Science.gov

Sample records for aids control programmes

  1. [Does the National HIV /AIDS Control programme provide support for district hospitals in Cameroon?].

    PubMed

    Keugoung, Basile; Fotsing, Richard; Macq, Jean; Buve, Anne; Marchal, Bruno; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the national HIV/AIDS control programme on district hospitals in Cameroon. A multiple case study was conducted in two district hospitals- one public and one faith-based. Data were collected by document review, semi-structured interviews and observation of managerial processes and health care delivery. Programme interventions result in a series of positive and negative effects on the functioning of district hospitals and local health systems. High input and support of staff skills were observed for antiretroviral therapy and the management of opportunistic infections. However, the impact of the programme on the stewardship function is problematic. The low implication of district management teams in the implementation of HIV /AIDS activities reduces their structural capacity to run the local health systems. Programme and health system managers failed to take advantage of opportunities to develop synergies between the HIV/AIDS programme and local health systems. The HIV/AIDS programme weakens the systemic and structural capacity of local health systems. Managers of both programmes and general health systems should analyse and adapt their interventions in order to effective' strengthen health systems. One of the research questions is to understand why health system stakeholders do not seize opportunities to develop synergies between programmes and the general system and to strengthen health systems.

  2. HIV / AIDS control programme: lessons from the VHAI-EC joint initiative.

    PubMed

    Kapur, S

    1996-01-01

    The Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI), with financial support and technical advice from the European Commission, developed the HIV/AIDS Control Programme. The program began in January 1995. Its overall goal was to strengthen the capacities of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in initiating and developing HIV/AIDS interventions at the grass-roots level. Program strategies include capacity building within NGOs for effective HIV/AIDS efforts, primary prevention of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission through information and education and promotion of safer sex, promotion of condom use, improvement of STD control in primary health care, and advocacy and social mobilization in support of persons affected by HIV/AIDS. VHAI first invited project proposals from NGOS in Manipur, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh. Then it held a workshop for interested NGOs on policy and funding criteria. 24 NGOs were selected in the first round from all the above states, except Andhra Pradesh. The intended audiences included youth, women, migrant workers, intravenous drug users, commercial sex workers, tribals, and students. The selected projects consisted of awareness generation, needle exchange, blood safety, condom promotion, and counseling. Training programs addressed project management, counseling, and training of health personnel (medical practitioners, health workers, peer educators, and paramedical workers). State-specific communication strategies involved traditional and folk media, a condom key chain, workshops for journalists, and meetings with members of the Legislative Assembly. VHAI is developing a comprehensive communication package for lobbying and advocacy activities. The May-June 1996 mid-term evaluation found that the program helped state VHAs to work more closely with member NGOS and non-member groups and that NGOs did become familiar with HIV/STD prevention and control. NGOS had inadequate experience in project management

  3. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  4. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  5. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  6. Avoid programmable controller problems

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, E.A.

    1983-06-01

    This article illustrates good hardware installation practices and careful software documentation to help minimize PC problems and aid troubleshooting. Presents a typical ladder diagram, a binary logic diagram, a typical computer generated cross-reference list, an assignment list, and a cross-reference sheet.

  7. Programmable Digital Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wassick, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.

  8. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  9. Programmable DMA controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendry, David F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In a data system having a memory, plural input/output (I/O) devices and a bus connecting each of the I/O devices to the memory, a direct memory access (DMA) controller regulating access of each of the I/O devices to the bus, including a priority register storing priorities of bus access requests from the I/O devices, an interrupt register storing bus access requests of the I/O devices, a resolver for selecting one of the I/O devices to have access to the bus, a pointer register storing addresses of locations in the memory for communication with the one I/O device via the bus, a sequence register storing an address of a location in the memory containing a channel program instruction which is to be executed next, an ALU for incrementing and decrementing addresses stored in the pointer register, computing the next address to be stored in the sequence register, computing an initial contents of each of the register. The memory contains a sequence of channel program instructions defining a set up operation wherein the contents of each of the registers in the channel register is initialized in accordance with the initial contents computed by the ALU and an access operation wherein data is transferred on the bus between a location in the memory whose address is currently stored in the pointer register and the one I/O device enabled by the resolver.

  10. National STDs control programme.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, N C

    1989-04-01

    In 1947 the Bhore Committee recommended that sexually transmitted diseases should be dealt with by special organizations within the provinces, but the institutions were not adequate, and there was no coordinated plan. Before the 1st 5-year plan, there were 50 state-administered sexually transmitted disease clinics in India. During the 1st 5-year plan, facilities were upgraded, the central government took over certain aspects of the program, and the World Health Organization Venereal Disease team submitted a report on control of venereal diseases in India. By the end of the 5th 5-year plan, the government had set up another 187 clinics. Until the 6th 5-year plan, the central government supplied material, equipment, and drugs to the clinics, but the operating costs were borne by the states. During the 6th 5-year plan, the central government took over all aspects of the program. It is estimated that 20 million Indians suffer from venereal disease. With World Health Organization assistance, group educational activities in sexually transmitted diseases are being organized in different parts of the country, so that all personnel will be better equipped to treat patients. Group educational activities for treatment of yaws are also being organized for paramedical personnel who will have to deal with yaws in tribal areas. The UN Childrens Fund is also providing funds for communication and social mobilization against venereal diseases. PMID:12282050

  11. WHO and the future of disease control programmes.

    PubMed

    Dye, Christopher; Mertens, Thierry; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Mpanju-Shumbusho, Winnie; Newman, Robert D; Raviglione, Mario C; Savioli, Lorenzo; Nakatani, Hiroki

    2013-02-01

    Huge increases in funding for international health over the past two decades have led to a proliferation of donors, partnerships, and health organisations. Over the same period, the global burden of non-communicable diseases has increased absolutely and relative to communicable diseases. In this changing landscape, national programmes for the control of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases must be reinforced and adapted for three reasons: the global burden of these communicable diseases remains enormous, disease control programmes have an integral and supporting role in developing health systems, and the health benefits of these control programmes go beyond the containment of specific infections. WHO's traditional role in promoting communicable disease control programmes must also adapt to new circumstances. Among a multiplicity of actors, WHO's task is to enhance its normative role as convenor, coordinator, monitor, and standard-setter, fostering greater coherence in global health. PMID:23374479

  12. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  13. Controller-Programmer for telemetry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, R. Michael

    1988-10-01

    The development, testing, and implementation of modern, sophisticated telemetry systems requires a controller capable of adequately exercising the telemeter. A flight test requires a programmer to cycle through the flight events. This report describes an adaptable, programmable system that encompasses both of these requirements.

  14. Clinical trials with a programmable hearing aid set for various listening environments.

    PubMed

    Ringdahl, A; Eriksson-Mangold, M; Israelsson, B; Lindkvist, A; Mangold, S

    1990-08-01

    A conventional hearing aid has a frequency response that does not change much at normal listening levels. It is therefore unlikely that optimal speech intelligibility and optimal listening comfort can be obtained simultaneously, or in different listening environments. With a programmable hearing aid with multiple memories the listener can choose between a range of sound pictures, which increases the chance of finding a suitable frequency curve for each listening situation. The programmable hearing aid with eight separate settings stored in eight memories, was compared with personal hearing aids fitted according to the recommendations of the National Acoustic Laboratories (NAL) by 22 experienced hearing aid users. One memory of the programmable hearing aid was initially fitted according to the NAL recommendation. The other memories were programmed to give variations around that recommendation. One aim was to investigate whether the hearing-impaired user took advantage of different frequency responses to achieve listening improvements in acoustically different environments. Another aim was to evaluate the ergonomic and acoustical features of the programmable hearing aid, compared with other well fitted hearing aids. The evaluations were based on comparisons of the test hearing aid to the personal aid for each subject, looking at speech tests, direct paired comparison judgements, sound quality judgements and interviews. A majority of the subjects experienced substantial benefit from being able to use different frequency response curves in different environments. With the test hearing aid the subjects performed better in speech discrimination tests in noise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Prevention indicators for evaluating the progress of national AIDS programmes.

    PubMed

    Mertens, T; Caraël, M; Sato, P; Cleland, J; Ward, H; Smith, G D

    1994-10-01

    Major interventions to reduce HIV transmission involve increasing knowledge about preventing HIV transmission for sustained behavioral changes; and enhancing the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), which increase the probability of HIV transmission. Activities have also been developed to prevent the transmission of HIV by blood, donor selection, and more rational use of transfusions. Behavioral changes among injecting drug users have also been promoted. Recommendations are made for the evaluation of AIDS programs, focusing on prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, and outlining the approach developed by the Global Program on AIDS (GPA; Geneva, Switzerland) for use by national programs. Based on the feasibility, accuracy, reliability and validity of the quantitative assessment of programs, 10 indicators of progress and outcomes of prevention activities have been developed by GPA. These include indicators of population knowledge regarding preventive practices, reported sexual behavior and use of condoms in the general population, STD service evaluation, and indicators of program impact. The latter are measured through the reported STD incidence in the general male population, and syphilis and HIV prevalence in women. The four methods are proposed for measuring the 10 core prevention indicators (PI). Five PIs are measured during a population survey: reported knowledge of preventive practices (PI-1), condom availability at peripheral level (PI-3), reported frequency of nonregular sexual partners (PI-4), reported condom use during nonregular sexual encounters (PI-5), and reported STD incidence among men (PI-9). Condom availability at central level (PI-2) is assessed through key-informant interviews with major distributors. Structured health facility surveys allow assessment of the appropriateness of STD case management (PI-6 and PI-7). A serosurvey among antenatal clinic attenders aged 15-24 years allows the measurement of HIV and syphilis seroprevalence

  16. Implementation of a comprehensive AIDS education programme for schools in Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, J; Harrison, S; Kengeya-Kayondo, J; Kanyesigye, E; Musoke, S; Whitworth, J

    1999-10-01

    As part of a large IEC (Information, Education and Communication)/STD intervention trial, a 19-lesson, comprehensive school-based AIDS education programme was implemented and evaluated in 50 primary and 16 secondary schools in 12 parishes of Masaka District, Uganda. A series of three teacher-training and evaluation workshops spread over a year was held in each parish, between which teachers implemented the programme in the classroom. One hundred and forty-eight teachers were trained and about 3,500 students were subsequently exposed to the programme. Both teachers and students responded positively, which suggests that this type of programme has much to offer young people who attend school. However, some problems were encountered: language, programme content, community resistance to teaching about condoms, and several practical issues. Proposed solutions include flexibility with the English language policy, alternative approaches to role play activities, targeting influential individuals with information about the need for young people to learn about safer sex, and a parallel community-based IEC programme to facilitate community acceptance of the need for the programme. In addition, implementation may be incomplete unless comprehensive AIDS education is fully incorporated into the curriculum, and properly examined. These findings are placed in the context of other life skills/AIDS education programmes being introduced both in Uganda and elsewhere in Africa.

  17. WHO board backs new UN programme on HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The World Health Assembly requested a feasibility study May 1993 to determine how United Nations (UN) organizations and the UN overall could most effectively help countries respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. After weighing three options for a joint UN program against HIV/AIDS, the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to support the creation of one approach for a joint, cosponsored program on HIV/AIDS to boost global response. Main program objectives are to strengthen governments' capacity to coordinate and implement HIV/AIDS activities at country level, to provide global leadership in response to the pandemic, to advocate greater political commitment; to provide technical, strategic, and policy direction; and to ensure collaboration among UN, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations. The resolution was adopted by consensus January 21, 1994, at a meeting of WHO's 31-member Executive Board in Geneva. The proposal will now be put to the governing bodies of the other potential cosponsors; the program could begin operations by the end of 1995. UNICEF, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, and the World Bank have all expressed their intent to participate fully in the program. It will consist of an unified interagency secretariat administered and located within WHO which will have overall responsibility for providing the UN system with strategic and policy guidance on HIV/AIDS. Coordinated fund-raising will be conducted at global and country levels. The program will offer technical and other support to national AIDS programs currently supplied to countries by the Global Program on AIDS, with each country having an HIV/AIDS committee established by the UN Resident Coordinator to coordinate UN activities on HIV/AIDS. It is hoped that this new approach will provide a comprehensive, coordinated, and more effective UN response to HIV/AIDS while making the best use of available national and international resources.

  18. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A.; Iuzzolino, H.J.

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  19. A programmable sound processor for advanced hearing aid research.

    PubMed

    McDermott, H

    1998-03-01

    A portable sound processor has been developed to facilitate research on advanced hearing aids. Because it is based on a digital signal processing integrated circuit (Motorola DSP56001), it can readily be programmed to execute novel algorithms. Furthermore, the parameters of these algorithms can be adjusted quickly and easily to suit the specific hearing characteristics of users. In the processor, microphone signals are digitized to a precision of 12 bits at a sampling rate of approximately 12 kHz for input to the DSP device. Subsequently, processed samples are delivered to the earphone by a novel, fully-digital class-D driver. This driver provides the advantages of a conventional class-D amplifier (high maximum output, low power consumption, low distortion) without some of the disadvantages (such as the need for precise analog circuitry). In addition, a cochlear implant driver is provided so that the processor is suitable for hearing-impaired people who use an implant and an acoustic hearing aid together. To reduce the computational demands on the DSP device, and therefore the power consumption, a running spectral analysis of incoming signals is provided by a custom-designed switched-capacitor integrated circuit incorporating 20 bandpass filters. The complete processor is pocket-sized and powered by batteries. An example is described of its use in providing frequency-shaped amplification for aid users with severe hearing impairment. Speech perception tests confirmed that the processor performed significantly better than the subjects' own hearing aids, probably because the digital filter provided a frequency response generally closer to the optimum for each user than the simpler analog aids. PMID:9535523

  20. A programmable sound processor for advanced hearing aid research.

    PubMed

    McDermott, H

    1998-03-01

    A portable sound processor has been developed to facilitate research on advanced hearing aids. Because it is based on a digital signal processing integrated circuit (Motorola DSP56001), it can readily be programmed to execute novel algorithms. Furthermore, the parameters of these algorithms can be adjusted quickly and easily to suit the specific hearing characteristics of users. In the processor, microphone signals are digitized to a precision of 12 bits at a sampling rate of approximately 12 kHz for input to the DSP device. Subsequently, processed samples are delivered to the earphone by a novel, fully-digital class-D driver. This driver provides the advantages of a conventional class-D amplifier (high maximum output, low power consumption, low distortion) without some of the disadvantages (such as the need for precise analog circuitry). In addition, a cochlear implant driver is provided so that the processor is suitable for hearing-impaired people who use an implant and an acoustic hearing aid together. To reduce the computational demands on the DSP device, and therefore the power consumption, a running spectral analysis of incoming signals is provided by a custom-designed switched-capacitor integrated circuit incorporating 20 bandpass filters. The complete processor is pocket-sized and powered by batteries. An example is described of its use in providing frequency-shaped amplification for aid users with severe hearing impairment. Speech perception tests confirmed that the processor performed significantly better than the subjects' own hearing aids, probably because the digital filter provided a frequency response generally closer to the optimum for each user than the simpler analog aids.

  1. A Programmable System for Motion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlin, Brent C.

    2003-01-01

    The need for improved flow measurements in the flow path of aeronautics testing facilities has led the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a new motion control system. The new system is programmable, offering a flexibility unheard of in previous systems. The motion control system is PLC-based, which leads to highly accurate positioning ability, as well as reliability. The user interface is a software-based HMI package, which also adds flexibility to the overall system. The system also has the ability to create and execute motion profiles. This paper discusses the system's operation, control implementation, and experiences.

  2. Computer-Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Programmer's Manual, Version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Version 5.0 Programmer's Manual provides the programmer and user with information regarding the internal structure of the CASE/A 5.0 software system. CASE/A 5.0 is a trade study tool that provides modeling/simulation capabilities for analyzing environmental control and life support systems and active thermal control systems. CASE/A has been successfully used in studies such as the evaluation of carbon dioxide removal in the space station. CASE/A modeling provides a graphical and command-driven interface for the user. This interface allows the user to construct a model by placing equipment components in a graphical layout of the system hardware, then connect the components via flow streams and define their operating parameters. Once the equipment is placed, the simulation time and other control parameters can be set to run the simulation based on the model constructed. After completion of the simulation, graphical plots or text files can be obtained for evaluation of the simulation results over time. Additionally, users have the capability to control the simulation and extract information at various times in the simulation (e.g., control equipment operating parameters over the simulation time or extract plot data) by using "User Operations (OPS) Code." This OPS code is written in FORTRAN with a canned set of utility subroutines for performing common tasks. CASE/A version 5.0 software runs under the VAX VMS(Trademark) environment. It utilizes the Tektronics 4014(Trademark) graphics display system and the VTIOO(Trademark) text manipulation/display system.

  3. Programmable control means for providing safe and controlled medication infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An implantable programmable infusion pump (IPIP) is disclosed and generally includes: a fluid reservoir filled with selected medication; a pump for causing a precise volumetric dosage of medication to be withdrawn from the reservoir and delivered to the appropriate site within the body; and, a control means for actuating the pump in a safe and programmable manner. The control means includes a microprocessor, a permanent memory containing a series of fixed software instructions, and a memory for storing prescription schedules, dosage limits and other data. The microprocessor actuates the pump in accordance with programmable prescription parameters and dosage limits stored in the memory. A communication link allows the control means to be remotely programmed. The control means incorporates a running integral dosage limit and other safety features which prevent an inadvertent or intentional medication overdose. The control means also monitors the pump and fluid handling system and provides an alert if any improper or potentially unsafe operation is detected.

