic nanomaterials and devices.

  8. Methods and software tools for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance, navigation and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somov, Yevgeny; Oparin, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    We shortly present results on development and employment of the software systems for computer-aided design of the spacecraft guidance. navigation and control systems - modeling, synthesis, nonlinear analysis, simulation and graphic mapping of dynamic processes.

  9. Design of a controlled-brake orthosis for FES-aided gait.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, M; Durfee, W K

    1996-03-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a means of restoring gait to individuals with spinal cord injury, but the performance of most FES-aided gait systems is hampered by the rapid muscle fatigue which results from stimulated muscle contraction and the inadequate control of joint torques necessary to produce desired limb trajectories. The controlled-brake orthosis (CBO) addresses these limitations by utilizing FES in combination with a long-leg brace that contains controllable friction brakes at the knees and hips. A laboratory version of the CBO utilizing computer-controlled magnetic particle brakes at the joints was designed and constructed, and preliminary results with a single spinal cord injury (SCI) subject have demonstrated reduced fatigue and more repeatable gait trajectories when compared to FES-aided gait without the brace. Significant work remains to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept across a wide range of SCI subjects and to design a system which meets appropriate user requirements of size, weight, cosmesis, ease of use and cost. The primary purpose of the paper is to detail the design of the CBO.

  10. Environment-sensitive manipulator control. [real time, decision making computer aided control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Environment-sensitive manipulator control (control systems capable of controlling manipulator motion based on real-time response to sensor data obtained during the attempt to perform a requested task) is described, and experiments on (1) proximity control in manipulation and (2) application of an articulated and adaptively controlled hand-to-environment-sensitive manipulator control are reported. The efficiency of such systems is determined by the separation of control and data processing functions between operator and computer.

  11. Current status of HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: how effective are control strategies?

    PubMed

    Mbanya, Dora; Sama, Martyn; Tchounwou, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Nearly three decades after its discovery, HIV infection remains the number one killer disease in Sub- Saharan Africa where up to 67% of the world's 33 million infected people live. In Cameroon, based on a Demographic Health Survey carried out in 2004, the national HIV prevalence is estimated at 5.5% with women and youths being predominantly infected. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) from the HIV and AIDS pandemic have increased steadily over the years; hospital occupancy is estimated at about 30%, hence stretching the health system; co-infections like HIV/tuberculosis have been reported to reach 40-50% of infected cases and 95% of teachers are said not to be productive on several counts. Thus, the impact is multi-sectorial. Furthermore, the HIV epidemic in Cameroon is peculiar because of the wide HIV-1 genetic diversity of HIV-1 Group M observed with several subtypes reported (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K), predominantly subtype A. There are also circulating recombinant forms, mainly CRF02_AG. In addition, HIV-1 Groups O and N have all been noted in Cameroon. These findings have great implications not only for HIV diagnosis, but also for responsiveness to therapy as well as for vaccine development. In 1986, the initial response of the Cameroon government to the increasing trends in the HIV/AIDS infection was to create a National AIDS Control Committee to coordinate a national AIDS programme. By 2000, the first National Strategic Plan was drawn for 2000-2005. The second National Strategic Plan for 2006-2010 is currently being implemented and covers various axes. Some results obtained show that there has been significantly positive outcomes noted in the various arms of intervention by the Cameroon government.

  12. Paradoxes and asymmetries of transnational networks: a comparative case study of Mexico's community-based AIDS organizations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2008-02-01

    This article examines whether transnational networks reconfigure state-civil society relationships in ways that lead to civil society empowerment and increased organizational capacity to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mexico. Using a comparative case study, I identify the types of transnational networks and exchanges that both help and hinder community-based HIV/AIDS organizations (CBOs) that provide AIDS prevention and treatment services in Tijuana and Mexico City. Data derive from over 50 formal interviews, organizational documents and archival records, and observation. I argue that the form and function of transnational networks is shaped by the geo-political context of local organizational fields and that, in turn, transnational networks provide innovative opportunities for civil society-state partnerships that favor some local organizations over others. Ultimately, I take apart the prevailing assumption that transnational networks are inherently good, and show how they can (re)produce inter-organizational stratification at the local level. The conclusions of this research are helpful to international health practitioners and social scientists seeking to understand how civil society's participation in transnational networks can both challenge and reproduce existing community-state power regimes and health inequities.

  13. AIDS and the lung. 1--AIDS, aprons, and elbow grease: preventing the nosocomial spread of human immunodeficiency virus and associated organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, P J; Collins, J V

    1989-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) other than by direct inoculation or sexual contact is extremely rare. HIV has, however, been found on fibreoptic bronchoscopes used on patients with AIDS and there is a clear theoretical risk of transmission by bronchoscopy. Applied experiments have underlined the importance of cleaning equipment thoroughly and have shown the limitations of disinfection. Infection control policies should be revised to meet the following four basic requirements: (1) all precautions should apply to all patients alike--that is, whether infectious or not; (2) equipment should be cleaned thoroughly in detergent immediately after use to remove body secretions and reduce contamination; (3) staff who may be exposed to body secretions should wear simple barrier clothing routinely; and (4) contaminated bronchoscopes should be disinfected for 20 minutes in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde after cleaning. PMID:2688178

  14. Flexible Organic Transistors with Controlled Nanomorphology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung Hoon; Hsu, Ben B Y; Patel, Shrayesh N; Labram, John; Luo, Chan; Bazan, Guillermo C; Heeger, Alan J

    2016-01-13

    We report the controlled nanomorphology of semiconducting polymers on chemically and mechanically stable nanogrooved polymer substrates. By employing silicon dioxide thin films with finely adjusted thicknesses on nanogrooved polymer substrates, semiconducting polymer thin films oriented and aligned along the nanogrooves were obtained. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) fabricated from the oriented semiconducting polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo-[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), yielded saturation hole mobilities as high as 19.3 cm(2) V(-1 )s(-1), and the flexible "plastic" transistors demonstrated excellent mechanical stability under various bending conditions. These results represent important progress for solution-processed flexible OFETs and demonstrate that directed self-assembly of semiconducting polymers can be achieved by soft nanostructures.

  15. Organic photovoltaic cells with controlled polarization sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Awartani, Omar; O'Connor, Brendan T.; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2014-03-03

    In this study, we demonstrate linearly polarized organic photovoltaic cells with a well-controlled level of polarization sensitivity. The polarized devices were created through the application of a large uniaxial strain to the bulk heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene):Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) film and printing the plastically deformed active layer onto a PEDOT:PSS and indium tin oxide coated glass substrate. The P3HT:PCBM layer is processed such that it is able to accommodate high strains (over 100%) without fracture. After printing the strained films, thermal annealing is used to optimize solar cell performance while maintaining polarization sensitivity. A dichroic ratio and short circuit current ratio of ≈6.1 and ≈1.6 were achieved, respectively.

  16. Service Priorities and Unmet Service Needs Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Results from a Nationwide Interview of HIV/AIDS Housing Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Carter A.; White, Angela C.; Finitsis, David; Pishori, Alefiyah; Hernandez, Dominica; Kelly, David M.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Turcios-Cotto, Viana; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Kane, Sister Ann; Lanouette, Gertrude A.

    2014-01-01

    Housing for people living with HIV/AIDS has been linked to a number of positive physical and mental health outcomes, in addition to decreased sexual and drug-related risk behavior. The current study identified service priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS, services provided by HIV/AIDS housing agencies, and unmet service needs for people living with HIV/AIDS through a nationwide telephone survey of HIV/AIDS housing agencies in the United States. Housing, alcohol/drug treatment, and mental health services were identified as the three highest priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS and assistance finding employment, dental care, vocational assistance, and mental health services were the top needs not being met. Differences by geographical region were also examined. Findings indicate that while housing affords people living with HIV/AIDS access to services, there are still areas (e.g., mental health services) where gaps in linkages to care exist. PMID:23305552

  17. [Emission control way of volatile organic compounds in industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zou, Lan; Zhang, Ming-Hui

    2011-12-01

    Due to the volatile nature, the way of controlling way of VOCs was different from other atmospheric pollutants. By analyzing the emission characteristics of VOCs, four kinds of control way were proposed, which were the source control, organized emission control, fugitive emission control and the total amount control, and the control modes of each control way were also analyzed and compared.

  18. Advantages and Disadvantages for Receiving Internet-Based HIV/AIDS Interventions at Home or at Community Based Organization

    PubMed Central

    Green, Shana M.; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years public health interventions have become technologically based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions. The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to effective behavioral interventions like Healthy Relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based Healthy Relationships Video Groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages, disadvantages and overall preference for home or agency delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective. PMID:26357907

  19. Advantages and disadvantages for receiving Internet-based HIV/AIDS interventions at home or at community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Green, Shana M; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years, public health interventions have become technology based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions (EBIs). The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to EBIs such as healthy relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based healthy relationships video groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community-based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of home or CBO delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure, and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall, privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective.

  20. 22 CFR 228.13 - Foreign government-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign government-controlled organizations... Service Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.13 Foreign government-controlled organizations... organizations) in which foreign governments or their agents or agencies have a controlling interest are...

  1. Stochastic control of light UAV at landing with the aid of bearing-only observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris

    2015-12-01

    This work considers the tracking of the UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle) at landing on unprepared field. Despite the advantages in UAV guidance the autonomous landing remains to be one of most serious problems. The principal difficulties are the absence of the precise UAV position measurements with respect to the landing field and the action of external atmospheric perturbations (turbulence and wind). So the control problem for UAV landing is the nonlinear stochastic one with incomplete information. The aim of the article is the development of stochastic control algorithms based on pseudomeasurement Kalman filter in the problem of the UAV autonomous landing with the aid of ground-based optical/radio radars in the case of strong wind and large initial error of the UAV entrance into the area covered by radars. The novelty of the article is the joint control-observation algorithm based on unbiased pseudomeasurement Kalman filter which provides the quadratic characteristics of the estimation errors. The later property is highly important for the UAV control based on the data fusion from INS (inertial navigation system) and the bearing observations obtained from external terrain based locators. The principal difficulty in the UAV landing control is the absence of the direct control tools at the terrain end, so the possible control can be based on the angular-range data obtained by terrain locators which must be transmitted from terrain location station to the UAV control unit. Thus the stochastic approach looks very effective in this challenging problem of the UAV landing.

  2. How organic molecules can control electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Vilan, Ayelet; Cahen, David

    2002-01-01

    This article examines a somewhat counter-intuitive approach to molecular-based electronic devices. Control over the electronic energy levels at the surfaces of conventional semiconductors and metals is achieved by assembling on the solid surfaces, poorly organized, partial monolayers (MLs) of molecules instead of the more commonly used ideal ones. Once those surfaces become interfaces, these layers exert electrostatic rather than electrodynamic control over the resulting devices, based on both electrical monopole and dipole effects of the molecules. Thus electronic transport devices, incorporating molecules, can be constructed without current flow through the molecules. This is illustrated for a gallium arsenide (GaAs) sensor as well as for gold-silicon (Au-Si) and Au-GaAs diodes. Incorporating molecules into solid interfaces becomes possible, using a 'soft' electrical contacting procedure, so as not to damage the molecules. Because there are only a few molecular restrictions, this approach opens up possibilities for the use of more complex (including biologically active) molecules as it circumvents requirements for ideal MLs and for molecules that can tolerate actual electron transport through them.

  3. AIDS and UK respiratory physicians: attitudes to confidentiality, infection control, and management.

    PubMed Central

    Church, S; Owen, S; Woodcock, A A

    1990-01-01

    Respiratory physicians are concerned in the management of most patients with AIDS. Attitudes and practices of 463 respiratory physicians in the United Kingdom in relation to confidentiality, infection control, and treatment were sought by questionnaire from December 1987 to March 1988; 266 replies were received. Thirty eight per cent of respondents had not seen an HIV positive patient at the time of the survey. Respiratory physicians followed General Medical Council guidelines in relation to consent and confidentiality, except that if the patient's consent was withheld three quarters of the physicians would still inform an at risk hospital health care worker; only a quarter, however, would inform an at risk spouse. Routine infection control was frequently inadequate and "disease specific"--that is, substantially increased for known HIV positive patients. Given an HIV positive patient with respiratory symptoms and an abnormal chest radiograph, two thirds of respiratory physicians said that they would treat empirically for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia as opposed to immediate bronchoscopy for accurate diagnosis. If a patient with AIDS who had pneumocystis pneumonia developed respiratory failure, half the physicians said at that time that they would elect not to ventilate the patient. PMID:2321178

  4. Optimal control of a two-strain tuberculosis-HIV/AIDS co-infection model.

    PubMed

    Agusto, F B; Adekunle, A I

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). The risk for TB infection greatly increases with HIV infection; TB disease occurs in 7-10% of patients with HIV infection each year, increasing the potential for transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. In this paper a deterministic model is presented and studied for the transmission of TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection. Optimal control theory is then applied to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of the disease using treatment of infected individuals with TB as the system control variables. Various combination strategies were examined so as to investigate the impact of the controls on the spread of the disease. And incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to investigate the cost effectiveness of all the control strategies. Our results show that the implementation of the combination strategy involving the prevention of treatment failure in drug-sensitive TB infectious individuals and the treatment of individuals with drug-resistant TB is the most cost-effective control strategy. Similar results were obtained with different objective functionals involving the minimization of the number of individuals with drug-sensitive TB-only and drug-resistant TB-only with the efforts involved in applying the control.

  5. Getting Involved: Exploring Latino GBT Volunteerism and Activism in AIDS and LGBT Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Vázquez, Raquel; Benjamin, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the community involvement (e.g., volunteerism, activism) of Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons (GBT) in two areas: AIDS/GLBT and other general causes. Drawing from volunteering and identity theories, we explore: Who is likely to get involved? What factors affect variation in the levels of involvement? Where do Latino GBT participate and what do they do? Data come from a cross-sectional sample (N=643) of Latino GBT in Chicago and San Francisco. We find high levels of involvement, but primarily focused on AIDS/GLBT. Involvement appears to be driven by income, early involvement, role modeling, and childhood stigmatization of gender nonconformity. PMID:26451081

  6. Validation of space/ground antenna control algorithms using a computer-aided design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1995-01-01

    The validation of the algorithms for controlling the space-to-ground antenna subsystem for Space Station Alpha is an important step in assuring reliable communications. These algorithms have been developed and tested using a simulation environment based on a computer-aided design tool that can provide a time-based execution framework with variable environmental parameters. Our work this summer has involved the exploration of this environment and the documentation of the procedures used to validate these algorithms. We have installed a variety of tools in a laboratory of the Tracking and Communications division for reproducing the simulation experiments carried out on these algorithms to verify that they do meet their requirements for controlling the antenna systems. In this report, we describe the processes used in these simulations and our work in validating the tests used.

  7. Certified Nurses' Aide Job-Related Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This document, which is designed for students preparing to become a certified nurses' aide, contains instructional text and learning activities organized in nine sections. The following topics are covered: the role of the certified nurse's aide (job duties, personal health, professionalism, code of ethics); infection control (the infection…

  8. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  9. Computer-aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  10. Computer aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  11. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Rodrick M; Fullilove, Mindy T; Fullilove, Robert E; Wallace, Deborah N

    2007-02-26

    We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking--essentially an institutional collective consciousness--while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience--dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

  12. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: Understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Rodrick M; Fullilove, Mindy T; Fullilove, Robert E; Wallace, Deborah N

    2007-01-01

    We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking – essentially an institutional collective consciousness – while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience – dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States. PMID:17324268

  13. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  14. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  15. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  16. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  17. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  18. Politics and poker--two game plans shape up in AIDS-control strategy.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A line from the song 'Politics and Poker,' from the Broadway musical Fiorello, goes: 'Neither game's for children, either game is rough. Decisions, decisions, like who to pick, how to bet, how to play, how to call a bluff.' Events in recent months, leading up to and following the release of CCD's recommendations for preventing transmission of HIV to patients by health care workers, can be characterized as a nation playing both games in trying to deal with undefinable or unexplainable risks of AIDS transmission. The nation seems split between those who favor politically astute (though not necessarily logically or ethically sound) solutions, and those who believe that HIV-infected practitioners must make decisions on testing, disclosure, and changes in practice based on a rational assessment of each individual case--factoring in the odds of viral transmission, the chance of losing a career, the interpretation of risk, adherence to stringent infection control technique, timing, patient confidence, and peer support. Ether one is a gamble. This special issue of Hospital Ethics takes a look at the politics and poker of AIDS testing and disclosure, with special attention to the kinds of advice being offered to hospitals as they develop policies on infected health care workers.

  19. Organic weed control for cantaloupe methods comparison trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective weed control is needed for successful melon production. Synthetic herbicides that are available for non-organic melon production cannot be used in organic production. In addition to organic producers' needs, herbicide use is not always practical in many garden situations, whether organic o...

  20. Methodology for assessing the performance of urine absorbing aids in controlling malodour release.

    PubMed

    Sironi, S; Capelli, L; Dentoni, L; Del Rosso, R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of comparing the performance of different absorbent aids in terms of odour control by discussing a suitable methodology for product evaluation. To overcome the problems of low test reproducibility owing to biological urine variability, the first step of the work consisted of the identification and the production of artificial urine having a constant and stable composition over time, moreover preventing sensorial assessors from any risk of biological contamination. Sensorial measurements were performed to optimize the similarity between artificial and biological urine, especially as far as the composition of the volatile component and therefore of the odour properties are concerned. The assessment of absorbent articles performance to control urine malodour includes both the concentration and the hedonic tone of the odour released by the article itself loaded with synthetic urine. Analyses were run on different products, which can be grouped into two different classes: absorbing aids with or without odour control technology (OCT) respectively. Results show that, despite of the presence or absence of OCT on absorbing products, their odour concentrations are almost identical, being comprised between 10 000 and 12 000 ouE m(-3) . For this reason, it is evident that odour concentration is not suitable as the sole parameter for comparison of different absorbing products. Instead, the hedonic odour tone (odour pleasantness/unpleasantness) relevant to the different product typologies (that is products with and without OCT) should be used as an additional discriminating factor for this kind of comparative tests.

  1. Computer-aided drug discovery research at a global contract research organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchen, Douglas B.

    2016-11-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery started at Albany Molecular Research, Inc in 1997. Over nearly 20 years the role of cheminformatics and computational chemistry has grown throughout the pharmaceutical industry and at AMRI. This paper will describe the infrastructure and roles of CADD throughout drug discovery and some of the lessons learned regarding the success of several methods. Various contributions provided by computational chemistry and cheminformatics in chemical library design, hit triage, hit-to-lead and lead optimization are discussed. Some frequently used computational chemistry techniques are described. The ways in which they may contribute to discovery projects are presented based on a few examples from recent publications.

  2. Computer-aided drug discovery research at a global contract research organization.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Douglas B

    2016-11-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery started at Albany Molecular Research, Inc in 1997. Over nearly 20 years the role of cheminformatics and computational chemistry has grown throughout the pharmaceutical industry and at AMRI. This paper will describe the infrastructure and roles of CADD throughout drug discovery and some of the lessons learned regarding the success of several methods. Various contributions provided by computational chemistry and cheminformatics in chemical library design, hit triage, hit-to-lead and lead optimization are discussed. Some frequently used computational chemistry techniques are described. The ways in which they may contribute to discovery projects are presented based on a few examples from recent publications.

  3. Use of graphics in decision aids for telerobotic control: (Parts 5-8 of an 8-part MIT progress report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Thomas B.; Roseborough, James B.; Das, Hari; Chin, Kan-Ping; Inoue, Seiichi

    1989-01-01

    Four separate projects recently completed or in progress at the MIT Man-Machine Systems Laboratory are summarized. They are: a decision aid for retrieving a tumbling satellite in space; kinematic control and graphic display of redundant teleoperators; real time terrain/object generation: a quad-tree approach; and two dimensional control for three dimensional obstacle avoidance.

  4. Hoist the mainsail! The use of standardised colour-coded sloops to aid vascular control in head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Opie, N J; Burnham, R; Kamel, S; Walton, G

    2011-11-01

    The authors have adopted a set pattern of colour coded vascular sloops that they use to identify and isolate vital structures in the head and neck. This simple and cost-effective technique aids vascular control and has applications in elective head and neck surgery, as well as in controlling haemorrhage secondary to trauma.

  5. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  6. Optimal Control of HIV/AIDS in the Workplace in the Presence of Careless Individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamical system is proposed and qualitatively analyzed to study the dynamics of HIV/AIDS in the workplace. The disease-free equilibrium point of the model is shown to be locally asymptotically stable if the basic reproductive number, ℛ0, is less than unity and the model is shown to exhibit a unique endemic equilibrium when the basic reproductive number is greater than unity. It is shown that, in the absence of recruitment of infectives, the disease is eradicated when ℛ0 < 1, whiles the disease is shown to persist in the presence of recruitment of infected persons. The basic model is extended to include control efforts aimed at reducing infection, irresponsibility, and nonproductivity at the workplace. This leads to an optimal control problem which is qualitatively analyzed using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP). Numerical simulation of the resulting optimal control problem is carried out to gain quantitative insights into the implications of the model. The simulation reveals that a multifaceted approach to the fight against the disease is more effective than single control strategies. PMID:25097663

  7. Intelligent tutoring and aiding in satellite ground control. Ph.D. Thesis - Georgia Inst. of Tech., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Rose W.; Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    In supervisory control systems such as satellite ground control, there is a need for human-centered automation where the focus is to understand and enhance the human-system interaction experience in the complex task environment. Operator support in the form of off-line intelligent tutoring and on-line intelligent aiding is one approach towards this effort. The tutor/aid paradigm is proposed here as a design approach that integrates the two aspects of operator support in one system for technically oriented adults in complex domains. This paper also presents GT-VITA, a proof-of-concept graphical, interactive, intelligent tutoring system that is a first attempt to illustrate the tutoring aspect of the tutor/aid paradigm in the domain of satellite ground control. Evaluation on GT-VITA is conducted with NASA personnel with very positive results. GT-VITA is presented being fielded as it is at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  8. Enhancing Community-Based Organizations' Capacity for HIV/AIDS Education and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Robert M.; Daniels, Pamela; Yancey, Elleen M.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Berry, Jamillah; Clark, Nicole; Dawaghreh, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic potential of community-based organizations to promote health, prevent disease, and address racial, ethnic, and socio-economic disparities in local communities is well recognized. However, many CBOs, particularly, small- to medium-size organizations, lack the capacity to plan, implement, and evaluate their successes. Moreover, little…

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs

  10. Genes and functions controlled by floral organ identity genes.

    PubMed

    Sablowski, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Floral organ identity genes specify the identity of floral organs in a manner analogous to the specification of body segments by Hox genes in animals. Different combinations of organ identity genes co-ordinate the expression of genes required for the development of each type of floral organ, from organ initiation until final differentiation. Here, I review what is known about the genes and functions subordinate to the organ identity genes. The sets of target genes change as organ development progresses and ultimately organ identity genes modify the expression of thousands of genes with a multitude of predicted functions, particularly in reproductive organs. However, genes involved in transcriptional control and hormone functions feature prominently among the early and direct targets. Functional analysis showed that control of organ-specific tissues and structures can be delegated to specialised intermediate regulators, but organ identity genes also fine-tune genes with general roles in shoot organ development, consistent with the notion that organ identity genes modify a core leaf-like developmental program. Future challenges include obtaining data with cellular resolution, predictive modelling of the regulatory network, and quantitative analysis of how organ identity genes and their targets control cell behaviour and ultimately organ shape.

  11. The dynamics of orbital maneuvering: Design and evaluation of a visual display aid for human controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive proximity operations planning system, which allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient, multi-burn maneuvers in a potential multi-spacecraft environment was developed and tested. Though this display system most directly assists planning by providing visual feedback to aid visualization of the trajectories and constraints, its most significant features include an inverse dynamics algorithm that removes control nonlinearities facing the operator and a trajectory planning technique that reduces the order of control and creates, through a geometric spread-sheet the illusion of an inertially stable environment. This synthetic environment provides the user with control of relevant static and dynamic properties of way-points during small orbital changes allowing independent solutions to the normally coupled problems of orbital maneuvering. An experiment was carried out in which experienced operators were required to plan a trajectory to retrieve an object accidently separated from a dual-keel space station. The time required to plan these maneuvers was found to be predicted by the direction of the insertion thrust and did not depend on the point of separation from the space station.

  12. Use of online safety decision aid by abused women: effect on decisional conflict in randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eden, Karen B.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Messing, Jill T.; Bloom, Tina L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Gielen, Andrea C.; Clough, Amber S.; Barnes-Hoyt, Jamie S.; Glass, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An Internet safety decision aid was developed to help abused women understand their risk for repeat and near-lethal intimate partner violence, clarify priorities related to safety, and develop an action plan customized to these priorities. Purpose The overall purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a safety decision aid compared with usual safety planning (control) delivered through a secure website, using a multi-state randomized controlled trial design. The paper evaluated the effectiveness of the safety decision aid in reducing decisional conflict after a single use by abused women. Design Randomized controlled trial referred to as IRIS, Internet Resource for Intervention and Safety Participants Abused women who spoke English (N = 708) were enrolled in a four-state, randomized controlled trial. Intervention and Control The intervention was an interactive safety decision aid with personalized safety plan; the control condition was usual safety planning resources. Both were delivered to participants through the secure study website. Main Outcome Measures This paper compared women’s decisional conflict about safety: total decisional conflict and the four subscales of this measure (feeling: uninformed, uncertain, unclear about safety priorities; and sensing lack of support) between intervention/control conditions. Data were collected 3/2011–5/2013 and analyzed 1/2014–3/2014. Results Immediately following the first use of the interactive safety decision aid, intervention women had significantly lower total decisional conflict than control women, controlling for baseline value of decisional conflict (p=0.002, effect size=.12). After controlling for baseline values, the safety decision aid group had significantly greater reduction in feeling uncertain (p=0.006, effect size=.07), and in feeling unsupported (p=0.008, effect size=.07) about safety than the usual safety planning group. Conclusions Abused women randomized to the safety

  13. Keeping a tight grip on the reins: donor control over aid coordination and management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Buse, K

    1999-09-01

    A long-standing consensus that aid coordination should be owned by recipient authorities has been eclipsed by accord on the desirability of recipient management of aid along-side domestic resources. Nonetheless, in many low and lower-middle income countries, donors remain remarkably uncoordinated; where attempts at coordination are made, they are often donor-driven, and only a small proportion of aid is directly managed by recipients. This paper draws on evidence from an in-depth review of aid to the health sector in Bangladesh to analyze the systems by which external resources are managed. Based on interviews with key stakeholders, a questionnaire survey and analysis of documentary sources, the factors constraining the government from assuming a more active role in aid management are explored. The results suggest that donor perceptions of weak government capacity, inadequate accountability and compromised integrity only partially account for the propensity for donor leadership. Equally important is the consideration that aid coordination has a markedly political dimension. Stakeholders are well aware of the power, influence and leverage which aid coordination confers, an awareness which colours the desire of some stakeholders to lead aid coordination processes, and conditions the extent and manner by which others wish to be involved. It is argued that recipient management of external aid is dependent on major changes in the attitudes and behaviours of recipients and donors alike.

  14. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Riehman, Kara S.; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A.; Rodriguez-Garcıa, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas. PMID:23745632

  15. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Riehman, Kara S; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas.

  16. [The AIDS patient in anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Jalowy, A; Flesche, C W; Lorenz, C

    1997-02-01

    Treatment of a patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is very challenging, and makes great demands on the anaesthesiologist. Any of an AIDS patient's vital organ systems may be compromised, either by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself, opportunistic infections, by tumours, or as a result of AIDS-related drug therapies. Infections of the lungs (e.g., Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) are prevalent, and cardiac impairment can be found in as many as 50% of AIDS patients. In addition, disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system and water and electrolyte imbalances are often seen. Perioperatively, the AIDS patient is especially prone to infections as a result of a compromised immune system. The choice of anaesthetic procedure for the AIDS patient-aside from the type of operation-depends on the severity of the illness and progression of organ impairment. All anaesthesia personnel must be careful to avoid infection, as they frequently come in contact with the blood or body fluids of their patients. However, the risk of being infected by an AIDS patient is very low, provided hygiene regulations are followed strictly. The rate of seroconversion after accidental needle-stick injury is below 1%. If exposure does occur, regular serologic controls should be continued for one year. Prophylactic treatment with azidothymidine after exposition to HIV is recommended.

  17. RoCoMAR: robots' controllable mobility aided routing and relay architecture for mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Le, Duc Van; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-07-05

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  18. Psychological first aid following trauma: implementation and evaluation framework for high-risk organizations.

    PubMed

    Forbes, David; Lewis, Virginia; Varker, Tracey; Phelps, Andrea; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Wade, Darryl J; Ruzek, Josef I; Watson, Patricia; Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    International clinical practice guidelines for the management of psychological trauma recommend Psychological First Aid (PFA) as an early intervention for survivors of potentially traumatic events. These recommendations are consensus-based, and there is little published evidence assessing the effectiveness of PFA. This is not surprising given the nature of the intervention and the complicating factors involved in any evaluation of PFA. There is, nevertheless, an urgent need for stronger evidence evaluating its effectiveness. The current paper posits that the implementation and evaluation of PFA within high risk organizational settings is an ideal place to start. The paper provides a framework for a phasic approach to implementing PFA within such settings and presents a model for evaluating its effectiveness using a logic- or theory-based approach which considers both pre-event and post-event factors. Phases 1 and 2 of the PFA model are pre-event actions, and phases 3 and 4 are post-event actions. It is hoped that by using the Phased PFA model and evaluation method proposed in this paper, future researchers will begin to undertake the important task of building the evidence about the most effective approach to providing PFA in high risk organizational and community disaster settings.