  4. National AIDS Control Organisation's human resource capacity building initiatives for better response to HIV/AIDS in India.

    PubMed

    Kavya, Sharma; Sanjay, Zodpey; Syed Zahiruddin, Quazi; Abhay, Gaidhane; Shailendra, Sawleshwarkar; Sunil, Khaparde

    2011-01-01

    Human resource capacity building is a key strategy in the design, delivery, sustainability and scale up HIV treatment and prevention programmes. The review aims to present human resource capacity building initiatives undertaken by the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) and to discuss the available opportunities in India.There was minimal emphasis on human resource capacity building in National AIDS control programme (NACP)-I. The focus of capacity building in NACP-II was on strengthening the capacity of partners implementing various HIV/AIDS interventions. NACP-III (2007-2012) focussed on capacity building as a priority agenda. Other than short-term training programmes, NACP-III is strengthening the capacity of partners through the State Training and Resource Centre, Technical Support Unit, District AIDS Prevention Control Unit, Fellowship Programme and Network of Indian Institutions for HIV/AIDS Research.Various opportunities to enhance and consolidate capacity building responses in HIV/AIDS in India may include mainstreaming of capacity building, appropriate management of knowledge and resources, effective delivery of training, measuring and documenting impact,accreditation of programmes and institutes,use of information technology, identifying and implementing innovations and working for sustainability.Growing demand for capacity-building in HIV/AIDS needs substantial efforts to ensure that these are implemented effectively and efficiently. NACO had made significant strides in these regards, but at the same time there are arduous challenges like measuring impact, quality, documentation, operational research, and sustainability. NACO is formulating Phase-IV of NACP. This review will provide feedback to the NACO for strengthening its strategic document for human resource capacity building.

  5. Computer Instructional Aids for Undergraduate Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volz, Richard A.; And Others

    Engineering is coming to rely more and more heavily upon the computer for computations, analyses, and graphic displays which aid the design process. A general purpose simulation system, the Time-shared Automatic Control Laboratory (TACL), and a set of computer-aided design programs, Control Oriented Interactive Graphic Analysis and Design…

  6. Hybrid Programmable Logic Controller for Load Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Farooq, Hashim; Abbar, Sofia; Yousaf, Mushtaq; Hafeez, Kamran; Hanif, M.

    The purpose of this study is to design a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to command 8-relays to control and automate ac loads via PC parallel port. In this project, the PLC is connected to the Personal Computer called hybrid PLC and this PC controls all the field ac loads via parallel printer port. Eight signals of different sequences are sent on parallel port via computer keyboard, which activate the microcontroller as inputs. Microcontroller responds according to these inputs and its user programming, which then commands 8-relays to control (on/off) different electronic appliances. Microcontroller memory makes easier to store its programming permanently. This hybrid PLC is applicable for controlling and monitoring industrial processes particularly of small to medium scale manufacturing processes and may be used for home automation as well. Parallel port is accessed by a program written in C++ language and microcontroller is programmed in assembly language. Ac load of any kind, whether resistive or inductive can be controlled with the help of this project.

  7. A programmable heater control circuit for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. D.; Owen, J. W.; Smith, D. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal control is accomplished for many components through use of multilayer insulation systems, electrical heaters, and radiator systems. The heaters are commanded to maintain component temperatures within design specifications. The programmable heater control circuit (PHCC) was designed to obtain an effective and efficient means of spacecraft thermal control. The hybrid circuit provides use of control instrumentation as temperature data, available to the spacecraft central data system, reprogramming capability of the local microprocessor during the spacecraft's mission, and the elimination of significant spacecraft wiring. The hybrid integrated circuit has a temperature sensing and conditioning circuit, a microprocessor, and a heater power and control circuit. The device is miniature and housed in a volume which allows physical integration with the component to be controlled. Applications might include alternate battery-powered logic-circuit configurations. A prototype unit with appropriate physical and functional interfaces was procured for testing. The physical functionality and the feasibility of fabrication of the hybrid integrated circuit were successfully verified. The remaining work to develop a flight-qualified device includes fabrication and testing of a Mil-certified part. An option for completing the PHCC flight qualification testing is to enter into a joint venture with industry.

  8. Efficient control structures for digital programmable retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Thierry M.

    2001-05-01

    A digital programmable artificial retina (PAR) is a functional extension of a CMOS imager, in which every pixel is fitted with a local ADC and a tiny digital programmable processor. From an architectural viewpoint, a PAR is an SIMD array processor with local optical input. A PAR is aimed at processing images on-site until they can be output from the array under concentrated form. The overall goal is to get compact, fast and inexpensive vision systems, in particular for robotics applications. A 256 by 256 PAR with up to a few tens bits of local memory per pixel is now within reach at reasonable cost. However, whereas the local memory size benefits quadratically from the feature size decrease, wiring density improvement can only be linear, at best. So control should become more complex with the danger of a growing proportion of the digital pixel area being devoted to instruction or address decoding. We propose efficient scalable solutions to this problem at the architectural, circuit and topological levels, which attempt to minimize both silicon area and power consumption.

  9. Efficacy of health education programme on awareness of AIDS among transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, K V

    1990-02-01

    A study of the awareness of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among Transsexual prostitutes attending the Middle Road Hospital was made. The present study involved 71 subjects of a cohort of 100 who were interviewed a year earlier and had subsequently been given intensive health education. The results show that there was now an increased awareness of AIDS in virtually all the subjects studied. In contrast, there has been no significant change in the use of safe sex practices as a direct consequence of this knowledge. The reasons for this are discussed. There may be a need for more intensive behaviour modification programme in this group of individuals. PMID:2333540

  10. UNAIDS says sex education does not promote promiscuity. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    1997-11-28

    A review of 68 studies from around the world commissioned by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS determined that providing children with sex education does not promote promiscuity. The most effective prevention education programs are those that foster open communication regarding sex, negotiation skills, social and media influences, and safer sex methods. Zimbabwe was cited as a country with an effective prevention educational program.

  11. Programmable temperature control system for biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rinfret, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    A system was constructed which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cu cm sample volume of arbitrary biological material. The system also measures the parameters necessary for the determination of the sample volume specific heat and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature, and provides a detailed measurement of the temperature during phase change and a means of calculating the heat of the phase change. Steady-state and dynamic temperature control is obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container is totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at 79 C, the sample volume can be controlled from +40 to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady-state temperature precision is better than 0.2 C, while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the mass of both the sample and the container.

  12. Distributed solid state programmable thermostat/power controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Jane C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A self-contained power controller having a power driver switch, programmable controller, communication port, and environmental parameter measuring device coupled to a controllable device. The self-contained power controller needs only a single voltage source to power discrete devices, analog devices, and the controlled device. The programmable controller has a run mode which, when selected, upon the occurrence of a trigger event changes the state of a power driver switch and wherein the power driver switch is maintained by the programmable controller at the same state until the occurrence of a second event.

  13. Aid For Simulating Digital Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    DIVERS translator is computer program to convert descriptions of digital flight-control systems (DFCS) into computer program. Language developed to represent design charts of DFCS. Translator converts DIVERS source code into easily transportable language, while minimizing probability that results are affected by interpretation of programmer. Final translated program used as standard of comparison to verify operation of actual flight-control systems. Applicable to simulation of other control systems; for example, electrical circuits and logic processes. Written in C.

  14. The social and psychological consequences of secrecy in artificial insemination by donor (AID) programmes.

    PubMed

    Rowland, R

    1985-01-01

    The assumption that secrecy is of paramount importance in AID programmes has arisen in order to protect the three parties involved: donor, recipient couple and offspring. Due to the uncertain legal position, he medical profession has also been concerned to protect itself against possible litigation. Recent calls for an abolition of all secrecy have been motivated by the knowledge and experience of workers in the field of adoption. The similarities and differences between adoption and AID as ways of creating a family are discussed, with the resulting conclusion that, although the two have much in common they do present different experiences and problems for parents and offspring. The experiences of donors and recipient couples are then discussed based on data gathered to date from 67 donors and 93 couples in an AID programme at the Melbourne Family Medical Centre. It is stressed that many statements in the past regarding secrecy have not been informed by the opinions and intentions of participants themselves, and further information is needed in this area. Furthermore, it is clear that all members of a society are affected by the codes of secrecy currently operating and the 'rights' of all members of that society need to be considered.

  15. Lessons for the control of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Weller, T H

    1987-11-15

    A balanced perspective that places acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the context of the social needs of a global society is needed to overcome the hysteria and stigmatizing that presently surrounds this public health issue. The migration of poor, rural, sexually active young people to urban centers in the Third World has clearly played a role in the dissemination of AIDS and other infectious diseases. It is necessary, however, to examine the major cause of such population movement--private enterprise. Migrant workers are used to perform menial jobs in the urban labor force. Another cause of population movements is war and political repression. The fact that young people are becoming increasingly mobile has serious implications for the control of AIDS, and this phenomenon cannot be addressed without looking at its causes. Similarly, the disproportionate mortality of minorities- -seen in the AIDS epidemic as well--calls for discrimination. To prevent and control AIDS, the 1st step is to increase understanding of its natural history and epidemiology. Then, lessons must be learned from successful public health programs rooted in a primary health care system, including the Expanded Program on Immunization and oral rehydration campaigns. Although funds should not be diverted from such programs to combat AIDS, their logistic structure should be studied. Above all, however, it must be kept in mind that the constructive influence of health education will be thwarted as long as social inequities remain.

  16. Objectives and Actual HIV and AIDS Education Programme Delivery and Behavioral Changes among Kenyan Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ongunya, R. O.; Indoshi, F. C.; Agak, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Although there seems to be a high level of awareness of the HIV and AIDS menace among the youth, their behavior does not reflect this level of awareness. There seems to be a mismatch between HIV and AIDS Programme objectives and behavior change among the youth. However, this level of mismatch has not been established for effective intervention…

  17. Traditional healers, HIV/AIDS and company programmes in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David

    2008-11-01

    This paper explores the organisational structures of traditional healers, outlines their explanations of HIV/AIDS, and discusses how they can be integrated with company programmes. The South African Traditional Health Practitioners Act seeks to register, regulate and promote traditional healers, but its ability to do this depends on strong, formalised associations of traditional healers. The different forms of traditional healer groupings in South Africa are described along with the implications that their organisational structure has for knowledge, competition and service standards. Traditional healers' diverse and fluid beliefs about HIV and AIDS are explained together with ways in which cooperation between companies, allopathic medicine and African traditional healing practices could be promoted in workplace responses to HIV/AIDS. It is suggested that such collaboration should focus on 'windows of compatibility' rather than on overall agreement. Moreover, it is argued that any response to HIV/AIDS must be embedded within a wider set of agreements, the most critical being a genuine process of referral between the traditional and allopathic healthcare systems. Companies are in a strong position to initiate such reforms, and this would support the professionalisation of traditional healers as well as help coordinate a wider and more effective response to the HIV epidemic in South Africa.

  18. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support. PMID:25351362

  19. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support.

  20. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  1. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  2. A comprehensive programme addressing HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence.

    PubMed

    Jansen van Rensburg, M S

    2007-11-01

    A survey was administered to 304 respondents participating from three areas near Welkom, South Africa. Face-toface interviews were conducted with women from randomly selected households to evaluate the impact of a service provision programme targeting women living with HIV/AIDS and gender based violence. Gender based violence (GBV) awareness and knowledge was high. Respondents had high perceived levels of risk. They reported making various behavioural changes to avoid GBV.The respondents were aware of their legal rights pertaining to GBV. HIV/AIDS knowledge levels and attitudes were acceptable. Behavioural changes included condom use, abstinence and being faithful to one partner. Disclosure of HIV was lower than disclosure of GBV.Awareness and knowledge of female condoms were high, yet usage low. Participants reported that they would be able to introduce condoms to a relationship and negotiate usage with relative ease. Perceived levels of GBV and HIV were high, and stigma levels towards the affected women were also relatively high.The awareness and knowledge levels of GBV and HIV of older respondents were lower than younger respondents.The key findings of this study support the notion of using a holistic approach, targeting more than one issue. There is lower stigma levels associated with combined conditions, which might allow easier access to vulnerable groups. Coordination and collaboration of services are however needed to enable this benefit. PMID:18185896

  3. Drawing AIDS:Tanzanian Teachers Picture the Pandemic: Implications for Re-Curriculation of Teacher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lesley; de Lange, Naydene; Mkumbo, Kitila

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explain how we engaged teachers in creating their own representations of HIV and AIDS in Tanzania as a starting point for re-curriculation of the undergraduate teacher education programme. We employed a qualitative design, using visual methodologies, to encourage 29 in-service teachers to draw their perceptions about HIV and…

  4. An Assessment of the Policies and Programmes of Zimbabwe in Addressing the HIV/Aids Epidemic in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rembe, Symphorosa

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the policies, strategic plans and structures that have been put in place in Zimbabwe to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the education sector. It also examined the comprehensiveness of projects and programmes currently being implemented by the government in collaboration with partner organisations and NGOs. The findings show…

  5. How Effective Are Street Youth Peer Educators?: Lessons Learned from an HIV/AIDS Prevention Programme in Urban Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kirstin; Nyakake, Monica; Oling, Juliet

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores "lessons learned" resulting from a process evaluation of a peer-led HIV/AIDS prevention programme targeting street children and youth in urban Uganda. The purpose was to explore aspects of implementation that either enhanced or hindered the effectiveness of the peer educator (PE) role. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  6. Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Kevin

    This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…

  7. The convergence of American and Nigerian religious conservatism in a biopolitical shaping of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevention programmes

    PubMed Central

    Jappah, Jlateh V.

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria has the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa, with 3.3 million people estimated to be living with the disease. The country remains a fragile democratic state and has allocated insufficient resources to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among its citizens. The preponderance of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) dollars, expert knowledge, conservative ideology and activities has shaped the direction of HIV/AIDS sexual-transmission prevention programmes in Nigeria. PEPFAR channels significant resources through Nigerian faith-based organisations (FBOs), and considers these organisations integral for HIV prevention strategies. In many instances, HIV/AIDS prevention programmes managed by FBOs reflect their ideologies of morality and sexuality. There is a convergence of religious ideology concerning morality and HIV infectivity between American and Nigerian conservatives; this produces a fertile ground for the influence and expansion of the conservative activities of PEPFAR in Nigeria. The paper highlights this nexus and draws attention to the biopolitical underpinning of PEPFAR in shaping Nigeria's HIV prevention programmes. The paper further notes both positive and negative effects of PEPFAR activities and attempts by the Obama administration to redirect PEPFAR to a more holistic approach in order to optimise outcomes. PMID:23391163

  8. Optimal control of HIV/AIDS dynamic: Education and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2014-07-01

    A mathematical model which describes the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS is developed. The optimal control representing education and treatment for this model is explored. The existence of optimal Control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations suggest that education and treatment for the infected has a positive impact on HIV/AIDS control.

  9. Effect of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge of School Teachers regarding First Aid Management in Selected Schools of Bangalore.

    PubMed

    De, Piyali

    2014-01-01

    Safe childhood is the foundation of a good future. Children face different kinds of accidents at school premises while playing. Prevention of these accidents and their management is essential. A study was therefore conducted among school teachers at Anekal Taluk, Bangalore to make them aware about different accidents of children at school premises and their first aid management. The sample consisted of 30 primary and higher primary school teachers selected by convenience sampling technique. The analysis showed that improvement of knowledge occurred after administering structured teaching programme (STP) on first aid management. Nursing professionals can benefit from the study result at the area of community, administration, research and education.

  10. Effect of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge of School Teachers regarding First Aid Management in Selected Schools of Bangalore.

    PubMed

    De, Piyali

    2014-01-01

    Safe childhood is the foundation of a good future. Children face different kinds of accidents at school premises while playing. Prevention of these accidents and their management is essential. A study was therefore conducted among school teachers at Anekal Taluk, Bangalore to make them aware about different accidents of children at school premises and their first aid management. The sample consisted of 30 primary and higher primary school teachers selected by convenience sampling technique. The analysis showed that improvement of knowledge occurred after administering structured teaching programme (STP) on first aid management. Nursing professionals can benefit from the study result at the area of community, administration, research and education. PMID:26182823

  11. Consultative Seminar Develops Action Programmes for AIDS Prevention Education in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Outlined are the technical briefings on the global overview of the HIV/AIDS predicament, the modes of disease transmission, the global distribution of HIV/AIDS, and the social impact of the epidemic among the countries in Asia which participated in the World Health Organization/UNESCO-sponsored AIDS consultative seminar on AIDS prevention…

  12. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  13. ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC).

    PubMed

    Chandy, Sujith J; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Abraham, O C; Bachhav, Sagar S; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Rodent control programmes in areas affected by Bolivian haemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Mercado R., Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (BHF) caused by Machupo virus is acquired by contact with the excretions and secretions of Calomys callosus, an indigenous cricetine rodent which is preadapted to peridomestic habitats. It competes successfully with Mus musculus, but not with Rattus rattus. A successful disease control programme has functioned in Beni Department since 1964. It is based on trapping surveys and the detection of splenomegaly in Calomys rodents as an index of chronic virus infection. Mass trapping and poisoning are used initially, and regular trapping is employed to control Calomys populations in towns where disease has occurred. More than 1000 cases of BHF were recorded from 1960-1964, but less than 200 in the past 10 years. The cost of this programme is approximately $30 000 annually. PMID:182405

  15. Fault tolerant programmable digital attitude control electronics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The attitude control electronics mechanization study to develop a fault tolerant autonomous concept for a three axis system is reported. Programmable digital electronics are compared to general purpose digital computers. The requirements, constraints, and tradeoffs are discussed. It is concluded that: (1) general fault tolerance can be achieved relatively economically, (2) recovery times of less than one second can be obtained, (3) the number of faulty behavior patterns must be limited, and (4) adjoined processes are the best indicators of faulty operation.

  16. An assessment of global Internet-based HIV/AIDS media coverage: implications for United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS' Global Media HIV/AIDS initiative.

    PubMed

    Anema, A; Freifeld, C C; Druyts, E; Montaner, J S G; Hogg, R S; Brownstein, J S

    2010-01-01

    No studies to date have assessed the quantity of HIV/AIDS-related media on the Internet. We assessed the quantity of language-specific HIV/AIDS Internet-based news coverage, and the correlation between country-specific HIV/AIDS news coverage and HIV/AIDS prevalence. Internet-based HIV/AIDS news articles were queried from Google News Archives for 168 countries, for the year 2007, in the nine most commonly spoken languages worldwide. English, French and Spanish sources had the greatest number of HIV/AIDS-related articles, representing 134,000 (0.70%), 11,200 (0.65%) and 24,300 (0.49%) of all news articles, respectively. A strong association between country-specific HIV/AIDS news coverage and HIV/AIDS prevalence was found, Spearman's rank correlation: 0.6 (P < 0.001). Among countries with elevated HIV/AIDS prevalence (> or =10%), the volume of HIV/AIDS-specific media was highest in Swaziland (15.9%) and Malawi (13.2%), and lowest in South Africa (4.8%) and Namibia (4.9%). Increased media attention should be placed on countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence and limited HIV/AIDS-specific news coverage.

  17. Optimizing HIV/AIDS resources in Armenia: increasing ART investment and examining HIV programmes for seasonal migrant labourers

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sherrie L; Shattock, Andrew J; Kerr, Cliff C; Stuart, Robyn M; Papoyan, Arshak; Grigoryan, Trdat; Hovhannisyan, Ruben; Grigoryan, Samvel; Benedikt, Clemens; Wilson, David P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV prevalence is declining in key populations in Armenia including in people who inject drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men, prison inmates, and female sex workers (FSWs); however, prevalence is increasing among Armenians who seasonally migrate to work in countries with higher HIV prevalence, primarily to the Russian Federation. Methods We conducted a modelling study using the Optima model to assess the optimal resource allocation to meet targets from the 2013 to 2016 national strategic plan to minimize HIV incidence and AIDS-related deaths by 2020. Demographic, epidemiological, behavioural, and programme cost data from 2000 through 2014 were used to inform the model. The levels of coverage that could be attained among targeted populations with different investments, as well as their expected outcomes, were determined. In the absence of evidence of the efficacy of HIV programmes targeted at seasonal labour migrants, we conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine the cost-effective funding threshold for the seasonal labour migrant programme. Results The optimization analysis revealed that shifts in funding allocations could further minimize incidence and deaths by 2020 within the available resource envelope. The largest emphasis should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the optimal investment to increase treatment coverage by 40%. Optimal investments also involve increases in opiate substitution therapy and FSW programmes, as well as maintenance of other prevention programmes for PWID and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Additional funding for these increases should come from budgets for general population programmes. This is projected to avert 17% of new infections and 29% of AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to a baseline scenario of maintaining 2013 spending. Our sensitivity analysis demonstrated that, at current spending, coverage of annual testing among migrants of at least 43% should be achieved to warrant continuation

  18. Analytical Quality Control - Quality Assurance Iaea-Ilmr Intercomparison Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.

    The importance of analytical quality control, especially for radionuclide measurements, was recognized at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since it began operations in 1957. Activities at the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity (ILMR) in Monaco focused on radioisotope calibration to resolve measurement differences among laboratories all over the world. To-date, standardization and intercalibration remain key services of the ILMR at Monaco. Quality Assurance (QA) as well as Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) are manifestations of the increased attention being given to quality control. The programme, known as Analical Quality Control Services (AQCS), provides intercomparison studies and reference materials for natural and artificial radionuclides. Since the early 1970's, the ILMR has provided about 30 intercomparison samples and reference materials to laboratories all over the world to enable them to assess and control the quality of their work. Intercomparison and reference samples from the ILMR cover a wide range of materials and analytes in different concentration ranges. Natural matrix standards for radioactivity measurements for marine sediments, algae, and biota are available. The reference Samples produced through the resent intercomparison programmes are believe to play an important role in improving quality control in laboratories engaged in environmental radioactivity measurements.

  19. A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huanhuan; Cao, Xiangyu; Yang, Fan; Gao, Jun; Xu, Shenheng; Li, Maokun; Chen, Xibi; Zhao, Yi; Zheng, Yuejun; Li, Sijia

    2016-01-01

    Diverse electromagnetic (EM) responses of a programmable metasurface with a relatively large scale have been investigated, where multiple functionalities are obtained on the same surface. The unit cell in the metasurface is integrated with one PIN diode, and thus a binary coded phase is realized for a single polarization. Exploiting this anisotropic characteristic, reconfigurable polarization conversion is presented first. Then the dynamic scattering performance for two kinds of sources, i.e. a plane wave and a point source, is carefully elaborated. To tailor the scattering properties, genetic algorithm, normally based on binary coding, is coupled with the scattering pattern analysis to optimize the coding matrix. Besides, inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) technique is also introduced to expedite the optimization process of a large metasurface. Since the coding control of each unit cell allows a local and direct modulation of EM wave, various EM phenomena including anomalous reflection, diffusion, beam steering and beam forming are successfully demonstrated by both simulations and experiments. It is worthwhile to point out that a real-time switch among these functionalities is also achieved by using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). All the results suggest that the proposed programmable metasurface has great potentials for future applications. PMID:27774997

  20. Applying programmable logic controllers to safety-related load sequencers

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, S.; Ruether, J.

    1994-12-31

    Commercial nuclear power plants, which are 1960s vintage, are in the process of upgrading their systems. With the aging of power plants, the reluctance to construct new plants, and the obsolescence of components, utilities are seeking to improve their equipment in order to reduce their operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. When upgrading existing obsolete systems, computer-based systems are obvious candidates for these upgrades. Among the many computer-based system options available, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have seen a widespread use in the nuclear industry. Among the most popular candidate systems for digital upgrades using PLCs are load sequencers.

  1. Programmable Millimeter Wave (MMW) Radars For Gun Fire Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DonnaIly, William

    1982-10-01

    The Fire Control Division at ARRADCOM, Dover, NJ is developing the Lightweight Integrated MMW Sensor (LIMS) and the Advanced Fire Control Radar (AFCOR). The AFCOR is a dual-frequency (Ku and 94 GHz) coherent pulse doppler radar for improved track of low-angle airborne targets. The LIMS is a 94 GHz experimental sensor being developed to optimize ECCM and LPI characteristics while maximizing the range at which a target can be detected and tracked. The LIMS system consists of a programmable signal processor integrated with an experimental, coherent, solid-state, 94 GHz transceiver having a 1 GHz instantaneous bandwidth. The MMW sensor's waveform has good range resolution and utilizes a high duty cycle (low peak power, but high average power) for extended range detection compatible with the peak power limitations of MMW solid-state sources. The waveform modulation will be a combination of frequency hop (on a dwell-to-dwell basis), interrupted CW, and biphase code. The MMW sensor will, ultimately, incorporate PSP (Programmable Signal Processor) controlled RF power management for enhanced LPI. Polarization processing may be incorporated for stationary target discrimination and classification. A VHSIC radar processor is being procured from Westinghouse Corporation to provide: (1) Real-time processing in a comnact package for LIMS, and (2) Provide high throughput rate for simultaneous multiple target search and track for AFCOR.

  2. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  3. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  4. UNICEF and UNAIDS Evaluations of HIV/AIDS Programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morell, Jonathan A., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    Describes 14 evaluations of HIV and AIDS programs undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade. These programs demonstrate the importance of enhancing program quality and providing national coverage, rooting programs in community, empowering young people, and developing partnerships to combat HIV and AIDS. (SLD)

  5. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA's) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing functions. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM- based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) device or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using DSP devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment encountered on spacemap. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive-control algorithm

  6. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Monenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM-based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSP) devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment

  7. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation.

  8. Unsustainable funding of high-burden tuberculosis control programmes: who is responsible?

    PubMed

    Mauch, Verena; Baltussen, Rob; van der Velden, Koos

    2012-08-01

    The literature suggests that crowding-out effects of government funding for health happen in low-income countries with a high HIV burden. In a survey, we investigated the hypothesis that domestic funding for TB control has fallen in 11 low-income, high-TB-burden countries in the context of changes in gross domestic product (GDP), development assistance inflows and national health expenditures. We found that despite rises in GDP per capita between 2003 and 2009, health expenditure as per cent of GDP fell or stayed the same for the majority of these countries. Although TB control budgets increased for all 11 countries in absolute terms, 6 countries reduced government contribution to TB control. For health programmes to become sustainable in the long run, we suggest increases in donor funding for health to be accompanied by requirements to increase domestic funding for health. We thereby attribute responsibility to avoid crowding-out effects to donors and governments alike. Moreover, it is the responsibility of both to ensure essential items to be funded by government sources to avoid a collapse of programmes once aid is withdrawn.

  9. 6-PACK programme to decrease fall injuries in acute hospitals: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Renata T; Wolfe, Rory; Brand, Caroline A; Haines, Terry P; Hill, Keith D; Brauer, Sandra G; Botti, Mari; Cumming, Robert G; Livingston, Patricia M; Sherrington, Catherine; Zavarsek, Silva; Lindley, Richard I; Kamar, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the 6-PACK programme on falls and fall injuries in acute wards. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Six Australian hospitals. Participants All patients admitted to 24 acute wards during the trial period. Interventions Participating wards were randomly assigned to receive either the nurse led 6-PACK programme or usual care over 12 months. The 6-PACK programme included a fall risk tool and individualised use of one or more of six interventions: “falls alert” sign, supervision of patients in the bathroom, ensuring patients’ walking aids are within reach, a toileting regimen, use of a low-low bed, and use of a bed/chair alarm. Main outcome measures The co-primary outcomes were falls and fall injuries per 1000 occupied bed days. Results During the trial, 46 245 admissions to 16 medical and eight surgical wards occurred. As many people were admitted more than once, this represented 31 411 individual patients. Patients’ characteristics and length of stay were similar for intervention and control wards. Use of 6-PACK programme components was higher on intervention wards than on control wards (incidence rate ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 2.14 to 4.34; P<0.001). In all, 1831 falls and 613 fall injuries occurred, and the rates of falls (incidence rate ratio 1.04, 0.78 to 1.37; P=0.796) and fall injuries (0.96, 0.72 to 1.27; P=0.766) were similar in intervention and control wards. Conclusions Positive changes in falls prevention practice occurred following the introduction of the 6-PACK programme. However, no difference was seen in falls or fall injuries between groups. High quality evidence showing the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in acute wards remains absent. Novel solutions to the problem of in-hospital falls are urgently needed. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000332921. PMID:26813674

  10. Process Evaluation of the Teacher Training for an AIDS Prevention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J.; Mathews, Catherine; Jansen, Shahieda; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Schaalma, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a process evaluation of a 6-day teacher training programme which forms part of a sexuality education project. The training aimed at providing teachers with the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively teach a 16-lesson Grade 8 (14 year olds) life skills curriculum consisting of participatory exercises on sexual…

  11. The programmable (logic) controller: Adapting in an environment of change

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Reports of the imminent death of the PLC (programmable logic controller) were greatly exaggerated, to paraphrase Mark Twain. In fact, the PLC is not only alive and working worldwide in thousands of applications, but it is also integrating well with related technologies. Long-term survival is a larger question - probably unanswerable given the pace of technological change. However, a few questions arise about the PLC today and in the immediate future: (1) What`s happening with programming languages? (2) Will there continue to be a {open_quotes}blurring of the lines{close_quotes} between the PLC and other technologies, and what role will software play in this integration? (3) How will the PLC`s cost and size affect the market?

  12. Improving immunization of programmable logic controllers using weighted median filters.

    PubMed

    Paredes, José L; Díaz, Dhionel

    2005-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of improving immunization of programmable logic controllers (PLC's) to electromagnetic interference with impulsive characteristics. A filtering structure, based on weighted median filters, that does not require additional hardware and can be implemented in legacy PLC's is proposed. The filtering operation is implemented in the binary domain and removes the impulsive noise presented in the discrete input adding thus robustness to PLC's. By modifying the sampling clock structure, two variants of the filter are obtained. Both structures exploit the cyclic nature of the PLC to form an N-sample observation window of the discrete input, hence a status change on it is determined by the filter output taking into account all the N samples avoiding thus that a single impulse affects the PLC functionality. A comparative study, based on a statistical analysis, of the different filters' performances is presented. PMID:15868861

  13. Development and testing of the Junkeeper Control Corporation integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Additional developmental work on the existing programmable electronic controller and hydronic package for use with solar heating and cooling systems is summarized. The controller/hydronics subsystems passed all acceptance tests and performance criteria. The subsystems were shown marketable for public use.

  14. Remote Control Laboratory Using EJS Applets and TwinCAT Programmable Logic Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besada-Portas, E.; Lopez-Orozco, J. A.; de la Torre, L.; de la Cruz, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology to develop remote laboratories for systems engineering and automation control courses, based on the combined use of TwinCAT, a laboratory Java server application, and Easy Java Simulations (EJS). The TwinCAT system is used to close the control loop for the selected plants by means of programmable logic…

  15. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme.

  16. Programmable light-controlled shape changes in layered polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhichen; Senses, Erkan; Akcora, Pinar; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A

    2012-04-24

    We present soft, layered nanocomposites that exhibit controlled swelling anisotropy and spatially specific shape reconfigurations in response to light irradiation. The use of gold nanoparticles grafted with a temperature-responsive polymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAM) with layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly allowed placement of plasmonic structures within specific regions in the film, while exposure to light caused localized material deswelling by a photothermal mechanism. By layering PNIPAM-grafted gold nanoparticles in between nonresponsive polymer stacks, we have achieved zero Poisson's ratio materials that exhibit reversible, light-induced unidirectional shape changes. In addition, we report rheological properties of these LbL assemblies in their equilibrium swollen states. Moreover, incorporation of dissimilar plasmonic nanostructures (solid gold nanoparticles and nanoshells) within different material strata enabled controlled shrinkage of specific regions of hydrogels at specific excitation wavelengths. The approach is applicable to a wide range of metal nanoparticles and temperature-responsive polymers and affords many advanced build-in options useful in optically manipulated functional devices, including precise control of plasmonic layer thickness, tunability of shape variations to the excitation wavelength, and programmable spatial control of optical response. PMID:22452351

  17. Programmable logic controller optical fibre sensor interface module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwood, Gary; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2011-12-01

    Most automated industrial processes use Distributed Control Systems (DCSs) or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for automated control. PLCs tend to be more common as they have much of the functionality of DCSs, although they are generally cheaper to install and maintain. PLCs in conjunction with a human machine interface form the basis of Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, combined with communication infrastructure and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). RTU's basically convert different sensor measurands in to digital data that is sent back to the PLC or supervisory system. Optical fibre sensors are becoming more common in industrial processes because of their many advantageous properties. Being small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and immune to electromagnetic interference, means they are an ideal solution for a variety of diverse sensing applications. Here, we have developed a PLC Optical Fibre Sensor Interface Module (OFSIM), in which an optical fibre is connected directly to the OFSIM located next to the PLC. The embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors, are highly sensitive and can detect a number of different measurands such as temperature, pressure and strain without the need for a power supply.

  18. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  19. Investigation of piloting aids for manual control of hypersonic maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Phillips, Michael R.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of piloting aids designed to provide precise maneuver control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is described. Stringent constraints and nonintuitive high-speed flight effects associated with maneuvering in the hypersonic regime raise the question of whether manual control of such a vehicle should even be considered. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of manual control that is desirable for a vehicle maneuvering in this regime and to identify the form of aids that must be supplied to the pilot to make such control feasible. A piloted real-time motion-based simulation of a hypersonic vehicle concept was used for this study, and the investigation focused on a single representative cruise turn maneuver. Piloting aids, which consisted of an auto throttle, throttle director, autopilot, flight director, and two head-up display configurations, were developed and evaluated. Two longitudinal control response types consisting of a rate-command/attitude-hold system and a load factor-rate/load-factor-hold system were also compared. The complete set of piloting aids, which consisted of the autothrottle, throttle director, and flight director, improved the average Cooper-Harper flying qualities ratings from 8 to 2.6, even though identical inner-loop stability and control augmentation was provided in all cases. The flight director was determined to be the most critical of these aids, and the cruise turn maneuver was unachievable to adequate performance specifications in the absence of this flight director.