  19. AIDS/other STIs prevention in China: the effect of sex worker migration and the organization of the sex industry.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Kongshao; McQuaide, Shiling

    2013-04-01

    HIV/AIDS prevention projects that pay special attention to the socio-cultural context of a community have been implemented in a number of Asian and African countries recently. Such projects integrate scientific approaches, such as condom promotion, with cultural approaches that focus on regional social norms. This paper explores effective intervention strategies in the context of sex workers' mobility patterns, and the sex industry's internal organization in China. It argues that a social network based on quasi-familial relations and regional ties recruits young women into the business, helps them move vertically as well as horizontally within the business, and facilitates the smooth operation of the business. A sound understanding of the specific characteristics of sex work in China, therefore, is instrumental in formulating effective intervention tactics.

  20. Enhancing the Capacity of Community Organizations to Evaluate HIV/AIDS Information Outreach: A Pilot Experiment in Expert Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Dancy-Scott, Nicole; Williams-Livingston, Arletha; Plumer, Andrew; Dutcher, Gale A.; Siegel, Elliot R.

    2017-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine’s AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP) supports and enables access to health information on the Internet by community-based organizations. A technical assistance (TA) model was developed to enhance the capacity of ACIOP awardees to plan, evaluate, and report the results of their funded projects. This consisted of individual Consultation offered by an experienced evaluator to advise on the suitability of proposed project plans and objectives, improve measurement analytics, assist in problem resolution and outcomes reporting, and identify other improvement possibilities. Group webinars and a moderated blog for the exchange of project-specific information were also offered. Structured data collections in the form of reports, online surveys, and key informant telephone interviews provided qualitative feedback on project progress, satisfaction with the TA, and the perceived impact of the interventions on evaluation capacity building. The Model was implemented in the 2013 funding cycle with seven organizations, and the level of reported satisfaction was uniformly high. One-on-one TA was requested by four awardee organizations, and was determined to have made a meaningful difference with three. Participation in the webinars was mandatory and high overall; and was deemed to be a useful means for delivering evaluation information. In subsequent funding cycles, submission of a Logic Model will be required of awardees as a new model intervention in the expectation that it will produce stronger proposals, and enable the evaluation consultant to identify earlier intervention opportunities leading to project improvements and evaluation capacity enhancements.

  1. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  2. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In…

  3. A Family History of Psychopathology Modifies the Decrement in Cognitive Control among Patients with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lance O.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HIV/AIDS on cognitive control and to determine if the effect is modified by familial risk for either alcohol or mood disorders. Sixty HIV-1 seropositive and 75 seronegative volunteers were assigned to four subgroups defined by the crossing of a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the…

  4. Effects of a Web-Based Decision Aid Regarding Diagnostic Self-Testing. A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickenroth, Martine H. P.; Grispen, J. E. J.; de Vries, N. K.; Dinant, G. J.; Ronda, G.; van der Weijden, T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are many diagnostic self-tests on body materials available to consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an online decision aid on diagnostic self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes on knowledge among consumers with an intention to take these tests. A randomized controlled trial was designed. A total of 1259…

  5. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  6. Computer-Aided Design of Organic Host Architectures for Selective Chemosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2009-01-01

    Selective organic hosts provide the foundation for the development of many types of sensors. The deliberate design of host molecules with predetermined selectivity, however, remains a challenge in supramolecular chemistry. To address this issue we have developed a de novo structure-based design approach for the unbiased construction of complementary host architectures. This chapter summarizes recent progress including improvements on a computer software program, HostDesigner, specifically tailored to discover host architectures for small guest molecules. HostDesigner is capable of generating and evaluating millions of candidate structures in minutes on a desktop personal computer, allowing a user to rapidly identify three-dimensional architectures that are structurally organized for binding a targeted guest species. The efficacy of this computational methodology is illustrated with a search for cation hosts containing aliphatic ether oxygen groups and anion hosts containing urea groups.

  7. Graphene nanoribbons as low band gap donor materials for organic photovoltaics: quantum chemical aided design.

    PubMed

    Osella, Silvio; Narita, Akimitsu; Schwab, Matthias Georg; Hernandez, Yenny; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Beljonne, David

    2012-06-26

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are strips of graphene cut along a specific direction that feature peculiar electronic and optical properties owing to lateral confinement effects. We show here by means of (time-dependent) density functional theory calculations that GNRs with properly designed edge structures fulfill the requirements in terms of electronic level alignment with common acceptors (namely, C(60)), solar light harvesting, and singlet-triplet exchange energy to be used as low band gap semiconductors for organic photovoltaics.

  8. AIDS Prevention and Control: Invited Presentations and Papers from the World Summit of Ministers of Health on Programmes for AIDS Prevention (London, England, January 26-28, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Papers from the World Summit of Ministers of Health on Programmes for AIDS Prevention in this book include: (1) "Global AIDS: Epidemiology, Impact, Projections, Global Strategy," (Jonathan Mann); (2) "Modes of Transmission: The Basis for Prevention Strategies," (Donald Acheson); (3) "National AIDS Information Programme in…

  9. Relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS and birth control.

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Although prior research shows that substantial proportions of African Americans hold conspiracy beliefs, little is known about the subgroups of African Americans most likely to endorse such beliefs. We examined the relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to their conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS and birth control. Anonymous telephone surveys were conducted with a targeted random-digit-dial sample of 500 African Americans (15-44 years) in the contiguous United States. Respondents reported agreement with statements capturing beliefs in HIV/AIDS conspiracies (one scale) and birth control conspiracies (two scales). Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, employment, income, number of people income supports, number of living children, marital/cohabitation status, religiosity and black identity. Multivariate analyses indicated that stronger HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs were significantly associated with male gender, black identity and lower income. Male gender and lower education were significantly related to black genocide conspiracy beliefs, and male gender and high religiosity were significantly related to contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs. The set of sociodemographic characteristics explained a moderately small amount of the variance in conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS (R2 range=0.07-0.12) and birth control (R2 range=0.05-0.09). Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not isolated to specific segments of the African-American population. PMID:16895286

  10. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  11. Controlling organic magnetoresistance via interface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, C. A.; Jang, H.-J.; Pookpanratana, S. J.; Basham, J. I.; Hacker, C. A.; Kirillov, O. A.; Kline, R. J.; Jurchescu, O. D.; Gundlach, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of experiments in which we manipulate organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) in devices based on Alq3 (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum) and TPD (N,N '-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N '-diphenylbenzidine) by adding a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The results of OMAR measurements on this OLED-like architecture are correlated with impedance spectroscopy results to elucidate charge carrier transport and accumulation. We observe competing OMAR mechanisms in these devices, the relative strength of which can be tuned by adding SAMs at electrode interfaces. To determine how the interfacial and structural properties of these organic devices effect the OMAR, we obtained a complete picture of the interfacial, topological, and crystalline properties of these devices by performing UPS (Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy), XPS (X-ray PS), XRD (X-ray diffraction), and AFM (atomic force microscopy). To verify our understanding of how interfacial changes affect OMAR, we characterized simple Alq3-only devices: one with a SAM and one without it. Despite having the same current density at room temperature, the latter shows a negative MR while the former displays a positive MR.

  12. Computer-aided drafting and design (CAD) in the Plant Engineering organization at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.T.; Knott, D.D.; Moore, M.B.

    1983-03-01

    The Plant Engineering organization at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), has been working with a CAD system for approximately 2 1/2 yr, and finds itself at a crossroads. CAD has not been a panacea to workload problems to date, and Plant Engineering commissioned a study to try to determine why and to make recommendations to management on what steps might be taken in the future. Recommendations range from making the current system more productive to enhancing it significantly with newer and more powerful graphics technology.

  13. [The impact of AIDS on the organizational development of nongovernmental organizations: a case study on Casa de Assistência Filadélfia].

    PubMed

    Bochio, Ieda Maria Siebra; Fortes, Paulo Antonio de Carvalho

    2008-11-01

    AIDS has been a unique event due not only to its devastating effects, but also to the ways in which it has stimulated solidarity and mobilization of society in the defense of the rights of persons living with HIV/AIDS and their families, friends, and contacts. Beginning as initiatives to ensure dignity in death, AIDS NGOs have undergone structural changes to respond to the demands raised by the epidemic. The current study describes the history of the Brazilian AIDS NGO "Casa de Assistência Filadélfia" in relation to the evolution of the AIDS epidemic, highlighting the issue of organizational development. A qualitative case study methodology was used, and the data were collected from document analysis and semi-structured interviews with key informants identified by the organization. Data analysis was based on the theoretical premises of organizational development and shows how the organization made the transition from the pioneering phase marked by improvisation and expanded to a phase of regulation until reaching flexibility and innovation by diversifying its projects. The study highlights the importance of organizational development as an essential element in building healthy, agile organizations in the response to their demands.

  14. An Eye-Blinking-Based Beamforming Control Protocol for Hearing Aid Users With Neurological Motor Disease or Limb Amputation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jungmin; Nam, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jun Chang; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2017-02-01

    For hearing-impaired individuals with neurological motor deficits or finger/arm amputation due to accident or disease, hearing aid adjustment using a conventional finger manipulation-based remote controller is unavailable, and a more dedicated, hands-free alternative is required. In this study, we propose an eye-blinking-based beamforming control scheme for hearing aid users. Three electroencephalogram signals measured around the ears were utilized to detect eye-blinking patterns based on a three-layer artificial neural network. The performance of the proposed control scheme was evaluated by both subjective experiments and objective index comparison tests in simulated situations. Experimental results from the subjective test demonstrated that without the pretraining phase, the accuracy and latency time were 68.57 ± 18.50% and 10.06 ± 0.94 s, respectively; in contrast, after the pretraining phase, both the accuracy and latency time were improved to 91.00 ± 4.69% and 8.60 ± 1.05 s, respectively. In index comparison tests, the proposed control scheme exhibited improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the segmental SNR in all tested situations, as compared to a conventional forward-focusing beamforming algorithm. We believe that the proposed control scheme provides a novel, hands-free way in which to control the operation of hearing aids for hearing-impaired patients with additional motor deficits or amputation.

  15. Final-Approach Spacing Aids (FASA) evaluation for terminal-area, time-based air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Capron, William R.; Lohr, Gary W.; Crawford, Daniel J.; Tang, Dershuen A.; Rodgers, William G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A jointly funded (NASA/FAA) real-time simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to gather comparative performance data among three candidate final-approach spacing aid (FASA) display formats. Several objective measures of controller performance and their display eye-scan behavior as well as subjective workload and rating questionnaires were used. For each of two representative pattern-speed procedures (a 170-knot procedure and a 210-knot procedure with speed control aiding), data were gathered, via twelve FAA controllers, using four final-controller display format conditions (manual/ARTS 3, graphic marker, DICE countdown, and centerline slot marker). Measured runway separations were more precise with both the graphic marker and DICE countdown formats than with the centerline slot marker and both (graphic and DICE) improved precision relative to the manual/ARTS 3 format. For three separate rating criteria, the subject controllers ranked the FASA formats in the same order: graphic marker, DICE countdown, and centerline slot marker. The increased precision measured with the 210-knot pattern-speed procedure may indicate the potential for the application of speed-control aiding where higher pattern speeds are practical after the base-to-final turn. Also presented are key FASA issues, a rationale for the formats selected for testing, and their description.

  16. Combining principles of Cognitive Load Theory and diagnostic error analysis for designing job aids: Effects on motivation and diagnostic performance in a process control task.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Annette; Grauel, Britta; Burkolter, Dina

    2013-03-01

    Two studies are presented in which the design of a procedural aid and the impact of an additional decision aid for process control were assessed. In Study 1, a procedural aid was developed that avoids imposing unnecessary extraneous cognitive load on novices when controlling a complex technical system. This newly designed procedural aid positively affected germane load, attention, satisfaction, motivation, knowledge acquisition and diagnostic speed for novel faults. In Study 2, the effect of a decision aid for use before the procedural aid was investigated, which was developed based on an analysis of diagnostic errors committed in Study 1. Results showed that novices were able to diagnose both novel faults and practised faults, and were even faster at diagnosing novel faults. This research contributes to the question of how to optimally support novices in dealing with technical faults in process control.

  17. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  18. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  19. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-22

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  20. Mechanical control of tissue and organ development

    PubMed Central

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Ingber, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Many genes and molecules that drive tissue patterning during organogenesis and tissue regeneration have been discovered. Yet, we still lack a full understanding of how these chemical cues induce the formation of living tissues with their unique shapes and material properties. Here, we review work based on the convergence of physics, engineering and biology that suggests that mechanical forces generated by living cells are as crucial as genes and chemical signals for the control of embryological development, morphogenesis and tissue patterning. PMID:20388652

  1. [The organization of work and the mental health of nurses aides.].

    PubMed

    Billette, A; Piché, J

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this article is to focus on the problems encountered by auxiliaries collecting data within the frame work of a certain organization of work. A questionnaire was distributed to two big groups in the public sector. It was answered by three hundred and fifty auxiliaries with a 92% rate of response. In comparison with other jobs occupied by women, these auxiliaries present a much higher incidence of depressive or anxious symptoms and of drug abuse. The recourse to a regressive model helps to explain the results by the combined effect of two factors amongst others: first, by a strong pressure to perform and then by the monotony of piecework. It is possible that the alienation symbol of the last two decades is not the worker at the assembly line but, with the preponderance of computerised office, is now the woman reducing to the collection of date.

  2. Informed choice about breast cancer prevention: randomized controlled trial of an online decision aid intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tamoxifen and raloxifene are chemopreventive drugs that can reduce women's relative risk of primary breast cancer by 50%; however, most women eligible for these drugs have chosen not to take them. The reasons for low uptake may be related to women's knowledge or attitudes towards the drugs. We aimed to examine the impact of an online breast cancer chemoprevention decision aid (DA) on informed intentions and decisions of women at high risk of breast cancer. Methods We conducted a randomized clinical trial, assessing the effect of a DA about breast cancer chemoprevention on informed choices about chemoprevention. Women (n = 585), 46- to 74-years old old, completed online baseline, post-test, and three-month follow-up questionnaires. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group, a standard control group that answered questions about chemoprevention at baseline, or a three-month control group that did not answer questions about chemoprevention at baseline. The main outcome measures were whether women's intentions and decisions regarding chemoprevention drugs were informed, and whether women who viewed the DA were more likely to make informed decisions than women who did not view the DA, using a dichotomous composite variable 'informed choice' (yes/no) to classify informed decisions as those reflecting sufficient knowledge and concordance between a woman's decision and relevant attitudes. Results Analyses showed that more intervention than standard control participants (52.7% versus 5.9%) made informed decisions at post-test, P <0.001. At the three-month follow-up, differences in rates of informed choice between intervention (16.9%) and both control groups (11.8% and 8.0%) were statistically non-significant, P = 0.067. Conclusions The DA increased informed decision making about breast cancer chemoprevention, although the impact on knowledge diminished over time. This study was not designed to determine how much knowledge decision

  3. Study on the applicability of instrumental measures for black-box evaluation of static feedback control in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madhu, N; Wouters, J; Spriet, A; Bisitz, T; Hohmann, V; Moonen, M

    2011-08-01

    Presented is a report on black-box evaluation of feedback control systems for commercial hearing aids. The aim of the study is to examine the ability of existing instrumental measures to quantify the performance of the feedback control system in black-box settings and on realistic signals, when more than one element of the signal processing chain may be active (compression, noise suppression, microphone directionality, etc.). The evaluation is carried out on 6 different hearing aids and for 10 measures. Thereby it is possible to see which measure is best suited to measuring which specific characteristic of the feedback control system, and serves as a beginning for conducting perceptual tests. The study uses static (but variable) feedback paths and is based on signals recorded from the in-ear microphone of an artificial head, on which the hearing instruments are mounted.

  4. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  5. Ontology aided modeling of organic reaction mechanisms with flexible and fragment based XML markup procedures.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Aghila, Gnanasekaran

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism models for primary organic reactions encoding the structural fragments undergoing substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangements are developed. In the proposed models, each and every structural component of mechanistic pathways is represented with flexible and fragment based markup technique in XML syntax. A significant feature of the system is the encoding of the electron movements along with the other components like charges, partial charges, half bonded species, lone pair electrons, free radicals, reaction arrows, etc. needed for a complete representation of reaction mechanism. The rendering of reaction schemes described with the proposed methodology is achieved with a concise XML extension language interoperating with the structure markup. The reaction scheme is visualized as 2D graphics in a browser by converting them into SVG documents enabling the desired layouts normally perceived by the chemists conventionally. An automatic representation of the complex patterns of the reaction mechanism is achieved by reusing the knowledge in chemical ontologies and developing artificial intelligence components in terms of axioms.

  6. Signalling Pathways Controlling Cellular Actin Organization.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Anika; Stradal, Theresia E B; Rottner, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for morphogenesis and virtually all types of cell shape changes. Reorganization is per definition driven by continuous disassembly and re-assembly of actin filaments, controlled by major, ubiquitously operating machines. These are specifically employed by the cell to tune its activities in accordance with respective environmental conditions or to satisfy specific needs.Here we sketch some fundamental signalling pathways established to contribute to the reorganization of specific actin structures at the plasma membrane. Rho-family GTPases are at the core of these pathways, and dissection of their precise contributions to actin reorganization in different cell types and tissues will thus continue to improve our understanding of these important signalling nodes. Furthermore, we will draw your attention to the emerging theme of actin reorganization on intracellular membranes, its functional relation to Rho-GTPase signalling, and its relevance for the exciting phenomenon autophagy.

  7. Management Planning and Control: Supporting Knowledge-Intensive Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herremans, Irene M.; Isaac, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop propositions for empirical validation regarding appropriate management planning and control systems (MPACS) in knowledge-intensive organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The propositions were developed from interviews with members of a knowledge-intensive virtual organization that is known for…

  8. [Organization of treatment and control of type 2 diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Drivsholm, Thomas Bo; Snorgaard, Ole

    2012-09-10

    The organization of treatment and control of type 2 diabetic patients in Denmark has undergone a major development within the last decade. From being based on local hospital guidelines, treatment and control have moved towards a more organized collaboration between primary and secondary care based on common national guidelines. Quality indicators from primary and secondary care are collected routinely, and gradually an increasingly precise depiction is documented in the National Indicator Project.

  9. Predictive Mapping of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G.; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for mapping soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to predict SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to predict topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the predictive accuracy. PMID:26473739

  10. Predictive Mapping of Topsoil Organic Carbon in an Alpine Environment Aided by Landsat TM.

    PubMed

    Yang, Renmin; Rossiter, David G; Liu, Feng; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Yuguo; Li, Decheng; Zhang, Ganlin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reflectance of Landsat TM imagery for mapping soil organic Carbon (SOC) content in an Alpine environment. The studied area (ca. 3*104 km2) is the upper reaches of the Heihe River at the northeast edge of the Tibetan plateau, China. A set (105) of topsoil samples were analyzed for SOC. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models using Landsat TM imagery were built to predict SOC content, alone or with topography and climate covariates (temperature and precipitation). The best model, combining all covariates, was only marginally better than using only imagery. Imagery alone was sufficient to build a reasonable model; this was a bit better than only using topography and climate covariates. The Lin's concordance correlation coefficient values of the imagery only model and the full model are very close, larger than the topography and climate variables based model. In the full model, SOC was mainly explained by Landsat TM imagery (65% relative importance), followed by climate variables (20%) and topography (15% of relative importance). The good results from imagery are likely due to (1) the strong dependence of SOC on native vegetation intensity in this Alpine environment; (2) the strong correlation in this environment between imagery and environmental covariables, especially elevation (corresponding to temperature), precipitation, and slope aspect. We conclude that multispectral satellite data from Landsat TM images may be used to predict topsoil SOC with reasonable accuracy in Alpine regions, and perhaps other regions covered with natural vegetation, and that adding topography and climate covariables to the satellite data can improve the predictive accuracy.

  11. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS email updates Enter email Submit HIV and AIDS The human immunodeficiency (IH-myoo-noh-di-FISH- ... health Pregnancy and HIV View more HIV and AIDS resources Related information Birth control methods Sexually transmitted ...

  12. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    PubMed

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-05-08

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  13. Sensory control and organization of neural networks mediating coordination of multisegmental organs for locomotion.

    PubMed

    Büschges, Ansgar

    2005-03-01

    It is well established that locomotor patterns result from the interaction between central pattern generating networks in the nervous system, local feedback from sensory neurons about movements and forces generated in the locomotor organs, and coordinating signals from neighboring segments or appendages. This review addresses the issue of how the movements of multi-segmented locomotor organs are coordinated and provides an overview of recent advances in understanding sensory control and the internal organization of central pattern generating networks that operate multi-segmented locomotor organs, such as a walking leg. Findings from the stick insect and the cat are compared and discussed in relation to new findings on the lamprey swimming network. These findings support the notion that common schemes of sensory feedback are used for generating walking and that central neural networks controlling multi-segmented locomotor organs generally encompass multiple central pattern generating networks that correspond with the segmental structure of the locomotor organ.

  14. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Haruk, Alexander M; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M

    2015-06-11

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design.

  15. A controlled study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB intervention with faith healers in Vhembe District, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mashamba, Tshilidzi; Peltzer, Karl; Maluleke, Thelma X; Sodi, Tholene

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith healers affiliated with the United African Apostolic Church (UAAC) in the Thulamela and Musina municipalities of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 103 faith healers were included in this study, 58 were systematically assigned to an intervention and 45 to a control group. The intervention group received training for 2 days. At follow-up after 2 months, intervention effects were significant for HIV knowledge and to a lesser extent TB knowledge. No significant improvement was found in HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) management strategies such as HIV/STI risk behaviour counselling, referral of clients for HIV testing, keeping condoms at stock in church, and church community HIV/AIDS/STI education. It is important to note that faith healers address some of the major known behavioural risk and protective factors such as partner reduction and condom use. Therefore, faith healers could be more widely utilized in HIV prevention programmes as risk reduction counsellors, in particular on matters of community-level education.

  16. Joining forces for food security - Linking earth observation and crowd-sourcing for improved decision-support to aid organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enenkel, M.; Dorigo, W.; See, L. M.; Vinck, P.; Pham, P.

    2013-12-01

    Droughts statistically exceed all other natural disasters in spatio-temporal extent, number of people affected or financial loss. Triggered by crop failure, food insecurity is a major manifestation of agricultural drought and water scarcity. However, other socio-economic precursors, such as chronically low levels of disaster preparedness, hampered access to food security or a lack of social safety nets are equally important factors. Consequently, this study is focused on two complementary developments - a new satellite-derived agricultural drought index and a mobile phone application. The Combined Drought Index (CDI) is enhanced by replacing field measurements of temperature and rainfall modelled/assimilated data. The vegetation component is replaced by a smoothed NDVI dataset. A soil moisture component is introduced to close the gap between rainfall deficiencies and the first visible impacts of atmospheric anomalies on vegetation. The mobile phone application enables the validation of drought index outputs and gives aid organizations an opportunity to increase the speed of socio-economic vulnerability assessments. Supported by Doctors without Borders (MSF) this approach aims at decreasing uncertainties in decision-making via a more holistic risk framework.

  17. Perpendicular cultivation for improved weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive cultivation in organic peanut is partially effective, but in-row weed control remains problematic. In an attempt to improve in-row weed control, trials were conducted to determine the feasibility of early-season cultivation perpendicular to row direction using a tine weeder when integrate...

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? ... the ear through a speaker. How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

  19. Multi-Input/Multi-Output Designated Eigenstructure (MODES): A Computer-Aided Control System Design Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    must. introduce some tools. The first of these is known as Newton’s Formulas ( Uspensky , 1948: 261). oA 4-32 ’ */ Newton’s Formulas relate the...Academic Press, Inc., 1976. Uspensky , J.V. Theory of Equations. New York: McGraw- Hill Book Company, 1948. Walker, Robert A., et al. "Computer-Aided

  20. Self-organizing control for space-based sparse antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Jamnejad, Vaharaz; Scharf, Daniel P.; Ploen, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    An integrated control and electromagnetic/antenna formulation is presented for evaluating the performance of a distributed antenna system as a function of formation geometry. A distributed and self-organizing control law for the control law for the control of multiple antennas in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is presented. The control system provides collaborative commanding and performance optimization to configure and operate the distributed formation system. A large aperture antenna is thereby realized by a collection of miniature sparse antennas in formation. A case study consisting of a simulation of four antennas in Low Earth orbit (LEO)is presented to demonstrate the concept.

  1. Infection control in home-based care for people living with HIV/AIDS/TB in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Akintola, Olagoke; Hangulu, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of HIV and AIDS patients in sub-Saharan African countries receive health care services at home. Yet research on infection control in home-based care settings is virtually non-existent. This study explored infection control practices in home-based care in a South African province with a high HIV/TB prevalence. We conducted interviews with 10 managers of home-based care organizations and 10 focus group discussions with 80 volunteer caregivers working in high HIV/TB prevalent communities in South Africa. Findings show that volunteers had insufficient training on infection control. Materials necessary for the maintenance of hygiene and protective equipment were in short supply and the protective equipment supplied was of poor quality. Home-based care patients lived in crowded and poor conditions, and family members were negatively disposed to the use of protective devices. Together, these factors put volunteers and family caregivers at risk of infection with HIV and TB. Health policy should address the training of volunteer caregivers and the regular supply of good quality materials to ensure effective infection control. It is also important to educate families on infection control. Finally, there is a need to integrate HIV and TB control at the community level.

  2. [Definition and Control Indicators of Volatile Organic Compounds in China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Che, Fei; Zhao, Guo-hua; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the most complex of a wide range of pollutants that harms human health and ecological environment. However, various countries around the world differ on its definition and control indicators. Its definition, control indicators and monitoring methods of our country and local standards were also different. Based on detailed analysis of the definitions and control indicators of VOCs, the recommendations were proposed: the definition of VOCs should be different according to the different concerns between "air quality management" and "pollution emissions management"; base on different control way from production source, technological process, terminal emission, total discharge control, the control indicators system consists of 10 indicators; to formulate industry VOCs emissions standards, the most effective control way and indicators should be chosen according to characteristics of production process, way of VOCs emissions and possible control measures, etc.

  3. Controlling epileptiform activity with organic electronic ion pumps.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adam; Rivnay, Jonathan; Kergoat, Loïg; Jonsson, Amanda; Inal, Sahika; Uguz, Ilke; Ferro, Marc; Ivanov, Anton; Sjöström, Theresia Arbring; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G; Bernard, Christophe

    2015-05-27

    In treating epilepsy, the ideal solution is to act at a seizure's onset, but only in the affected regions of the brain. Here, an organic electronic ion pump is demonstrated, which directly delivers on-demand pure molecules to specific brain regions. State-of-the-art organic devices and classical pharmacology are combined to control pathological activity in vitro, and the results are verified with electrophysiological recordings.

  4. Robust computer-aided synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems with varying plant dynamics via AUTOCON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefkowitz, C. P.; Tekawy, J. A.; Pujara, P. K.; Safonov, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    AUTOCON is an automated computer-aided design tool for the synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems based upon user-defined control parameter optimization. Violations in stability and performance requirements are computed from constraints on Single Input/Single Output (SISO) open- and closed-loop transfer function frequency responses, and from constraints on the singular-value frequency responses of Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) transfer functions, for all critical plant variations. Optimum nonlinear programming algorithms are used in the search for local constrained solutions in which violations in stability and performance are caused either to vanish or be minimized for a proper selection of the control parameters. Classical control system stability and performance design can, in this way, be combined with modern multivariable robustness methods to offer general frequency response loop-shaping via a computer-aided design tool. Complete Nichols, Nyquist, Bode, singular-value Bode magnitude and transient response plots are produced, including user-defined boundary responses. AUTOCON is used to synthesize and optimize the lateral/directional flight control system for a typical high-performance aircraft.

  5. Decoding the organization of spinal circuits that control locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Kiehn, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Unravelling the functional operation of neuronal networks and linking cellular activity to specific behavioural outcomes are among the biggest challenges in neuroscience. In this broad field of research, substantial progress has been made in studies of the spinal networks that control locomotion. Through united efforts using electrophysiological and molecular genetic network approaches and behavioural studies in phylogenetically diverse experimental models, the organization of locomotor networks has begun to be decoded. The emergent themes from this research are that the locomotor networks have a modular organization with distinct transmitter and molecular codes and that their organization is reconfigured with changes to the speed of locomotion or changes in gait. PMID:26935168

  6. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  7. Measuring fetal volume during late first trimester by three-dimensional ultrasonography using virtual organ computer-aided analysis.