  20. Aid programmes in eastern Europe. Can we learn from Third World experience?

    PubMed

    Maxwell, G

    1995-06-01

    This article opens for debate and discussion the topic of how health-care professionals in the UK can contribute to the improvement of health in developing countries and learn from the process. In 1994, the 50th anniversary of the Bretton Woods agreement which established the World Bank, British and European government aid agencies had substantial funds to support projects aimed at developing countries. Today, the challenges of working in developing countries to create a modern health infrastructure are being mimicked in the newly-independent countries of eastern Europe. Thus, lessons learned in developing countries can be applied to Europe, although huge challenges remain as do questions about the direction of aid programs, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The Western perception is that the provision of aid also provides ways for individuals to supplement their income through schemes that would be considered corrupt in the West. In order to draw useful conclusions from the African experience, it must first be recognized that the situation has improved recently and also that practices viewed as corrupt in the West may simply be the way of doing business in Third World countries. Justification for replacing commission-based systems of local aid with modern management techniques rests in the efficiency of the modern systems. It may be a form of neocolonialism simply to impose Western values on other cultures. The upcoming efforts in eastern Europe will also challenge heretofore unquestioned assumptions about the way we do things. The most pressing challenges will arise from the sheer magnitude of the need to provide health care in an atmosphere which engenders apathy towards inadequate services. We must learn from our successes and recognize that without our aid efforts, millions of people, particularly women and children, would have suffered and died.

  1. An educational programme on dengue fever prevention and control for females in Jeddah high schools.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N K; Abalkhail, B; Rady, M; Al-Bar, H

    2009-01-01

    A mass communication campaign was conducted at 20 randomly selected female high schools and 2 school supervision centres in Jeddah to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices of students, teachers and supervisors about dengue fever. A total of 5977 pre- and post-intervention questionnaires were completed and the intervention was conducted using lectures and audiovisual aids. A marked improvement in all areas of knowledge, attitudes and practices was observed after the programme in all groups. Students obtained the highest improvement in mean knowledge scores after the programme compared to the other 2 groups. There is a need to expand such programmes to all Jeddah schools.

  2. New Zealand's tobacco control programme 1985-1998

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, M.; Swinburn, B.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To review the impact of New Zealand's tobacco control programme from 1985 to 1998 on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, and to estimate the scope for further reduction.
DESIGN—Country case study; interventions, with outcomes ranked internationally across time.
SETTING—New Zealand 1985-98; for 1985-95, 23 OECD countries.
INTERVENTIONS—Between 1985 and 1998, New Zealand eliminated tobacco advertising, halved the affordability of cigarettes, and reduced smoke exposure in work time by 39%.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Reduction in adult smoking prevalence and in tobacco products consumption per adult.
RESULTS—Changes in prevalence 1985-98: in adults (aged 15+ years), −17% (from 30% to 25%) but short of the 20% target for 2000; in youth (aged 15-24 years), −20% (from 35% to 28%); and in Maori adults (aged 15+ years), −17% (from 56% in 1981 to 46% in 1996). Changes in consumption 1985-98: tobacco products per adult aged 15+ years, −45% (2493 to 1377 cigarette equivalents); cigarettes smoked per smoker, −34% (22.7 to 15.0 per day). Between 1985 and 1995 New Zealand reduced tobacco products consumption per adult more rapidly than any other OECD country, and reduced youth prevalence more rapidly than most. The acceleration of the decline in cigarette attributable mortality rates in men and in women age 35-69 years averted an additional 1400 deaths between 1985 and 1996. Between 1981 and 1996 smoking prevalence among blue collar workers decreased only marginally, and in 14-15 year olds, rose by one third between 1992 and 1997.
CONCLUSION—In 13 years, New Zealand's tobacco control programme has been successful in almost halving tobacco products consumption, particularly by lowering consumption per smoker. With strong political support for quit campaigns, increased taxation, and the elimination of displays of tobacco products on sale, the consumption could theoretically be halved again in as little as 3-6 years

  3. Using a geographical information system to plan a malaria control programme in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Booman, M.; Durrheim, D. N.; La Grange, K.; Martin, C.; Mabuza, A. M.; Zitha, A.; Mbokazi, F. M.; Fraser, C.; Sharp, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sustainable control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is jeopardized by dwindling public health resources resulting from competing health priorities that include an overwhelming acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. In Mpumalanga province, South Africa, rational planning has historically been hampered by a case surveillance system for malaria that only provided estimates of risk at the magisterial district level (a subdivision of a province). METHODS: To better map control programme activities to their geographical location, the malaria notification system was overhauled and a geographical information system implemented. The introduction of a simplified notification form used only for malaria and a carefully monitored notification system provided the good quality data necessary to support an effective geographical information system. RESULTS: The geographical information system displays data on malaria cases at a village or town level and has proved valuable in stratifying malaria risk within those magisterial districts at highest risk, Barberton and Nkomazi. The conspicuous west-to-east gradient, in which the risk rises sharply towards the Mozambican border (relative risk = 4.12, 95% confidence interval = 3.88-4.46 when the malaria risk within 5 km of the border was compared with the remaining areas in these two districts), allowed development of a targeted approach to control. DISCUSSION: The geographical information system for malaria was enormously valuable in enabling malaria risk at town and village level to be shown. Matching malaria control measures to specific strata of endemic malaria has provided the opportunity for more efficient malaria control in Mpumalanga province. PMID:11196490

  4. Tuberculosis control in people living with HIV/AIDS 1

    PubMed Central

    Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Lopes, Lívia Maria; Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Brunello, Maria Eugênia Firmino; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the offering of health actions and services for the control of tuberculosis for people living with HIV/AIDS being followed up in the Specialized Care Services for HIV/AIDS in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Method: quantitative, exploratory survey study. Participated 253 people living with HIV/AIDS followed up by this service, considering as inclusion criteria: individuals older than 18 years living in the city and not inmates. Data collection was conducted from January 2012 to May 2013 through interviews with the support of a specific instrument. Data were analyzed using indicators and a composite index. Results: the offering of services for the control of tuberculosis in people living with HIV/AIDS by municipal services was considered as intermediate, reinforcing the need for better planning for comprehensive assistance, coordination of professionals in teams and among the services network, in addition to professional training and continuing education. Conclusion: it is necessary to implement strategies that promote shared actions between TB and HIV / AIDS programs and between different services in order to strengthen the local care network, aimed at producing an individualized care, comprehensive and responsive. PMID:27627120

  5. Predicting Loss-of-Control Boundaries Toward a Piloting Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Jonathan; Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an approach to predicting loss-of-control with the goal of providing the pilot a decision aid focused on maintaining the pilot's control action within predicted loss-of-control boundaries. The predictive architecture combines quantitative loss-of-control boundaries, a data-based predictive control boundary estimation algorithm and an adaptive prediction method to estimate Markov model parameters in real-time. The data-based loss-of-control boundary estimation algorithm estimates the boundary of a safe set of control inputs that will keep the aircraft within the loss-of-control boundaries for a specified time horizon. The adaptive prediction model generates estimates of the system Markov Parameters, which are used by the data-based loss-of-control boundary estimation algorithm. The combined algorithm is applied to a nonlinear generic transport aircraft to illustrate the features of the architecture.

  6. From marginal to marginalised: The inclusion of men who have sex with men in global and national AIDS programmes and policy.

    PubMed

    McKay, Tara

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, gay men and other men who have sex with men (msm) have come to the fore of global policy debates about AIDS prevention. In stark contrast to programmes and policy during the first two decades of the epidemic, which largely excluded msm outside of the Western countries, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS now identifies gay men and other msm as 'marginalized but not marginal' to the global response. Drawing on archival data and five waves of United Nations Country Progress Reports on HIV/AIDS (2001-2012), this paper examines the productive power of international organisations in the development and diffusion of the msm category, and considers how international organisations have shaped the interpretation of msm in national policies and programmes. These data show that the increasing separation of sexual identity and sexual behaviour at the global level helped to construct notions of risk and disease that were sufficiently broad to accommodate the diverse interests of global policy-makers, activists, and governments. However, as various international and national actors have attempted to develop prevention programmes for msm, the failure of the msm category to map onto lived experience is increasingly apparent. PMID:26878655

  7. Role of delay and screening in controlling AIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Sudipa; Bhatia, Sumit Kaur; Gupta, Surbhi

    2016-06-01

    We propose a non-linear HIV/ AIDS model to analyse the spread and control of HIV/AIDS. The population is divided into three classes, susceptible, infective and AIDS patients. The model is developed under the assumptions of vertical transmission and time delay in infective class. Time delay is also included to show sexual maturity period of infected newborns. We study dynamics of the model and obtain the reproduction number. Now to control the epidemic, we study the model where aware infective class is also added, i.e., people are made aware of their medical status by way of screening. To make the model more realistic, we consider the situation where aware infective class also interacts with other people. The model is analysed qualitatively by stability theory of ODE. Stability analysis of both disease-free and endemic equilibrium is studied based on reproduction number. Also, it is proved that if (R0)1, R1 ≤ 1 then, disease free equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable and if (R0)1, R1 > 1 then, disease free equilibrium is unstable. Also, the stability analysis of endemic equilibrium point has been done and it is shown that for (R0)1 > 1 endemic equilibrium point is stable. Global stability analysis of endemic equilibrium point has also been done. At last, it is shown numerically that the delay in sexual maturity of infected individuals result in less number of AIDS patients.

  8. A model for HIV/AIDS pandemic with optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is pandemic. It has affected nearly 60 million people since the detection of the disease in 1981 to date. In this paper basic deterministic HIV/AIDS model with mass action incidence function are developed. Stability analysis is carried out. And the disease free equilibrium of the basic model was found to be locally asymptotically stable whenever the threshold parameter (RO) value is less than one, and unstable otherwise. The model is extended by introducing two optimal control strategies namely, CD4 counts and treatment for the infective using optimal control theory. Numerical simulation was carried out in order to illustrate the analytic results.

  9. Programmable logic controller implementation of an auto-tuned predictive control based on minimal plant information.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Palomo, G; Rossiter, J A

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes two key contributions. First, it tackles the issue of the availability of constrained predictive control for low-level control loops. Hence, it describes how the constrained control algorithm is embedded in an industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) using the IEC 61131-3 programming standard. Second, there is a definition and implementation of a novel auto-tuned predictive controller; the key novelty is that the modelling is based on relatively crude but pragmatic plant information. Laboratory experiment tests were carried out in two bench-scale laboratory systems to prove the effectiveness of the combined algorithm and hardware solution. For completeness, the results are compared with a commercial proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller (also embedded in the PLC) using the most up to date auto-tuning rules.

  10. The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control

    PubMed Central

    Biesma, Regien G; Brugha, Ruairí; Harmer, Andrew; Walsh, Aisling; Spicer, Neil; Walt, Gill

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews country-level evidence about the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs), which have had profound effects on recipient country health systems in middle and low income countries. We have selected three initiatives that account for an estimated two-thirds of external funding earmarked for HIV/AIDS control in resource-poor countries: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Program (MAP) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper draws on 31 original country-specific and cross-country articles and reports, based on country-level fieldwork conducted between 2002 and 2007. Positive effects have included a rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery, greater stakeholder participation, and channelling of funds to non-governmental stakeholders, mainly NGOs and faith-based bodies. Negative effects include distortion of recipient countries’ national policies, notably through distracting governments from coordinated efforts to strengthen health systems and re-verticalization of planning, management and monitoring and evaluation systems. Sub-national and district studies are needed to assess the degree to which GHIs are learning to align with and build the capacities of countries to respond to HIV/AIDS; whether marginalized populations access and benefit from GHI-funded programmes; and about the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability of the HIV and AIDS programmes funded by the GHIs. Three multi-country sets of evaluations, which will be reporting in 2009, will answer some of these questions. PMID:19491291

  11. What do we really know about AIDS control?

    PubMed Central

    Judson, F N

    1989-01-01

    For the near term, control of the AIDS epidemic depends entirely upon altering the human behavior which results in HIV transmission. How best to achieve the required changes has been controversial with approaches ranging from education/information only, to a vast array of largely unproven voluntary behavior modification techniques, to mandatory testing and restrictive measures. Given the complexity of human behavior and the reality of a still uncontrolled epidemic, at least among poor urban drug using minorities, there is a legitimate role for most approaches and any promising behavior modification strategy deserves evaluation. However, because voluntarism will not work for some individuals, society still must choose between effective public health law--including restrictive measures--now, and a much larger reservoir of HIV infection and more deaths from AIDS for many generations to come. PMID:2660605

  12. Effects on condom use of an HIV prevention programme 36 months postintervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial among Bahamian youth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X; Stanton, B; Gomez, P; Lunn, S; Deveaux, L; Brathwaite, N; Li, X; Marshall, S; Cottrell, L; Harris, C

    2010-01-01

    Summary Data are lacking on long-term effects of HIV behavioural intervention programmes. In this study, we report intervention effects 36 months postintervention on condom use and relevant outcome variables from the theory-based programme ‘Focus on Youth in the Caribbean’ (FOYC). Participants (1360 sixth-grade youth) were randomized by school into: (1) FOYC, plus one of two brief parent interventions or (2) the control condition ‘Wondrous Wetlands’, plus a brief parent intervention. Mixed effect analysis demonstrated significant programme effects, including enhanced HIV/AIDS knowledge (effect size D = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43, 0.46), increased self-efficacy of (D = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.54), skills for (D = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.64) and intention to use a condom (D = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.37). Youth who received FOYC plus the parental monitoring intervention had higher condom use rates (odds ratio = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.97, 2.28). Feedback effects from key variables were also detected, supporting the sustained effect. PMID:21097734

  13. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  14. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  15. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  16. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  17. National programme of official control of animal feedingstuffs under surveillance of veterinary inspection in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, K

    2004-01-01

    Poland as a new EC country is obliged in agree with Directive 95/53/EC to drawn up one, coherent and coordinated national programme of official inspection, irrespective of the organisational structure, and the number of inspection authorities in a country. Taking these facts into account the author has worked out the Polish National Programme of an official control conducted by the Veterinary Inspection in the field of animal feedingstuffs sector in Poland. The objective of the programme is to lay down the substantive scope of official inspections and laboratory control testing of animal feedingstuffs, appropriate for the surveillance exercised by the Veterinary Inspection. The programme is under implementation process which has begun in 2004. PMID:15478870

  18. Malaria control through municipalities in the Philippines: struggling with the mandate of decentralized health programme management.

    PubMed

    Espino, Fe; Beltran, Maylene; Carisma, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This is a study on the management of the decentralized malaria control programme in Maharlika, Lipunan, a municipality in rural Philippines. The theoretical assumption is that the malaria control programme must be viewed as a system and that success of reform in malaria control depends upon the understanding of management issues by municipal officials. Through interviews, and documents and archival reviews, a framework for describing the dynamics of municipal management of the malaria control programme was developed. The overall finding was that the administrative management system was not functioning optimally: (a) planning and budgeting systems are not helpful; (b) malaria data do not inform planning; and (c) local financial resources are not utilized for malaria control. The underlying causes were: the absence of a clear statement from national offices regarding decentralization of health services, and the management processes, as stipulated in the Local Government Code, were not responsive to the needs of the municipality.

  19. Community involvement in tuberculosis control: lessons from other health care programmes.

    PubMed

    Hadley, M; Maher, D

    2000-05-01

    Decentralising tuberculosis control measures beyond health facilities by harnessing the contribution of the community could increase access to effective tuberculosis care. This review of community-based health care initiatives in developing countries gives examples of the lessons for community contribution to tuberculosis control learned from health care programmes. Sources of information were Medline and Popline databases and discussions with community health experts. Barriers to success in tuberculosis control stem from biomedical, social and political factors. Lessons are relevant to the issues of limited awareness of tuberculosis and the benefits of treatment, stigma, restricted access to drugs, case-finding and motivation to continue treatment. The experience of other programmes suggests potential for an expansion of both formal and informal community involvement in tuberculosis control. Informal community involvement includes delivery of messages to encourage tuberculosis suspects to come forward for treatment and established tuberculosis patients to continue treatment. A wide range of community members provide psychological and logistic support to patients to complete their treatment. Lessons from formal community involvement indicate that programmes should focus on ensuring that treatment is accessible. This activity could be combined with a variety of complementary activities: disseminating messages to increase awareness and promote adherence, tracing patients who interrupt treatment, recognising adverse effects, and case detection. Programmes should generally take heed of existing political and cultural structures in planning community-based tuberculosis control programmes. Political support, the support of health professionals and the community are vital, and planning must involve or stem from the patients themselves.

  20. Evolution of HIV and AIDS Programmes in an African Institution of Higher Learning: The Case of the Copperbelt University in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Sanjobo, Nawa; Lukwesa, Matilda; Kaziya, Charity; Tepa, Cornwell; Puta, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Universities present the foundation for socio-economic and political development. Without structures and processes to fight HIV, there is no prospect of enhancing treatment, prevention, care and support services. Copperbelt University HIV and AIDS response was initiated in 2003 with the aim of building capacity of students and employees in HIV and AIDS. Objectives: The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the CBU HIV response has evolved over time and provide a timeline of important milestones in the development process. Method: Peer educators and counsellors conduct sensitization campaigns through one on one discussion, workshops, and drama performances, distribution of Information, Education and Communication (IEC) materials. Results: HIV Programme has been set up with players from policy, programme and community levels. Strategic processes, collaborations, funding, medical insurance schemes, prevention, treatment, care and support services, training of peer educators and counsellors have been established. Conclusion: Copperbelt University HIV initiative has demonstrated potential to reduce new infections in the university, and is currently expanding her programme to encompass wellness and also spearhead the integration of HIV in the university curriculum. PMID:27347269

  1. Perceived Effects of the Malaysian National Tobacco Control Programme on Adolescent Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hizlinda, Tohid; Noriah, Mohd Ishak; Noor Azimah, Muhammad; Farah Naaz, Momtaz Ahmad; Anis Ezdiana, Abdul Aziz; Khairani, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined. Methods: Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed. Results: The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation. Conclusion: Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking. PMID

  2. Installation package for integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronic subsystem - solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic solar pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in solar energy management, control and monitoring, lighting control, data logging and other solar related applications.

  3. The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of extended life attitude control system (ELACS) research sponsored by NASA a hybrid programable attitude control electronics (HYPACE) concept was developed and demonstrated. The wide variety of future planetary missions demanded a new control approach to accommodate the automatic fault tolerance and long the life requirements of such missions. HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, and spacecraft changes, through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost effective manner. Previously, flight control computers have not been not flown on planetary missions because of weight and power problems. These problems were resolved in the design of HYPACE. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs.

  4. Application of programmable logic controllers to space simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sushon, Janet

    1992-01-01

    Incorporating a state-of-the-art process control and instrumentation system into a complex system for thermal vacuum testing is discussed. The challenge was to connect several independent control systems provided by various vendors to a supervisory computer. This combination will sequentially control and monitor the process, collect the data, and transmit it to color a graphic system for subsequent manipulation. The vacuum system upgrade included: replacement of seventeen diffusion pumps with eight cryogenic pumps and one turbomolecular pump, replacing a relay based control system, replacing vacuum instrumentation, and upgrading the data acquisition system.

  5. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-B personnel safety and interlocks system

    SciTech Connect

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-11-29

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the field-side of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-B Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software.

  6. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Taotao-Wini, Betty; Satorara, Lorraine; Engelman, Daniel; Nasi, Titus; Mabey, David C.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections. Methods We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo. Results Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less. Discussion We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts. PMID:26624616

  7. Guide to Planning Health Promotion for AIDS Prevention and Control. WHO AIDS Series 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide is intended to provide planners, managers, and technical staff with guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) health promotion program. As such, it can be used in the development of a detailed AIDS health promotion action plan. The guide reviews the steps, processes,…

  8. Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Coker, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed concern over the sustainability of disease control programmes, and re-emergence of policy recommendations to integrate programmes with general health systems. However, the conceptualization of this issue has remarkably received little critical attention. Additionally, the study of programmatic sustainability presents methodological challenges. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework to support analyses of sustainability of communicable disease programmes. Through this work, we also aim to clarify a link between notions of integration and sustainability. As a part of development of the conceptual framework, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature on concepts, definitions, analytical approaches and empirical studies on sustainability in health systems. Identified conceptual proposals for analysis of sustainability in health systems lack an explicit conceptualization of what a health system is. Drawing upon theoretical concepts originating in sustainability sciences and our review here, we conceptualize a communicable disease programme as a component of a health system which is viewed as a complex adaptive system. We propose five programmatic characteristics that may explain a potential for sustainability: leadership, capacity, interactions (notions of integration), flexibility/adaptability and performance. Though integration of elements of a programme with other system components is important, its role in sustainability is context specific and difficult to predict. The proposed framework might serve as a basis for further empirical evaluations in understanding complex interplay between programmes and broader health systems in the development of sustainable responses to communicable diseases.

  9. Are Rural Women Powerless When it Comes to HIV & AIDS Risk? Implications for Adult Education Programmes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Castle, Jane

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for fresh approaches to HIV & AIDS education for adults and youth in South Africa, particularly for those marginalised by society, such as rural black women. In this article we explore the factors which affect awareness, condom use and HIV & AIDS risk among a group of women who attend classes in a rural Adult Education…

  10. Programmable energy landscapes for kinetic control of DNA strand displacement.

    PubMed

    Machinek, Robert R F; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Haley, Natalie E C; Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2014-11-10

    DNA is used to construct synthetic systems that sense, actuate, move and compute. The operation of many dynamic DNA devices depends on toehold-mediated strand displacement, by which one DNA strand displaces another from a duplex. Kinetic control of strand displacement is particularly important in autonomous molecular machinery and molecular computation, in which non-equilibrium systems are controlled through rates of competing processes. Here, we introduce a new method based on the creation of mismatched base pairs as kinetic barriers to strand displacement. Reaction rate constants can be tuned across three orders of magnitude by altering the position of such a defect without significantly changing the stabilities of reactants or products. By modelling reaction free-energy landscapes, we explore the mechanistic basis of this control mechanism. We also demonstrate that oxDNA, a coarse-grained model of DNA, is capable of accurately predicting and explaining the impact of mismatches on displacement kinetics.

  11. Politics of the birth control programme in India.

    PubMed

    Gill, S S

    1988-03-01

    The myth that projects population control as the cure-all for all social and economic problems has a class bias. The emphasis of planners on population control is an attempt to weaken the class struggle in India by absolving the exploiters of the responsibility for perpetuating inequalities and shifting the blame from the capitalist order to the people. 2 major issues in the family planning program are considered: 1) that overpopulation is a major cause of poverty; and 2) that persuading people to accept the small family norm is the only way that population growth may be controlled. The socio-political content of these issues are examined, and it is emphatically suggested that eradication of poverty and unemployment as well as guarantees against insecurity, sickness, and the death of children must be demanded as a prerequisite for accepting the small family norm.

  12. Individual software plan for the programmable logic controller

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R

    1997-07-28

    This document defines the software quality assurance plan (SQAP) as it shall be applied to the development of the monitor and control system for the Integrated Corrosion Facility (ICF). The purpose of this SQA plan is to provide guidance to the development team in software quality and associated documentation.

  13. Efficacy of an infection control programme in reducing nosocomial bloodstream infections in a Senegalese neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Landre-Peigne, C; Ka, A S; Peigne, V; Bougere, J; Seye, M N; Imbert, P

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal nosocomial infections are public health threats in the developing world, and successful interventions are rarely reported. A before-and-after study was conducted in the neonatal unit of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal to assess the efficacy of a multi-faceted hospital infection control programme implemented from March to May 2005. The interventions included clustering of nursing care, a simple algorithm for empirical therapy of suspected early-onset sepsis, minimal invasive care and promotion of early discharge of neonates. Data on nosocomial bloodstream infections, mortality, bacterial resistance and antibiotic use were collected before and after implementation of the infection control programme. One hundred and twenty-five infants were admitted immediately before the programme (Period 1, January-February 2005) and 148 infants were admitted immediately after the programme (Period 2, June-July 2005). The two groups of infants were comparable in terms of reason for admission and birth weight. After implementation of the infection control programme, the overall rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections decreased from 8.8% to 2.0% (P=0.01), and the rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections/patient-day decreased from 10.9 to 2.9/1000 patient-days (P=0.03). Overall mortality rates did not differ significantly. The proportion of neonates who received antimicrobial therapy for suspected early-onset sepsis decreased significantly from 100% to 51% of at-risk infants (P<0.001). The incidence of drug-resistant bacteria was significantly lower after implementation of the programme (79% vs 12%; P<0.001), and remained low one year later. In this neonatal unit, simple, low-cost and sustainable interventions led to the control of a high incidence of bacterial nosocomial bloodstream infections, and the efficacy of these interventions was long-lasting. Such interventions could be extended to other low-income countries.

  14. Effects of a Worksite Weight-Control Programme in Obese Male Workers: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of a new worksite weight-control programme designed for men with or at risk of obesity using a combination of nutrition education and nutrition environmental interventions. Subjects and methods: Male workers with or at risk of obesity were recruited for this…

  15. Role of women in prevention and control of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ram, E P; Singh, A C

    1991-04-01

    Women in India and AIDS prevention and control are discussed in terms of vulnerability, victimization, required knowledge, reproductive impact, care and prevention after birth, and the demands of the prevailing situation. A WHO world estimate is that 3 million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV out of 8-10 million. Indian women are vulnerable because of their reduced status and lack of power in private and marital life. Also, pregnant women receive blood transfusions, which may be inadequately screened, for anemia. The use of oral contraceptives with estrogen reduces immunity. The use of IUDs may cause inflammation or injury which provides a point of entry for HIV into the bloodstream. Prostitution is an outlet for lack of money, education, and skills, and places women at risk. The transmission from men to women is higher than the reverse. Every women should know their risks and modes of transmission. Women need to know that the risk of fetal infection from an HIV-positive mother is 20-40%, and that the risk is highest if HIV infection occurs or AIDS symptoms occur during pregnancy. Infant mortality from HIV may occur within the 1st several years. The following needs to be understood about reproduction and HIV: the risk of infection is very high when impregnated by an HIV male partner, and if children are desired, artificial insemination should be the preferred method. The reverse holds true, because penetrative sex without a condom allows transmission of the virus. The best option is for avoidance of childbearing if a partner has HIV. Abortion should be provided. Women need to develop the skills in language and confidence to negotiate safer sex, should be particular about choosing a loyal partner, and protect themselves by urging male condom use. The mode of transmission to babies is not from cuddling or handling. Breast feeding carries a meager risk of transmission, and should be continued if HIV infection occurs; the baby should be immunized. All

  16. Neglected tropical disease control in post-war Sierra Leone using the Onchocerciasis Control Programme as a platform.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary E; Koroma, Joseph B; Sonnie, Mustapha; Kennedy, Ngozi; Cotter, Emily; Macarthur, Chad

    2011-06-01

    Strategic investments in the control of neglected tropical diseases (NTD) spearheaded by the US Government, the British Government and other bilateral donors such as foundations and key pharmaceutical partners have enabled the treatment of millions of people for the five targeted debilitating diseases (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and trachoma), paving the way for the potential elimination as public health problems of some of these diseases. Like many other countries, Sierra Leone has a high burden of these major NTDs. Despite the fragile infrastructure of a health system emerging from a devastating 10-year civil war, the country has successfully implemented the National NTD Control Programme, reaching national coverage in 2010. The NTD Control Programme uses the existing Onchocerciasis Control Programme as a platform and involves primary health workers. The programme has provided extensive training opportunities to health workers at national, district and community levels. The country currently has 31 161 trained community volunteers treating a population of five million people. It is shown that the investments in NTD control are not only to control NTDs but also to strengthen health systems, particularly at the primary level, through extensive capacity building of frontline health workers and community-directed distributors. PMID:24038179

  17. Costs of diarrhoeal diseases and the savings from a control programme in Cebu, Philippines.

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, B. C.; Sullesta, E.; Pieche, S.; Lambo, N.

    1993-01-01

    A control of diarrhoeal diseases programme was set up in Cebu Province, Philippines, in 1986. In order to compare the reduction in treatment costs before and after implementation of the programme, and the potential savings to be made from its continuation, we collected data for 1985 and 1989 in 10 health facilities in Cebu. Since the programme's introduction, household expenditures on drugs for diarrhoea cases have decreased by a total of 1.03 million Philippine pesos (P) (US$ 41,200). At the health centre level, the costs of treating diarrhoea cases were close to optimum, but in the district hospitals treatment of inpatients with diarrhoea changed little between 1985 and 1989. This arose because such hospitals were compensated by the central authorities for inpatients but not for outpatients. Potential savings of around US$ 60,000 could have been made, however, had the district hospitals adopted the practices used in the main referral hospital. PMID:8261561

  18. Programmes to control or eradicate Salmonella in animal production in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Flensburg, J

    1999-01-01

    The number of diagnosed cases of salmonella infections in humans has been increasing during the latest 10 years, for the last 5 years mainly because of an increase in infections with Salmonella Enteritidis. As far as Danish produced animal products is concerned, it is assumed that the most important sources of human salmonella infections are, in order of priority: eggs, poultry meat and pork. In Denmark there are at the moment public and voluntary salmonella pre-harvest reduction programmes in the production of pigs, broilers and eggs. The programme in the pig production is a control programme, that means that the aim is to maintain a generally low level of salmonella in pig herds. At the same time the goal of a low level of salmonella contamination of pork is also pursued through general and specific hygiene measures in the slaughterhouses. The programmes in the poultry production are limited to broilers and hens eggs. They are, at least in theory, eradication programmes where the aim is total freedom from salmonella. According to the rules of Council Directive 92/117/EEC, flocks of hens producing eggs for hatching must be free from Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium, whereas according to the Danish national requirements (Veterinary Service Orders to come into effect shortly), these two salmonella serotypes must be eradicated from flocks of hens producing eggs for sale to consumers and all salmonella serotypes must be eradicated from flocks of hens producing eggs for hatching. PMID:10783730

  19. Compliance with anthelmintic treatment in the neglected tropical diseases control programmes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shuford, Kathryn V; Turner, Hugo C; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-01

    Preventive chemotherapy (PCT) programmes are used to control five of the highest burden neglected tropical diseases (NTDs): soil-transmitted helminth infections (hookworm, ascariasis, and trichuriasis), lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and trachoma. Over the past decade, new resource commitments for the NTDs have enabled such programmes to intensify their control efforts, and for some diseases, to shift from goals of morbidity control to the interruption of transmission and elimination. To successfully eliminate the parasite reservoir, these programmes will undoubtedly require prolonged, high treatment coverage. However, it is important to consider that even when coverage levels reach an acceptable proportion of the target population, there may be a considerable gap between coverage (those who receive the drug) and compliance (those who actually consume the drug)-a topic of fundamental and perhaps underestimated importance. We conducted a systematic review of published literature that investigated compliance to PCT programmes for NTD control and elimination. Databases searched included PubMed/Medline, Web of Knowledge (including Web of Science), OVID, and Scopus. Data were collected on compliance rates, reasons for non-compliance, as well as the heterogeneity of compliance definitions and calculations across programmes and studies. A total of 112 studies were selected for inclusion. The findings of the review revealed substantial heterogeneity across compliance terms and definitions; an imbalance of available studies for particular disease areas and countries; and finally, a lack of longitudinal compliance studies to properly investigate the role of systematic non-compliance. The lack of consistency among reporting of compliance data can result in under- or over-estimating compliance in a population, and therefore has serious implications for setting and reaching elimination targets. Reframing of the guidelines on compliance definitions

  20. Factors affecting defaulting from DOTS therapy under the national programme of tuberculosis control in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Din, M Nour; Elhoseeny, T; Mohsen, A M M A

    2013-02-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to identify factors affecting default from therapy under the national programme of TB control in Alexandria, Egypt. Record reviews and structured interviews were made with 57 defaulters and 187 randomly selected controls. Univariate analysis showed 13 out of 54 factors, investigated were significantly associated with defaulting and, after stepwise logistic regression, 5 factors remained in the model: younger age (adjusted OR = 0.16), rural area of residence (OR = 12.9), long waiting times (OR = 5.81), poor physician-patient communication (OR = 3.06) and fear of information leakage (OR = 3.62). Reasons cited by defaulters included long distance to the clinic, unsuitable clinic times and long waiting times. The main factors associated with defaulting from the national programme of TB control in Alexandria, Egypt were service-related factors, which are amenable to improvement.

  1. System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

  2. Setting Research Priorities for HIV/AIDS-related research in a post-graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme scientific workshop

    PubMed Central

    Poggensee, Gabriele; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick Mboya; Fawole, Olufunmilayo Ibitola; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria the current prevalence of HIV is 4.1% with over 3.5 million infected and estimated 1.5 million in need of anti-retroviral treatment. Epidemiological and implementation studies are necessary for monitoring and evaluation of interventions. To define research areas which can be addressed by participants of the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Training Programme (NFELTP) a workshop was held in April 2013 in Abuja, Nigeria. Priority research areas were identified using criteria lists for ranking of the relevance of research questions. Based on a research matrix, NFELTP residents developed the aims and objectives, study design for HIV-related research proposals. This workshop was the first workshop held by the NFELTP to establish an inventory of research questions which can be addressed by the residents within their training period. This inventory will help to increase HIV/AIDS-related activities of NFELTP which are in accordance with research needs in Nigeria and PEPFAR objectives. PMID:25426209

  3. A Programmer-Interpreter Neural Network Architecture for Prefrontal Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Francesco; Prevete, Roberto; Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    There is wide consensus that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is able to exert cognitive control on behavior by biasing processing toward task-relevant information and by modulating response selection. This idea is typically framed in terms of top-down influences within a cortical control hierarchy, where prefrontal-basal ganglia loops gate multiple input-output channels, which in turn can activate or sequence motor primitives expressed in (pre-)motor cortices. Here we advance a new hypothesis, based on the notion of programmability and an interpreter-programmer computational scheme, on how the PFC can flexibly bias the selection of sensorimotor patterns depending on internal goal and task contexts. In this approach, multiple elementary behaviors representing motor primitives are expressed by a single multi-purpose neural network, which is seen as a reusable area of "recycled" neurons (interpreter). The PFC thus acts as a "programmer" that, without modifying the network connectivity, feeds the interpreter networks with specific input parameters encoding the programs (corresponding to network structures) to be interpreted by the (pre-)motor areas. Our architecture is validated in a standard test for executive function: the 1-2-AX task. Our results show that this computational framework provides a robust, scalable and flexible scheme that can be iterated at different hierarchical layers, supporting the realization of multiple goals. We discuss the plausibility of the "programmer-interpreter" scheme to explain the functioning of prefrontal-(pre)motor cortical hierarchies. PMID:25986752

  4. The achievements and challenges of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC).

    PubMed

    Sékétéli, A; Adeoye, G; Eyamba, A; Nnoruka, E; Drameh, P; Amazigo, U V; Noma, M; Agboton, F; Aholou, Y; Kale, O O; Dadzie, K Y