    PubMed

    Barra, Daniela A; Lima, Jailson C; Mauad Filho, Francisco; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Martins, Wellington P

    2013-09-01

    Our aim was to determine whether rotating the fetus over its largest axis and reducing the rotational step angle can improve reliability/agreement of fetal volume measurements obtained with three-dimensional ultrasonography (3-DUS). Two observers acquired three 3-DUS data sets for a fetus with a crown-rump length between 45 and 84 mm. These observers determined the fetal volume using virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL), by three different methods, with a rotational step angle of 30°: (1) minimal manipulation of the 3-DUS data set, fetus rotated over any axis; (2) manipulation of the 3-DUS data set until the fetus could be seen in a standardized manner, fetus rotated over its anteroposterior axis; (3) same 3-DUS data set manipulation, fetus rotated over its longitudinal axis. Intra- and inter-observer reliability/agreement was determined with intra-class correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, we tested the method that provided the best reliability/agreement results using 15° and 9° of rotational step angles. The time taken to manipulate 3-DUS and determine fetal volume was recorded. The best intra- and inter-observer reliability/agreement results were observed when the fetus was rotated over its longitudinal axis. Reducing rotational step angle to 15° or 9° did not further improve reliability/agreement. The observer took approximately 1 min to determine fetal volume using this method. Our findings indicate that fetal volume should be determined by rotating the fetus over its longitudinal axis, at a rotational step angle of 30°, which is relatively fast and allows analysis of fetal volume with good reliability and agreement.

  8. Self-organized call admission control for optical communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Bing; Liu, Lei; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2008-11-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) is widely used in optical communication networks to reduce network congestion. However, the conventional CAC scheme recommended by International Telecommunication Union -Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) has a serious deficiency under high traffic load. In this paper, the disadvantage of conventional CAC scheme is analyzed in detail, and a Self-organized Call Admission Control (SCAC) scheme is proposed to solve this disadvantage. This scheme is accord with the principle of self-organization system, so it can be easily implemented in practice. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can improve the network performance to a great extent.

  9. Nutritional status of young children in AIDS-affected households and controls in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Andrea; Kipp, Walter; Jhangri, Gian S; Laing, Lory; Konde-Lule, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    This study conducted in Uganda assessed the nutritional status of young children and their disease history in the 3-month period before the study. Two groups of children were randomly selected: the first group consisted of 105 children living in homes where a family member fell sick of AIDS, whereas the second group consisted of 100 children who were living in homes where nobody was affected by AIDS. Acute malnutrition (wasting) was rare. There was no difference in the severity of stunting in the two groups (Z scores, -2.1 versus -2.2, P = 0.70). In those children living in AIDS-affected homes, disease episodes were longer (15.7 versus 11.3 days, P = 0.014), but the frequency of disease occurrence was similar in both groups. Fifty-five percent of all children suffered from moderate to severe malnutrition (stunting). The high stunting rate in early childhood suggests a public nutritional intervention program is recommended.

  10. GT-MSOCC - A domain for research on human-computer interaction and decision aiding in supervisory control systems. [Georgia Tech - Multisatellite Operations Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    The Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center (GT-MSOCC), a real-time interactive simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system for unmanned earth-orbiting satellites, is described. The GT-MSOCC program for investigating a range of modeling, decision aiding, and workstation design issues related to the human-computer interaction is discussed. A GT-MSOCC operator function model is described in which operator actions, both cognitive and manual, are represented as the lowest level discrete control network nodes, and operator action nodes are linked to information needs or system reconfiguration commands.

  11. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability.

  12. UnderstAID, an ICT Platform to Help Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Naveira, Laura; Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; Gregersen, Rikke; Maibom, Kirsten; Mojs, Ewa; Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) could support ambient assisted living (AAL) based interventions to provide support to informal caregivers of people with dementia, especially when they need to cope with their feelings of overburden or isolation. An e-learning platform (understAID application) was tested by informal caregivers from Denmark, Poland, and Spain to explore the technical and the pedagogical specifications, as well as evaluating the impact of its use on the psychological status of the participants. 61 informal caregivers completed the study taking part in the experimental (n = 30) or control (n = 31) groups. 33.3% of the caregivers were satisfied with the application and around 50% of the participants assessed it as technically and pedagogically acceptable. After using understAID the caregivers in the experimental group significantly decreased their depressive symptomatology according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, but a possible benefit on their feelings of competence and satisfaction with the caring experience was also observed. The low scores obtained for satisfaction were highlighting issues that need to be modified to meet the informal caregivers' needs in national, social, and cultural context. Some possible biases are also considered and discussed to be taken into account in future improvements of understAID application.

  13. UnderstAID, an ICT Platform to Help Informal Caregivers of People with Dementia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Búa, Begoña; de Labra, Carmen; Gregersen, Rikke; Maibom, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) could support ambient assisted living (AAL) based interventions to provide support to informal caregivers of people with dementia, especially when they need to cope with their feelings of overburden or isolation. An e-learning platform (understAID application) was tested by informal caregivers from Denmark, Poland, and Spain to explore the technical and the pedagogical specifications, as well as evaluating the impact of its use on the psychological status of the participants. 61 informal caregivers completed the study taking part in the experimental (n = 30) or control (n = 31) groups. 33.3% of the caregivers were satisfied with the application and around 50% of the participants assessed it as technically and pedagogically acceptable. After using understAID the caregivers in the experimental group significantly decreased their depressive symptomatology according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, but a possible benefit on their feelings of competence and satisfaction with the caring experience was also observed. The low scores obtained for satisfaction were highlighting issues that need to be modified to meet the informal caregivers' needs in national, social, and cultural context. Some possible biases are also considered and discussed to be taken into account in future improvements of understAID application. PMID:28116300

  14. The organization of perception and action in complex control skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard A.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to describe the perceptual, cognitive, and action processes that account for highly skilled human performance in complex task environments. In order to study such a performance in a controlled setting, a laboratory task was constructed and three experiments were performed using human subjects. A general framework was developed for describing the organization of perceptual, cognitive, and action process.

  15. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haruk, Alexander M.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design. PMID:26110382

  16. Mineral control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, Margaret S.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Hendricks, David M.

    1997-09-01

    A large source of uncertainty in present understanding of the global carbon cycle is the distribution and dynamics of the soil organic carbon reservoir. Most of the organic carbon in soils is degraded to inorganic forms slowly, on timescales from centuries to millennia. Soil minerals are known to play a stabilizing role, but how spatial and temporal variation in soil mineralogy controls the quantity and turnover of long-residence-time organic carbon is not well known. Here we use radiocarbon analyses to explore interactions between soil mineralogy and soil organic carbon along two natural gradients-of soil-age and of climate-in volcanic soil environments. During the first ~150,000 years of soil development, the volcanic parent material weathered to metastable, non-crystalline minerals. Thereafter, the amount of non-crystalline minerals declined, and more stable crystalline minerals accumulated. Soil organic carbon content followed a similar trend, accumulating to a maximum after 150,000 years, and then decreasing by 50% over the next four million years. A positive relationship between non-crystalline minerals and organic carbon was also observed in soils through the climate gradient, indicating that the accumulation and subsequent loss of organic matter were largely driven by changes in the millennial scale cycling of mineral-stabilized carbon, rather than by changes in the amount of fast-cycling organic matter or in net primary productivity. Soil mineralogy is therefore important in determining the quantity of organic carbon stored in soil, its turnover time, and atmosphere-ecosystem carbon fluxes during long-term soil development; this conclusion should be generalizable at least to other humid environments.

  17. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus ... HIV/AIDS. Why Is the Study of HIV/AIDS a Priority for NIAID? Nearly 37 million people ...

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... to restrict your daily activities. Properly fitted hearing aids and aural rehabilitation (techniques used to identify and ...

  19. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hearing Aids KidsHealth > For Teens > Hearing Aids Print A A ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to audiologist and found ...

  20. Control of volume resistivity in inorganic organic separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Control of resistivity in NASA inorganic-organic separators is achieved by incorporating small percentages of high surface area, fine particle silica with other ingredients in the separator coating. The volume resistivity is predictable from the surface area of filler particles in the coating. The approach is applied to two polymer- plasticizer -filler coating systems, where the filler content of each is below the generally acknowledged critical pigment volume concentration of the coating. Application of these coating systems to 0.0254 cm thick (10-mil) fuel cell grade asbestos sheet produces inexpensive, flexible, microporous separators that perform as well as the original inorganic-organic concept, the Astropower separator.

  1. Model-Based Control using Model and Mechanization Fusion Techniques for Image-Aided Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    sized helicopter, LQG control has also been utilized in controlling the same type of vehicle. Zhe Jiang, Jianda Han, Yuechao Wang , and Qi Song, from the...Han J. Wang Y., Z. and Q. Song. “Enhanced LQR Control for Unmanned Helicopter in Hover”. Proceedings of Systems and Control in Aerospace and As

  2. Mutations in the nef and vif genes associated with progression to AIDS in elite controller and slow-progressor patients.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Nadia V G; Amorim, Raquel; Oliveira, Fátima E; Speranza, Francisco A C; Costa, Luciana J

    2013-04-01

    Progression towards AIDS can vary from 5 to 10 years from the establishment of the primary infection by HIV-1 to more than 10 years in the complete absence of antiretroviral therapy. Several factors can contribute to the outcome of HIV infection, including host genetic and viral replicating characteristics. Historically, nef-deleted viral genomes have been associated with disease progression. Therefore, the lentiviral Nef protein is regarded as a progression factor. The objective of this work was to characterize the nef gene from a group of treatment naive patients infected with HIV-1 for more than 10 years. These patients were classified as long-term non-progressors, elite controller, and slow-progressors according to clinical and laboratorial data. A premature stop codon within the nef gene leading to the expression of a truncated peptide was observed on samples from the elite controller patient. For the slow-progressor patients, several degrees of deletions at the C-terminal of Nef were observed predicting a loss of function of this protein. The vif gene was characterized for these patients and a rare mutation that predicts a miss localization of the Vif protein to the nucleus of infected cells that could prevent its function as an APOBEC neutralization factor was also observed. These data indicate the importance of the HIV accessory proteins as factors that contribute to the outcome of AIDS.

  3. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  4. Sociopolitical determinants of an AIDS prevention program: multiple actors and vertical relationships of control and influence.

    PubMed

    Laperrière, Hélène; Zúñiga, Ricardo

    2006-05-01

    In every country, health and prevention "come down" from the authorities responsible for this mission by way of planners, local authorities, and peer educators until it reaches the target population. International and national systems function on the premise of a top-down transmission, with little room for integrating local information that might provide a better understanding of the implementation process. This analysis is based on an empirical evaluative research of HIV/AIDS prevention projects with sex workers in a remote area of northern Brazil. It illustrates how nursing sociopolitical analysis can reveal how political interests can have perverse effects by contaminating the group's internal relations and with established partnerships, thereby weakening the impact of prevention programs. These effects can seriously affect community relations and social practices, far beyond the technical division of work and political hierarchies in the sociosanitary network.

  5. Computer Aided Reference Services in the Academic Library: Experiences in Organizing and Operating an Online Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Ryan E.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the development of the Computer-Aided Reference Services (CARS) division of the University of Utah Libraries' reference department. Development, organizational structure, site selection, equipment, management, staffing and training considerations, promotion and marketing, budget and pricing, record keeping, statistics, and evaluation…

  6. Plasma deposition of organic thin films: Control of film chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, B.D.

    1993-12-31

    Plasma deposition of thin, polymeric films represent a versatile surface modification technology. Although these thin films are exploited for many applications, complaints heard about plasma deposited films are that their structures are uncharacterizable, that organic functionality is lost in their production and that reproducibility is difficult. Recently, new methods for film production, reactor control and surface characterization have led to well characterized plasma deposited thin polymeric films (PDTPF) with defined structure and organic functionality. Such PDTPF often closely resemble conventionally prepared homopolymers. Methods that can be used to control the chemistry of PDTPF are the minimization of the plasma power, pulsing the RF field to reduce the {open_quotes}plasma on{close_quotes} time, use of a Faraday cage to reduce electron bombardment, positioning the sample downfield from the glow zone, the use of monomers containing polymerizable double bonds and the use of a cold substrate to condense vapor simultaneously with plasma deposition.

  7. Persons with multiple disabilities engage in stimulus choice and postural control with the support of a technology-aided program.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Perilli, Viviana; Campodonico, Francesca; Marchiani, Paola; Lang, Russell

    2015-05-01

    Technology-aided programs have been reported to help persons with disabilities develop adaptive responding and control problem behavior/posture. This study assessed one such program in which choice of stimulus events was used as adaptive responding for three adults with multiple disabilities. A computer system presented the participants stimulus samples. For each sample, they could perform a choice response (gaining access to the related stimulus whose length they could extend) or abstain from responding (making the system proceed to the next sample). Once choice responding had strengthened, the program also targeted the participants' problem posture (i.e., head and trunk forward bending). The stimulus exposure gained with a choice response was interrupted if the problem posture occurred. All three participants successfully (a) managed choice responses and access to preferred stimuli and (b) gained postural control (i.e., reducing the problem posture to very low levels). The practical implications of those results are discussed.

  8. An intelligent control framework for robot-aided resistance training using hybrid system modeling and impedance estimation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guozheng; Guo, Xiaobo; Zhai, Yan; Li, Huijun

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a novel therapy control method for robot-assisted resistance training using the hybrid system modeling technology and the estimated patient's bio-impedance changes. A new intelligent control framework based on hybrid system theory is developed, to automatically generate the desired resistive force and to make accommodating emergency behavior, when monitoring the changes of the impaired limb's muscle strength or the unpredictable safety-related occurrences during the execution of the training task. The impaired limb's muscle strength progress is online evaluated using its bio-damping and bio-stiffness estimation results. The proposed method is verified with a custom constructed therapeutic robot system featuring a Barrett WAM™ compliant manipulator. A typical inpatient stroke subject was recruited and enrolled in a ten-week resistance training program. Preliminary results show that the proposed therapeutic strategy can enhance the impaired limb's muscle strength and has practicability for robot-aided rehabilitation training.

  9. Organization of population-based cancer control programs: Europe and the world.

    PubMed

    Otter, Renée; Qiao, You-Lin; Burton, Robert; Samiei, Massoud; Parkin, Max; Trapido, Edward; Weller, David; Magrath, Ian; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As cancer is to a large extent avoidable and treatable, a cancer control program should be able to reduce mortality and morbidity and improve the quality of life of cancer patients and their families. However, the extent to which the goals of a cancer control program can be achieved will depend on the resource constraints a country faces. Such population-based cancer control plans should prioritize effective interventions and programs that are beneficial to the largest part of the population, and should include activities devoted to prevention, screening and early detection, treatment, palliation and end-of-life care, and rehabilitation. In order to develop a successful cancer control program, leadership and the relevant stakeholders, including patient organizations, need to be identified early on in the process so that all partners can take ownership and responsibility for the program. Various tools have been developed to aid them in the planning and implementation process. However, countries developing a national cancer control program would benefit from a discussion of different models for planning and delivery of population-based cancer control in settings with differing levels of resource commitment, in order to determine how best to proceed given their current level of commitment, political engagement and resources. As the priority assigned to different components of cancer control will differ depending on available resources and the burden and pattern of cancer, it is important to consider the relative roles of prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and palliative care in a cancer control program, as well as how to align available resources to meet prioritized needs. Experiences from countries with differing levels of resources are presented and serve to illustrate the difficulties in developing and implementing cancer control programs, as well as the innovative strategies that are being used to maximize available resources and

  10. [THE ORGANIZATION OF CONTROLLING QUALITY OF ORTHODONTIC CARE OF POPULATION].

    PubMed

    Chaban, A V; Schepin, V O; Korablev, V N

    2015-01-01

    The article presents originally developed model of quality of orthodontic care of population on the level of subject of the Russian Federation. The model includes the following elements: demand of population in orthodontic care, mission of orthodontic service, regulations of orthodontic service, table of facilities, staff list, standards of evaluation of effectiveness and audit of effectiveness of orthodontic care of population, and standards of quality control. The developed standards of quality control exemplified by typical stomatological polyclinic, demonstrated reserves of further development of quality and accessibility of orthodontic service to population in functioning of medical organization.

  11. Control system development for an organic Ranking cycle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergthold, F. M., Jr.; Fulton, D. G.; Haskins, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    An organic Rankine cycle engine is used as part of a solar thermal power conversion assembly (PCA). The PCA, including a direct-heated cavity receiver and a shaft-mounted alternator, is mounted at the focal point of a parabolic dish concentrator. The engine controls are required to maintain approximately constant values of turbine inlet temperature and shaft speed, despite variation in the concentrated solar power input to the receiver. The controls design approach, system models, and initial stability and performance analysis results are presented herein.

  12. Educational psychology in medical learning: a randomised controlled trial of two aide memoires for the recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, E; Voisey, S; Hughes, S; Higgins, B; McQuillan, P

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Although mnemonics are commonly used in medical education there are few data on their effectiveness. A RCT was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a new aide memoire, "EMD-aide", would be superior to the conventional "4Hs+4Ts" mnemonic in facilitating recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation (EMD) among house officers. Method: "EMD-aide", organises causes of EMD by frequency of occurrence and ease of reversibility: four groups organised by shape, colour, position, numbering, clockwise sequence, and use of arrows. Eight hospitals were randomised in a controlled trial and 149 house officers were then recruited by telephone. Baseline ability to recall causes of EMD was recorded at one minute and overall. House officers were then sent a copy of either "4Hs+4Ts" or "EMD-aide" according to randomisation group. Recall ability was retested at one month. Results: 68 of 80 and 51 of 69 house officers completed the study in the "4Hs+4Ts" and "EMD-aide" groups respectively (NS) with similar baseline recall. After intervention median number of recalled causes was greater in the "EMD-aide" group, eight compared with seven at one minute (p = 0.034) and eight compared with seven overall, p = 0.067. Recall of all eight causes was more common in "EMD-aide" group, 54% compared with 35%, p = 0.054, and these house officers spent longer examining their aide memoire, p<0.001. Conclusions: "EMD-aide" may be superior to "4Hs+4Ts" in facilitating the recall of the causes of electromechanical dissociation. Educational psychology of medical learning and the use of aide memoires in general are worthy of further study. PMID:15208230

  13. AESOP: A computer-aided design program for linear multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtinen, B.; Geyser, L. C.

    1982-01-01

    An interactive computer program (AESOP) which solves quadratic optimal control and is discussed. The program can also be used to perform system analysis calculations such as transient and frequency responses, controllability, observability, etc., in support of the control and filter design computations.

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Clinical Decision Aid to Improve Access to Kidney Transplantation: iChoose Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, Rachel E.; Basu, Mohua; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla D.; Wolf, Michael; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John J.; Chiles, Mariana; Russell, Allison; McPherson, Laura; Gander, Jennifer; Pastan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, as it substantially increases a patient's survival and is cost saving compared to a lifetime of dialysis. However, transplantation is not universally chosen by patients with renal failure, and limited knowledge about the survival benefit of transplantation vs. dialysis may play a role. We created a mobile application clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney to improve access to individualized prognosis information comparing dialysis and transplantation outcomes. We describe the iChoose Kidney study, a randomized controlled trial designed to test the clinical efficacy of a mobile health decision aid among end-stage renal disease patients referred for kidney transplantation at three large, diverse transplant centers across the U.S. Approximately 450 patients will be randomized to receive either: (1) standard of care or “usual” transplantation education, or (2) standard of care plus iChoose Kidney. The primary outcome is change in knowledge about the survival benefit of kidney transplantation vs. dialysis from baseline to immediate follow-up; secondary outcomes include change in treatment preferences, improved decisional conflict, and increased access to kidney transplantation. Analyses are also planned to examine effectiveness across subgroups of race, socioeconomic status, health literacy and health numeracy. Engaging patients in health care choices can increase patient empowerment and improve knowledge and understanding of treatment choices. If the effectiveness of iChoose Kidney has a greater impact on patients with low health literacy, lower socioeconomic status, and minority race, this decision aid could help reduce disparities in access to kidney transplantation. PMID:27610423

  15. Control methods for aiding a pilot during STOL engine failure transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. R.; Debra, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate autopilot control laws that control the engine failure transient sink rates by demonstrating the engineering application of modern state variable control theory were defined. The results of approximate modal analysis were compared to those derived from full state analyses provided from computer design solutions. The aircraft was described, and a state variable model of its longitudinal dynamic motion due to engine and control variations was defined. The classical fast and slow modes were assumed to be sufficiently different to define reduced order approximations of the aircraft motion amendable to hand analysis control definition methods. The original state equations of motion were also applied to a large scale state variable control design program, in particular OPTSYS. The resulting control laws were compared with respect to their relative responses, ease of application, and meeting the desired performance objectives.

  16. GD-aided IOL (input-output linearisation) controller for handling affine-form nonlinear system with loose condition on relative degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunong; Chen, Dechao; Jin, Long; Zhang, Yinyan; Yin, Yonghua

    2016-04-01

    Input-output linearisation (IOL) may encounter a singularity problem when applied to the tracking control of affine-form nonlinear system (AFNS), which may not have a well-defined relative degree. The singularity problem has occurred in the area of control for decades. In this paper, we incorporate the gradient dynamics (GD) into IOL, which leads to the GD-aided IOL method to solve the singularity problem, with the proposition of the loose condition on relative degree. Moreover, detailed theoretical analyses on tracking-error bound and convergence performance of the corresponding GD-aided IOL controller are presented. Simulations and comparisons substantiate that the proposed GD-aided IOL method is capable of completing the tracking-control task and conquering the singularity encountered in the AFNS.

  17. Controlling the magnetism of adsorbed metal-organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuch, Wolfgang; Bernien, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Gaining control on the size or the direction of the magnetic moment of adsorbed metal-organic molecules constitutes an important step towards the realization of a surface-mounted molecular spin electronics. Such control can be gained by taking advantage of interactions of the molecule’s magnetic moment with the environment. The paramagnetic moments of adsorbed metal-organic molecules, for example, can be controlled by the interaction with magnetically ordered substrates. Metalloporphyrins and -phthalocyanines display a quasi-planar geometry, allowing the central metal ion to interact with substrate electronic states. This can lead to magnetic coupling with a ferromagnetic or even antiferromagnetic substrate. The molecule-substrate coupling can be mediated and controlled by insertion layers such as oxygen atoms, graphene, or nonmagnetic metal layers. Control on the magnetic properties of adsorbed metalloporphyrins or -phthalocyanines can also be gained by on-surface chemical modification of the molecules. The magnetic moment or the magnetic coupling to ferromagnetic substrates can be changed by adsorption and thermal desorption of small molecules that interact with the fourfold-coordinated metal center via the remaining axial coordination site. Spin-crossover molecules, which possess a metastable spin state that can be switched by external stimuli such as temperature or light, are another promising class of candidates for control of magnetic properties. However, the immobilization of such molecules on a solid surface often results in a quench of the spin transition due to the interaction with the substrate. We present examples of Fe(II) spin-crossover complexes in direct contact with a solid surface that undergo a reversible spin-crossover transition as a function of temperature, by illumination with visible light, or can be switched by the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope.

  18. Controlling the magnetism of adsorbed metal-organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Kuch, Wolfgang; Bernien, Matthias

    2017-01-18

    Gaining control on the size or the direction of the magnetic moment of adsorbed metal-organic molecules constitutes an important step towards the realization of a surface-mounted molecular spin electronics. Such control can be gained by taking advantage of interactions of the molecule's magnetic moment with the environment. The paramagnetic moments of adsorbed metal-organic molecules, for example, can be controlled by the interaction with magnetically ordered substrates. Metalloporphyrins and -phthalocyanines display a quasi-planar geometry, allowing the central metal ion to interact with substrate electronic states. This can lead to magnetic coupling with a ferromagnetic or even antiferromagnetic substrate. The molecule-substrate coupling can be mediated and controlled by insertion layers such as oxygen atoms, graphene, or nonmagnetic metal layers. Control on the magnetic properties of adsorbed metalloporphyrins or -phthalocyanines can also be gained by on-surface chemical modification of the molecules. The magnetic moment or the magnetic coupling to ferromagnetic substrates can be changed by adsorption and thermal desorption of small molecules that interact with the fourfold-coordinated metal center via the remaining axial coordination site. Spin-crossover molecules, which possess a metastable spin state that can be switched by external stimuli such as temperature or light, are another promising class of candidates for control of magnetic properties. However, the immobilization of such molecules on a solid surface often results in a quench of the spin transition due to the interaction with the substrate. We present examples of Fe(II) spin-crossover complexes in direct contact with a solid surface that undergo a reversible spin-crossover transition as a function of temperature, by illumination with visible light, or can be switched by the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope.

  19. Sericea Lespedeza as an Aid in the Control of Coccidiosis in Lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have determined that feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal (SL) can effectively control coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n = 76) were weaned (103 days of age) in May and fed 2% of body weight daily of alfalfa pellets (control) or SL with or without Corrid added to drinkin...

  20. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems.

  1. Geometrical and Mechanical Properties Control Actin Filament Organization

    PubMed Central

    Ennomani, Hajer; Théry, Manuel; Nedelec, Francois; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The different actin structures governing eukaryotic cell shape and movement are not only determined by the properties of the actin filaments and associated proteins, but also by geometrical constraints. We recently demonstrated that limiting nucleation to specific regions was sufficient to obtain actin networks with different organization. To further investigate how spatially constrained actin nucleation determines the emergent actin organization, we performed detailed simulations of the actin filament system using Cytosim. We first calibrated the steric interaction between filaments, by matching, in simulations and experiments, the bundled actin organization observed with a rectangular bar of nucleating factor. We then studied the overall organization of actin filaments generated by more complex pattern geometries used experimentally. We found that the fraction of parallel versus antiparallel bundles is determined by the mechanical properties of actin filament or bundles and the efficiency of nucleation. Thus nucleation geometry, actin filaments local interactions, bundle rigidity, and nucleation efficiency are the key parameters controlling the emergent actin architecture. We finally simulated more complex nucleation patterns and performed the corresponding experiments to confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. PMID:26016478

  2. Geometrical and mechanical properties control actin filament organization.

    PubMed

    Letort, Gaëlle; Politi, Antonio Z; Ennomani, Hajer; Théry, Manuel; Nedelec, Francois; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    The different actin structures governing eukaryotic cell shape and movement are not only determined by the properties of the actin filaments and associated proteins, but also by geometrical constraints. We recently demonstrated that limiting nucleation to specific regions was sufficient to obtain actin networks with different organization. To further investigate how spatially constrained actin nucleation determines the emergent actin organization, we performed detailed simulations of the actin filament system using Cytosim. We first calibrated the steric interaction between filaments, by matching, in simulations and experiments, the bundled actin organization observed with a rectangular bar of nucleating factor. We then studied the overall organization of actin filaments generated by more complex pattern geometries used experimentally. We found that the fraction of parallel versus antiparallel bundles is determined by the mechanical properties of actin filament or bundles and the efficiency of nucleation. Thus nucleation geometry, actin filaments local interactions, bundle rigidity, and nucleation efficiency are the key parameters controlling the emergent actin architecture. We finally simulated more complex nucleation patterns and performed the corresponding experiments to confirm the predictive capabilities of the model.

  3. Development of Electronic Load Controllers for Free-Piston Stirling Convertors Aided by Stirling Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor: the Stirling cycle engine, heat source, linear alternator, controller, and load. So far, it has been used in evaluating the performance of electronic controller designs. Three different controller design concepts were simulated using the model: 1) Controllers with parasitic direct current loading. 2) Controllers with parasitic alternating current loading. 3) Controllers that maintain a reference current. The free-piston Stirling convertor is an electromechanical device that operates at resonance. It is the function of the electronic load controller to ensure that the electrical load seen by the machine is always great enough to keep the amplitude of the piston and alternator oscillation at the rated value. This is done by regulating the load on the output bus. The controller monitors the instantaneous voltage, regulating it by switching loads called parasitic loads onto the bus whenever the bus voltage is too high and removing them whenever the voltage is too low. In the first type of controller, the monitor-ing and switching are done on the direct-current (dc) bus. In the second type, the alternating current bus is used. The model allows designers to test a controller concept before investing time in hardware. The simulation code used to develop the model also offers detailed models of digital and analog electronic components so that the resulting designs are realistic enough to translate directly into hardware circuits.

  4. Parallel Control of Velocity Control and Energy-Saving Control for a Hydraulic Valve-Controlled Cylinder System Using Self-Organizing Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Chien, Yu-Wei

    Conventional hydraulic valve-controlled systems that incorporate positive displacement pumps and relief valves have a problem of low energy efficiency. The objective of the research is to implement parallel control of energy-saving control in an electro-hydraulic load-sensing system and velocity control in a hydraulic valve-controlled cylinder system to achieve both high velocity control accuracy and low input power simultaneously. The overall control system is a two-input two-output system. For that, the control strategy of self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode control (SOFSMC) is developed in this study to reduce the fuzzy rule number and to self-organize on-line the fuzzy rules. To compare the energy-saving performance, the velocity control is implemented under three different energy-saving control systems, such as load-sensing control system, constant supply pressure control system and conventional hydraulic system. The parallel control of the velocity control and energy-saving control by the SOFSMC is implemented experimentally.

  5. Downward causation by information control in micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Luc; Calkins, Erin R.

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of functional equivalence classes and information control in living systems are useful to characterize downward (or top-down) causation by feedback information control in synthetic biology. Herein, we re-analyse published experiments of microbiology and synthetic biology that demonstrate the existence of several classes of functional equivalence in microbial organisms. Classes of functional equivalence from the bacterial operating system, which processes and controls the information encoded in the genome, can readily be interpreted as strong evidence, if not demonstration, of top-down causation (TDC) by information control. The proposed biological framework reveals how this type of causality is put in action in the cellular operating system. Considerations on TDC by information control and adaptive selection can be useful for synthetic biology by delineating the irreducible set of properties that characterizes living systems. Through a ‘retro-synthetic’ biology approach, these considerations could contribute to identifying the constraints behind the emergence of molecular complexity during the evolution of an ancient RNA/peptide world into a modern DNA/RNA/protein world. In conclusion, we propose TDCs by information control and adaptive selection as the two types of downward causality absolutely necessary for life. PMID:23386958

  6. Dental school deans' and dentists' perceptions of infection control and HIV/AIDS patient care: a challenge for dental education in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Mayoral, E E; Sánchez-Pérez, L; Olguín-Barreto, Y; Acosta-Gío, A E

    2009-07-01

    HIV/AIDS patients face unique oral diagnostic and treatment challenges. The aim of this investigation among dental school deans (DSD) and graduate school applicants (GSA) who had qualified from 30 different dental schools was to assess their perceptions on dental education relevant to infection control (IC) and HIV/AIDS patient care. The questionnaire included Likert-type scale evaluations of agreement with statements. Of 158 questionnaires, 23 DSD (68% response rate), and 123 GSA (100% response rate) returned valid questionnaires. Fifteen (65%) DSD and 89 (72%) GSA ranked as "very strong" their perception that infection control prevents the transmission of blood borne viruses. However, the perception prevailed, among DSD and GSA, that HIV infection was a "very strong" to "strong" occupational hazard. Special reprocessing of instruments used on HIV patients was frequently reported. Many considered "very strong" to "strong" that HIV/AIDS patients must be treated in specialized clinics, and nearly half (48%) of the DSD and one third (35%) of the GSA stated that their school does refer HIV/AIDS patients to dental treatment in specialized clinics. These results indicate that many dental schools in Mexico must provide better education on IC and HIV/AIDS patient care to enhance attitudes toward HIV/AIDS patients.

  7. Manual for Student Financial Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…

  8. CIDA funds AIDS counselling and care centre in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Meehan, S T

    1993-12-01

    In its fight against the spread of AIDS, which is inextricably linked to the issues of international development, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has focused support on strengthening existing health care systems, helping vulnerable groups gain control over their lives and health, promoting AIDS prevention measures, and building links to other related health services. Funding includes 1) a grant to Hope House in Zambia (counseling and support for persons with AIDS); 2) a contribution to the Canadian Public Health Association's $11 million Southern Africa AIDS Training Programme (helps regional organizations working in AIDS prevention and support through education, training, hospital outreach, peer education for vulnerable groups, assistance to women's shelters, and networking); 3) support for Laval University's Laval Centre for International Cooperation in Health and Development (runs a $22 million program in French-speaking West Africa that operates in over 10 countries and focuses on epidemiological surveillance, information, education, and communication, control of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and management of national AIDS programs); 4) support for the University of Manitoba's $3 million program with the University of Nairobi to slow the spread of HIV (strengthens local health care capabilities for STD/HIV diagnosis, treatment, and counseling, with special emphasis on training and education); 5) support in the past for a study of proposed AIDS legislation and its potential impact on the human rights of PLWHIV/AIDS in Thailand; 6) a contribution to help equip the office of the National Movement for Street Children, Rio de Janeiro (focuses on preventing the spread of AIDS among child prostitutes); and 7) long-term financial support to the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development, a coalition of Canadian development nongovernmental organizations responding to AIDS in developing countries. An address to obtain a pamphlet giving

  9. Vision-aided Monitoring and Control of Thermal Spray, Spray Forming, and Welding Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agapakis, John E.; Bolstad, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Vision is one of the most powerful forms of non-contact sensing for monitoring and control of manufacturing processes. However, processes involving an arc plasma or flame such as welding or thermal spraying pose particularly challenging problems to conventional vision sensing and processing techniques. The arc or plasma is not typically limited to a single spectral region and thus cannot be easily filtered out optically. This paper presents an innovative vision sensing system that uses intense stroboscopic illumination to overpower the arc light and produce a video image that is free of arc light or glare and dedicated image processing and analysis schemes that can enhance the video images or extract features of interest and produce quantitative process measures which can be used for process monitoring and control. Results of two SBIR programs sponsored by NASA and DOE and focusing on the application of this innovative vision sensing and processing technology to thermal spraying and welding process monitoring and control are discussed.

  10. Bacterial probiotics as an aid in the control of Clostridium difficile disease in neonatal pigs

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Paulo H. E.; Madson, Darin M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Rowe, Eric W.; Songer, J. Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Although Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common disease in swine, there is a lack of prevention strategies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate: i) the effectiveness of Lactobacillus spp. and ii) non-toxigenic C. difficile (NTCD) as prevention for the development of CDI in piglets. Cesarean-derived piglets (N = 150) were randomly assigned to 6 groups: GROUP 1 — negative control (n = 10); GROUP 2 — NTCD only (n = 13); GROUP 3 — Lactobacillus spp. only (n = 14); GROUP 4 — positive control (challenged with toxigenic C. difficile strain) (n = 35); GROUP 5 — NTCD and challenged with the toxigenic C. difficile strain (n = 34); and GROUP 6 — Lactobacillus spp. and challenged with the toxigenic C. difficile strain (n = 44). Piglets which received NTCD showed lower prevalence of toxin-positive feces, mesocolonic edema, and microscopic lesions compared with positive control piglets. Administration of Lactobacillus spp. did not reveal clear benefits. PMID:26834271

  11. Bacterial probiotics as an aid in the control of Clostridium difficile disease in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Paulo H E; Madson, Darin M; Ramirez, Alejandro; Rowe, Eric W; Songer, J Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Although Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common disease in swine, there is a lack of prevention strategies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate: i) the effectiveness of Lactobacillus spp. and ii) non-toxigenic C. difficile (NTCD) as prevention for the development of CDI in piglets. Cesarean-derived piglets (N = 150) were randomly assigned to 6 groups: GROUP 1 - negative control (n = 10); GROUP 2 - NTCD only (n = 13); GROUP 3 - Lactobacillus spp. only (n = 14); GROUP 4 - positive control (challenged with toxigenic C. difficile strain) (n = 35); GROUP 5 - NTCD and challenged with the toxigenic C. difficile strain (n = 34); and GROUP 6 - Lactobacillus spp. and challenged with the toxigenic C. difficile strain (n = 44). Piglets which received NTCD showed lower prevalence of toxin-positive feces, mesocolonic edema, and microscopic lesions compared with positive control piglets. Administration of Lactobacillus spp. did not reveal clear benefits.

  12. Insights Into Atmospheric Aqueous Organic Chemistry Through Controlled Experiments with Cloud Water Surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, B. J.; Ramos, A.; Kirkland, J. R.; Lim, Y. B.; Seitzinger, S.

    2011-12-01

    There is considerable laboratory and field-based evidence that chemical processing in clouds and wet aerosols alters organic composition and contributes to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Single-compound laboratory experiments have played an important role in developing aqueous-phase chemical mechanisms that aid prediction of SOA formation through multiphase chemistry. In this work we conduct similar experiments with cloud/fog water surrogates, to 1) evaluate to what extent the previously studied chemistry is observed in these more realistic atmospheric waters, and 2) to identify additional atmospherically-relevant precursors and products that require further study. We used filtered Camden and Pinelands, NJ rainwater as a surrogate for cloud water. OH radical (~10-12 M) was formed by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide and samples were analyzed in real-time by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Discrete samples were also analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) and ESI-MS after IC separation. All experiments were performed in duplicate. Standards of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde and their major aqueous oxidation products were also analyzed, and control experiments performed. Decreases in the ion abundance of many positive mode compounds and increases in the ion abundance of many negative mode compounds (e.g., organic acids) suggest that precursors are predominantly aldehydes, organic peroxides and/or alcohols. Real-time ESI mass spectra were consistent with the expected loss of methylglyoxal and subsequent formation of pyruvate, glyoxylate, and oxalate. New insights regarding other potential precursors and products will be provided.

  13. Organization, control and function of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Papouin, Thomas; Oliet, Stéphane H. R.

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) exist in different forms owing to multiple combinations of subunits that can assemble into a functional receptor. In addition, they are located not only at synapses but also at extrasynaptic sites. There has been intense speculation over the past decade about whether specific NMDAR subtypes and/or locations are responsible for inducing synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Here, we review the latest findings on the organization, subunit composition and endogenous control of NMDARs at extrasynaptic sites and consider their putative functions. Because astrocytes are capable of controlling NMDARs through the release of gliotransmitters, we also discuss the role of the glial environment in regulating the activity of these receptors. PMID:25225095

  14. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  15. Inertially Aided Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-31

    0031 dis~bti:,1 is uitsnjt( Deczmllcr 31: 1989 92-05530 2:.-: 3o : T >VE?-A ~ : Inertially Aided Robotics FINAL REPORT for Contract No. DAAHO1 -88-D-0057...1 2 Advantages of Inertially Aided Robotics ...86 iii List of Figures Figure 1 - Robot Manipulator having Joint Sensor Based Control ..................... 2

  16. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  17. Sericea lespdeza as an aid in the control of Emeria spp. in lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)] on control of coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n = 76) were weaned (102.7 ± 1.4 d of age) in May (spring) and randomly assigned to ...

  18. Modified optimal control pilot model for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development of a modified optimal control pilot model based upon the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison. This model is input compatible with the OCM and retains other key aspects of the OCM, such as a linear quadratic solution for the pilot gains with inclusion of control rate in the cost function, a Kalman estimator, and the ability to account for attention allocation and perception threshold effects. An algorithm designed for each implementation in current dynamic systems analysis and design software is presented. Example results based upon the analysis of a tracking task using three basic dynamic systems are compared with measured results and with similar analyses performed with the OCM and two previously proposed simplified optimal pilot models. The pilot frequency responses and error statistics obtained with this modified optimal control model are shown to compare more favorably to the measured experimental results than the other previously proposed simplified models evaluated.

  19. Sericea lespdeza as an aid in the control of Emeria spp. in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Orlik, S T; Acharya, M; Garza, J J; Mosjidis, J A

    2013-03-31

    The objective was to examine the effects of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal (SL) on control of coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n=76) were weaned (102.7±1.4 d of age) in May (spring) and randomly assigned in a 2×2 factorial design to receive 2% of BW/d of alfalfa pellets (control) or SL with or without amprolium added to drinking water (n=38/level or 19/treatment). Fecal oocyst counts (FOC), egg counts (FEC), and fecal score (1=solid pellets; 5=slurry) were determined every 7d between weaning and 21 d post-weaning. In Exp. 2, twin rearing ewes were randomly assigned to two groups, and their naturally infected lambs were fed a control creep supplement (16% CP; n=40) or SL pellets (14% CP; n=32) 30 d before weaning. Intake of SL was initially low (100g/lamb daily) and increased to 454 g/lamb daily after weaning. Lambs were weaned at 103.6±0.9 d of age and moved to semi-confinement. The FEC, FOC, packed cell volume (PCV), fecal score, and dag score (soiling around rear of lamb; 1=no soiling; 5=heavy soiling) were determined at d -14, 0 (weaning), 7, 14, and 21. In Exp. 3, lambs were randomly assigned to a control or SL diet (n=12/diet) fed at 1.4 kg/d for 22d and inoculated with 50,000 sporulated oocysts on d 8, 11, and 13. The FEC, FOC, and fecal score were determined every 2 to 3d between d 1 and 29 (d 0=first day of dietary treatment). Data on all experiments were analyzed using mixed models. The FOC and FEC data were log transformed. Chi squared analysis was used to determine differences in incidence of treatment (sulfadimethoxine) for coccidiosis in Exp. 1 and 2. In Exp. 1, FOC and FEC were similar between dietary groups, and FOC declined more rapidly in amprolium treated lambs following weaning (P<0.001). Fecal score was higher in the control compared with the SL fed lambs (P=0.05), suggesting more signs of coccidiosis in control lambs. In Exp. 2, FOC was similar initially but was reduced in SL fed lambs by weaning and remained

  20. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands.

    PubMed

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-11-27

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands.

  1. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands. PMID:23150589

  2. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal-Organic Frameworks Route.

    PubMed

    Balestra, Salvador R G; Bueno-Perez, Rocio; Hamad, Said; Dubbeldam, David; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Calero, Sofia

    2016-11-22

    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model material, along with three molecules of similar size and known differences in terms of the nature of host-guest interactions. It has been shown that adsorbate molecules can control, in a colligative way, the thermal expansion of the solid, so that changing the adsorbate molecules induces the solid to display positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion. We analyze in depth the distortion mechanisms, beyond the ligand metal junction, to cover the ligand distortions, and the energetic and entropic effect on the thermo-structural behavior. We provide an unprecedented atomistic insight on the effect of adsorbates on the thermal expansion of MOFs as a basic tool toward controlling the thermal expansion.

  3. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal–Organic Frameworks Route

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model material, along with three molecules of similar size and known differences in terms of the nature of host–guest interactions. It has been shown that adsorbate molecules can control, in a colligative way, the thermal expansion of the solid, so that changing the adsorbate molecules induces the solid to display positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion. We analyze in depth the distortion mechanisms, beyond the ligand metal junction, to cover the ligand distortions, and the energetic and entropic effect on the thermo-structural behavior. We provide an unprecedented atomistic insight on the effect of adsorbates on the thermal expansion of MOFs as a basic tool toward controlling the thermal expansion. PMID:28190918

  4. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  5. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  6. AIDS: Amyl-Nitrite Use as a Factor (A Proposed Analytic Case-Control Study)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health , 1984 Supervising Professors Benjamin Bradshaw .. A study design is proposed to test the...from a politically based homo- sexual group. The use o.a politically based homosexual group as a source of controls-is proposed as they are more...or those claiming Haiti as the/r country of origin will be excluded. The case and • comparison 4roups will be matched on number of sexual partners

  7. An Object-Oriented Computer Aided Design Program for Traditional Control Systems Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Butterworth filter templates, Lag- Lead controller design, discrete QFT, nonlinear QFT, etc. before any of them have to worry about porting to the...because the subtraction of small similar numbers on a computer leads to a loss of significant digits. However, a more computer-optimized numerical...use. Time_DataType = Record TF, FFTF TransFunc; ForceFuncType Integer; DataFileName String; DataFile File of Extended; First, Final, Delta extended

  8. The Effectiveness of a Bioactive Food Compound in the Lipid Control of Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ferreira, Rosângela; de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Rita; Jardim Cury Pontes, Elenir Rose; Aragão do Nascimento, Valter; Aiko Hiane, Priscila

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC) containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART. All patients received dietary guidelines; however, sixty-one consumed BFC while fifty-one did not (NO BFC). Biochemical examinations and socio-demographic and clinical profiles were evaluated. As result, in patients using hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs, there was 28.6% decrease in triglyceride levels (p < 0.001) in the NO BFC group, and 18.3% reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.001) in the BFC group. In patients who did not use hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs in the NO BFC group, there was 30.6% increase in triglycerides, 11.3% total cholesterol and 15.3% LDL-C levels (p < 0.001) while for the BFC group there was 4.5% reduction in total cholesterol (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study evidenced that the dietary intervention containing BFC positively affected in lipid control, since these HIV/AIDS patients using HAART are more vulnerable to lipid disorders. PMID:27740592

  9. The impact of an intervention to change health workers' HIV/AIDS attitudes and knowledge in Nigeria: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ezedinachi, E N U; Ross, M W; Meremiku, M; Essien, E J; Edem, C B; Ekure, E; Ita, O

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the study was to improve health workers' skills and confidence in dealing with patients with HIV disease and increase attention to patients' human rights. A longitudinal controlled trial was carried out in which one Nigerian state served as the intervention site and the adjacent state served as the control site for an intervention and dissemination of training in clinical management, health education, and attitudinal change toward patients with HIV disease. The intervention group n=1072, control group n=480. Following initial questionnaire-defining focus groups, nurses, laboratory technologists and physicians in all base hospitals in the intervention state were trained by influential role models who attended the initial training. Data were collected in all sites pre-training and 1 y later. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis controlling for baseline data, and orthogonal factor analysis to define scales were used. Data showed significant positive changes after 1 y in the intervention group on perception of population risk assessment, attitudes and beliefs about people with HIV disease, less fear and more sympathy for and responsibility toward HIV patients, and an increase in self-perceived clinical skills. There was increased willingness to treat and teach colleagues about people with HIV. Clinician fear and discrimination were significantly reduced, and the climate of fear that was associated with HIV was replaced with a professional concern. There was increased understanding of appropriate psychosocial, clinical and human rights issues associated with HIV treatment and prevention. This intervention, targeting health workers in an entire state and using HIV/AIDS information, role modeling, diffusion of training and discussions of discrimination and human rights, significantly affected the perception of risk groups and behaviors, perceived skills in treatment and counseling, reduced fears and increased concern for people with HIV disease, and

  10. Using Tactile Learning Aids for Students with Visual Impairments in a First-Semester Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Thomas; Ovadia, Ronit

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes two techniques for rendering visual concepts encountered in an organic chemistry course into tactile representations for students who have low vision. The techniques--which utilize commercially available products--facilitate communication of organic chemistry between student and instructor. (Contains 1 figure, 2 tables and 1…

  11. A systematic review of missed opportunities for improving tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS control in Sub-saharan Africa: what is still missed by health experts?

    PubMed

    Keugoung, Basile; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fotsing, Richard; Macq, Jean; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis are major public health problems. In 2010, 64% of the 34 million of people infected with HIV were reported to be living in sub-Saharan Africa. Only 41% of eligible HIV-positive people had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Regarding tuberculosis, in 2010, the region had 12% of the world's population but reported 26% of the 8.8 million incident cases and 254000 tuberculosis-related deaths. This paper aims to review missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis prevention and care. We conducted a systematic review in PubMed using the terms 'missed'(Title) AND 'opportunities'(Title). We included systematic review and original research articles done in sub-Saharan Africa on missed opportunities in HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care. Missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care can be classified into five categories: i) patient and community; ii) health professional; iii) health facility; iv) local health system; and v) vertical programme (HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis control programmes). None of the reviewed studies identified any missed opportunities related to health system strengthening. Opportunities that are missed hamper tuberculosis and/or HIV/AIDS care in sub-Saharan Africa where health systems remain weak. What is still missing in the analysis of health experts is the acknowledgement that opportunities that are missed to strengthen health systems also undermine tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and care. Studying why these opportunities are missed will help to understand the rationales behind the missed opportunities, and customize adequate strategies to seize them and for effective diseases control.

  12. Domestic Rodent Control Training Manual: A Training Aid for the Rodent Control Category for Certification of Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, William R., Jr.; And Others

    This training manual, designed for training applicants who wish to obtain certification in pesticide application relative to rodent control, covers the following topics: economic factors, public health factors, biological characteristics of domestic rodents, rat and mouse signs, trapping, repellents, poisons, baits, poisoned water, dumps, sewers,…

  13. Introduction: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Epi-Aids--a fond recollection.

    PubMed

    Koplan, Jeffrey P; Foege, William H

    2011-12-01

    The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) has served the United States and the world for >58 years by being an extraordinary apprenticeship in the fundamentals of practical field epidemiology: a training program, a professional entry point, the basis for lifelong careers, and a closely supervised and mentored opportunity for research, analysis, and community service. Epidemic-assistance investigations, a key element of the EIS experience, are the written summaries of each field investigation undertaken by the EIS officer. The resulting reports enter the record of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provide scientific feedback to the state and locality where the epidemic or health problem occurred, and often form the basis for a subsequent manuscript to be submitted to a peer-reviewed medical journal. The EIS Program was created in 1951 to be a defense against potential bioterrorism, serve the immediate needs for field investigation, and provide for future workforce demands by combining epidemiology and laboratory science. During the past 60 years, CDC and public health practitioners have broadened their areas of responsibility by adding programs in reproductive health, environmental health, chronic diseases, nutrition, injury control and prevention, and noncommunicable disease risk factors. Epidemic-assistance investigations have evolved similarly. The papers in this Journal supplement reflect the evolution of public health responsibilities and the growth and development of CDC. They are a testimony to the value of clear, concise information and analysis, communicated to those who need to know as a public health and societal good.

  14. AIDS and South Africa--towards a comprehensive strategy. Part II. Screening and control.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C B; Steinberg, M H; Padayachee, G N; Schoub, B D; Strauss, S A; Buch, E; Davies, J C; de Beer, C; Gear, J S; Hurwitz, H S

    1988-04-16

    In this, the second of a three-part series of articles in which we propose steps towards a comprehensive strategy for the control of HIV infection, we consider controversies relating to screening for HIV, the indications for and desirability of mandatory testing of certain groups at risk, and the place of voluntary testing in the control of HIV transmission and infection. Key recommendations are that mandatory testing of donors of blood and other vital tissues, patients on haemodialysis and haemodialysis unit staff is justified, and that children put up for adoption may require testing. We make further recommendations regarding HIV testing as a prerequisite for life insurance and recommend that voluntary testing be offered, supported by adequate pre- and post-test counselling. We consider that all health care workers should accept as their moral obligation the care and management of HIV-infected individuals, and that they should be adequately educated and skilled in such work. These recommendations were reached largely by consensus, although there were occasions when individual authors condoned recommendations with which they did not personally agree.

  15. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In this study, domain ontology about the field of lead-lag compensator design has been built and used for automatic exercise generation, graphical user interface population and interaction with the user at any level of detail, including explanations about why things occur. An application called Onto-CELE (ontology-based control engineering learning environment) uses the ontology for implementing a learning environment that can be used for self and lifelong learning purposes. The experience has shown that the use of knowledge models as the basis for educational software applications is capable of showing students the whole complexity of the analysis and design processes at any level of detail. A practical experience with postgraduate students has shown the mentioned benefits and possibilities of the approach.

  16. Control of Viremia and Prevention of AIDS following Immunotherapy of SIV-Infected Macaques with Peptide-Pulsed Blood

    PubMed Central

    De Rose, Robert; Fernandez, Caroline S.; Smith, Miranda Z.; Batten, C. Jane; Alcântara, Sheilajen; Peut, Vivienne; Rollman, Erik; Loh, Liyen; Mason, Rosemarie D.; Wilson, Kim; Law, Matthew G.; Handley, Amanda J.; Kent, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Effective immunotherapies for HIV are needed. Drug therapies are life-long with significant toxicities. Dendritic-cell based immunotherapy approaches are promising but impractical for widespread use. A simple immunotherapy, reinfusing fresh autologous blood cells exposed to overlapping SIV peptides for 1 hour ex vivo, was assessed for the control of SIVmac251 replication in 36 pigtail macaques. An initial set of four immunizations was administered under antiretroviral cover and a booster set of three immunizations administered 6 months later. Vaccinated animals were randomized to receive Gag peptides alone or peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins. High-level, SIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity was induced following immunization, both during antiretroviral cover and without. Virus levels were durably ∼10-fold lower for 1 year in immunized animals compared to controls, and a significant delay in AIDS-related mortality resulted. Broader immunity resulted following immunizations with peptides spanning all nine SIV proteins, but the responses to Gag were weaker in comparison to animals only immunized with Gag. No difference in viral outcome occurred in animals immunized with all SIV proteins compared to animals immunized against Gag alone. Peptide-pulsed blood cells are an immunogenic and effective immunotherapy in SIV-infected macaques. Our results suggest Gag alone is an effective antigen for T-cell immunotherapy. Fresh blood cells pulsed with overlapping Gag peptides is proceeding into trials in HIV-infected humans. PMID:18451982

  17. Medical responses to civil war and revolution in Spain, 1936-1939: international aid and local self-organization.

    PubMed

    Willis, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    The traditional view that war is 'good' for medicine has been challenged by some historians in recent decades. In the case of the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, a number of advances in wound treatment, emergency surgery and other areas reputedly occurred, and were important in shaping the medical response to more extended warfare in 1939-1945. At the same time, there was a significant attempt at humanitarian intervention, aiming to provide medical aid and health care for the war's casualties and refugees, in parallel with local transformations in health provision. Political differences within as well as between the contending forces complicated matters. These developments are examined with a view to assessing their implications in the contemporary international context.

  18. Beyond Faith-Based Organizations: Using Comparative Institutional Ethnography to Understand Religious Responses to HIV and AIDS in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Laura; Wittlin, Natalie; Garcia, Jonathan; Terto Jr, Veriano; Parker, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Religious institutions, which contribute to understanding of and mobilization in response to illness, play a major role in structuring social, political, and cultural responses to HIV and AIDS. We used institutional ethnography to explore how religious traditions—Catholic, Evangelical, and Afro-Brazilian—in Brazil have influenced HIV prevention, treatment, and care at the local and national levels over time. We present a typology of Brazil's division of labor and uncover overlapping foci grounded in religious ideology and tradition: care of people living with HIV among Catholics and Afro-Brazilians, abstinence education among Catholics and Evangelicals, prevention within marginalized communities among Evangelicals and Afro-Brazilians, and access to treatment among all traditions. We conclude that institutional ethnography, which allows for multilevel and interlevel analysis, is a useful methodology. PMID:21493944

  19. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS Controls Meristem Identity and Organ Primordia Fate in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, M. D.; Haughn, G. W.

    1995-09-01

    A novel gene that is involved in regulating flower initiation and development has been identified in Arabidopsis. This gene has been designated UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), with five corresponding nuclear recessive alleles designated ufo[middot]1 to ufo[middot]5. Under short day-length conditions, ufo homozygotes generate more coflorescences than do the wild type, and coflorescences often appear apical to the first floral shoot, resulting in a period of inflorescence development in which regions of floral and coflorescence shoots are produced alternately. ufo enhances the phenotype of weak leafy alleles, and the double mutant Ufo-1 Apetala1-1 produces only coflorescence-like shoots, suggesting that these two genes control different aspects of floral initiation. Floral development was also altered in Ufo plants. Ufo flowers have an altered organ number in all whorls, and organs in the first, second, and third whorls exhibit variable homeotic transformations. Ufo single and double mutant phenotypes suggest that the floral changes result from reduction in class B floral homeotic gene expression and fluctuations in the expression boundaries of class C function and FLO10. Surprisingly, in situ hybridization analysis revealed no obvious differences in expression pattern or level in developing Ufo flowers compared with that of the wild type for any class B or C gene studied. We propose that UFO acts in concert with known floral initiation genes and regulates the domains of floral homeotic gene function.

  20. Controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic: current status and global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Demberg, Thorsten; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the current status of the global HIV pandemic and strategies to bring it under control. It updates numerous preventive approaches including behavioral interventions, male circumcision (MC), pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PREP and PEP), vaccines, and microbicides. The manuscript summarizes current anti-retroviral treatment options, their impact in the western world, and difficulties faced by emerging and resource-limited nations in providing and maintaining appropriate treatment regimens. Current clinical and pre-clinical approaches toward a cure for HIV are described, including new drug compounds that target viral reservoirs and gene therapy approaches aimed at altering susceptibility to HIV infection. Recent progress in vaccine development is summarized, including novel approaches and new discoveries. PMID:22912636

  1. Computer Aided Biomanufacturing of Mechanically Robust Pure Collagen Meshes with Controlled Macroporosity

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Anowarul; Chapin, Katherine; Younesi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    Reconciliation of high strength and high porosity in pure collagen based structures is a major barrier in collagen’s use in load-bearing applications. The current study developed a CAD/CAM based electrocompaction method to manufacture highly porous patterned scaffolds using pure collagen. Utilization of computerized scaffold design and fabrication allows the integration of mesh-scaffolds with controlled pore size, shape and spacing. Mechanical properties of fabricated collagen meshes were investigated as a function of number of patterned layers, and with different pore geometries. The tensile stiffness, tensile strength and modulus ranges from 10-50 N/cm, 1-6 MPa and 5-40 MPa respectively for all the scaffold groups. These results are within the range of practical usability of different tissue engineering application such as tendon, hernia, stress urinary incontinence or thoracic wall reconstruction. Moreover, 3-fold increase in the layer number resulted in more than 5-fold increases in failure load, toughness and stiffness which suggests that by changing the number of layers and shape of the structure, mechanical properties can be modulated for the aforementioned tissue engineering application. These patterned scaffolds offer a porosity ranging from 0.8-1.5 mm in size, a range that is commensurate with pore sizes of repair meshes in the market. The connected macroporosity of the scaffolds facilitated cell-seeding such that cells populated the entire scaffold at the time of seeding. After 3 days of culture, cell nuclei became elongated. These results indicate that the patterned electrochemical deposition method in this study was able to develop mechanically robust, highly porous collagen scaffolds with controlled porosity which not only tries to solve one of the major tissue engineering problems in a fundamental level but also has a significant potential to be used in different tissue engineering applications. PMID:26200002

  2. Computer aided biomanufacturing of mechanically robust pure collagen meshes with controlled macroporosity.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anowarul; Chapin, Katherine; Younesi, Mousa; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-07-22

    Reconciliation of high strength and high porosity in pure collagen based structures is a major barrier in collagen's use in load-bearing applications. The current study developed a CAD/CAM based electrocompaction method to manufacture highly porous patterned scaffolds using pure collagen. Utilization of computerized scaffold design and fabrication allows the integration of mesh-scaffolds with controlled pore size, shape and spacing. Mechanical properties of fabricated collagen meshes were investigated as a function of number of patterned layers, and with different pore geometries. The tensile stiffness, tensile strength and modulus ranges from 10-50 N cm(-1), 1-6 MPa and 5-40 MPa respectively for all the scaffold groups. These results are within the range of practical usability of different tissue engineering application such as tendon, hernia, stress urinary incontinence or thoracic wall reconstruction. Moreover, 3-fold increase in the layer number resulted in more than 5-fold increases in failure load, toughness and stiffness which suggests that by changing the number of layers and shape of the structure, mechanical properties can be modulated for the aforementioned tissue engineering application. These patterned scaffolds offer a porosity ranging from 0.8 to 1.5 mm in size, a range that is commensurate with pore sizes of repair meshes in the market. The connected macroporosity of the scaffolds facilitated cell-seeding such that cells populated the entire scaffold at the time of seeding. After 3 d of culture, cell nuclei became elongated. These results indicate that the patterned electrochemical deposition method in this study was able to develop mechanically robust, highly porous collagen scaffolds with controlled porosity which not only tries to solve one of the major tissue engineering problems at a fundamental level but also has a significant potential to be used in different tissue engineering applications.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1426 - Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and aggregated organic HAP emission reduction for a....1426 Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and aggregated organic HAP emission reduction for a PMPU. (a) Use of a flare. When a flare is used to comply...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1426 - Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and aggregated organic HAP emission reduction for a... Production § 63.1426 Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and aggregated organic HAP emission reduction for a PMPU. (a) Use of a flare. When a flare is used...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1426 - Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and aggregated organic HAP emission reduction for a....1426 Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and aggregated organic HAP emission reduction for a PMPU. (a) Use of a flare. When a flare is used to comply...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1426 - Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and aggregated organic HAP emission reduction for a....1426 Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and aggregated organic HAP emission reduction for a PMPU. (a) Use of a flare. When a flare is used to comply...