    2002-03-01

    The main strategy of APOC, of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), has enabled the programme to reach, empower and bring relief to remote and under-served, onchocerciasis-endemic communities. With CDTI, geographical and therapeutic coverages have increased substantially, in most areas, to the levels required to eliminate onchocerciasis as a public-health problem. Over 20 million people received treatment in 2000. APOC has also made effective use of the combination of the rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO) and geographical information systems (GIS), to provide information on the geographical distribution and prevalence of the disease. This has led to improvements in the identification of CDTI-priority areas, and in the estimates of the numbers of people to be treated. A unique public-private-sector partnership has been at the heart of APOC's relative success. Through efficient capacity-building, the programme's operations have positively influenced and strengthened the health services of participating countries. These laudable achievements notwithstanding, APOC faces many challenges during the second phase of its operations, when the full impact of the programme is expected to be felt. Notable among these challenges are the sustainability of CDTI, the strategy's effective integration into the healthcare system, and the full exploitation of its potential as an entry point for other health programmes. The channels created for CDTI, could, for example, help efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (which will feature on the agenda of many participating countries during APOC's Phase 2). However, these other programmes need to be executed without compromising the onchocerciasis-control programme itself. Success in meeting these challenges will depend on the continued, wholehearted commitment of all the partners involved, particularly that of the governments of the participating countries. PMID:12081247

  5. Control of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease: results of a control programme in Satipo Province, Peru.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Arlt, Doris; Garcia, Luis Miguel Leon; Rosales, Milena; de Jesus Sanchez, Juan; Alvarez, Eugenia; Lonlas, Sylvaine; Conte, Mado; Bertoletti, Guillermo; Fournier, Christophe; Huari, Roberto; Torreele, Els; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2005-09-01

    Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is an important health problem in many rural areas of Latin America, but there are few data on the results of programmatic approaches to control the disease. We report the results of a control programme in San Martin de Pangoa District, which reports one of the highest prevalences of MCL in Peru. For 2 years (2001--2002), the technicians at the health post were trained in patient case management, received medical support and were supplied with antimonials. An evaluation after 2 years showed the following main achievements: better diagnosis of patients, who were confirmed by microscopy in 34% (82/240) of the cases in 2001 and 60% of the cases (153/254) in 2002; improved follow-up during treatment: 237 of 263 (90%) patients who initiated an antimonial therapy ended the full treatment course; improved follow-up after treatment: 143 of 237 (60%) patients who ended their full treatment were correctly monitored during the required period of 6 (cutaneous cases) or 12 (mucosal cases) months after the end of treatment. These achievements were largely due to the human and logistical resources made available, the constant availability of medications and the close collaboration between the Ministry of Health, a national research institute and an international non-governmental organization. At the end of this period, the health authorities decided to register a generic brand of sodium stibogluconate, which is now in use. This should allow the treatment of a significant number of additional patients, while saving money to invest in other facets of the case management. PMID:16135192

  6. A digital control system of brushless DC motor based on programmable logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianke; Liu, Gang; Fang, Jiancheng

    2006-11-01

    A digital control system of brushless DC motor based on programmable Logic Device GAL16V8 and DSP is researched, and the principle and every element of the control system such as DSP2407,Logic handling segment, power driving circuit are analyzed. Compared with the software communication of BLDCM based on DSP, the control system has fast dynamic response, high reliability. The experimental result shows that the system has satisfied the spacecraft's demands on the BLDCM driving flywheel. In the end, the problem exited in the control system is analyzed on theory.

  7. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-1991 were approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control... for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.317 Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical...

  8. A systematic review of missed opportunities for improving tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS control in Sub-saharan Africa: what is still missed by health experts?

    PubMed

    Keugoung, Basile; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fotsing, Richard; Macq, Jean; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis are major public health problems. In 2010, 64% of the 34 million of people infected with HIV were reported to be living in sub-Saharan Africa. Only 41% of eligible HIV-positive people had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Regarding tuberculosis, in 2010, the region had 12% of the world's population but reported 26% of the 8.8 million incident cases and 254000 tuberculosis-related deaths. This paper aims to review missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis prevention and care. We conducted a systematic review in PubMed using the terms 'missed'(Title) AND 'opportunities'(Title). We included systematic review and original research articles done in sub-Saharan Africa on missed opportunities in HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care. Missed opportunities for improving HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis care can be classified into five categories: i) patient and community; ii) health professional; iii) health facility; iv) local health system; and v) vertical programme (HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis control programmes). None of the reviewed studies identified any missed opportunities related to health system strengthening. Opportunities that are missed hamper tuberculosis and/or HIV/AIDS care in sub-Saharan Africa where health systems remain weak. What is still missing in the analysis of health experts is the acknowledgement that opportunities that are missed to strengthen health systems also undermine tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and care. Studying why these opportunities are missed will help to understand the rationales behind the missed opportunities, and customize adequate strategies to seize them and for effective diseases control.

  9. The Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS School-Based Sexual Health Education Programmes in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaugo, Lucky Gospel; Papadopoulos, Chris; Ochieng, Bertha M. N.; Ali, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the most important public health challenges facing Nigeria today. Recent evidence has revealed that the adolescent population make up a large proportion of the 3.7% reported prevalence rate among Nigerians aged 15-49 years. School-based sexual health education has therefore become an important tool towards fighting this problem.…

  10. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  11. Private Practitioners’ Perspectives on Their Involvement With the Tuberculosis Control Programme in a Southern Indian State

    PubMed Central

    Salve, Solomon; Sheikh, Kabir; Porter, John DH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public and private health sectors both play a crucial role in the health systems of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The tuberculosis (TB) control strategy in India encourages the public sector to actively partner with private practitioners (PPs) to improve the quality of front line service delivery. However, ensuring effective and sustainable involvement of PPs constitutes a major challenge. This paper reports the findings from an empirical study focusing on the perspectives and experiences of PPs towards their involvement in TB control programme in India. Methods: The study was carried out between November 2010 and December 2011 in a district of a Southern Indian State and utilised qualitative methodologies, combining observations and in-depth interviews with 21 PPs from different medical systems. The collected data was coded and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: PPs perceived themselves to be crucial healthcare providers, with different roles within the public-private mix (PPM) TB policy. Despite this, PPs felt neglected and undervalued in the actual process of implementation of the PPM-TB policy. The entire process was considered to be government driven and their professional skills and knowledge of different medical systems remained unrecognised at the policy level, and weakened their relationship and bond with the policy and with the programme. PPs had contrasting perceptions about the different components of the TB programme that demonstrated the public sector’s dominance in the overall implementation of the DOTS strategy. Although PPs felt responsible for their TB patients, they found it difficult to perceive themselves as ‘partners with the TB programme.’ Conclusion: Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasingly utilized as a public health strategy to strengthen health systems. These policies will fail if the concerns of the PPs are neglected. To ensure their long-term involvement in the programme the abilities of

  12. Safety measures associated with the use of organophosphate insecticides in the Haitian malaria control programme*

    PubMed Central

    Warren, McWilson; Ruebush, Trenton K.; Hobbs, Jesse H.; Hippolyte, Robert; Miller, Steve

    1985-01-01

    A programme emphasizing intensive training, use of protective equipment and uniforms, daily supervision of safety measures at work, and weekly monitoring of blood cholinesterase levels by the tintometric method was instituted to prevent toxicity in Haitian malaria workers during spraying with the organophosphate insecticides fenitrothion and malathion. The programme functioned well, depressed cholinesterase activity (≤ 50% of normal) being detected rapidly prior to the development of serious symptoms. Evidence of fenitrothion overexposure appeared in spraymen early in the first spray cycle, and was associated with faulty protective clothing and a failure to observe strictly the recommended safety measures at work. After these deficiencies were corrected, insecticide application continued without serious incidents or interruption of the programme. No serious reduction of cholinesterase activity was seen in a more limited study of spraymen using malathion. It is strongly recommended that similar training and monitoring programmes should be instituted whenever organophosphate pesticides are used as residual sprays for malaria control. This is particularly important in areas where the more toxic compound, fenitrothion, is to be used. PMID:3874715

  13. A time series analysis of the rabies control programme in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, S. N.; Fabrega, F.

    1989-01-01

    The classical time series decomposition method was used to compare the temporal pattern of rabies in Chile before and after the implementation of the control programme. In the years 1950-60, a period without control measures, rabies showed an increasing trend, a seasonal excess of cases in November and December and a cyclic behaviour with outbreaks occurring every 5 years. During 1961-1970 and 1971-86, a 26-year period that includes two different phases of the rabies programme which started in 1961, there was a general decline in the incidence of rabies. The seasonality disappeared when the disease reached a low frequency level and the cyclical component was not evident. PMID:2606167

  14. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper. PMID:16124702

  15. Automation of reciprocating gas engine compressor packages using programmable logic controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, W. )

    1990-09-01

    An approach taken to automate gas/engine compressor skid-mounted packages is described. The approach includes design criteria with special considerations relating to the application of programmable logic controllers (PLC's). Using typical industry standard specifications along with I/O lists, sequence narratives, and logic diagrams, the PLC's may be programmed to perform the desired operation. The added capabilities of the PLC enhance simulation, checkout, and startup.

  16. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  17. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  18. Visibility aids for pedestrians and cyclists: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Irene; Mapstone, James

    2004-05-01

    This study aims to quantify the effect of visibility aids on the occurrence of pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries, and drivers' responses in detection and recognition. Trial reports were systematically reviewed according to predefined eligibility criteria, including randomised controlled trials or controlled before-and-after trials comparing visibility aids and no visibility aids, and of different visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist safety, and drivers' responses in detection and recognition. This included trials in which the order of interventions was randomised, or balanced using a Latin square design. Two reviewers independently assessed validity of trials and abstracted data. The main outcome measures were pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries, and drivers'/observers' responses in the detection and recognition time, distance and frequency. No trials which assessed the effect of visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist-motor vehicle collisions and injuries were identified. Twelve trials examined the effectiveness of daytime visibility aids and 25 trials on night time visibility aids, including 882 participants. Drivers' and observers' detection and recognition improved with visibility aids. For daytime, fluorescent materials in yellow, red and orange colours enhanced detection and recognition. "Biomotion" markings enhanced recognition. Substantial heterogeneity between the trials limits the possibility for meta-analysis. Visibility aids have the potential to improve detection and recognition and would merit further development to gain public acceptance. However, the impact of visibility aids on pedestrian and cyclist safety is unknown and needs to be determined. PMID:15003574

  19. Implementation of an HACCP model in foot and mouth disease control programmes.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, C J; Durrieu, M; Schudel, A A

    2015-12-01

    The organisation and structure of the official Veterinary Services (OVS) are designed to meet a specific aim--the health certification of animal health, welfare and food safety in the production and processing stage. Disease prevention and control calls for programmes and projects that, depending on the characteristics of each disease, may involve any branch of the OVS, from the laboratory to field activities. For the purpose of this work, the model used is that of a country that is 'free from foot and mouth disease with vaccination' in accordance with the conditions stipulated in Chapter 8.8. of the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code. These conditions state that, to maintain this health status, a programme of monitoring and continuous control of the relevant variables must be implemented. This is achieved by applying good practice and identifying the critical control points in all processes, using a checklist that simplifies the task. The system that is developed can also serve as a guide for internal or external programme audits. PMID:27044166

  20. Implementation of an HACCP model in foot and mouth disease control programmes.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, C J; Durrieu, M; Schudel, A A

    2015-12-01

    The organisation and structure of the official Veterinary Services (OVS) are designed to meet a specific aim--the health certification of animal health, welfare and food safety in the production and processing stage. Disease prevention and control calls for programmes and projects that, depending on the characteristics of each disease, may involve any branch of the OVS, from the laboratory to field activities. For the purpose of this work, the model used is that of a country that is 'free from foot and mouth disease with vaccination' in accordance with the conditions stipulated in Chapter 8.8. of the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code. These conditions state that, to maintain this health status, a programme of monitoring and continuous control of the relevant variables must be implemented. This is achieved by applying good practice and identifying the critical control points in all processes, using a checklist that simplifies the task. The system that is developed can also serve as a guide for internal or external programme audits.

  1. Chagas Disease Control Programme in Brazil: a study of the effectiveness of 13 years of intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, F. C.; Vitor, R. W.; Antunes, C. M.; Carneiro, M.

    1998-01-01

    Reported is an evaluation of 13 years of intervention by the Chagas Disease Control Programme in an endemic area (Montalvania) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The design used was an epidemiological panel study. The reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates was estimated from data collected on three separate occasions: a serological survey in 1975-80, a quasi-experimental study in 1987, and the present investigation. A random sample of 156 households was selected and blood samples were collected from 653 inhabitants. The data routinely collected by the control programme were analysed to correlate the results with the incidence of T. cruzi. The overall prevalence of infection was 2.3%; however, no participant under 14 years of age was found to have a positive serological test. The total reduction in T. cruzi infection rates in this area from the start of the programme's activities was estimated to be 83.5%. Cross-sectional comparisons for the age groups 2-6 years and 7-14 years indicated a 100% reduction in T. cruzi incidence rates; but cohort comparisons showed that 100% reduction was achieved only for the 2-6-years age group. PMID:9803589

  2. Field Programmable Gate Array for Implementation of Redundant Advanced Digital Feedback Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, K. D.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this effort was to develop a digital motor controller using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This is a more rugged approach than a conventional microprocessor digital controller. FPGAs typically have higher radiation (rad) tolerance than both the microprocessor and memory required for a conventional digital controller. Furthermore, FPGAs can typically operate at higher speeds. (While speed is usually not an issue for motor controllers, it can be for other system controllers.) Other than motor power, only a 3.3-V digital power supply was used in the controller; no analog bias supplies were used. Since most of the circuit was implemented in the FPGA, no additional parts were needed other than the power transistors to drive the motor. The benefits that FPGAs provide over conventional designs-lower power and fewer parts-allow for smaller packaging and reduced weight and cost.

  3. Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: Lighten Up randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Kate; Lewis, Amanda; Beach, Jane; Denley, John; Adab, Peymane; Deeks, Jonathan J; Aveyard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a range of weight management programmes in terms of weight loss. Design Eight arm randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care trust in Birmingham, England. Participants 740 obese or overweight men and women with a comorbid disorder identified from general practice records. Interventions Weight loss programmes of 12 weeks’ duration: Weight Watchers; Slimming World; Rosemary Conley; group based, dietetics led programme; general practice one to one counselling; pharmacy led one to one counselling; choice of any of the six programmes. The comparator group was provided with 12 vouchers enabling free entrance to a local leisure (fitness) centre. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was weight loss at programme end (12 weeks). Secondary outcomes were weight loss at one year, self reported physical activity, and percentage weight loss at programme end and one year. Results Follow-up data were available for 658 (88.9%) participants at programme end and 522 (70.5%) at one year. All programmes achieved significant weight loss from baseline to programme end (range 1.37 kg (general practice) to 4.43 kg (Weight Watchers)), and all except general practice and pharmacy provision resulted in significant weight loss at one year. At one year, only the Weight Watchers group had significantly greater weight loss than did the comparator group (2.5 (95% confidence interval 0.8 to 4.2) kg greater loss,). The commercial programmes achieved significantly greater weight loss than did the primary care programmes at programme end (mean difference 2.3 (1.3 to 3.4) kg). The primary care programmes were the most costly to provide. Participants allocated to the choice arm did not have better outcomes than those randomly allocated to a programme. Conclusions Commercially provided weight management services are more effective and cheaper than primary care based services led by specially trained staff, which are ineffective. Trial registration

  4. Improvement of photovoltaic pumping systems based on standard frequency converters by means of programmable logic controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ramos, Jose; Narvarte-Fernandez, Luis; Poza-Saura, Fernando

    2010-01-15

    Photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) based on standard frequency converters (SFCs) are currently experiencing a growing interest in pumping programmes implemented in remote areas because of their high performance in terms of component reliability, low cost, high power range and good availability of components virtually anywhere in the world. However, in practical applications there have appeared a number of problems related to the adaptation of the SFCs to the requirements of the photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS). Another disadvantage of dedicated PVPS is the difficulty in implementing maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper shows that these problems can be solved through the addition of a basic industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) to the system. This PLC does not increase the cost and complexity of the system, but improves the adaptation of the SFC to the photovoltaic pumping system, and increases the overall performance of the system. (author)

  5. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  6. Social Constructs and Disease: Implications for a Controlled Vocabulary for HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jeffrey T.; Gillaspy, Mary L.