  7. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization.

  8. Resource Mobilization for Health Advocacy: Afro-Brazilian Religious Organizations and HIV Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2010-01-01

    Brazil’s national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N=18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N=12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N=5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N=5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  9. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 1: Communication Aids. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for disabled and elderly individuals, the directory focuses on communication aids. The book's six chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by function, input/output…

  10. Longitudinal Effects of Coping on Outcome in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Ghebremichael, Musie; Zhang, Heping; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…

  11. The Impact of Numerical Control Technology and Computer Aided Manufacturing on Curriculum Development in Industrial Education and Technology. A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Klaus Dieter

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of Numerical Control Technology and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (NC/CAM) in American industry on industrial education and engineering technology education. The specific purpose was to identify a data base and rationale for curriculum development in NC/CAM through a comparison of views by…

  12. Fuel-Controlled Reassembly of Metal–Organic Architectures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many examples exist of biological self-assembled structures that restructure in response to external stimuli, then return to their previous state over a defined time scale, but most synthetic investigations so far have focused on systems that switch between states representing energetic minima upon stimulus application. Here we report an approach in which triphenylphosphine is used as a chemical fuel to maintain CuI-based self-assembled metallosupramolecular architectures for defined periods of time. This method was used to exert control over the threading and dethreading of the ring of a pseudorotaxane’s axle, as well as to direct the uptake and release of a guest from a metal–organic host. Management of the amount of fuel and catalyst added allowed for time-dependent regulation of product concentration. PMID:26779566

  13. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  14. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  15. Response of benthos and organic drift to a controlled flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinn, Dean W.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Wilson, Kevin P.; O'Brien, Chris; Benenati, Peggy L.

    The controlled flood in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, provided valuable information on short-term responses for both the riverine system and the biotic community, but the long-term effects of the flood on the aquatic food base were more difficult to assess. The 1274 m3/s discharge flushed the silt/clay fraction from the channel bottom throughout the river corridor. There were no significant differences in dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH before and after the flood compared to during the flood. However, water clarity was dramatically reduced during the first 2 days of the flood event, but cleared after 7 days. Over 90% of the phytobenthos and ≥50% of the benthic invertebrates were scoured from the Lees Ferry reach, with biota associated with unstable fine sediment most vulnerable. Most of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) that passed through the river corridor was entrained in the initial hydrostatic wave; values for DOC and POC were significantly lower throughout the remainder of the flood. Stable isotope analyses indicated that riparian and upland vegetation made up most of the stream drift during the experimental flood, whereas phytobenthos was the dominant drift constituent during normal dam operations. Recovery rates to preflood levels were fast for phytobenthos (1 mon) and invertebrates (2 mon). We propose that the rapid recover rates and current high standing stock of aquatic benthos in the river corridor is more a function of higher water clarity, due to higher relatively constant dam releases, rather than solely related to the controlled flood. Our data indicate that consistent high discharges (≥400 m3/s) from Glen Canyon Dam mitigate the influence of suspended sediments delivered from tributaries on water clarity. Therefore, optimum conditions for management of the present exotic food base below Glen Canyon Dam may be achieved by steady discharges (˜450 m3/s) with minimal

  16. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: transmission, virology and therapeutic targeting to aid in outbreak control

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Batool, Maria; Shah, Masaud; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes high fever, cough, acute respiratory tract infection and multiorgan dysfunction that may eventually lead to the death of the infected individuals. MERS-CoV is thought to be transmitted to humans through dromedary camels. The occurrence of the virus was first reported in the Middle East and it subsequently spread to several parts of the world. Since 2012, about 1368 infections, including ~487 deaths, have been reported worldwide. Notably, the recent human-to-human ‘superspreading' of MERS-CoV in hospitals in South Korea has raised a major global health concern. The fatality rate in MERS-CoV infection is four times higher compared with that of the closely related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Currently, no drug has been clinically approved to control MERS-CoV infection. In this study, we highlight the potential drug targets that can be used to develop anti-MERS-CoV therapeutics. PMID:26315600

  17. Functional proteomics-aided selection of protease inhibitors for herbivore insect control

    PubMed Central

    Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Munger, Aurélie; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Cloutier, Conrad; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Studies have reported the potential of protease inhibitors to engineer insect resistance in transgenic plants but the general usefulness of this approach in crop protection still remains to be established. Insects have evolved strategies to cope with dietary protease inhibitors, such as the use of proteases recalcitrant to inhibition, that often make the selection of effective inhibitors very challenging. Here, we used a functional proteomics approach for the ‘capture’ of Cys protease targets in crude protein extracts as a tool to identify promising cystatins for plant improvement. Two cystatins found to differ in their efficiency to capture Cys proteases of the coleopteran pest Leptinotarsa decemlineata also differed in their usefulness to produce transgenic potato lines resistant to this insect. Plants expressing the most potent cystatin at high level had a strong repressing effect on larval growth and leaf intake, while plants expressing the weakest cystatin showed no effect on both two parameters compared to untransformed parental line used for genetic transformation. Our data underline the relevance of considering the whole range of possible protease targets when selecting an inhibitor for plant pest control. They also confirm the feasibility of developing cystatin-expressing transgenics resistant to a major pest of potato. PMID:27958307

  18. En route position and time control of aircraft using Kalman filtering of radio aid data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Christensen, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    Fixed-time-of-arrival (FTA) guidance and navigation is investigated as a possible technique capable of operation within much more stringent en route separation standards and offering significant advantages in safety, higher traffic densities, and improved scheduling reliability, both en route and in the terminal areas. This study investigated the application of FTA guidance previously used in spacecraft guidance. These FTA guidance techniques have been modified and are employed to compute the velocity corrections necessary to return an aircraft to a specified great-circle reference path in order to exercise en route time and position control throughout the entire flight. The necessary position and velocity estimates to accomplish this task are provided by Kalman filtering of data from Loran-C, VORTAC/TACAN, Doppler radar, radio or barometric altitude,and altitude rate. The guidance and navigation system was evaluated using a digital simulation of the cruise phase of supersonic and subsonic flights between San Francisco and New York City, and between New York City and London.

  19. Laser printing hierarchical structures with the aid of controlled capillary-driven self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanlei; Lao, Zhaoxin; Cumming, Benjamin P.; Wu, Dong; Li, Jiawen; Liang, Haiyi; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Capillary force is often regarded as detrimental because it may cause undesired distortion or even destruction to micro/nanostructures during a fabrication process, and thus many efforts have been made to eliminate its negative effects. From a different perspective, capillary force can be artfully used to construct specific complex architectures. Here, we propose a laser printing capillary-assisted self-assembly strategy for fabricating regular periodic structures. Microscale pillars are first produced by localized femtosecond laser polymerization and are subsequently assembled into periodic hierarchical architectures with the assistance of controlled capillary forces in an evaporating liquid. Spatial arrangements, pillar heights, and evaporation processes are readily tuned to achieve designable ordered assemblies with various geometries. Reversibility of the assembly is also revealed by breaking the balance between the intermolecular force and the elastic standing force. We further demonstrate the functionality of the hierarchical structures as a nontrivial tool for the selective trapping and releasing of microparticles, opening up a potential for the development of in situ transportation systems for microobjects. PMID:26038541

  20. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  1. World Bank will lend more money to India for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, K S

    1998-07-01

    This article discusses the World Bank's plans to lend India money that will be used in part to fund HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The loan amounts to about US$200 million, of which 25% would be directed to research and development for HIV/AIDS. The loan is a 5-year extension of support that ended March 1999. The loan will cover the cost of blood safety programs, hospital and community care plans, and medical drugs for treating opportunistic infections. According to the Department of Biotechnology and the Indian Council of Medical Research, research and development money will be split between indigenous AIDS vaccine programs and assessment of local production of HIV diagnostic kits and development of vaginal microbicides. The government will support clinical trials of more than herbal medicines for treating tuberculosis. Funding will also support evaluation research on cost of patient care and the HIV/AIDS impact on the work force. A major focus will be on the high risk population of women and children. The World Bank requires that 50% of the loans go to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). However, the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India lost government financial funding and will not be able to fund NGO efforts directly. NACO must channel funding through state governments. There is fear that the AIDS control program will suffer due to the restructuring of operations and shortages of manpower. The AIDS program funding could be halted by the Bank due to India's nuclear testing.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1426 - Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency, and aggregated organic HAP emission reduction for a... Production § 63.1426 Process vent requirements for determining organic HAP concentration, control efficiency... demonstrate the control efficiency for the flare, if the owner or operator chooses to assume a 98...

  3. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  4. Nanostructured Fe(III) catalysts for water oxidation assembled with the aid of organic acid salt electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang; Li, Dandan; Gao, Guofeng; Yuan, Wen; Hao, Genyan; Li, Jinping

    2016-11-01

    We describe the preparation of three partially ordered iron-based catalyst films (Fe-OAc, Fe-Pro, Fe-But) with nanoporous structure by electrodeposition from organate electrolytes containing Fe2+. The anions of the organic acids assisted the partial ordering of the nanostructured Fe(III) catalysts for water oxidation. A model involving an electrical double layer is invoked to explain the role of the organate electrolyte system in their formation. Analytical results have revealed the main component of the iron-based films to be a β-FeOOH structure. The Fe-But catalyst catalyzed water oxidation in 0.1 m potassium carbonate solution with an average activity of 1.48 mA cm-2 and an overpotential of 433 mV.

  5. On the Physicochemical Processes Controlling Organic Aerosol Hygroscopicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, Sarah Suda

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere can influence air quality and climate through their interaction with water. Aerosols are an important factor in cloud formation because they serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Organic compounds contribute a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass but their ability to serve as CCN is less certain relative to inorganic compounds. Limitations of the measurement techniques and theoretical gaps in understanding have prevented agreement between predicted and measured CCN. One way to quantify a compound's CCN activity is by the hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. This dissertation presents research towards constraining the variability of organic aerosol kappa at the process level using three approaches: developing a measurement technique; measuring the dependence of kappa on molecular functional groups; and measuring the effect of surface active molecules on kappa for mixtures. Chapter 2 presents a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) instrument to measure aerosol water uptake at high relative humidity (RH). Measurements up to 99% RH were achieved by improving the precision of aerosol sizing, actively controlling temperature, and calibrating RH between measurements. Osmotic coefficients were obtained within +/-20% for organic aerosols sized between 30 and 200 nanometers. These results may improve water uptake models by providing accurate data at high RH. Chapter 3 presents a study of the sensitivity of kappa to changes in molecular functional group composition for pure compounds. Molecules were synthesized via gas and liquidphase reactions varying the type and location of functional groups, purified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and routed for CCN measurement. The hydroxyl (-OH) and carbon chain length (-CH2-) changed kappa most, where hydroxyl groups increase kappa and longer carbon chains decrease kappa. This suggests that hydroxyl groups and molecular size dominate the

  6. Capability index--a statistical process control tool to aid in udder health control in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Niza-Ribeiro, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Menezes, J C

    2004-08-01

    Bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) averages have been used to evaluate udder health both at the individual or the herd level as well as milk quality and hygiene. The authors show that the BMSCC average is not the best tool to be used in udder health control programs and that it can be replaced with advantage by the capability index (Cpk). The Cpk is a statistical process control tool traditionally used by engineers to validate, monitor, and predict the expected behavior of processes or machines. The BMSCC data of 13 consecutive months of production from 414 dairy herds as well as SCC from all cows in the DHI program from 264 herds in the same period were collected. The Cpk and the annual BMSCC average (AAVG) of all the herds were calculated. Confronting the herd's performance explained by the Cpk and AAVG with the European Union (EU) official limit for BMSCC of 400,000 cells/mL, it was noticed that the Cpk accurately classified the compliance of the 414 farms, whereas the AAVG misclassified 166 (40%) of the 414 selected farms. The annual prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SMP) of each herd was calculated with individual SCC data from the same 13-mo period. Cows with more than 200,000 SCC/mL were considered as having subclinical mastitis. A logistic regression model to relate the Cpk and the herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence was calculated. The model is: SMPe = 0.475 e(-0.5286 x Cpk). The validation of the model was carried out evaluating the relation between the observed SMP and the predicted SMPe, in terms of the linear correlation coefficient (R2) and the mean difference between SMP and SMPe (i.e., mean square error of prediction). The validation suggests that our model can be used to estimate the herd's SMP with the herd's Cpk. The Cpk equation relates the herd's BMSCC with the EU official SCC limit, thus the logistic regression model enables the adoption of critical limits for subclinical mastitis, taking into consideration the legal standard for SCC.

  7. Organization and control of epileptic circuits in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, A.; Maroso, M.; Soltesz, I.

    2016-01-01

    When studying the pathological mechanisms of epilepsy, there are a seemingly endless number of approaches from the ultrastructural level—receptor expression by EM—to the behavioral level—comorbid depression in behaving animals. Epilepsy is characterized as a disorder of recurrent seizures, which are defined as “a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain” (Fisher et al., 2005). Such abnormal activity typically does not occur in a single isolated neuron; rather, it results from pathological activity in large groups—or circuits—of neurons. Here we choose to focus on two aspects of aberrant circuits in temporal lobe epilepsy: their organization and potential mechanisms to control these pathological circuits. We also look at two scales: microcircuits, ie, the relationship between individual neurons or small groups of similar neurons, and macrocircuits, ie, the organization of large-scale brain regions. We begin by summarizing the large body of literature that describes the stereotypical anatomical changes in the temporal lobe—ie, the anatomical basis of alterations in microcircuitry. We then offer a brief introduction to graph theory and describe how this type of mathematical analysis, in combination with computational neuroscience techniques and using parameters obtained from experimental data, can be used to postulate how microcircuit alterations may lead to seizures. We then zoom out and look at the changes which are seen over large whole-brain networks in patients and animal models, and finally we look to the future. PMID:27323941

  8. Main factors controlling microbial community structure, growth and activity after reclamation of a tailing pond with aided phytostabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Faz, Ángel; Bååth, Erland

    2015-04-01

    Reclamation on bare tailing ponds has the potential to represent soil genesis in Technosols favoring the understanding of the changes of microbial communities and function. In this study we used phytostabilization aided with calcium carbonate and pig slurry/manure to reclaim an acidic bare tailing pond with the aim of investigating the effect of amending and different species on microbial community structure and function. We sampled after two years of amending and planting: unamended tailing soil (UTS), non-rhizospheric amended tailing soil (ATS), rhizospheric soil from four species, and non-rhizospheric native forest soil (NS), which acted as reference. The application of amendments increased pH up to neutrality, organic carbon (Corg), C/N and aggregate stability, while decreased salinity and heavy metals availability. No effect of rhizosphere was observed on physicochemical properties, metals immobilization and microbial community structure and function. To account for confounding effects due to soil organic matter, microbial properties were expressed per Corg. The high increments in pH and Corg have been the main factors driving changes in microbial community structure and function. Bacterial biomass was higher in UTS, without significant differences among the rest of soils. Fungal biomass followed the trend UTS < ATS = rhizospheric soils < NS. Bacterial growth increased and fungal growth decreased with increasing pH, despite the high availability of metals at low pH. Enzyme activities were lower in UTS, being β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase activities highly correlated with bacterial growth. Microbial activities were not correlated with the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals, indicating that microbial function is not strongly affected by these metals, likely due to the efficiency of the reclamation procedure to reduce metals toxicity. Changes in microbial community composition were largely explained by changes in pH, heavy metals availability and Corg

  9. Control of Organ Growth by Patterning and Hippo Signalling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Kenneth D.; Harvey, Kieran F.

    2017-01-01

    Control of organ size is of fundamental importance and is controlled by genetic, environmental and mechanical factors. Studies in many species have pointed to the existence of both organ-extrinsic and organ-intrinsic size control mechanisms, which ultimately must coordinate to regulate organ size. Here we discuss organ size control by organ patterning and by the Hippo pathway, which both act in an organ-intrinsic fashion. The influence of morphogens and other patterning molecules couples growth and patterning, whilst emerging evidence suggests that the Hippo pathway controls growth in response to mechanical stimuli and signals emanating from cell-cell interactions. Several points of crosstalk have been reported between signalling pathways that control organ patterning and the Hippo pathway, both at the level of membrane receptors and transcriptional regulators. However, despite substantial progress in the past decade, key questions in the growth control field remain, including precisely how and when organ patterning and the Hippo pathway communicate to control size and whether these communication mechanisms are organ-specific or general. In addition, elucidating mechanisms by which organ-intrinsic cues such as patterning factors and the Hippo pathway interface with extrinsic cues such as hormones to control organ size remains unresolved. PMID:26032720

  10. On spatial scaling & environmental controls of soil organic carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of terrestrial land surface modulates the fluxes of energy, moisture, and greenhouse gases. However, representing the terrestrial heterogeneity of biogeochemistry in earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We investigated the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls and predicted soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the state of Alaska, USA. We used over 500 soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at 50 m spatial resolution. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (100 m, 200 m, 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, 5 km, and 10 km) and generated SOC stock estimates for each scale till the predicted variance of SOC stocks became constant. We found different environmental factors as statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Topographic attributes were important predictors at finer scales whereas surficial geology types became significant predictors at larger spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and barren land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The controls (predictive power) of these environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with upscaling. Highest and lowest decrease in predictive power was observed for potential evapotranspiration (55%) and elevation (25%). Similarly, intermediate decrease was observed for temperature (45%), and barren land cover types (45%). The predicted variance of SOC stocks decreased by 45% as the spatial scaling was increased from 50 m to 10km. We believe the statistical structure of the scaling behavior of SOC stocks can inform ESMs in appropriately representing the spatial heterogeneity of SOC stocks.

  11. Serbia National Poison Control Centre: organization and current activities.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Dugan; Joksović, Dragan; Vucinić, Savica; Todorović, Veljko; Segrt, Zoran; Kilibarda, Vesna; Bokonjić, Dubravko

    2005-01-01

    Ministry of Health of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia established the National Poison Control Centre in 1995. However, that was only the formally solution since clinical, analytical and experimental services in toxicology had worked independently for at least 40 years. Besides the Headquarters, NPCC has currently 2 main units, the Clinic of Emergency and Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology and the Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology. The latter is consisted of Toxicological Information Department, Department of Analytical Toxicology and Department of Experimental Toxicology and Pharmacology. The Mobile Toxicological Chemical Unit is a separate department that is activated from personnel of the NPCC in a case of chemical accidents and/or disasters. Clinical, information and analytical parts of NPCC have a 365-day/24-hour working service. The Clinic of Emergency and Clinical Toxicology and Pharmacology is a place where the intoxicated patients are treated, including those that need the intensive care measures. Toxicological Information Department uses the data from a self-made computer Database for different information purposes. Department of Analytical Toxicology is equipped with a lot of contemporary analytical equipment that is giving the opportunity of identification and quantification of chemicals/metabolites/degradation products in biological material, food, water, air and soil. Basic pharmacological and toxicological research of chemicals and pre-clinical investigations of antidotes are realized in the Department of Experimental Toxicology and Pharmacology. In terms of medical prevention and rational treatment of human poison exposures in Serbia, the current organization of NPCC has so far proven to be effective.

  12. Externally controlled spin state switching in metal-organic complexes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrets, Alexei; Meded, Velimir; Ruben, Mario; Evers, Ferdinand

    2009-03-01

    Recent transport experiments have demonstrated that a manipulation of the charge of individual molecules is feasible using electromigrated metal junctions [1] or electrochemical gates in conjunction with the STM [2]. Using elaborated density functional theory calculations, we will discuss a possibility to induce -- by means of charging or applied stress -- a switching between low and high spin states in certain metal-organic systems, [Fe(bpp)2]^2+ (bpp: bispyrazolyl pyridine) and [Mn(tpy)2]^2+ (tpy: terpyridine). Based upon a recent success of the single molecular conduction experiment through Ru(II) complex [3], we anticipate the transport properties of Fe(II) and Mn(II) complexes to be gate controlled via exploiting their spin degree of freedom. [1] E. A. Osorio et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter20, 374121 (2008); [2] F. Chen el al., Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 535 (2007); Li et al., Nanotechnology 18, 044018 (2007). [3] M. Ruben, A. Landa, E. L"ortscher, H. Riel, M. Mayor, H. G"orls, H. Weber, A. Arnold, and F. Evers, Small (online), DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800390 (2008).

  13. Aromatic interactions as control elements in stereoselective organic reactions.

    PubMed

    Krenske, Elizabeth H; Houk, K N

    2013-04-16

    This Account describes how attractive interactions of aromatic rings with other groups can influence and control the stereoselectivity of many reactions. Recent developments in theory have improved the accuracy in the modeling of aromatic interactions. Quantum mechanical modeling can now provide insights into the roles of these interactions at a level of detail not previously accessible, both for ground-state species and for transition states of chemical reactions. In this Account, we show how transition-state modeling led to the discovery of the influence of aryl groups on the stereoselectivities of several types of organic reactions, including asymmetric dihydroxylations, transfer hydrogenations, hetero-Diels-Alder reactions, acyl transfers, and Claisen rearrangements. Our recent studies have also led to a novel mechanistic picture for two classes of (4 + 3) cycloadditions, both of which involve reactions of furans with oxyallyl intermediates. The first class of cycloadditions, developed by Hsung, features neutral oxyallyl intermediates that contain a chiral oxazolidinone auxiliary. Originally, it was thought that these cycloadditions relied on differential steric crowding of the two faces of a planar intermediate. Computations reveal a different picture and show that cycloaddition with furan takes place preferentially through the more crowded transition state: the furan adds on the same side as the Ph substituent of the oxazolidinone. The crowded transition state is stabilized by a CH-π interaction between furan and Ph worth approximately 2 kcal/mol. Attractive interactions with aromatic rings also control the stereoselectivity in a second class of (4+3) cycloadditions involving chiral alkoxy siloxyallyl cations. Alkoxy groups derived from chiral α-methylbenzyl alcohols favor crowded transition states, where a stabilizing CH-π interaction is present between the furan and the Ar group. The cationic cycloadditions are stepwise, while the Hsung cycloadditions

  14. Aromatic Interactions as Control Elements in Stereoselective Organic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Conspectus This Account describes how attractive interaction of aromatic rings with other groups can influence and control the stereoselectivity of many reactions. Recent developments in theory have led to improved accuracy in the modeling of aromatic interactions. Quantum mechanical modeling can now provide insights into the roles of these interactions at a level of detail not previously accessible, both for ground-state species and for transition states of chemical reactions. In this Account, we show how transition-state modeling led to the discovery of the influence of aryl groups on the stereoselectivities of several types of organic reactions. These reaction types include asymmetric dihydroxylations, transfer hydrogenations, hetero-Diels–Alder reactions, acyl transfers, and Claisen rearrangements. Our recent studies have led to a novel mechanistic picture for two classes of (4+3) cycloadditions, both of which involve reactions of furans with oxyallyl intermediates. The first class of cycloadditions, developed by Hsung, features neutral oxyallyls containing a chiral oxazolidinone auxiliary. Originally, these cycloadditions were thought rely on differential steric crowding of the two faces of a planar intermediate. Computations reveal a different picture and show that cycloadditions with furan takes place preferentially through the more crowded transition state, with furan adding on the same side as the oxazolidinone’s Ph substituent. The crowded transition state is stabilized by a CH–π interaction between furan and Ph, worth about 2.0 kcal/mol. Stereocontrol in a second class of (4+3) cycloadditions, involving chiral alkoxy siloxyallyl cations, also is controlled by attractive interactions with aromatic rings. Alkoxy groups derived from chiral α-methylbenzyl alcohols are found to favor crowded transition states, where a CH–π interaction is again present between furan and Ar. The cationic cycloadditions are stepwise, while the Hsung cycloadditions are

  15. A patient decision aid to support shared decision‐making on anti‐thrombotic treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Richard G; Eccles, Martin P; Steen, I Nick; Greenaway, Jane; Stobbart, Lynne; Murtagh, Madeleine J; May, Carl R

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a computerised decision aid in patients with atrial fibrillation making decisions on whether to take warfarin or aspirin therapy. Design Two‐armed open exploratory randomised controlled trial. Setting Two research clinics deriving participants from general practices in Northeast England. Participants 109 patients with atrial fibrillation aged over 60. Interventions Computerised decision aid applied in shared decision‐making clinic compared to evidence‐based paper guidelines applied as direct advice. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measure was the decision conflict scale. Secondary outcome measures included anxiety, knowledge, decision‐making preference, treatment decision, use of primary and secondary care services and health outcomes. Results Decision conflict was lower in the computerised decision aid group immediately after the clinic; mean difference −0.18 (95% CI −0.34 to −0.01). Participants in this group not already on warfarin were much less likely to start warfarin than those in the guidelines arm (4/16, 25% compared to the guidelines group 15/16, 93.8%, RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.63). Conclusions Decision conflict was lower immediately following the use of a computerised decision aid in a shared decision‐making consultation than immediately following direct doctor‐led advice based on paper guidelines. Furthermore, participants in the computerised decision aid group were significantly much less likely to start warfarin than those in the guidelines arm. The results show that such an approach has a positive impact on decision conflict comparable to other studies of decision aids, but also reduces the uptake of a clinically effective treatment that may have important implications for health outcomes. PMID:17545350

  16. Expanding the partnership. The private sector's role in HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P

    1996-07-01

    The public sector supports most HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities in developing countries, with significant funding provided by the US Agency for International Development, the Overseas Development Authority, the European Community, and international banking institutions such as the World Bank. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international private voluntary organizations (PVOs) implement many of the grassroots prevention and care efforts in developing countries, but often require support from donor agencies. While the private commercial sector has played a minor role in supporting HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, a number of local and multinational companies are beginning to recognize the importance of protecting their workers from HIV infection. These companies are motivated by a sense of moral obligation and/or view HIV/AIDS prevention as a cost-effective investment. Mainly affecting the most economically productive age groups, the HIV/AIDS epidemic will have a significant impact upon private industry. Workplace-based prevention programs and policies, private sector resources for HIV/AIDS prevention and care, how HIV/AIDS programs can benefit from the private sector's experience in commercial service delivery, research and development, and corporate direct cash and in-kind contributions to government and NGO HIV/AIDS prevention activities are discussed. The AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's Businesses Managing AIDS Project helps owners and managers understand the potential impact of HIV/AIDS upon their businesses and the benefits of HIV/AIDS prevention.

  17. Five-year results of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial of posterior computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Passia, N; Stampf, S; Strub, J R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical outcome of shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic full-coverage crowns on premolars and molars in comparison with conventional gold crowns over a 5-year period. Two hundred and twenty-three patients were included and randomly divided into two treatment groups. One hundred and twenty-three patients were restored with 123 ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns, and 100 patients received 100 gold crowns, which served as the control. All crowns were conventionally cemented with glass-ionomer cement. After an observation period of 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months, the survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns was 98·3%, 92·0%, 84·7%, 79% and 73·2% and for the gold crowns, 99%, 97·9%, 95·7%, 94·6% and 92·3%, respectively. The difference between the test and control group was statistically significant (P = 0·0027). The gold crowns showed a better marginal integrity with less marginal discoloration than the ceramic crowns. The most common failure in the ceramic crown group was fracture of the crown. The 60-month results of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial suggest that the use of these shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns in posterior tooth restorations cannot be recommended.

  18. 26 CFR 1.501(k)-1 - Communist-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Communist-controlled organizations. 1.501(k)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(k)-1 Communist-controlled organizations. Under section 11(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 790(b)), as amended, which...

  19. 26 CFR 1.501(k)-1 - Communist-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Communist-controlled organizations. 1.501(k)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(k)-1 Communist-controlled organizations. Under section 11(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 790(b)), as amended, which...

  20. Awareness and utilization of HIV services of an AIDS community-based organization in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, Derek T; Gravitt, Patti; Rompalo, Anne M; Yap, Ivan; Tai, Raymond; Lim, Sin H

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, homosexuality is illegal; little is known about access to HIV prevention services among Malaysian men who have sex with men (MSM). We analysed PT Foundation outreach data to describe the profiles among MSM who accessed PT Foundation services and to examine factors associated with being aware of PT Foundation and having visited the organization. A survey was administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur from March-December 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of participants who were and were not aware of the PT Foundation. Binary logistic regression was used to identify correlates of MSM visiting the PT Foundation among those who had heard of the organization. Of 614 MSM, this study found significantly higher awareness of the PT Foundation among MSM who perceived they had "good" HIV knowledge (p = .026) and participants who reported always using condoms (p = .009). MSM who reported being paid for sex were 2.81 times as likely to visit the PT Foundation compared to men who did not. A subgroup of MSM known to be at high risk for HIV infection is accessing prevention services. Future studies should uncover motivations and barriers of accessing these services among MSM in Malaysia.

  1. Biomineralization-inspired synthesis of functional organic/inorganic hybrid materials: organic molecular control of self-organization of hybrids.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Oda, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Kato, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Organisms produce various organic/inorganic hybrid materials, which are called biominerals. They form through the self-organization of organic molecules and inorganic elements under ambient conditions. Biominerals often have highly organized and hierarchical structures from nanometer to macroscopic length scales, resulting in their remarkable physical and chemical properties that cannot be obtained by simple accumulation of their organic and inorganic constituents. These observations motivate us to create novel functional materials exhibiting properties superior to conventional materials--both synthetic and natural. Herein, we introduce recent progress in understanding biomineralization processes at the molecular level and the development of organic/inorganic hybrid materials by these processes. We specifically outline fundamental molecular studies on silica, iron oxide, and calcium carbonate biomineralization and describe material synthesis based on these mechanisms. These approaches allow us to design a variety of advanced hybrid materials with desired morphologies, sizes, compositions, and structures through environmentally friendly synthetic routes using functions of organic molecules.

  2. Evaluation of computer-aided system design tools for SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Battle Management/C3 (command, control and communications) architecture development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, D.W.; Campbell, K.; Chludzinski, J.; Corcoran, N.; Gonzalez, C.

    1987-10-01

    This IDA paper was prepared at the request of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The paper documents findings of an evaluation on the capabilities of certain computer software/computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools to provide computer-aided graphic design of Battle Management/C3 for the SDIO. Each tool (of the five selected on the basis of the best available at this time), was installed at IDA. After training by vendor tool staff, an IDA team, using a hands-on design experience determined the merits of the tools for SDI application. A comparative summary of the tools is given relative to envisaged SDI requirements and an extensive questionnaire is answered for each.

  3. 'Public enemy no. 1': Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response - a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate how tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: (1) During the 1990s, Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the USA, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; (2) In both Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in sub-Saharan Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high-profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist

  4. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  5. Biological control of soilborne diseases in organic potato production using hypovirulent strains of Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne diseases are persistent problems in potato production and alternative management practices are needed, particularly in organic production, where control options are limited. Selected biocontrol organisms, including two naturally-occurring hypovirulent strains of Rhizoctonia solani (Rhs1a1 ...

  6. Biological control of soilborne diseases in organic potato production as affected by varying environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne diseases are persistent problems in potato production and alternative management practices are needed, particularly in organic production, where control options are limited. Selected biocontrol organisms, including two naturally-occurring hypovirulent strains of Rhizoctonia solani (Rhs1a1 ...

  7. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  8. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  9. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... Coverage § 86.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization to...

  10. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... Coverage § 86.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization to...

  11. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... Coverage § 86.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization to...

  12. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... Coverage § 86.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization to...

  13. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... Coverage § 86.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization to...

  14. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  15. Quality Control Review of the Defense Logistics Agency Audit Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    supports roughly 2,400 weapon systems, and manages 9 supply chains and nearly 6 million items. DLA operates in 48 states and 28 countries, and... documentary evidence. Although most documents received from the organization would be difficult to alter without detection, auditors must... documentary evidence. Although most documents received from the audited organization would be difficult to alter without detection, auditors must consider

  16. Organic Weed Control in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes such as white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) provide a valuable nitrogen source in organic agriculture. With organic farming becoming an increasing sector of US agriculture and white lupin interest increasing in the southeastern USA because winter hardy cultivars are available, non-chemical weed c...

  17. Directory of National Organizations Concerned With Land Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 133 national organizations, agencies, institutes and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  18. Directory of National Organizations Concerned with Land Pollution Control, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 204 national organizations, agencies, institutes, and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  19. Organic Analyses in Water Quality Control Programs. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This document is a lecture/laboratory manual dealing with the analysis of selected organic pollutants. It is intended for use by those having little or no experience in the field, but having one year (or equivalent) of college organic chemistry, and having basic laboratory skills (volumetric glassware, titration, analytical and trip balances).…

  20. Biophysical controls on organic carbon fluxes in fluvial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battin, Tom J.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Findlay, Stuart; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Marti, Eugenia; Packman, Aaron I.; Newbold, J. Denis; Sabater, Francesc

    2008-02-01

    Metabolism of terrestrial organic carbon in freshwater ecosystems is responsible for a large amount of carbon dioxide outgassing to the atmosphere, in contradiction to the conventional wisdom that terrestrial organic carbon is recalcitrant and contributes little to the support of aquatic metabolism. Here, we combine recent findings from geophysics, microbial ecology and organic geochemistry to show geophysical opportunity and microbial capacity to enhance the net heterotrophy in streams, rivers and estuaries. We identify hydrological storage and retention zones that extend the residence time of organic carbon during downstream transport as geophysical opportunities for microorganisms to develop as attached biofilms or suspended aggregates, and to metabolize organic carbon for energy and growth. We consider fluvial networks as meta-ecosystems to include the acclimation of microbial communities in downstream ecosystems that enable them to exploit energy that escapes from upstream ecosystems, thereby increasing the overall energy utilization at the network level.

  1. [Role of the Services for Prevention Safety at the Working Setting (SPSAL) in the application of the Ministerial Decree of July 15, 2003, No. 388 (regulation on the organization of first aid in the construction sector].

    PubMed

    Saretto, G; Gianoli, E

    2006-01-01

    Article 15 of the D.Lgs. 626/94 and D.M. 388/2003, performance regulations, have codified of the new modalities of management and organization of the Service of Ready business Aid. I previewed in the new approach, entrusted main tasks to the employer, they are of organizational and formative type.

  2. Hearing AIDS and music.

    PubMed

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues-both compression ratio and knee-points-and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a "music program,'' unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions.

  3. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  4. Lesotho's footballers join the fight against AIDS.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Under Lesotho's traditional HIV/AIDS program, church organizations did outreach work with high risk groups and medical personnel were trained in the care of AIDS patients. Then in 1994 an innovative strategy was introduced: the Footballers Against AIDS campaign. CARE Lesotho enlisted footballers to speak to youth, fans, and the general community about AIDS. An educational football theme comic has also been developed. League matches are designated as HIV/AIDS awareness matches and the players use the opportunity to reach a large audience with information, education, and communication materials. The players have significantly changed their sexual behavior as a result of participating in the program. The first reported case of AIDS in Lesotho occurred in 1986. In June 1993 there were 294 reported cases and by May 1995 there were 580 reported cases. Recent HIV sentinel surveys show that teenage pregnancy is increasing at dramatic rates from 6.9% of antenatal clinic attenders in 1992 to 20.1% in 1993 and that many of the young girls have HIV. Among clinic patients under 24 years of age who were part of the survey, 12% were HIV positive. This age group constituted 58.2% of all HIV-positive people reported in the survey. Because of Lesotho's proximity to South Africa's gold, diamond, and coal mines, Lesotho's work force is very mobile. Between 60% and 70% of men work in the mines most of the year, which is another factor that facilitates the spread of HIV. The National AIDS Prevention and Control Program has recently initiated a peer education program working with secondary school youth for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS. CARE will soon begin expanding its sports program. Athletes from many other sports will work with secondary school youth. In addition, educational videos will be produced in the local language. Football-health camps and interschool sporting competitions for secondary school youth will be organized by HIV/AIDS

  5. Traditional beliefs about the cause of AIDS and AIDS-related stigma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, S C; Simbayi, L

    2004-07-01

    AIDS-related stigmas are pervasive in some segments of South African society and stigmas can impede efforts to promote voluntary counselling and testing and other HIV-AIDS prevention efforts. The current study examined associations among the belief that AIDS is caused by spirits and supernatural forces, AIDS-related knowledge and AIDS-related stigmas. A street intercept survey with 487 men and women living in a Black township in Cape Town, South Africa showed that 11% (n=54) believed that AIDS is caused by spirits and supernatural forces, 21% (n=105) were unsure if AIDS is caused by spirits and the supernatural, and 68% (n=355) did not believe that AIDS is caused by spirits and supernatural forces. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for participant age, gender, years of education and survey venue showed that people who believed HIV-AIDS is caused by spirits and the supernatural demonstrated significantly more misinformation about AIDS and were significantly more likely to endorse repulsion and social sanction stigmatizing beliefs against people living with HIV-AIDS. However, nearly all associations between beliefs that AIDS is caused by spirits and AIDS stigmas were non-significant when logistic regressions were repeated with AIDS-related knowledge included as a control variable. This finding suggests that relationships between traditional beliefs about the cause of HIV-AIDS and AIDS stigmas are mediated by AIDS-related knowledge. AIDS education efforts are urgently needed to reach people who hold traditional beliefs about AIDS to remedy AIDS stigmas.

  6. Risk factors associated with Tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV/AIDS: A pair-matched case-control study in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhezhe; Lin, Mei; Nie, Shaofa; Lan, Rushu

    2017-01-01

    Background As one of the poorest provinces in China, Guangxi has a high HIV and TB prevalence, with the annual number of TB/HIV cases reported by health department among the highest in the country. However, studies on the burden of TB-HIV co-infection and risk factors for active TB among HIV-infected persons in Guangxi have rarely been reported. Objective To investigate the risk factors for active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, China. Methods A surveillance survey was conducted of 1 019 HIV-infected patients receiving care at three AIDS prevention and control departments between 2013 and 2015. We investigated the cumulative prevalence of TB during 2 years. To analyze risk factors associated with active TB, we conducted a 1:1 pair-matched case-control study of newly reported active TB/HIV co-infected patients. Controls were patients with HIV without active TB, latent TB infection or other lung disease, who were matched with the case group based on sex and age (± 3 years). Results A total of 1 019 subjects were evaluated. 160 subjects (15.70%) were diagnosed with active TB, including 85 clinically diagnosed cases and 75 confirmed cases. We performed a 1:1 matched case-control study, with 82 TB/HIV patients and 82 people living with HIV/AIDS based on surveillance site, sex and age (±3) years. According to multivariate analysis, smoking (OR = 2.996, 0.992–9.053), lower CD 4+ T-cell count (OR = 3.288, 1.161–9.311), long duration of HIV-infection (OR = 5.946, 2.221–15.915) and non-use of ART (OR = 7.775, 2.618–23.094) were independent risk factors for TB in people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The prevalence of active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi was 173 times higher than general population in Guangxi. It is necessary for government to integrate control planning and resources for the two diseases. Medical and public health workers should strengthen health education for TB/HIV prevention and

  7. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy

  8. WHO says Indian AIDS funds misused.

    PubMed

    1994-10-03

    Funds provided to India to promote AIDS awareness have been misused, in some instances by interstate truck drivers, targeted by studies as a potential source of spreading HIV, who use free condoms to plug leaking radiators on their trucks, a World Health Organization (WHO) report said. There has been an increasing demand for free condoms distributed by the government, but they weren't used to promote safe sex. Prostitution in Bombay has flourished into a major service industry. A study in 1993 by WHO revealed 35% of the city's prostitutes tested HIV-positive. Despite the fact that AIDS had spread throughout India, local and state governments were lagging behind in using funds to promote protection against HIV. In 1992, the World Bank loaned $84 million to India to finance its anti-AIDS program, but where a state government was actually using the money, it was either under-used or misused. According to the National AIDS Control Organization, India has 1.62 million HIV-positive cases, up by 60% since 1993. Most hospitals in India still have no blood screening facilities and many refuse to treat HIV-positive patients. Nearly 50 to 60% of blood in the country is not yet screened for HIV, the head of a non-governmental health organization said. Officials, however, balk at the thought of educating a country with the second largest population in the world, rampant illiteracy, and sexual taboos. India's socioeconomic conditions act as a major barrier to controlling AIDS and enforcing laws in regard to HIV-positive patients.

  9. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  10. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  11. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  12. ‘Public Enemy No. 1’: Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response – a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and from AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate that tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: 1) During the 1990s Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the US, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; 2) In both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in Sub-Sahara Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist. This demonstrates the

  13. [Aids, physicians, Catholic Church].

    PubMed

    Pipino, Marica; Boldrini, Elena; Cristani, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    The latest AIDS' congress (Barcelona) reminded the world this dramatic situation. The shown data are remarkable: 5 million people of new infected in 2001, 68 million people could die in the next 20 years because of AIDS and the biggest part of them is living in the South of the world. There are two different kind of AIDS: the AIDS of rich people (2% of infected ones), who can reach the modern therapies that changed the course of the disease now curable out of hospital, and the AIDS of poor ones, without therapies and future. The political-economic effort of Western governments, of global fund anti-AIDS and of non governmental organizations now is not able to answer to this emergency in the right way. The lacking sensibility of Western doctors and the inflexible position of Catholic Church about contraception make the situation more complicated. It's hopeful the overcoming of this position using a Catholic Church's precious concept: the distinction between "simpliciter" and "secundum quid" to agree the use of condoms in case of absolute need.

  14. Risky business. Organizations tackle infection control during construction.

    PubMed

    Burmhal, Beth

    2003-06-01

    Construction projects, no matter how minor, can be dangerous for patients who are especially sensitive to infection. Guidelines from three prominent organizations are finally helping hospitals understand how to prevent infections during those projects.

  15. Weed control options for organically grown vine crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic melon production requires effective weed management practices for achieving acceptable crop yield and quality. Research conducted in 2010 in southeastern Oklahoma (Lane, OK) compared several possible weed management strategies for cantaloupe. Treatments included black plastic mulch, black wo...

  16. Organic thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting and temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Boris; Glaudell, Anne; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2016-10-01

    Conjugated polymers and related processing techniques have been developed for organic electronic devices ranging from lightweight photovoltaics to flexible displays. These breakthroughs have recently been used to create organic thermoelectric materials, which have potential for wearable heating and cooling devices, and near-room-temperature energy generation. So far, the best thermoelectric materials have been inorganic compounds (such as Bi2Te3) that have relatively low Earth abundance and are fabricated through highly complex vacuum processing routes. Molecular materials and hybrid organic-inorganic materials now demonstrate figures of merit approaching those of these inorganic materials, while also exhibiting unique transport behaviours that are suggestive of optimization pathways and device geometries that were not previously possible. In this Review, we discuss recent breakthroughs for organic materials with high thermoelectric figures of merit and indicate how these materials may be incorporated into new module designs that take advantage of their mechanical and thermoelectric properties.

  17. Comparison of the success of root canal therapy in HIV/AIDS patients and non-infected controls.

    PubMed

    Alley, Bradley S; Buchanan, Trenton H; Eleazer, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the rate of successful endodontic treatments between two cohorts of patients with similar teeth, one group with HIV/AIDS and one without. A retrospective chart review was performed on two cohorts, with 50 teeth in each cohort. There was no statistically significant difference in endodontic success between the two groups. The failure groups were small, with no significant trends.

  18. Teacher Types, Workplace Controls, and the Organization of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, Charles E.; Frank, Kenneth A.; Quiroz, Pamela A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a theory of workplace control in American high schools based on the assumption that school workplaces contain potent systems that control the everyday work attitudes and conduct of teachers. Posits the formation of teacher types, each comprising distinctive attitudes toward work, as the link between control systems and behavior. (MJP)

  19. Primary or secondary tasks? Dual-task interference between cyclist hazard perception and cadence control using cross-modal sensory aids with rider assistance bike computers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Tse

    2017-03-01

    This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals. The results indicated that synchronously using different sense organs to receive cadence feedback significantly affects hazard perception performance; direct visual information leads to the worst rider distraction, with a mean sensitivity to hazards (d') of -1.03. For systems with multiple interacting sensory aids, auditory aids were found to result in the greatest reduction in sensitivity to hazards (d' mean = -0.57), whereas tactile sensory aids reduced the degree of rider distraction (d' mean = -0.23). Our work complements existing work in this domain by advancing the understanding of how to design devices that deliver information subtly, thereby preventing disruption of a rider's perception of road hazards.

  20. A review and assessment of non-governmental organization-based STD/AIDS education and prevention projects for marginalized groups.

    PubMed

    Crane, S F; Carswell, J W

    1992-06-01

    A review of projects run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in primarily developing countries, which have aimed to provide STD/AIDS education and prevention skills to various marginalized groups, reveals that past quantitative and formative research has failed to identify key programmatic factors which lead to more successful project implementation and sustainability. In observations, interviews with field staff, visits to program sites and information drawn from the literature, a variety of methods to reach a wide range of groups such as men who have sex with men, prostitutes, clients of prostitutes, prisoners, street children, migrant workers and refugees are explored. Factors found to facilitate project success include the following: at least one full-time committed staff member; respectful treatment and appropriate motivation of the target group; suitable and sufficient equipment and supplies (particularly condoms); planning ahead for the participation of HIV-positive individuals and ways to meet their needs; focusing on qualitative rather than quantitative evaluation; planning in advance beyond a 9 or 12 month 'model'. Despite some evidence that marginalized groups can be successfully motivated to practise safer sex through prevention education, long-term behaviour change still presents major challenges--even when specific conditions are met.

  1. The fetal cardiovascular response to increased placental vascular impedance to flow determined with four-dimensional ultrasound using spatiotemporal image correlation and virtual organ computer-aided analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Neil; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia; Lee, Wesley; Myers, Stephen A.; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis F.; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Erez, Offer; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if increased placental vascular impedance to flow is associated with changes in fetal cardiac function using spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL). Study Design A cross-sectional study was performed in fetuses with an umbilical artery pulsatility index > 95th percentile (ABN). Ventricular volume (end-systole, end-diastole), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), adjusted CO, and ejection fraction (EF) were compared to those of 184 normal fetuses (NL). Results 1) 34 fetuses were evaluated at a median gestational age of 28.3 (range 20.6 – 36.9) weeks; 2) mean ventricular volumes were lower for ABN than NL (end-systole, end-diastole) with a proportionally greater decrease for left ventricular volume (vs. right); 3) mean left and right SV, CO, and adjusted CO were lower for ABN (vs. NL); 4) right ventricular volume, SV, CO, and adjusted CO exceeded the left in ABN fetuses; 5) mean EF was greater for ABN than NL; and 6) median left EF was greater (vs. right) in ABN fetuses. Conclusion Increased placental vascular impedance to flow is associated with changes in fetal cardiac function. PMID:23220270

  2. Syphilis 1855 and HIV-AIDS 2007: Historical reflections on the tendency to blame human anatomy for the action of micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Darby, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss the parallels between responses to syphilis in nineteenth century Britain and HIV/AIDS in contemporary Africa. In each case, an incurable disease connected with sexual behaviour aroused fear, stigmatisation and moralistic responses, as well as a desperate scramble to find an effective means of control. In both cases, circumcision of adult males, and then of children or infants, was proposed as the key tactic. In the ensuing debates over the effectiveness and propriety of this approach, three questions occupied health authorities in both Victorian Britain and the contemporary world: (1) Were circumcised men at significantly lower risk of these diseases? (2) If there was evidence pointing to an affirmative answer, was it altered anatomy or different behaviour that explained the difference? (3) Given that circumcision was a surgical procedure with attendant risks of infection, was it possible that circumcision spread syphilis or HIV? I show that in both situations the answers to these questions were inconclusive, argue that circumcision played little or no role in the eventual control of syphilis and suggest that attention to nineteenth century debates may assist contemporary policy-makers to avoid the treatment dead-ends and ethical transgressions that marked the war on syphilis.

  3. The Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS, TB and Vector-borne Diseases in Informal Settlements: Challenges, Opportunities and Insights

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Susan P.; Becker, Daniel; Edmundo, Katia; Mugisha, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Today’s urban settings are redefining the field of public health. The complex dynamics of cities, with their concentration of the poorest and most vulnerable (even within the developed world) pose an urgent challenge to the health community. While retaining fidelity to the core principles of disease prevention and control, major adjustments are needed in the systems and approaches to effectively reach those with the greatest health risks (and the least resilience) within today’s urban environment. This is particularly relevant to infectious disease prevention and control. Controlling and preventing HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and vector-borne diseases like malaria are among the key global health priorities, particularly in poor urban settings. The challenge in slums and informal settlements is not in identifying which interventions work, but rather in ensuring that informal settlers: (1) are captured in health statistics that define disease epidemiology and (2) are provided opportunities equal to the rest of the population to access proven interventions. Growing international attention to the plight of slum dwellers and informal settlers, embodied by Goal 7 Target 11 of the Millennium Development Goals, and the considerable resources being mobilized by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and malaria, among others, provide an unprecedented potential opportunity for countries to seriously address the structural and intermediate determinants of poor health in these settings. Viewed within the framework of the “social determinants of disease” model, preventing and controlling HIV/AIDS, TB and vector-borne diseases requires broad and integrated interventions that address the underlying causes of inequity that result in poorer health and worse health outcomes for the urban poor. We examine insights into effective approaches to disease control and prevention within poor urban settings under a comprehensive social development agenda. PMID:17431796

  4. Medicare: Better Controls Needed for Peer Review Organizations’ Evaluations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Peer Review Organizations’ performance during the 1984-86 contract period. It also discusses HCFA’S process for determining program funding for the 1986-88 contract period. The report contains recommendations to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Professional Review Organizations (PROS) contract with the Medicare program to review the necessity, appropriateness, and quality of inpatient hospital services received by the program’s beneficiaries. From February through July 1986, the Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS’S) Health

  5. Crystallization-induced properties from morphology-controlled organic crystals.

    PubMed

    Park, Chibeom; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2014-08-19

    During the past two decades, many materials chemists have focused on the development of organic molecules that can serve as the basis of cost-effective and flexible electronic, optical, and energy conversion devices. Among the potential candidate molecules, metal-free or metal-containing conjugated organic molecules offer high-order electronic conjugation levels that can directly support fast charge carrier transport, rapid optoelectric responses, and reliable exciton manipulation. Early studies of these molecules focused on the design and synthesis of organic unit molecules that exhibit active electrical and optical properties when produced in the form of thin film devices. Since then, researchers have worked to enhance the properties upon crystallization of the unit molecules as single crystals provide higher carrier mobilities and exciton recombination yields. Most recently, researchers have conducted in-depth studies to understand how crystallization induces property changes, especially those that depend on specific crystal surfaces. The different properties that depend on the crystal facets have been of particular interest. Most unit molecules have anisotropic structures, and therefore produce crystals with several unique crystal facets with dissimilar molecular arrangements. These structural differences would also lead to diverse electrical conductance, optical absorption/emission, and even chemical interaction properties depending on the crystal facet investigated. To study the effects of crystallization and crystal facet-dependent property changes, researchers must grow or synthesize crystals of highly conjugated molecules that have both a variety of morphologies and high crystallinity. Morphologically well-defined organic crystals, that form structures such as wires, rods, disks, and cubes, provide objects that researchers can use to evaluate these material properties. Such structures typically occur as single crystals with well-developed facets with

  6. Variants of guided self-organization for robot control.

    PubMed

    Martius, Georg; Herrmann, J Michael

    2012-09-01

    Autonomous robots can generate exploratory behavior by self-organization of the sensorimotor loop. We show that the behavioral manifold that is covered in this way can be modified in a goal-dependent way without reducing the self-induced activity of the robot. We present three strategies for guided self-organization, namely by using external rewards, a problem-specific error function, or assumptions about the symmetries of the desired behavior. The strategies are analyzed for two different robots in a physically realistic simulation.

  7. Beyond Pittsburgh: protocols for controlled non-heart-beating cadaver organ recovery.

    PubMed

    Spielman, B; McCarthy, C S

    1995-12-01

    Much of the ethical debate about controlled non-heart-beating cadaver (NHBC) organ recovery has focused on the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) protocol. Some commentators have voiced serious reservations about the ethical acceptability of that protocol; others have argued that the protocol contains sufficiently stringent ethical safeguards to warrant a limited and carefully monitored trial at UPMC. UPMC is not the only organization pursuing controlled NHBC organ procurement, however. The study of organ procurement organizations described in this article suggests that controlled NHBC organ procurement is a practice that, if not yet widespread, is certainly no longer isolated to a few organizations in which it is carefully monitored. Rather, it is being carried out under a variety of circumstances, many of which are less carefully constrained ethically than at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The next stage of the ethical debate should focus on issues that are arising in a variety of settings as the practice spreads.

  8. CONTROLLING ORGANICS WITH GAC: A COST AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amendments to the US Safe Drinking Water Act require extensive evaluation of the feasibility or removing organic compounds using granular activated carbon (GAC). To meet deadlines for this technology evaluation, the US Environmental Prtotection Agency has combined the use of ...

  9. An Information Security Control Assessment Methodology for Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Angel R.

    2014-01-01

    In an era where use and dependence of information systems is significantly high, the threat of incidents related to information security that could jeopardize the information held by organizations is more and more serious. Alarming facts within the literature point to inadequacies in information security practices, particularly the evaluation of…

  10. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than two decades ago, researchers identified benzo(a)pyrene and other organic species in the emissions from incineration of solid waste. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and-furans (CDD/CDF) were first detected in municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions in 1977. Since then, C...

  11. Controlled Encapsulation of Functional Organic Molecules within Metal-Organic Frameworks: In Situ Crystalline Structure Transformation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jinju; Hu, Yu; Wang, Yu; Li, Hongfeng; Xu, Zhiling; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Suoying; Xiao, Gengwu; Ji, Wenlan; Li, Linjie; Zhang, Meixuan; Fan, Yun; Li, Lin; Zheng, Bing; Zhang, Weina; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei

    2017-01-23

    Functional organic molecules/metal-organic frameworks composites can be obtained by in situ crystalline structure transformation from ZIF-L to ZIF-8-L under double solvent conditions. Interestingly, the as-prepared molecules/ZIF-8-L composites with the leaf-like morphology exhibit good fluorescence properties and size selectivity in fluorescent quenchers due to the molecular sieving effect of the well-defined microporous ZIF-8-L.

  12. The illusion of control and the importance of community in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Pitts, T

    1993-01-01

    The complexity of our health care environment and organizations requires a management style that moves beyond control to empowerment. Even though this complexity minimizes our ability to control events, many organizations are still preoccupied with the illusion of control. This restrains the performance of our health care organizations. Some of the contributing factors supporting this illusion are bureaucracy, scientific methodology, individualism, and our confusion of management with leadership. The concept of "community" is discussed from an organizational perspective. It is suggested that we can improve the performance of our organizations by rediscovering the values of community.

  13. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  14. 36 CFR 1211.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  15. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  16. 45 CFR 2555.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  17. 10 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  18. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  19. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  20. 45 CFR 2555.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... controlled by a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...-ranking official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  1. Especially for Teens: Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... which controls the function of female reproductive organs. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Pelvic Exam: ...

  2. A Controlled Pre-Post Evaluation of a Computer-based HIV/AIDS Education on Students' Sexual Behaviors, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Musiimenta, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional approaches to sexuality and HIV education which can be constrained by the sensitive nature of the subject, Information Technology (IT) can be an innovative teaching tool that can be used to educate people about HIV. This is especially relevant to interventions targeting young people; the population group fond of using IT, and the same group that is more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Yet, there are significantly few empirical studies that rigorously evaluated computer-assisted school-based HIV/AIDS interventions in developing countries. The modest studies conducted in this area have largely been conducted in developed countries, leaving little known about the effectiveness of such interventions in low resource settings, which moreover host the majority of HIV/AIDS infections. This research addresses this gap by conducting a controlled pre-post intervention evaluation of the impacts of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a computer-assisted HIV/AIDS intervention implemented in schools in Uganda. The research question was: did the WSWM intervention significantly influence students' sexual behaviors, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy? To address this question, questionnaires were simultaneously administering to 146 students in an intervention group (the group receiving the WSWM intervention) and 146 students in a comparison group (the group who did not receive the WSWM intervention), before (February 2009) and after the intervention (December 2009). Findings indicate that the intervention significantly improved students' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes self-efficacy, sex abstinence and fidelity, but had no significant impact on condom use. The major reason for non-use of condoms was lack of knowledge about condom use which can be attributed to teachers' failure and inabilities to demonstrate condom use in class. To address this challenge, intervention teachers should be continuously trained in skills-based and interactive sexuality education. This

  3. Roles of Hippo signaling pathway in size control of organ regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Tamura, Koji

    2015-05-01

    Animals have an intrinsic regeneration ability for injured tissues and organs. Species that have high regeneration ability such as newts can regenerate an organ with exactly the same size and shape as those of the original one. It has been unclear how a regenerating organ grows and ceases growth at an appropriate size. Organ size control in regeneration is seen in various organs of various species that have high regeneration ability. In animal species that do not have sufficient regeneration ability, a wound heals (the injury is closed, but lost parts are not regenerated), but an organ cannot be restored to its original size. On the other hand, perturbation of regeneration sometimes results in oversized or extra structures. In this sense, organ size control plays essential roles in proper regeneration. In this article, we introduce the concept of size control in organ regeneration regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway. We focused on the transcriptional regulator Yap, which shuttles between the nuclei and cytoplasm to exert a regulatory function in a context-dependent manner. The Yap-mediated Hippo pathway is thought to sense cell density, extracellular matrix (ECM) contact and cell position and to regulate gene expression for control of organ size. This mechanism can reasonably explain size control of organ regeneration.