    1998-01-01

    The body of knowledge associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents complexity not present in any other disease. A controlled vocabulary and classification structure used to organize the body of knowledge associated with HIV/AIDS is discussed. (Author/AEF)

  7. Research support for effective state and community tobacco control programme response to electronic nicotine delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Carol L; Lee, Youn Ok; Curry, Laurel E; Farrelly, Matthew C; Rogers, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify unmet research needs of state and community tobacco control practitioners pertaining to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) that would inform policy and practice efforts at the state and community levels, and to describe ENDS-related research and dissemination activities of the National Cancer Institute-funded State and Community Tobacco Control Research Initiative. Methods To determine specific research gaps relevant to state and community tobacco control practice, we analysed survey data collected from tobacco control programmes (TCPs) in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia (N=51). Survey items covered a range of ENDS issues: direct harm to users, harm of secondhand vapour, cessation, flavours, constituents and youth access. Results There is no ENDS topic on which a majority of state TCP managers feel very informed. They feel least informed about harms of secondhand vapour while also reporting that this information is among the most important for their programme. A majority (N=31) of respondents indicated needs for research on the implications of ENDS products for existing policies. Conclusions TCP managers report that ENDS research is highly important for practice and need research-based information to inform decision making around the inclusion of ENDS in existing tobacco control policies. For optimal relevance to state and community TCPs, research on ENDS should prioritise study of the health effects of ENDS use and secondhand exposure to ENDS vapour in the context of existing tobacco control policies. PMID:24935899

  8. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme

    PubMed Central

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu; Bratschi, Martin W.; Pluschke, Gerd; Um Boock, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU) and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP) and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme. Methods We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005–2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate. Principal findings In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon. Conclusion/Significance Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with. PMID:26760499

  9. Informed shared decision-making programme on the prevention of myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Buhse, Susanne; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Heller, Tabitha; Kuniss, Nadine; Müller, Ulrich Alfons; Kasper, Jürgen; Lehmann, Thomas; Lenz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate an informed shared decision-making programme (ISDM-P) for people with type 2 diabetes under high fidelity conditions. Design Randomised, single-blinded trial with sham control intervention and follow-up of 6 months. Setting Single-centre diabetes clinic providing care according to the national disease management programme in Germany. Participants 154 people with type 2 diabetes without diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or stroke. Interventions The ISDM-P is executed by diabetes educators. Core component is a patient decision aid on the prevention of myocardial infarction supplemented by a 90 min group teaching session. The structurally equivalent control intervention addresses stress issues. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was risk comprehension, including realistic expectations about benefits and harms of interventions. It was assessed by a 12-item questionnaire after the teaching session when patients set and prioritise their treatment goals. Key secondary outcome was adherence to treatment goals, operationalised as achievement of individual goals and medication uptake. ISDM-P teaching sessions were video-taped to monitor intervention fidelity. Results 72 of 77 ISDM-P and 71 of 77 control patients completed the questionnaire (score 0–12). ISDM-P patients achieved higher levels of risk comprehension, mean score 8.25 vs 2.62, difference 5.63 (95% CI 4.82 to 6.44), and realistic expectations (score 0–6), 4.51 vs 0.85, 3.67 (3.23 to 4.11). More ISDM-P patients wished to take statins, 59.2% vs 30.4%, 28.7% (12.9% to 44.5%); more prioritised blood pressure control, 51.4% vs 25.7%, and fewer intensive glucose control, 33.3% vs 60%, p=0.002. More ISDM-P patients achieved their glycated haemoglobin goals, 95.8% vs 85.7%, 10.1% (0.6% to 19.5%). Achievement of prioritised goals and medication uptake were comparable between groups. Conclusions The ISDM-P on preventive measures in type 2 diabetes was effective under high fidelity

  10. 'Low-hanging fruit': counting and accounting for children in PEPFAR-funded HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lindsey J

    2014-01-01

    The article traces the social life of a policy that aimed to define and circumscribe the ambiguous and contested category of 'orphaned and vulnerable children' (or OVC) in South Africa at the height of the 'emergency response' to HIV/AIDS. Drawing on several months of institutional ethnographic research conducted over the course of five years with South African organisations receiving funding from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to provide services to 'OVC', the project interrogates the influence of governmental forms of counting and accounting on health policy and practice in South Africa. Focusing on the experiences of one organisation, the article describes a process of policy 'translation' typified by a series of disconnects between the intentions of a policy and the exigencies of implementation, structured by the ambiguous and flexible nature of the 'OVC' category. In this context, the article argues that the uncertainty produced by the implementation of the guidelines was not simply an artefact of a poorly designed policy, but rather signals an underlying epistemological tension in the practice of 'global health', in which quantitative metrics designed for monitoring and evaluation are often incapable of approximating the complexities of everyday life.

  11. The impact of the global economic crisis on HIV and AIDS programmes directed at women and children in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Serieux, John; Njelesani, Mwansa; Chompolola, Abson; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sought to ascertain the extent to which the global economic crisis of 2008-2009 affected the delivery of HIV/AIDS-related services directed at pregnant and lactating mothers, children living with HIV and children orphaned through HIV in Zambia. Using a combined macroeconomic analysis and a multiple case study approach, the authors found that from mid-2008 to mid-2009 the Zambian economy was indeed buffeted by the global economic crisis. During that period the case study subjects experienced challenges with respect to the funding, delivery and effectiveness of services that were clearly attributable, directly or indirectly, to the global economic crisis. The source of funding most often compromised was external private flows. The services most often compromised were non-medical services (such as the delivery of assistance to orphans and counselling to HIV-positive mothers) while the more strictly medical services (such as antiretroviral therapy) were protected from funding cuts and service interruptions. Impairments to service effectiveness were experienced relatively equally by (HIV-positive) pregnant women and lactating mothers and children orphaned through HIV. Children living with AIDS were least affected because of the primacy of ARV therapy in their care. PMID:26223326

  12. Programmable Calculators and Minicomputers in Agriculture. A Symposium Exploring Computerized Decision-Making Aids and Their Extension to the Farm Level. Proceedings of a Symposium (Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 6-7, 1980)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Ernest, Ed.

    Ten papers presented at a symposium discuss the array of computerized decision-making aids currently available to farmers and ways to speed up the rate of adoption of computers by agriculturalists. Topics presented include the development of software for agricultural decision-making; the role of programmable calculators and minicomputers in…

  13. A programmable positioning stepper-motor controller with a multibus/IEEE 796 compatible interface.

    PubMed

    Papoff, P; Ricci, D

    1984-02-01

    A programmable positioning stepper-motor controller, based on the Multibus/IEEE 796 standard interface, has been assembled by use of some intelligent and programmable integrated circuits. This controller, organized as a bus-slave unit, has been planned for local management of up to four stepper motors working simultaneously. The number of steps, the direction of rotation and the step-rate for the positioning of each motor are issued by the bus master microcomputer to the controller which handles all the required operations. Once each positioning has been performed, the controller informs the master by generating a proper bus-vectored interrupt. Displacements in up to 64,000 steps may be programmed with step-rates ranging from 0.1 to 6550 steps/sec. This device, for which only low-cost, high-performance components are required, can be successfully used in a wide range of applications and can be easily extended to control more than four stepper motors. PMID:18963547

  14. AIDS control and the workplace: the role of occupational health services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    London, L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS interventions typically fail to address the disjuncture between private behaviors and the social determinants of HIV infection. Data from a telephone survey of manufacturing companies and a postal survey of occupational health nurses in the Western Cape, South Africa, were used to explore the possible role of occupational health services in prevention and control of AIDS. The author found limited evidence of worker involvement in AIDS programs, particularly in companies with occupational health professionals. The management of sexually transmitted diseases was incomplete. Mandatory pre-employment testing of workers for HIV was not widespread. Respondents' opinions on priorities for AIDS prevention and control reflected a preoccupation with knowledge transfer. To ensure their effectiveness, workplace AIDS programs must improve worker participation and integrate AIDS prevention in general workplace health and safety programs. In addition, education programs must develop objectives within a critical theoretical understanding of the behavioral issues relevant to AIDS prevention, and must emphasize the empowerment of women in the workplace. In the context of the present restructuring of health services in South Africa, occupational health services, using the strategies outlined, can make a major contribution to national AIDS prevention and control.

  15. Evaluation of the national control of diarrhoeal disease programme in the Philippines, 1980-93.

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Jane C.; Nadera, Dinah P.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the National Control of Diarrhoeal Disease Programme (NCDDP) in the Philippines over the period 1980-93, describing levels and trends in programme activities, and relating them to severe diarrhoea morbidity and mortality among under-5-year-olds. METHODS: Routinely collected data on morbidity and mortality trends were obtained from health statistics reports of the Health Intelligence Service and the NCDDP. Socioeconomic indicators, including annual average family income and expenditures, gross national product, and unemployment rates, were derived from the Philippine population census data collected by the National Statistics Office. FINDINGS: In relation to baseline levels, diarrhoea mortality among infants and young children fell by about 5% annually over the 18-year period under review. The decline was faster than those related to acute respiratory infections (ARIs) among children of similar age and to perinatal causes. Diarrhoea hospital admission rates registered an annual decline of 2.4% relative to the baseline level. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that the programme had a substantial impact; the period under review also witnessed some degree of improvement in other factors with positive influences on health, such as exclusive breastfeeding, nutrition and environmental sanitation. The quality, particularly completeness and reliability, of the existing data did not allow further analysis, thus, making it difficult to conclude beyond doubt that the observed trends indicate that they were solely due to NCDDP. PMID:12219155

  16. Cost of malaria control in China: Henan's consolidation programme from community and government perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Sukhan; Sleigh, Adrian C.; Liu, Xi-Li

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assist with strategic planning for the eradication of malaria in Henan Province, China, which reached the consolidation phase of malaria control in 1992, when only 318 malaria cases were reported. METHODS: We conducted a prospective two-year study of the costs for Henan's malaria control programme. We used a cost model that could also be applied to other malaria programmes in mainland China, and analysed the cost of the three components of Henan's malaria programme: suspected malaria case management, vector surveillance, and population blood surveys. Primary cost data were collected from the government, and data on suspected malaria patients were collected in two malaria counties (population 2 093 100). We enlisted the help of 260 village doctors in six townships or former communes (population 247 762), and studied all 12 325 reported cases of suspected malaria in their catchment areas in 1994 and 1995. FINDINGS: The average annual government investment in malaria control was estimated to be US$ 111 516 (case-management 59%; active blood surveys 25%; vector surveillance 12%; and contingencies and special projects 4%). The average cost (direct and indirect) for patients seeking treatment for suspected malaria was US$ 3.48, equivalent to 10 days' income for rural residents. Each suspected malaria case cost the government an average of US$ 0.78. CONCLUSION: Further cuts in government funding will increase future costs when epidemic malaria returns; investment in malaria control should therefore continue at least at current levels of US$ 0.03 per person at risk. PMID:12219157

  17. A Remote Laboratory Platform for Electrical Drive Control Using Programmable Logic Controllers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrater-Simon, C.; Molas-Balada, L.; Gomis-Bellmunt, O.; Lorenzo-Martinez, N.; Bayo-Puxan, O.; Villafafila-Robles, R.

    2009-01-01

    Many teaching institutions worldwide are working on distance learning applications. In this field, remote laboratories are enabling intensive use of university facilities, while aiding the work of professors and students. The present paper introduces a platform designed to be used in industrial automation practical work. The platform is…

  18. Biorational control programme for the German cockroach (Blattaria: Blattellidae) in selected urban communities.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, GholamHossein; Bin Ibrahim, Yusof; Noor, Hafidzi Mohd; Rafinejad, Javad; Shahar, Mohd Khadri

    2010-08-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a biorational control approach using 2% hydramethylnon gel bait on German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) in some residential and hospital buildings in South Western Iran. In total, three buildings consisting of 150 apartment units and 101 hospital units were monitored weekly via sticky trap for German cockroach infestations over a period of eight months. These infested units were randomly subjected to intervention and control treatments. Pamphlets and posters were provided and lectures were given to support the educational programmes as a tactic of the biorational system. Survey on cockroach index for intervention units showed 67-94% recovery to achieve clean level of infestation for intervention units of the residential buildings and 83% for the hospital. Mean percentage reductions for treatment groups throughout the 15-week treatment period were 76.8% for the residential buildings and 88.1% for the hospital, showing significant differences compared to the control groups. Linear regression of infestation rates were recorded weekly after treatment and their negative slope for treatment groups substantiated significant reductions for interventions. The results of this study showed that biorational control method, using gel bait, educational programmes and sanitation, is an effective way to manage German cockroach infestation.

  19. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Diagnostics for Control and Elimination Programmes

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James S.; Lustigman, Sara; Yang, Guo-Jing; Barakat, Rashida M.; García, Héctor H.; Sripa, Banchob; Willingham, Arve Lee; Prichard, Roger K.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic tools appropriate for undertaking interventions to control helminth infections are key to their success. Many diagnostic tests for helminth infection have unsatisfactory performance characteristics and are not well suited for use in the parasite control programmes that are being increasingly implemented. Although the application of modern laboratory research techniques to improve diagnostics for helminth infection has resulted in some technical advances, uptake has not been uniform. Frequently, pilot or proof of concept studies of promising diagnostic technologies have not been followed by much needed product development, and in many settings diagnosis continues to rely on insensitive and unsatisfactory parasitological or serodiagnostic techniques. In contrast, PCR-based xenomonitoring of arthropod vectors, and use of parasite recombinant proteins as reagents for serodiagnostic tests, have resulted in critical advances in the control of specific helminth parasites. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, the diagnostic technologies relevant to control of helminth infections, either available or in development, are reviewed. Critical gaps are identified and opportunities to improve needed technologies are discussed. PMID:22545166

  20. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer,a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  1. Safety aid use and social anxiety symptoms: The mediating role of perceived control.

    PubMed

    Korte, Kristina J; Unruh, Amanda S; Oglesby, Mary E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    The use of safety aids, cognitive or behavioral strategies used to reduce or cope with anxiety, has emerged as a key construct of interest in anxiety disorders due to their role in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. It has been suggested that individuals with anxiety engage in safety aid use to reduce their anxiety and feel more in control of a situation; however, no studies to date have examined the association between perceived control, that is, perceived level of control over internal events in anxiety provoking situations, and the use of safety aids. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association of perceived control, the use of safety aids, and symptoms of social anxiety. It was predicted that the association between safety aid use and social anxiety symptoms would be mediated by perceived control. This prediction was examined in a large sample of 281 participants. As predicted, perceived control was a significant mediator of the association between the use of safety aids and social anxiety symptoms. This effect remained significant after running a multiple mediation model with distress tolerance added as a competing mediator. Implications for future research are discussed.

  2. The Programmable Logic Controller and its application in nuclear reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Palomar, J.; Wyman, R.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to guide reviewers in the application of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCS) to the control, monitoring and protection of nuclear reactors. The first topics addressed are system-level design issues, specifically including safety. The document then discusses concerns about the PLC manufacturing organization and the protection system engineering organization. Supplementing this document are two appendices. Appendix A summarizes PLC characteristics. Specifically addressed are those characteristics that make the PLC more suitable for emergency shutdown systems than other electrical/electronic-based systems, as well as characteristics that improve reliability of a system. Also covered are PLC characteristics that may create an unsafe operating environment. Appendix B provides an overview of the use of programmable logic controllers in emergency shutdown systems. The intent is to familiarize the reader with the design, development, test, and maintenance phases of applying a PLC to an ESD system. Each phase is described in detail and information pertinent to the application of a PLC is pointed out.

  3. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W

    2008-08-13

    The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  4. Are TB control programmes in South Asia ignoring children with disease? A situational analysis.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Sadia; Qamar, Farah Naz; Mir, Fatima; Zaidi, Anita; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-02-01

    Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has long been an evasive entity for public health practitioners striving to control the disease. Owing to difficulty in diagnosis of paediatric TB, incidence estimates based on current case detection fall short of actual rates. The four high-burden countries in South Asia (SA-HBC)-Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh-alone account for >75% of missed TB cases worldwide. It follows that these countries are also responsible for a large although unmeasured proportion of missed paediatric cases. In view of current Millennium Development Goals recommending a scale-up of paediatric TB detection and management globally, there is a dire need to improve paediatric TB programmes in these high-burden countries. Inherent problems with diagnosis of paediatric TB are compounded by programmatic and social barriers in SA-HBC. We have reviewed the current situation of TB control programmes in SA-HBC countries based on published statistics and performed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats situational analysis with a view towards identifying critical issues operant in the region posing barriers to improving paediatric TB control.

  5. Display aids for remote control of untethered undersea vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verplank, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    A predictor display superimposed on slow-scan video or sonar data is proposed as a method to allow better remote manual control of an untethered submersible. Simulation experiments show good control under circumstances which otherwise make control practically impossible.

  6. Programmable immersive peripheral environmental system (PIPES): a prototype control system for environmental feedback devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frend, Chauncey; Boyles, Michael

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an environmental feedback device (EFD) control system aimed at simplifying the VR development cycle. Programmable Immersive Peripheral Environmental System (PIPES) affords VR developers a custom approach to programming and controlling EFD behaviors while relaxing the required knowledge and expertise of electronic systems. PIPES has been implemented for the Unity engine and features EFD control using the Arduino integrated development environment. PIPES was installed and tested on two VR systems, a large format CAVE system and an Oculus Rift HMD system. A photocell based end-to-end latency experiment was conducted to measure latency within the system. This work extends previously unpublished prototypes of a similar design. Development and experiments described in this paper are part of the VR community goal to understand and apply environment effects to VEs that ultimately add to users' perceived presence.

  7. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: external aids that signal when to act.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-03-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence, and in this study, we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids were used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  8. Controlled Access Headings in EAD Finding Aids: Current Practices in Number of and Types of Headings Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a study of controlled access headings assigned to encoded archival description finding aids in the Ohio Library and Information Network Finding Aid Repository, focusing on the number of headings per finding aid and the category of terms assigned. Assigning multiple controlled access headings was widely…

  9. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  10. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  11. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  12. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  13. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  14. Chemical Biology Approaches to Genome Editing: Understanding, Controlling, and Delivering Programmable Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Hu, Johnny H; Davis, Kevin M; Liu, David R

    2016-01-21

    Programmable DNA nucleases have provided scientists with the unprecedented ability to probe, regulate, and manipulate the human genome. Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 system (CRISPR-Cas9) represent a powerful array of tools that can bind to and cleave a specified DNA sequence. In their canonical forms, these nucleases induce double-strand breaks at a DNA locus of interest that can trigger cellular DNA repair processes that disrupt or replace genes. The fusion of these programmable nucleases with a variety of other protein domains has led to a rapidly growing suite of tools for activating, repressing, visualizing, and modifying loci of interest. Maximizing the usefulness and therapeutic relevance of these tools, however, requires precisely controlling their activity and specificity to minimize potentially toxic side effects arising from off-target activities. This need has motivated the application of chemical biology principles and methods to genome-editing proteins, including the engineering of variants of these proteins with improved or altered specificities, and the development of genetic, chemical, optical, and protein delivery methods that control the activity of these agents in cells. Advancing the capabilities, safety, effectiveness, and therapeutic relevance of genome-engineering proteins will continue to rely on chemical biology strategies that manipulate their activity, specificity, and localization.