  4. Controlling Rapid Change Through Systems Engineering the Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Wheeler, Rebecca; Zak, Haya

    2000-01-01

    A new approach to change management has been developed and applied at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). It's main focus is on aligning the organization with the strategic plan; and understanding the internal organizational relationships that impact change, which ultimately determine an organizations ability to be transformed and renewed The new approach regards the strategic plan of a company as the standard by which progress and achievement are measured. Purposeful interventions should generate a company movement along a strategic course, and tracking that movement is essential for managing change. This paper presents an overview of DYNOMO, or the DYNamic Organizational MOdel which was developed to assist in the measurement and analysis of organizational state. The paper concludes with summaries of two applications.

  5. Parallel, redundant circuit organization for homeostatic control of feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Betley, J Nicholas; Cao, Zhen Fang Huang; Ritola, Kimberly D; Sternson, Scott M

    2013-12-05

    Neural circuits for essential natural behaviors are shaped by selective pressure to coordinate reliable execution of flexible goal-directed actions. However, the structural and functional organization of survival-oriented circuits is poorly understood due to exceptionally complex neuroanatomy. This is exemplified by AGRP neurons, which are a molecularly defined population that is sufficient to rapidly coordinate voracious food seeking and consumption behaviors. Here, we use cell-type-specific techniques for neural circuit manipulation and projection-specific anatomical analysis to examine the organization of this critical homeostatic circuit that regulates feeding. We show that AGRP neuronal circuits use a segregated, parallel, and redundant output configuration. AGRP neuron axon projections that target different brain regions originate from distinct subpopulations, several of which are sufficient to independently evoke feeding. The concerted anatomical and functional analysis of AGRP neuron projection populations reveals a constellation of core forebrain nodes, which are part of an extended circuit that mediates feeding behavior.

  6. AIDS in the pre-AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Huminer, D; Rosenfeld, J B; Pitlik, S D

    1987-01-01

    A search of the medical literature published since 1950 disclosed 19 cases of probable AIDS reported before the start of the current epidemic. These cases retrospectively met the Centers for Disease Control's surveillance definition of the syndrome and had a clinical course suggestive of AIDS. The reports originated from North America, Western Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The mean age of patients was 37 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 1.7:1. Sixteen patients had opportunistic infections(s) without Kaposi's sarcoma. The remainder had disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma. The commonest opportunistic infection was Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Two patients were reported to be homosexual. Three others had been living in Africa, and one patient was born in Haiti. In two instances concurrent or subsequent opportunistic infection occurred in family members. All patients died 1 month to 6 years after the initial manifestation of disease. In view of the historical data, unrecognized cases of AIDS appear to have occurred sporadically in the pre-AIDS era.

  7. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Liao, Yong; Liu, Jia; Fang, Wenjie; Hong, Nan; Ye, Xiaofei; Li, Jianjun; Tang, Qinglong

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs) is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598) was lower (P < 0.0001) than the proportion from urban areas (41.8%, 865/2071). Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research. PMID:28101513

  8. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Liao, Yong; Liu, Jia; Fang, Wenjie; Hong, Nan; Ye, Xiaofei; Li, Jianjun; Tang, Qinglong; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs) is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598) was lower (P < 0.0001) than the proportion from urban areas (41.8%, 865/2071). Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  9. [First aid to persons with explosion trauma].

    PubMed

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M

    2012-10-01

    Modern organization providing medical aid to victims of explosion trauma in peace time, the success of which largely depends on the timely and professional interaction among the structures involeved into emergency relief operation is represented in the article. Content and sequence of events providing emergency medical and first medical aid to victims of the explosions, and the appropriateness of allocation affected groups, based on the predicted effectiveness of medical care is analyzed. The algorithm, currently used by ambulance crews, of assistance to victims with explosion and order evacuations is analyzed. The content of therapeutic measures in receipt of the wounded on the steps of skilled and specialized surgical care in accordance with the idea of a separation surgery on three stages (damage control). The content of the main levels of damage control orthopedics is introduced.

  10. Engineering Aid 1 & C. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual is written primarily to aid in the training of personnel to meet the professional qualifications of the engineering aid, first class and chief. In chapter one, the trainee becomes familiar with the rewards and responsibilities of an engineering aid. Chapter two deals with principles of SEABEE administration, the organization and…

  11. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  12. Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    No. DODIG-2015-043 D E C E M B E R 1 , 2 0 1 4 Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization...2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and... FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE SUBJECT: Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Internal Audit Organization (Report No

  13. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  14. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  15. Controlling the Solidification of Organic Photovoltaic Blends with Nucleating Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekuda Malik, Jennifer A.; Treat, Neil D.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Yu, Liyang; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Amassian, Aram; Hawker, Craig J.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Stingelin, Natalie

    2014-11-01

    Blending fullerenes with a donor polymer for the fabrication of organic solar cells often leads to at least partial vitrification of one, if not both, components. For prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene blend, we show that the addition of a commercial nucleating agent, di(3,4-dimethyl benzylidene)sorbitol, to such binary blends accelerates the crystallization of the donor, resulting in an increase in its degree of crystallinity in as-cast structures. This allows manipulation of the extent of intermixing/ phase separation of the donor and acceptor directly from solution, offering a tool to improve device characteristics such as power conversion efficiency.

  16. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

  17. Enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoate production from organic wastes via process control.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alejandro; Montaño, Liliana; Amaya, Rodolfo

    2014-03-01

    This work explores the use of a model-based control scheme to enhance the productivity of polyhroxyalkanoate (PHA) production in a mixed culture two-stage system fed with synthetic wastewater. The controller supplies pulses of substrate while regulating the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and uses the data to fit a dynamic mathematical model, which in turn is used to predict the time until the next pulse addition. Experiments in a bench scale system first determined the optimal DO set-point and initial substrate concentration. Then the proposed feedback control strategy was compared with a simpler empiric algorithm. The results show that a substrate conversion rate of 1.370±0.598mgPHA/mgCOD/d was achieved. The proposed strategy can also indicate when to stop the accumulation of PHA upon saturation, which occurred with a PHA content of 71.0±7.2wt.%.

  18. Utilizing Rapid Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis Typing To Aid Control of Hospital-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection: a Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Susan; Marriott, Claire; Parsons, Helen; Waddington, Claire; Gossain, Savita; Szczepura, Ala; Stallard, Nigel; Hawkey, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The early identification of outbreaks is crucial for the control of Clostridium difficile infection. This study aimed to determine if the number of hospital-acquired C. difficile infections could be reduced by rapidly typing C. difficile strains using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) compared to typing using PCR ribotyping. A total of 16 hospitals were recruited to the study, and all periods of increased incidence (PIIs) of C. difficile infection were identified. The hospitals were randomized into two study arms, the test and the control, with all isolates typed in the test using MLVA and in the control using PCR ribotyping. Following a PII, each hospital received a structured questionnaire regarding control measures implemented or stopped prior to or following the typing results. During the study period, there were a total of 1,682 hospital-apportioned C. difficile toxin-positive cases, with 868 in the control and 814 in the test, with modeling demonstrating no differences between the two arms. A total of 245 PIIs occurred, involving 785 patients. There was a significant difference in the mean turnaround time between the ribotyping and MLVA typing (13.6 and 5.3 days, respectively [P < 0.001]). The discriminatory ability of MLVA was greater than ribotyping, with 85 outbreaks being confirmed by ribotyping and 62 by MLVA. In the test arm, 40.6% of respondents strongly agreed that the typing result had aided their management of clusters, as opposed to 9.9% in the control. The study demonstrated the utility of rapidly typing C. difficile strains, demonstrating that it aided the management of clusters, enabling effective targeting of infection control resources. PMID:22837319

  19. Explaining variation in gun control policy advocacy tactics among local organizations.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda C; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well four organizational characteristics (structure, resources, motivation, or political capacity) explained local organizations' use of a variety of advocacy tactics aimed at promoting state gun control laws. In 1998, 679 local organizations were identified as potentially active on state gun control issues; a questionnaire was mailed to each group's leader. Seventy-nine percent (n = 538) responded to the survey, with 81% (n = 207) of eligible organizations completing questionnaires. The four organizational characteristics explained approximately half the variation in local groups' use of a wide range of advocacy tactics. Organizations with stronger motivation to address the gun control issue and greater political capacity engaged in more diverse gun control advocacy tactics; the authors found organizational structure and resources unlikely to be related. Leaders of advocacy organizations should consider ways to encourage members' motivations on the issue while fostering greater capacity for political action.

  20. Controlled Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films Using Liquid Crystal Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufkin, Kevin; Ohlson, Brooks; Hillman, Ben; Johnson, Brad; Patrick, David

    2008-05-01

    Interest in using organic semiconductors in applications such as large area displays, photovoltaic devices, and RFID tags stems in part from their prospects for enabling significantly reduced manufacturing costs compared to traditional inorganic semiconductors. However many of the best performing prototype devices produced so far have involved expensive or time-consuming fabrication methods, such as the use of single crystals or thin films deposited under high vacuum conditions. We present a new approach for growing low molecular weight organic crystalline films at ambient conditions based on a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using thermotropic nematic liquid crystal (LC) solvents. Tetracene is deposited via atmospheric-pressure sublimation onto substrates coated by a LC layer oriented using rubbed polyimide, producing films that are highly crystalline, with large grain sizes, and possessing macroscopic uniaxial orientation. This poster will describe the growth mechanism, discuss the effects of processing conditions such as LC layer thickness, substrate temperature and flux rate, and compare the results to a model of deposition-diffusion aggregation accounting for the finite thickness of the solvent layer.

  1. Controlled Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films Using Liquid Crystal Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufkin, Kevin; Ohlson, Brooks; Hillman, Ben; Johnson, Brad; Patrick, David

    2008-03-01

    Interest in using organic semiconductors in applications such as large area displays, photovoltaic devices, and RFID tags stems in part from their prospects for enabling significantly reduced manufacturing costs compared to traditional inorganic semiconductors. However many of the best performing prototype devices produced so far have involved expensive or time-consuming fabrication methods, such as the use of single crystals or thin films deposited under high vacuum conditions. We present a new approach for growing low molecular weight organic crystalline films at ambient conditions based on a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using thermotropic nematic liquid crystal (LC) solvents. Tetracene is deposited via atmospheric-pressure sublimation onto substrates coated by a LC layer oriented using rubbed polyimide, producing films that are highly crystalline, with large grain sizes, and possessing macroscopic uniaxial orientation. This poster will describe the growth mechanism, discuss the effects of processing conditions such as LC layer thickness, substrate temperature and flux rate, and compare the results to a model of diffusion limited aggregation accounting for the finite thickness of the solvent layer.

  2. Temperature controls organic carbon sequestration in a subarctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantala, Marttiina V.; Luoto, Tomi P.; Nevalainen, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    Widespread ecological reorganizations and increases in organic carbon (OC) in lakes across the Northern Hemisphere have raised concerns about the impact of the ongoing climate warming on aquatic ecosystems and carbon cycling. We employed diverse biogeochemical techniques on a high-resolution sediment record from a subarctic lake in northern Finland (70°N) to examine the direction, magnitude and mechanism of change in aquatic carbon pools prior to and under the anthropogenic warming. Coupled variation in the elemental and isotopic composition of the sediment and a proxy-based summer air temperature reconstruction tracked changes in aquatic production, depicting a decline during a cool climate interval between ~1700–1900 C.E. and a subsequent increase over the 20th century. OC accumulation rates displayed similar coeval variation with temperature, mirroring both changes in aquatic production and terrestrial carbon export. Increase in sediment organic content over the 20th century together with high inferred aquatic UV exposure imply that the 20th century increase in OC accumulation is primarily connected to elevated lake production rather than terrestrial inputs. The changes in the supply of autochthonous energy sources were further reflected higher up the benthic food web, as evidenced by biotic stable isotopic fingerprints.

  3. Temperature controls organic carbon sequestration in a subarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Marttiina V.; Luoto, Tomi P.; Nevalainen, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Widespread ecological reorganizations and increases in organic carbon (OC) in lakes across the Northern Hemisphere have raised concerns about the impact of the ongoing climate warming on aquatic ecosystems and carbon cycling. We employed diverse biogeochemical techniques on a high-resolution sediment record from a subarctic lake in northern Finland (70°N) to examine the direction, magnitude and mechanism of change in aquatic carbon pools prior to and under the anthropogenic warming. Coupled variation in the elemental and isotopic composition of the sediment and a proxy-based summer air temperature reconstruction tracked changes in aquatic production, depicting a decline during a cool climate interval between ~1700–1900 C.E. and a subsequent increase over the 20th century. OC accumulation rates displayed similar coeval variation with temperature, mirroring both changes in aquatic production and terrestrial carbon export. Increase in sediment organic content over the 20th century together with high inferred aquatic UV exposure imply that the 20th century increase in OC accumulation is primarily connected to elevated lake production rather than terrestrial inputs. The changes in the supply of autochthonous energy sources were further reflected higher up the benthic food web, as evidenced by biotic stable isotopic fingerprints. PMID:27708382

  4. ACT2 peer-driven intervention increases enrollment into HIV/AIDS medical studies among African-Americans/Blacks and Hispanics: A cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M.; Belkin, Mindy; Ritchie, Amanda; Leonard, Noelle; Riedel, Marion; Banfield, Angela; Colon, Pablo; Elharrar, Vanessa; Kagan, Jonathan; Mildvan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV/AIDS (“AABH-PLHA”) are under-represented in HIV/AIDS medical studies (HAMS). This paper evaluates the efficacy of a social/behavioral intervention to increase rates of screening for and enrollment into HAMS in these populations. Participants (N=540) were enrolled into a cluster randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to overcome multi-level barriers to HAMS. Primary endpoints were rates of screening for and enrollment into therapeutic/treatment-oriented and observational studies. Intervention arm participants were 30 times more likely to be screened than controls (49.3% vs. 3.7%; p < .001). Half (55.5%) of those screened were eligible for HAMS, primarily observational studies. Nine out of ten found eligible enrolled (91.7%), almost all into observational studies (95.2%), compared to no enrollments among controls. Achieving appropriate representation of AABH-PLHA in HAMS necessitates modification of study inclusion criteria to increase the proportion found eligible for therapeutic HAMS, in addition to social/behavioral interventions. PMID:24961193

  5. Management of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

    The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…

  6. The organization and control of an evolving interdependent population

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Dervis C.; Isakov, Alexander; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Starting with Darwin, biologists have asked how populations evolve from a low fitness state that is evolutionarily stable to a high fitness state that is not. Specifically of interest is the emergence of cooperation and multicellularity where the fitness of individuals often appears in conflict with that of the population. Theories of social evolution and evolutionary game theory have produced a number of fruitful results employing two-state two-body frameworks. In this study, we depart from this tradition and instead consider a multi-player, multi-state evolutionary game, in which the fitness of an agent is determined by its relationship to an arbitrary number of other agents. We show that populations organize themselves in one of four distinct phases of interdependence depending on one parameter, selection strength. Some of these phases involve the formation of specialized large-scale structures. We then describe how the evolution of independence can be manipulated through various external perturbations. PMID:26040593

  7. Size-controlled dissolution of organic-coated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Marinakos, Stella M; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Michel, F Marc; Brown, Gordon E; Lowry, Gregory V

    2012-01-17

    The solubility of Ag NPs can affect their toxicity and persistence in the environment. We measured the solubility of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having particle diameters ranging from 5 to 80 nm that were synthesized using various methods, and with different organic polymer coatings including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and gum arabic. The size and morphology of Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis were used to determine the local structure around Ag and evaluate changes in crystal lattice parameters and structure as a function of NP size. Ag NP solubility dispersed in 1 mM NaHCO(3) at pH 8 was found to be well correlated with particle size based on the distribution of measured TEM sizes as predicted by the modified Kelvin equation. Solubility of Ag NPs was not affected by the synthesis method and coating as much as by their size. Based on the modified Kelvin equation, the surface tension of Ag NPs was found to be ∼1 J/m(2), which is expected for bulk fcc (face centered cubic) silver. Analysis of XAFS, X-ray scattering, and PDFs confirm that the lattice parameter, a, of the fcc crystal structure of Ag NPs did not change with particle size for Ag NPs as small as 6 nm, indicating the absence of lattice strain. These results are consistent with the finding that Ag NP solubility can be estimated based on TEM-derived particle size using the modified Kelvin equation for particles in the size range of 5-40 nm in diameter.

  8. Size-Controlled Dissolution of Organic-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Marinakos, Stella M.; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Michel, F. Marc; Brown, Jr., Gordon E.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2012-04-02

    The solubility of Ag NPs can affect their toxicity and persistence in the environment. We measured the solubility of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having particle diameters ranging from 5 to 80 nm that were synthesized using various methods, and with different organic polymer coatings including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and gum arabic. The size and morphology of Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis were used to determine the local structure around Ag and evaluate changes in crystal lattice parameters and structure as a function of NP size. Ag NP solubility dispersed in 1 mM NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 8 was found to be well correlated with particle size based on the distribution of measured TEM sizes as predicted by the modified Kelvin equation. Solubility of Ag NPs was not affected by the synthesis method and coating as much as by their size. Based on the modified Kelvin equation, the surface tension of Ag NPs was found to be {approx}1 J/m{sup 2}, which is expected for bulk fcc (face centered cubic) silver. Analysis of XAFS, X-ray scattering, and PDFs confirm that the lattice parameter, {alpha}, of the fcc crystal structure of Ag NPs did not change with particle size for Ag NPs as small as 6 nm, indicating the absence of lattice strain. These results are consistent with the finding that Ag NP solubility can be estimated based on TEM-derived particle size using the modified Kelvin equation for particles in the size range of 5-40 nm in diameter.

  9. Empowering organizations: approaches to tobacco control through youth empowerment programs.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Lisa; Benet, Dana Jones; Mason, Theresa; Austin, W David; Mills, Sherry

    2004-10-01

    Whereas most evaluations of youth empowerment focus on individual outcomes (i.e., were individual youths empowered?), this article focuses on the program as the unit of analysis and seeks to explain how organizational structures, program design features, and processes lead to organizational empowerment (OE). OE is defined as organizational efforts that generate psychological empowerment among members and organizational effectiveness needed for goal achievement. Case studies of five American Legacy Foundation-funded tobacco control youth empowerment programs were conducted during the first 2 years of implementation. Using an OE framework, the authors assessed program design features of the youth empowerment programs that contributed to or detracted from processes leading to OE. Comparing and contrasting the programs led to the identification of models and strategies that contribute to OE. Ecological influences of the state contexts (i.e., political climate, history of tobacco control, and public health infrastructure) were also examined.

  10. Control of nuclear organization by F-actin binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Pfisterer, Karin; Jayo, Asier; Parsons, Maddy

    2017-03-04

    The regulation of nuclear shape and deformability is a key factor in controlling diverse events from embryonic development to cancer cell metastasis, but the mechanisms governing this process are still unclear. Our recent study demonstrated an unexpected role for the F-actin bundling protein fascin in controlling nuclear plasticity through a direct interaction with Nesprin-2. Nesprin-2 is a component of the LINC complex that is known to couple the F-actin cytoskeleton to the nuclear envelope. We demonstrated that fascin, which is predominantly associated with peripheral F-actin rich filopodia, binds directly to Nesprin-2 at the nuclear envelope in a range of cell types. Depleting fascin or specifically blocking the fascin-Nesprin-2 complex leads to defects in nuclear polarization, movement and cell invasion. These studies reveal a novel role for an F-actin bundling protein in control of nuclear plasticity and underline the importance of defining nuclear-associated roles for F-actin binding proteins in future.

  11. Control system development for an organic Rankine cycle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergthold, F. M., Jr.; Fulton, D. G.; Haskins, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a control logic to govern the toluene throttle valve and verify the stability of the speed control approach for multiple engines connected to a 1 MWe point focus solar generator installation for distributed applications is presented. The toluene is is pumped by booster and main feed pumps through a regenerator to the parabolic focus receiver, with the flow rate controlled by a valve to remain at critical level of 4.1 MPa. The valve changes the inlet pressure at the turbine nozzle block. Each concentrator would produce 76 kWth and 20 kWe. Dynamic variables in the logic account for insolation variation, fluid temperature, ac grid voltage, the thermal dynamics of the regenerator, and variations in the head supplied by the feed pump. Separate analyses are presented for the turbine shaft speed and toluene loop dynamics. The resulting logic is considered preliminary and suitable only in full insolation conditions. Extension of the model to nonlinear perturbations is indicated.

  12. Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walleczek, Jan

    2006-04-01

    The frontiers and challenges of biodynamics research Jan Walleczek; Part I. Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology and Response to Stimuli: 1. External signals and internal oscillation dynamics - principal aspects and response of stimulated rhythmic processes Friedemann Kaiser; 2. Nonlinear dynamics in biochemical and biophysical systems: from enzyme kinetics to epilepsy Raima Larter, Robert Worth and Brent Speelman; 3. Fractal mechanisms in neural control: human heartbeat and gait dynamics in health and disease Chung-Kang Peng, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff and Ary L. Goldberger; 4. Self-organising dynamics in human coordination and perception Mingzhou Ding, Yanqing Chen, J. A. Scott Kelso and Betty Tuller; 5. Signal processing in biochemical reaction networks Adam P. Arkin; Part II. Nonlinear Sensitivity of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Stimuli: 6. Electrical signal detection and noise in systems with long-range coherence Paul C. Gailey; 7. Oscillatory signals in migrating neutrophils: effects of time-varying chemical and electrical fields Howard R. Petty; 8. Enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical amplification in response to static and oscillating magnetic fields Jan Walleczek and Clemens F. Eichwald; 9. Magnetic field sensitivity in the hippocampus Stefan Engström, Suzanne Bawin and W. Ross Adey; Part III. Stochastic Noise-Induced Dynamics and Transport in Biological Systems: 10. Stochastic resonance: looking forward Frank Moss; 11. Stochastic resonance and small-amplitude signal transduction in voltage-gated ion channels Sergey M. Bezrukov and Igor Vodyanoy; 12. Ratchets, rectifiers and demons: the constructive role of noise in free energy and signal transduction R. Dean Astumian; 13. Cellular transduction of periodic and stochastic energy signals by electroconformational coupling Tian Y. Tsong; Part IV. Nonlinear Control of Biological and Other Excitable Systems: 14. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems Kenneth Showalter; 15. Electromagnetic fields and biological

  13. Control of patterning, growth, and differentiation by floral organ identity genes.

    PubMed

    Sablowski, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In spite of the different morphologies of sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels, all these floral organs are believed to be modified versions of a ground-state organ similar to the leaf. Modifications of the ground-state developmental programme are orchestrated by different combinations of MADS-domain transcription factors encoded by floral organ identity genes. In recent years, much has been revealed about the gene regulatory networks controlled by the floral organ identity genes and about the genetic pathways that control leaf development. This review examines how floral organ identity is connected with the control of morphogenesis and differentiation of shoot organs, focusing on the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Direct links have emerged between floral organ identity genes and genes involved in abaxial-adaxial patterning, organ boundary formation, tissue growth, and cell differentiation. In parallel, predictive models have been developed to explain how the activity of regulatory genes can be coordinated by intercellular signalling and constrained by tissue mechanics. When combined, these advances provide a unique opportunity for revealing exactly how leaf-like organs have been 'metamorphosed' into floral organs during evolution and showing crucial regulatory points in the generation of plant form.

  14. Organization and control of genes encoding catabolic enzymes in Rhizobiaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, D.; Ornston, L.N.

    1993-03-01

    Rhizobiaceae, a diverse bacterial group comprising rhizobia and agrobacteria, symbiotic partnership with plants form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plant roots or are plant pathogens. Phenolic compounds produced by plants serve as inducers of rhizobial nodulation genes and agrobacterial virulence genes reflect their capacity to utilize numerous aromatics, including phenolics, as a source of carbon and energy. In many microbes the aerobic degradation of numerous aromatic compounds to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is achieved by the [beta]-ketoadipate pathway. Our initial studies focused on the organization and regulation of the ketoadipate pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have cloned, identified and characterized a novel regulatory gene that modulates expression of an adjacent pca (protocatechuate) structural gene, pcaD. Regulation of pcaD is mediated by the regulatory gene, termed pcaQ, in concert with the intermediate [beta]-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. [beta]-carboxy-cis,cismuconate is an unstable chemical, not marketed commercially, and it is unlikely to permeate Escherichia coli cells if supplied in media. Because of these factors, characterization of pcaQ in E. coli required an in vivo delivery system for [beta]-carboxycis,cis-muconate. This was accomplished by designing an E. coli strain that expressed an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus pcaA gene for conversion of protocatechuate to [beta]-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate.

  15. Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. L.; Reader, H. E.; Powers, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine systems, the effect of UVR on carbon availability and subsequent bacterial production varies widely, ranging from a +200% increase to a -75% decrease (Mopper and Kieber, 2002). Evidence suggests that the largely negative or “no-effect” samples are from oligotrophic waters and that terrestrially influenced samples experience a more positive effect on the biolability of carbon after irradiation. To quantify the effects of photochemistry on the biolability of DOC in a terrestrially influenced system, a quarterly sampling effort was undertaken at three estuarine locations off the coast of Georgia, USA for a total of 14 apparent quantum yield (AQY) determinations. Large expanses of salt marsh on the coast of Georgia, create a large non-point source of DOC to the coastal ocean. Sapelo Sound, the northernmost sampling site, is dominated by offshore waters and receives little to no freshwater input throughout the year. Altamaha Sound, the southernmost sampling site, is strongly influenced by the Altamaha River, which drains the largest watershed in the state of Georgia. Doboy Sound, situated between these two sites, is largely marine dominated but is influenced by fresh water during periods of high river flow. Each sample was 0.2um filter-sterilized before irradiation in a Suntest Solar Simulator; using optical filters to create 7 distinct radiance spectra in 15 samples for determination of AQY spectra for release of biolabile DOC. Irradiated samples were consequently inoculated with the natural microbial community concentrated

  16. Ultrathin film organic transistors: precise control of semiconductor thickness via spin-coating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Di, Chong-an; Berdunov, Nikolai; Hu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Yunbin; Gao, Xike; Meng, Qing; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-03-13

    Construction of ultrathin film organic transistors is an important challenge towards deeper understanding of the charge transport mechanism and multifunctional applications. We report on precise thickness control of ultrathin films of several organic semiconductors by using a simple spin-coating approach. Ultrathin film, n-channel organic transistors with mobilities well over 1.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been realized and their potential in high-sensitivity gas sensing and other applications is demonstrated.

  17. Conductance of Conjugated Organic Compounds in Controlled Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonenberger, Christian

    2009-03-01

    We use the mechanical and the electromigration break junction technique, as well as nanoparticle arrays, to measure the electrical conductance of a range of conjugated organic molecules with different end functionalities at room temperature in a liquid cell. We first report on a comparison between oligo(phenylene vinylene) (OPV) oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE). We find that OPV conducts slightly better than OPE. Solubilizing side groups do not prevent the molecules from being anchored within a break junction. With the aim to realize a functional switch, we show preliminary electrical conductance studies of a newly synthesized cruciform molecule. Using the nanoparticle platform we further demon-strate light and electrochemical-induced conductance switching of photochromic and redox molecules. We further discuss OPV and OPE molecules with different end groups, including asymmetric ones. To our surprise, molecules having an anchor group only on one side also gave rise to a pronounced mo-lecular signal. We attribute this effect to the interaction between neighboring molecules in the junction likely induced by π-π stacking. This remarkable property highlights the importance of intermolecu-lar interaction in molecular junctions, an often overlooked aspect. If time permits, a recent study on low- frequency fluctuations in molecular junctions will be mentioned as well. Collaborators are (alphabetic order): J. Agustsson, J. Brunner, M. Calame, T. Gonzalez, S. Grunder, V. Horhoiu, R. Huber, J. Liao, M. Mayor, M. Mangold, S. Oberholzer, M. Steinacher, S. Wu, Z.M. Wu, (all at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the Univ. of Basel) and M. R. Bryce (Durham University, UK).

  18. Complexity and Control in Entropic and Stochastic Self-Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we are primarily interested in developing advanced entropic and stochastic models of military command and control (C2). The underpinning thesis here stands in sharp contrast to much grand historical theorizing based on the idea of discovering some inexorable laws of historical destiny; this belief shows up as efforts to predict the future by uncovering `trends' and treating them as `laws' as well as in narratives attributing causes to anything and everything except randomness that are constructed - of course - with the full benefits of hindsight. Instead, our approach expressly allows for the fact that significant combinations of events might arise purely randomly, and the observed realized outcome is merely one path of events among potentially innumerable unrealized possibilities. Entropy - an order parameter by which we may quantify uncertainty, information content, complexity, or relative inadequacy of historical determinism, depending on our point of view at the time - is therefore a central concern in our conceptualization.

  19. Silk Fibroin as an Organic Polymer for Controlled Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann,S.; Wong Po Foo, C.; Rossetti, F.; Textor, M.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.; Kaplan, D.; Merkle, H.; Meinel, L.

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical utility of silk fibroin (SF) materials for drug delivery was investigated. SF films were prepared from aqueous solutions of the fibroin protein polymer and crystallinity was induced and controlled by methanol treatment. Dextrans of different molecular weights, as well as proteins, were physically entrapped into the drug delivery device during processing into films. Drug release kinetics were evaluated as a function of dextran molecular weight, and film crystallinity. Treatment with methanol resulted in an increase in {beta}-sheet structure, an increase in crystallinity and an increase in film surface hydrophobicity determined by FTIR, X-ray and contact angle techniques, respectively. The increase in crystallinity resulted in the sustained release of dextrans of molecular weights ranging from 4 to 40 kDa, whereas for less crystalline films sustained release was confined to the 40 kDa dextran. Protein release from the films was studied with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and lysozyme (Lys) as model compounds. Enzyme release from the less crystalline films resulted in a biphasic release pattern, characterized by an initial release within the first 36 h, followed by a lag phase and continuous release between days 3 and 11. No initial burst was observed for films with higher crystallinity and subsequent release patterns followed linear kinetics for HRP, or no substantial release for Lys. In conclusion, SF is an interesting polymer for drug delivery of polysaccharides and bioactive proteins due to the controllable level of crystallinity and the ability to process the biomaterial in biocompatible fashion under ambient conditions to avoid damage to labile compounds to be delivered.

  20. Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) as an Example for Contamination Control for Life Detection Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Szopa, C.

    2016-10-01

    The contamination control approach for life detection instrument is presented on the example of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer. A combined pyrolysis gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and laser desorption mass spectrometer.

  1. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF TRACE ORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering the use of combustion techniques for controlling air emissions of chlorinated dioxins, chlorinated furans, and other trace organics from municipal waste combustion (MWC) facilities. Recommendations for good combustion pr...

  2. 26 CFR 1.501(k)-1 - Communist-controlled organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Communist-controlled organizations. 1.501(k)-1 Section 1.501(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exempt Organizations § 1.501(k)-1...

  3. 38 CFR 23.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  4. 31 CFR 28.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to... organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent with the..., identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with a specific tenet of the...

  5. 13 CFR 113.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  6. 31 CFR 28.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to... organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent with the..., identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with a specific tenet of the...

  7. 13 CFR 113.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  8. 45 CFR 618.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  9. 13 CFR 113.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do... religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent... official of the institution, identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with...

  10. 31 CFR 28.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to... organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not be consistent with the..., identifying the provisions of these Title IX regulations that conflict with a specific tenet of the...

  11. Organic methods for control of pecan weevil: Results of the first year's field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated organic tactics for control of pecan weevil were investigated in large field plot tests. The experiment was conducted at two locations: USDA-ARS Research Lab in Byron, GA and Cleveland farms in Fort Valley, GA. Results from the first year field trials indicated that organic tactics for ...

  12. Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected elite controllers: impact on gut immunology, microbial translocation, and biomarkers of serious non-AIDS conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Connie J; Kovacs, Colin; Chun, Tae-Wook; Kandel, Gabor; Osborne, Brendan JW; Huibner, Sanja; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Yue, Feng-Yun; Benko, Erika; Ostowski, Mario; Kaul, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    Elite controllers (ECs) maintain undetectable HIV viral loads without antiretroviral therapy (ART), but are at increased risk of serious non-AIDS conditions (SNA). We assessed the impact of ART in ECs on gut immune dysfunction and biomarkers predicting SNA (blood CD4/CD8 ratio, plasma IL-6, D-dimer levels). At baseline, ECs had elevated IL-6 and D-dimer levels and reduced CD4/CD8 ratio compared to HIV-uninfected controls, but no difference in microbial translocation or gut CD4 subsets. ART increased CD4/CD8 ratio but did not normalize IL-6 and D-dimer levels. EC SNA pathogenesis may be independent of gut immune dysfunction, and resolution may require prolonged ART. PMID:25393939

  13. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  14. Control of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel with the Self-Organizing Feature Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    A predictive, multiple model control strategy is developed based on an ensemble of local linear models of the nonlinear system dynamics for a transonic wind tunnel. The local linear models are estimated directly from the weights of a Self Organizing Feature Map (SOFM). Local linear modeling of nonlinear autonomous systems with the SOFM is extended to a control framework where the modeled system is nonautonomous, driven by an exogenous input. This extension to a control framework is based on the consideration of a finite number of subregions in the control space. Multiple self organizing feature maps collectively model the global response of the wind tunnel to a finite set of representative prototype controls. These prototype controls partition the control space and incorporate experimental knowledge gained from decades of operation. Each SOFM models the combination of the tunnel with one of the representative controls, over the entire range of operation. The SOFM based linear models are used to predict the tunnel response to a larger family of control sequences which are clustered on the representative prototypes. The control sequence which corresponds to the prediction that best satisfies the requirements on the system output is applied as the external driving signal. Each SOFM provides a codebook representation of the tunnel dynamics corresponding to a prototype control. Different dynamic regimes are organized into topological neighborhoods where the adjacent entries in the codebook represent the minimization of a similarity metric which is the essence of the self organizing feature of the map. Thus, the SOFM is additionally employed to identify the local dynamical regime, and consequently implements a switching scheme than selects the best available model for the applied control. Experimental results of controlling the wind tunnel, with the proposed method, during operational runs where strict research requirements on the control of the Mach number were met, are

  15. [Psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    2010-05-01

    The article presents an observe of questions of organization of psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War, main disadvantages of the first period of war, their dependence from circumstances of prewar period, ignoring of experience of last war. There was marked the role of famous native psychiatrists in organization of psychiatric aid to military servicemen in theatre of combat actions.

  16. On HIV Prevalence and AIDS Deaths in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwala, B. D.

    2008-05-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India had estimated, before this year, that there were 5.134 million HIV positive people in India at the end of 2004 and that they were increasing at the rate of more than a quarter of a million people every year. In a recent publication, we estimated that, if the number of reported AIDS cases in India are only 50% efficient, i.e. if the number of actual AIDS cases in India is no more than twice the reported number, then the number of HIV positive people in India should have been no more than 2.5 million at the end of 2004. Many other people in the epidemiology community have the same point of view. Now, the government of India is also of the same view and "The latest data released by the government shows that the country has around 2 to 3 million people with HIV, much lower than last year's figure of 5.7 million". However, our assumption that the actual number of AIDS cases in India is only about twice the number reported, has been questioned, and it has been suggested that the Indian system of AIDS reporting is woefully inaccurate and the actual number of AIDS cases there could be three, four or even five times the reported number. In this paper, we consider this suggestion and show that, even if the actual number of AIDS cases was three, four, or even five, times the reported number, the number of HIV positive people in India, at the end of 2004, should still be no more than 2.5 million. This is because our previous estimate was an over estimate and had room to accommodate considerably more number of AIDS cases. We also estimate the number of AIDS deaths in India and show that it should be considerably less than those estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

  17. Zimbabwe’s national AIDS levy: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H.; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund (‘AIDS Levy’) as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Methods Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. Findings The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a ‘homegrown’ solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. Conclusions The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow. PMID:26781215

  18. AIDS: losing the battle and the war?

    PubMed

    Potts, M; Carswell, W

    1993-06-05

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) was initiated February, 1987, and became the major recipient of Western support for AIDS prevention. While the WHO/GPA has successfully provided policies and technical assistance, available funds were not spent quickly enough or on the right things. Other mechanisms for channeling funds to recipients are needed. Many early programs designed to secure safe blood supplies received the largest proportion of resources, even though HIV infection via transfusion was the least common route of spread. Despite models demonstrating that treating sexually transmitted diseases (STD) costs $4-7.50/HIV case prevented in adult populations with 10% HIV prevalences, STD treatment is supported less than programs which urge individuals to have fewer sex partners and those which distribute condoms. Even so, no global plan exists to supply life-saving commodities such as condoms in countries most in need. Poor management further cripples programs' potential scope and effectiveness. This commentary holds that AIDS interventions could be organized under the following separate and distinct groupings: urban STD control; prostitute and client services; condom marketing to entrepreneurs in developing countries; and blood supply security. The supply of commodities must be assured; system administration simplified; small projects supported; and program funds transferred directly to nongovernmental organizations and the private sector. Further, those on national AIDS committees who oppose programs for the marginalized or who believe condoms cause promiscuity should not be allowed to delay or veto projects; the overlap between family planning and HIV prevention programs needs to be rationalized; manager must be responsible for programs; and institutions must act quickly and be judged on that basis.

  19. Teaching AIDS.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  20. Vibration control of building structures using self-organizing and self-learning neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madan, Alok

    2005-11-01

    Past research in artificial intelligence establishes that artificial neural networks (ANN) are effective and efficient computational processors for performing a variety of tasks including pattern recognition, classification, associative recall, combinatorial problem solving, adaptive control, multi-sensor data fusion, noise filtering and data compression, modelling and forecasting. The paper presents a potentially feasible approach for training ANN in active control of earthquake-induced vibrations in building structures without the aid of teacher signals (i.e. target control forces). A counter-propagation neural network is trained to output the control forces that are required to reduce the structural vibrations in the absence of any feedback on the correctness of the output control forces (i.e. without any information on the errors in output activations of the network). The present study shows that, in principle, the counter-propagation network (CPN) can learn from the control environment to compute the required control forces without the supervision of a teacher (unsupervised learning). Simulated case studies are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing the unsupervised learning approach in ANN for effective vibration control of structures under the influence of earthquake ground motions. The proposed learning methodology obviates the need for developing a mathematical model of structural dynamics or training a separate neural network to emulate the structural response for implementation in practice.

  1. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries....

  2. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries....

  3. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries....

  4. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries....

  5. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... artificial respiration; control bleeding; and treat shock, wounds, burns, and musculoskeletal injuries....

  6. Where have the organizers gone? - The growth control system as a foundation of physiology.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhimin; Shang, Charles

    2017-01-01

    A model of growth control system suggests that the organizers in embryogenesis continue to exist and partially retain their function after embryogenesis. The organizers are the macroscopic singular points of the morphogen gradient and bioelectric fields. They have higher metabolic rate, higher density of gap junctions and stem cells than the surrounding tissue. The growth control model predicts that the organizers are likely to exist at the extreme points of surface or interface curvature of the body. Changes in bioelectric field at organizers precede the morphological and anatomical changes in morphogenesis and pathogenesis. Subtle perturbations at organizers can cause long lasting systemic effects. These features of organizers can be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes such as regenerative medicine. There is increasing evidence that acupuncture points are likely to have originated from organizers in embryogenesis. Many corollaries and predictions of the growth control model have been independently confirmed in developmental biology, physiology, as well as basic and clinical acupuncture research. This model set the first example of a truly integrative biological basis of acupuncture and conventional biomedical sciences which has met the gold standard of science with multiple confirmed predictions in both fields. The growth control system is embedded in various physiological systems and is part of the foundation of physiology and pathophysiology.

  7. Handbook of Student Financial Aid: Programs, Procedures, and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; And Others

    The full range of topics relevant to student financial aid are covered in this book by a variety of experts in financial aid administration and scholarship. The volume details how to organize, implement and assess a financial aid program--including how to determine student need, deal with student bankruptcy and aid termination, and improve…

  8. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  9. Sensory Organization of Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) compare functional balance performance and sensory organization of postural control between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and (2) determine the association between postural control and participation diversity among children with DCD. We recruited 81 children with DCD and 67 typically…

  10. Cultural practices to improve in-row weed control with cultivation in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation is a proven effective means of weed control in organic peanut. However, weeds in-row often escape control. Research trials were conducted in Ty Ty, GA to modify cultural practices to help peanut suppress weed emergence in-row. Modified cultural practices were three row pattern/seeding...

  11. Pelargonic acid for weed control in organic Vidalia sweet onion production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation using a tine weeder is a proven means to manage weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. If the initial cultivation is delayed, emerged weeds are not controlled by the tine weeder. In these cases, herbicides derived from natural products could be used to control the emerged we...

  12. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  13. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  14. 28 CFR 54.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Educational institutions and other... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent...

  15. 41 CFR 101-4.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Educational institutions... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 101-4.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled... of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to...

  16. 41 CFR 101-4.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Educational institutions... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 101-4.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled... of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to...

  17. 10 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that...

  18. 28 CFR 54.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Educational institutions and other... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent...

  19. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  20. 28 CFR 54.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Educational institutions and other... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent...

  1. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  2. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  3. 10 CFR 1042.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... Coverage § 1042.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or...

  4. 28 CFR 54.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions and other... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent...

  5. 41 CFR 101-4.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Educational institutions... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 101-4.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled... of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to...

  6. 41 CFR 101-4.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Educational institutions... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 101-4.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled... of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to...

  7. 43 CFR 41.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Educational institutions and other entities... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 41.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization to the extent...

  8. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  9. 10 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that...

  10. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  11. 10 CFR 1042.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... Coverage § 1042.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or...

  12. 10 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that...

  13. 29 CFR 36.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... § 36.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or...

  14. 10 CFR 5.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that...

  15. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  16. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  17. 10 CFR 1042.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by... Coverage § 1042.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or...

  18. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 106.12 Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  19. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-6 - Control by using organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5104-6 Control by using... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control by using organization. 109-27.5104-6 Section 109-27.5104-6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  20. Solving rational matrix equations in the state space with applications to computer-aided control-system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, A. K.; Sastry, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    A method of solving a class of linear matrix equations over various rings is proposed, using results from linear geometric control theory. An algorithm, successfully implemented, is presented, along with non-trivial numerical examples. Applications of the method to the algebraic control system design methodology are discussed.

  1. AIDS and society.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K

    1991-08-01

    Noting the hysteria caused by an outbreak of AIDS among intravenous drug users in the state of Manipur, India, the author discusses the social and emotional aspects of the epidemic. Local media has been Manipur's main source of information concerning the outbreak, but this information has often been misleading and has served to stir up fear and hatred of HIV carriers. Many have even begun talking about an Isolation Centre. The author, the director of a drug rehabilitation center, relates his experiences in counseling 50 intravenous drug users on the subject of AIDS. He discovered that the group had very poor knowledge about the disease. When told about AIDS, they became alarmed at the possibility of dying. 1/2 of the group swore to take revenge on those who had introduced them to drugs, but the other 1/2 showed a more positive attitude, saying that they would like to help other drug addicts. The author also describes the case history of a patient who had succeeded in staying off of drugs for 8 months. HIV screening, however, revealed that the young man was seropositive. Somehow, a local newspaper got a hold of this information and published his name as a seropositive along with the names of others. Distraught by this, the young man returned to drugs. The author stresses that revealing the names of HIV carriers serves no social purpose, and in fact, only makes the problem worse. He recommends the following for dealing with the outbreak of AIDS: 1) intensive public health education on AIDS with the aim or removing unwarranted fears; 2) education to prevent drug addiction; 3) counselling to parents of drug addicts; and 4) the establishment of Seropositive Anonymous, an organization designed to help carriers deal with their problems.

  2. Taekwondo Training Improves Sensory Organization and Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tsang, William W. N.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer postural control and are more susceptible to falls and injuries than their healthy counterparts. Sports training may improve sensory organization and balance ability in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three months of Taekwondo (TKD) training on the…

  3. PVO / NGO initiatives, Africa. Women Fighting AIDS in Kenya (WOFAK).

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Women Fighting AIDS in Kenya (WOFAK) was founded in order to improve the effectiveness of existing AIDS services delivered to women in Kenya. Founded by both seropositive and seronegative women, WOFAK is unique in that it is the only AIDS support organization (ASO) in Kenya run by and for women. WOFAK contributes to the empowerment of HIV positive women and girls by assisting them in gaining control over their own health and serostatus, to live positively with the infection, and to protect their families and communities from becoming infected. WOFAK founders feel that existing ASOs address women's issues as only a small part of their programs and that most existing programs aimed at women focus on commercial sex workers. Whenever possible, WOFAK provides psychological and material support for women affected by HIV/AIDS. They conduct training in home-based care techniques and visit hospitalized members to offer counseling and support. WOFAK conducts HIV/AIDS education and outreach in schools, churches, commercial centers, and rural areas. All activities center around a network of positive women from all parts of society responding to the community and advocating for stronger responses by the government and other agencies providing HIV/AIDS prevention and care services. They stress the basic human rights of HIV positive women such as their right to marriage and reproduction, proper medical care, housing, and jobs. For more information, please contact Dorothy Odhiambo, WOFAK, PO Box 58428, Nairobi, Kenya; tel: +1 254 2 217039; fax: +1 254 2 243164.

  4. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-04-06

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size.

  5. The Contribution of Network Organization and Integration to the Development of Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Marek, Scott; Hwang, Kai; Foran, William; Hallquist, Michael N; Luna, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive control, which continues to mature throughout adolescence, is supported by the ability for well-defined organized brain networks to flexibly integrate information. However, the development of intrinsic brain network organization and its relationship to observed improvements in cognitive control are not well understood. In the present study, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), graph theory, the antisaccade task, and rigorous head motion control to characterize and relate developmental changes in network organization, connectivity strength, and integration to inhibitory control development. Subjects were 192 10-26-y-olds who were imaged during 5 min of rest. In contrast to initial studies, our results indicate that network organization is stable throughout adolescence. However, cross-network integration, predominantly of the cingulo-opercular/salience network, increased with age. Importantly, this increased integration of the cingulo-opercular/salience network significantly moderated the robust effect of age on the latency to initiate a correct inhibitory control response. These results provide compelling evidence that the transition to adult-level inhibitory control is dependent upon the refinement and strengthening of integration between specialized networks. Our findings support a novel, two-stage model of neural development, in which networks stabilize prior to adolescence and subsequently increase their integration to support the cross-domain incorporation of information processing critical for mature cognitive control.

  6. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  7. First 3 years of the National AIDS Clearinghouse.

    PubMed

    Sinnock, P; Murphy, P E; Baker, T G; Bates, R

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Clearinghouse is an information service provided by the Centers for Disease Control. The Clearinghouse was established in 1987 to respond to increasing numbers of public and professional inquiries, to disseminate accurate information, and to make referrals to local sources of information and assistance. Four data bases--Resources and Services Database containing information about more than 16,000 organizations that provide counseling and testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other education and prevention services; Educational Materials Database containing more than 8,000 individual, hard-to-find educational materials; Funding Database; and the AIDS Clinical Trial Information Service (ACTIS) Database--are searched by information specialists to respond to more than 45,000 requests annually for information from a variety of health professionals, organizations, and the general public. Between 1987 and 1991, the Clearinghouse disseminated more than 60 million copies of publications related to HIV and AIDS. Information and education remain the most critical tools for the prevention of HIV infection, and the National AIDS Clearinghouse provides an essential element for the dissemination of education and prevention information.

  8. Impact of automated decision aids on performance, operator behaviour and workload in a simulated supervisory control task.

    PubMed

    Röttger, Stefan; Bali, Krisztina; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-05-01

    In studies reporting automation effects on overall system performance and on the operator, the methods used to measure workload often did not appropriately reflect the complexity of this construct. The present study addresses the impact of automation on operator workload and behaviour in process control fault management. Workload effects were assessed with subjective, cardiovascular and secondary task performance indicators. Interactions with the interface of the process control simulation directed at gathering information and controlling the system were recorded. Automation made operators more efficient, allowing faster fault management with less information sampling and control actions. Subjective workload ratings were significantly lower in the assisted conditions as compared to manual, which was not reflected in cardiovascular and secondary task measures. Participants' information sampling activity did not differ between medium and high level of automation. Results suggest that participants paid constantly high attention to their task even with highly automated support.

  9. Communication: Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms: Controlling the photoisomerization yield of retinal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, R. D.; Arango, C. A.; Reyes, A.

    2016-07-01

    We recently proposed a Quantum Optimal Control (QOC) method constrained to build pulses from analytical pulse shapes [R. D. Guerrero et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143(12), 124108 (2015)]. This approach was applied to control the dissociation channel yields of the diatomic molecule KH, considering three potential energy curves and one degree of freedom. In this work, we utilized this methodology to study the strong field control of the cis-trans photoisomerization of 11-cis retinal. This more complex system was modeled with a Hamiltonian comprising two potential energy surfaces and two degrees of freedom. The resulting optimal pulse, made of 6 linearly chirped pulses, was capable of controlling the population of the trans isomer on the ground electronic surface for nearly 200 fs. The simplicity of the pulse generated with our QOC approach offers two clear advantages: a direct analysis of the sequence of events occurring during the driven dynamics, and its reproducibility in the laboratory with current laser technologies.

  10. LIFEbeat, the music industry fights AIDS.

    PubMed

    Applestone, J

    1998-02-01

    LIFEbeat is a not-for-profit AIDS resource and awareness organization supported primarily by people in the music industry. It was founded in 1982 and provides grants to many community-based organizations and to members of the music industry who are living with HIV/AIDS. Among its programs is Hearts and Voices, a program that eases the suffering and isolation of patients by providing live musical entertainment at hospitals and health care facilities. The group also sets up information booths at concerts and sponsors events such as SkateAID and BoardAID, fundraisers designed to appeal to in-line skaters and snowboarders.

  11. Construct validity of the walk ratio as a measure of gait control in people with multiple sclerosis without mobility aids.

    PubMed

    Kalron, Alon

    2016-06-01

    Ambulatory limitations are a key component of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Various tools are employed to assess walking performance in PwMS; however, no ideal measure has as yet been attained. In this situation, a walk ratio might be more advantageous compared with other gait measures. The walk ratio, a simple index for describing temporal and spatial co-ordination, denotes the relationship between step length and cadence during walking. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the walk ratio and measures of other theoretically related constructs. The walk ratio was studied using the GAITRite™ system (CIR Systems, Inc. Havertown, USA). The study group included 229 PwMS (143 women) and a mean disease duration of 5.8 (SD=7.1) years. The walk ratio score of the total sample was 5.3 (SD=0.8). Significant differences based on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores (F=11.616, P<0.001) were observed between the neurological disability subgroups. Scores of the very mild (EDSS 0-2.0), mild (EDSS 2.5-4.0) and moderate (EDSS 4.5-5.5) groups were 5.5 (SD=0.7), 5.2 (SD=0.7), 4.9 (SD=0.9), respectively. In terms of fall status, the MS fallers demonstrated a significant lower walk ratio compared to the MS non-fallers; 5.1 (SD=0.8) vs. 5.5 (SD=0.7); P<0.001. Modest significant correlation scores were found between walk ratio and ambulation tests. Scores were slightly higher in the short walking tests, timed 25-foot walk and timed up and go tests (Pearson's rho=0.369, 0.364) compared to the 6 and 2-min walk time tests (Pearson's rho=0.344, 0.308). Collectively, the current study supports the construct validity of the walk ratio index in PwMS without mobility aids.

  12. Osmotic control of luminescence and growth in Photobacterium leiognathi from ponyfish light organs.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, P V

    1985-02-01

    Osmolarity was found to control the luminescence and growth of Photobacterium leiognathi strain LN-1a isolated from the light organ of the ponyfish Leiognathus nuchalis (family Leiognathidae). Low osmolarity (ca. 400 mOsm) stimulated luminescence per cell 80 to 100-fold to a level (ca. 2.0 X 10(4) quanta . s-1 . cell-1) equal to that of bacteria taken directly from the light organ and increased the level of luciferase per cell 8 to 10-fold compared to high osmolarity (ca. 800 mOsm). Conversely, high osmolarity stimulated oxygen uptake and growth rate 2 to 4-fold compared to low osmolarity. Of 21 additional tested strains of P. leiognathi from light organs of 9 other ponyfish species, all responded similarly. Low osmolarity may be a host control factor that functions to stimulate the luminescence and restrict the growth of ponyfish light organ bacteria in situ.

  13. Influencing HIV / AIDS policy in Kenya: NGOs build consensus. Policy profile.

    PubMed

    Rau, B

    1996-07-01

    Despite widespread public awareness in Kenya about the HIV/AIDS epidemic, most policy makers in government and other sectors as of 1994 chose not to adopt and implement HIV/AIDS prevention and control policies. Since then, however, the HIV/AIDS policy situation has changed in many ways. Officials now hope to see practical policies adopted and implemented. The government is preparing a national HIV/AIDS policy and has sought input from a broad range of technical, legal, ethical, and policy opinion makers. With support from the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project, MAP International facilitated policy-oriented discussions among church leaders, while the Kenya AIDS Nongovernmental Organizations Consortium solicited the experiences and views of local constituents during a series of district and provincial policy workshops. These and other efforts to shape HIV/AIDS policy include improvements in the policy climate in Kenya, better mechanisms for strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and care, and some specific changes in policy. Policy development, the policy climate, improved mechanisms, and policy change are discussed.

  14. The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuxin; Xie, Qi; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2003-09-01

    During plant development, the final size of an organ is regulated and determined by various developmental signals; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these signals are transduced and the mediators involved are largely unknown. Here, we show that ARGOS, a novel Arabidopsis gene that is highly induced by auxin, is involved in organ size control. Transgenic plants expressing sense or antisense ARGOS cDNA display enlarged or reduced aerial organs, respectively. The alteration in organ size is attributable mainly to changes in cell number and the duration of organ growth. Ectopic expression of ARGOS prolongs the expression of AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and CycD3;1 as well as the neoplastic activity of leaf cells. Moreover, organ enlargement in plants overexpressing ARGOS can be blocked by the loss of function of ANT, implying that ARGOS functions upstream of ANT to affect the meristematic competence of organ cells. The induction of ARGOS by auxin is attenuated or abolished in auxin-resistant1 (axr1), and overexpression of ARGOS partially restores axr1 organ development. These results suggest that ARGOS may transduce auxin signals downstream of AXR1 to regulate cell proliferation and organ growth through ANT during organogenesis.

  15. Nonlinear organic plasmonics: Applications to optical control of Coulomb blocking in nanojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Fainberg, B. D.; Li, G.

    2015-08-03

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here, we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses that enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. Our consideration is based on the model of the interaction of strong (phase modulated) laser pulse with organic molecules developed by one of the authors before, extended to the dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions in the condensed matter. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  16. Self-organizing control strategy for asteroid intelligent detection swarm based on attraction and repulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Meiyan; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    The self-organizing control strategy for asteroid intelligent detection swarm, which is considered as a space application instance of intelligent swarm, is developed. The leader-follower model for the asteroid intelligent detection swarm is established, and the further analysis is conducted for massive asteroid and small asteroid. For a massive asteroid, the leader spacecraft flies under the gravity field of the asteroid. For a small asteroid, the asteroid gravity is negligible, and a trajectory planning method is proposed based on elliptic cavity virtual potential field. The self-organizing control strategy for the follower spacecraft is developed based on a mechanism of velocity planning and velocity tracking. The simulation results show that the self-organizing control strategy is valid for both massive asteroid and small asteroid, and the exploration swarm forms a stable configuration.

  17. Morphology-Controlled High-Efficiency Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells without Additive Solvent Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Ku; Jo, Jun Hyung; Yun, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on nano-morphology-controlled small-molecule organic solar cells without solvent treatment for high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The maximum high PCE reaches up to 7.22% with a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) thickness of 320 nm. This high efficiency was obtained by eliminating solvent additives such as 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) to find an alternative way to control the domain sizes in the BHJ layer. Furthermore, the generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) analysis has been applied to confirm the effects of applying a different thickness of BHJs for organic solar cells from 100 to 320 nm, respectively. Finally, the study showed an alternative way to achieve high PCE organic solar cells without additive solvent treatments to control the morphology of the bulk-heterojunction.

  18. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from AIDS.gov Read more AIDS.gov tweets AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  19. Eradication of HIV and Cure of AIDS, Now and How?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde

    2013-10-18

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART or combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART)] remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, memory CD4 T-cells are indisputably the key cells organizing all immune actions against HIV while being the targets of HIV. Here we present a view and multidisciplinary approaches to HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. We aim at memory CD4 T-cells, utilizing the stem cell properties of these cells to reprogram an anti-HIV memory repertoire to eliminate the viral reservoir, toward achieving an AIDS-free world.

  20. Eradication of HIV and Cure of AIDS, Now and How?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART or combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART)] remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, memory CD4 T-cells are indisputably the key cells organizing all immune actions against HIV while being the targets of HIV. Here we present a view and multidisciplinary approaches to HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. We aim at memory CD4 T-cells, utilizing the stem cell properties of these cells to reprogram an anti-HIV memory repertoire to eliminate the viral reservoir, toward achieving an AIDS-free world. PMID:24151495