  15. Field-programmable beam reconfiguring based on digitally-controlled coding metasurface.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiang; Qi, Mei Qing; Chen, Tian Yi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Digital phase shifters have been applied in traditional phased array antennas to realize beam steering. However, the phase shifter deals with the phase of the induced current; hence, it has to be in the path of each element of the antenna array, making the phased array antennas very expensive. Metamaterials and/or metasurfaces enable the direct modulation of electromagnetic waves by designing subwavelength structures, which opens a new way to control the beam scanning. Here, we present a direct digital mechanism to control the scattered electromagnetic waves using coding metasurface, in which each unit cell loads a pin diode to produce binary coding states of "1" and "0". Through data lines, the instant communications are established between the coding metasurface and the internal memory of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Thus, we realize the digital modulation of electromagnetic waves, from which we present the field-programmable reflective antenna with good measurement performance. The proposed mechanism and functional device have great application potential in new-concept radar and communication systems. PMID:26861110

  16. Present state of cardiovascular community control programme in the Czech Socialist Republic.

    PubMed

    Hurych, J; Písa, Z

    1976-01-01

    The high incidence, great import, and long duration of cardiovascular diseases are reflected in high demands placed on the health services. Experience shows that utilization of the results of research in general practice is lagging behind. The application of any improvement in the diagnosis, therapy, and prevention in health care waits several years for its accomplishment. In order to improve this situation, the Ministry of Health of the CSR constituted, in line with WHO recommendations, a Department for Cardiovascular Diseases Control. The Department has worked out a programme of prevention and control of the major cardiovascular diseases, in particular, ischaemic heart disease, systemic hypertension and its complications, rheumatic heart disease, congenital cardiac and vascular defects, and cor pulmonale. New diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive procedures are first tried out in so-called model areas and are only after this introduced into the national health care of people suffering from or endangered by cardiovascular diseases. In parallel, organizational measures necessary for comprehensive care are implemented. The authors report on the experience gained so far with the realization of the programme of care of people suffering from IHD and acute myocardial infarction. They emphasize the importance of continual schooling of medical personnel and of health education of the entire population. They describe the implementation on a national scale of postgraduate cardiological courses intended especially for first-line doctors. PMID:947676

  17. Field-programmable beam reconfiguring based on digitally-controlled coding metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiang; Qi, Mei Qing; Chen, Tian Yi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Digital phase shifters have been applied in traditional phased array antennas to realize beam steering. However, the phase shifter deals with the phase of the induced current; hence, it has to be in the path of each element of the antenna array, making the phased array antennas very expensive. Metamaterials and/or metasurfaces enable the direct modulation of electromagnetic waves by designing subwavelength structures, which opens a new way to control the beam scanning. Here, we present a direct digital mechanism to control the scattered electromagnetic waves using coding metasurface, in which each unit cell loads a pin diode to produce binary coding states of “1” and “0”. Through data lines, the instant communications are established between the coding metasurface and the internal memory of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Thus, we realize the digital modulation of electromagnetic waves, from which we present the field-programmable reflective antenna with good measurement performance. The proposed mechanism and functional device have great application potential in new-concept radar and communication systems. PMID:26861110

  18. Field-programmable beam reconfiguring based on digitally-controlled coding metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiang; Qi, Mei Qing; Chen, Tian Yi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-02-01

    Digital phase shifters have been applied in traditional phased array antennas to realize beam steering. However, the phase shifter deals with the phase of the induced current; hence, it has to be in the path of each element of the antenna array, making the phased array antennas very expensive. Metamaterials and/or metasurfaces enable the direct modulation of electromagnetic waves by designing subwavelength structures, which opens a new way to control the beam scanning. Here, we present a direct digital mechanism to control the scattered electromagnetic waves using coding metasurface, in which each unit cell loads a pin diode to produce binary coding states of “1” and “0”. Through data lines, the instant communications are established between the coding metasurface and the internal memory of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Thus, we realize the digital modulation of electromagnetic waves, from which we present the field-programmable reflective antenna with good measurement performance. The proposed mechanism and functional device have great application potential in new-concept radar and communication systems.

  19. Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-11-16

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell PIC Skids as required by LMH-PRO-309, Rev. 0, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.6, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell PIC Skid PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  20. Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, K.A.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309, Rev. 1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  1. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-10-15

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS.

  2. A self-management programme for COPD: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Katy E; Johnson-Warrington, Vicki; Apps, Lindsay D; Bankart, John; Sewell, Louise; Williams, Johanna E; Rees, Karen; Jolly, Kate; Steiner, Michael; Morgan, Mike; Singh, Sally J

    2014-12-01

    Studies of programmes of self-management support for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been inconclusive. The Self-Management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education (SPACE) FOR COPD is a 6-week self-management intervention for COPD, and this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention in primary care. A single-blind randomised controlled trial recruited people with COPD from primary care and randomised participants to receive usual care or SPACE FOR COPD. Outcome measures were performed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome was symptom burden, measured by the self-reported Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ-SR) dyspnoea domain. Secondary outcomes included other domains of the CRQ-SR, shuttle walking tests, disease knowledge, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, smoking status and healthcare utilisation. 184 people with COPD were recruited and randomised. At 6 weeks, there were significant differences between groups in CRQ-SR dyspnoea, fatigue and emotion scores, exercise performance, anxiety, and disease knowledge. At 6 months, there was no between-group difference in change in CRQ-SR dyspnoea. Exercise performance, anxiety and smoking status were significantly different between groups at 6 months, in favour of the intervention. This brief self-management intervention did not improve dyspnoea over and above usual care at 6 months; however, there were gains in anxiety, exercise performance, and disease knowledge. PMID:25186259

  3. Impact of Thailand's HIV-control programme as indicated by the decline of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Hanenberg, R S; Rojanapithayakorn, W; Kunasol, P; Sokal, D C

    1994-07-23

    The Thai government began an HIV-control programme in 1989. The programme had the following parts: the government bought and distributed sufficient condoms to protect much of the commercial sex in the country; sanctions were brought against commercial sex establishments where condoms were not used consistently; and a media campaign bluntly advised men to use condoms with prostitutes. Between 1989 and 1993 the use of condoms in commercial sex in Thailand increased from 14 to 94%, according to surveys of prostitutes, and the number of cases of the five major sexually transmitted diseases declined by 79% in men. We estimate that sex acts with prostitutes where there was a risk of HIV transmission declined from about 2.6% in June, 1989, to about 1.6% in June, 1993. If condom use in commercial sex stays high, future cohorts of young men and women may experience lower HIV incidence rates than those of the recent past. However, although condom use is high, there are many more infected prostitutes than before and many infected men who will pass HIV to their wives.

  4. A public-private partnership for malaria control: lessons from the Malarone Donation Programme.

    PubMed Central

    Oyediran, A. B. O. Olukayode; Ddumba, Edward M.; Ochola, Samuel A.; Lucas, Adetokunbo O.; Koporc, Kim; Dowdle, Walter R.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, Glaxo Wellcome offered to donate up to a million treatment courses annually of Malarone, a new antimalarial, with a view to reducing the global burden of malaria. The Malarone Donation Programme (MDP) was established the following year. Eight pilot sites were selected in Kenya and Uganda to develop and evaluate an effective, locally sustainable donation strategy that ensured controlled and appropriate use of Malarone. The pilot programme targeted individuals who had acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria that had not responded to first-line treatments with chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Of the 161 079 patients clinically diagnosed at the pilot sites as having malaria, 1101 (0.68%) met all the conditions for participation and received directly observed treatment with Malarone. MDP had a positive effect at the pilot sites by improving the diagnosis and management of malaria. However, the provision of Malarone as a second-line drug at the district hospital level was not an efficient and effective use of resources. The number of deaths among children and adults ineligible for MDP at the pilot sites suggested that high priority should be given to meeting the challenges of malaria treatment at the community level. PMID:12471403

  5. Computer AIDS for Clinical Research Management and Control: General Analysis and Design

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Christopher G.; Gatewood, Laël C.; Ellis, Lynda B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical research projects involve concurrent management of subjects, protocol, analysis and study. This complicated management problem could be aided by the use of computerized data systems. For most effective aid, such a system should consider all aspects of clinical research. We have analyzed clinical research tasks involving data collection, communication, and management and have used this task analysis to develop a system model for clinical research data management and control. The model deals with data control, study monitoring, user interfaces, report and analysis libraries, and study subject and support data bases. It may be used as a basis for computerized data system study and development. The model also indicates that the role of computerized systems in clinical research could be expanded into such areas as automatic report generation and control, process control aids, quality assurance monitoring, and study documentation.

  6. Sustained reduction in the carriage of Neisseria meningitidis as a result of a community meningococcal disease control programme.

    PubMed Central

    Neal, K. R.; Irwin, D. J.; Davies, S.; Kaczmarski, E. B.; Wale, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a community intervention programme of antibiotics and meningitis vaccine on pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis was investigated. Carriage rates were determined in pupils at both secondary schools (ages 11-18 years) included in the community intervention programme and compared with two schools outside the area matched for socio-economic status. A total of 1869 pupils were studied 6 months after the programmes, and 2457 pupils after 11 months. Six months after the programme was completed there was a 72% reduction in pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in pupils attending the schools in the intervention area compared with pupils in the control schools. After 11 months this difference persisted in the 11-14 age group but not in the 15-18 age group. No resistance to the antibiotics used in the programme was found. A community intervention programme of antibiotics and vaccine for the control of meningococcal disease led to a long-term reduction in Neisseria meningitidis carriage in some age groups. PMID:10030696

  7. Impact of the Massachusetts tobacco control programme: population based trend analysis

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Harris, Jeffrey E; Hamilton, William

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the Massachusetts tobacco control programme, which, since its start in January 1993, has spent over $200m—“the highest per capita expenditure for tobacco control in the world”—funded by an extra tax of 25 cents per pack of cigarettes. Design Population based trend analysis with comparison group. Subjects Adult residents of Massachusetts and other US states excluding California. Main outcome measures Per capita consumption of cigarettes as measured by states' sales tax records; prevalence of smoking in adults as measured by several population-based telephone surveys. Results From 1988 to 1992, decline in per capita consumption of cigarettes in Massachusetts (15%) was similar to that in the comparison states (14%), corresponding to an annual decline of 3-4% for both groups. During 1992-3, consumption continued to decline by 4% in the comparison states but dropped 12% in Massachusetts in response to the tax increase. From 1993 onward, consumption in Massachusetts showed a consistent annual decline of more than 4%, whereas in the comparison states it levelled off, decreasing by less than 1% a year. From 1992, the prevalence of adult smoking in Massachusetts has declined annually by 0.43% (95% confidence interval 0.21% to 0.66%) compared with an increase of 0.03% (-0.06% to 0.12%) in the comparison states (P<0.001). Conclusions These findings show that a strongly implemented, comprehensive tobacco control programme can significantly reduce tobacco use. PMID:10926595

  8. Insecticide resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus from Zanzibar: implications for vector control programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zanzibar has a long history of lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by the filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti, and transmitted by the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The LF Programme in Zanzibar has successfully implemented mass drug administration (MDA) to interrupt transmission, and is now in the elimination phase. Monitoring infections in mosquitoes, and assessing the potential role of interventions such as vector control, is important in case the disease re-emerges as a public health problem. Here, we examine Culex mosquito species from the two main islands to detect W. bancrofti infection and to determine levels of susceptibility to the insecticides used for vector control. Methods Culex mosquitoes collected during routine catches in Vitongoji, Pemba Island, and Makadara, Unguja Island were tested for W. bancrofti infection using PCR. Insecticide bioassays on Culex mosquitoes were performed to determine susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, DDT and bendiocarb. Additional synergism assays with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were used for lambda-cyhalothrin. Pyrosequencing was used to determine the kdr genotype and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) subunit performed to identify ambiguous Culex species. Results None of the wild-caught Culex mosquitoes analysed were found to be positive for W. bancrofti. High frequencies of resistance to all insecticides were found in Wete, Pemba Island, whereas Culex from the nearby site of Tibirinzi (Pemba) and in Kilimani, Unguja Island remained relatively susceptible. Species identification confirmed that mosquitoes from Wete were Culex quinquefasciatus. The majority of the Culex collected from Tibirinzi and all from Kilimani could not be identified to species by molecular assays. Two alternative kdr alleles, both resulting in a L1014F substitution were detected in Cx. quinquefasciatus from Wete with no homozygote susceptible detected. Metabolic resistance to

  9. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  10. Use of remote sensing and a geographical information system in a national helminth control programme in Chad.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Beasley, Michael; Ndinaromtan, Montanan; Madjiouroum, Ester Mobele; Baboguel, Marie; Djenguinabe, Elie; Hay, Simon I.; Bundy, Don A. P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a rapid and valid epidemiological assessment of helminths among schoolchildren in Chad using ecological zones defined by remote sensing satellite sensor data and to investigate the environmental limits of helminth distribution. METHODS: Remote sensing proxy environmental data were used to define seven ecological zones in Chad. These were combined with population data in a geographical information system (GIS) in order to define a sampling protocol. On this basis, 20 schools were surveyed. Multilevel analysis, by means of generalized estimating equations to account for clustering at the school level, was used to investigate the relationship between infection patterns and key environmental variables. FINDINGS: In a sample of 1023 schoolchildren, 22.5% were infected with Schistosoma haematobium and 32.7% with hookworm. None were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. The prevalence of S. haematobium and hookworm showed marked geographical heterogeneity and the observed patterns showed a close association with the defined ecological zones and significant relationships with environmental variables. These results contribute towards defining the thermal limits of geohelminth species. Predictions of infection prevalence were made for each school surveyed with the aid of models previously developed for Cameroon. These models correctly predicted that A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura would not occur in Chad but the predictions for S. haematobium were less reliable at the school level. CONCLUSION: GIS and remote sensing can play an important part in the rapid planning of helminth control programmes where little information on disease burden is available. Remote sensing prediction models can indicate patterns of geohelminth infection but can only identify potential areas of high risk for S. haematobium. PMID:12471398

  11. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  12. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  13. Ethical aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies and control in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph-Matthew; Mfutso-Bengo, Eva-Maria; Masiye, Francis

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns have been overshadowed by conflicting, competing, and contradictory views between those who support condom use as a last resort and those who are against it for fear of promoting sexual immorality. We argue that abstinence and faithfulness to one partner are the best available moral solutions to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Of course, deontologists may argue that condom use might appear useful and effective in controlling HIV/AIDS; however, not everything that is useful is always good. In principle, all schools of thought and faith seem to agree on the question of faithfulness for married couples and abstinence for those who are not married. But they differ on condom use. On the ground, the situation is far more complex. We simply lack a single, entirely reliable way to resolve all disagreements regarding HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. PMID:19130297

  14. Key regulators control distinct transcriptional programmes in blood progenitor and mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Calero-Nieto, Fernando J; Ng, Felicia S; Wilson, Nicola K; Hannah, Rebecca; Moignard, Victoria; Leal-Cervantes, Ana I; Jimenez-Madrid, Isabel; Diamanti, Evangelia; Wernisch, Lorenz; Göttgens, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite major advances in the generation of genome-wide binding maps, the mechanisms by which transcription factors (TFs) regulate cell type identity have remained largely obscure. Through comparative analysis of 10 key haematopoietic TFs in both mast cells and blood progenitors, we demonstrate that the largely cell type-specific binding profiles are not opportunistic, but instead contribute to cell type-specific transcriptional control, because (i) mathematical modelling of differential binding of shared TFs can explain differential gene expression, (ii) consensus binding sites are important for cell type-specific binding and (iii) knock-down of blood stem cell regulators in mast cells reveals mast cell-specific genes as direct targets. Finally, we show that the known mast cell regulators Mitf and c-fos likely contribute to the global reorganisation of TF binding profiles. Taken together therefore, our study elucidates how key regulatory TFs contribute to transcriptional programmes in several distinct mammalian cell types. PMID:24760698

  15. The role of the laboratory in a Chlamydia control programme in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Peeling, R W; Oyelese, A O; Brunham, R C; Achola, J O; Ronald, A R

    1992-09-01

    The laboratory components of a Chlamydia trachomatis disease control programme for a developing country are reviewed. Early diagnosis of chlamydial infections is the most cost effective means of preventing the long term sequelae of trachoma, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility, which are now a major public health burden to the health care system in developing countries. Public health strategies are required to establish both a co-ordinated limited system of laboratory services, and to promote the diagnosis and treatment of disease syndromes in the absence of laboratory support. Laboratory tests for the specific diagnoses of chlamydial infections requiring different levels of expertise and equipment can be instituted within settings appropriate to the resources and technical expertise available. Emphasis is given to appropriate cost effective utilization of laboratory testing. PMID:1286634

  16. Suitability of a Salmonella control programme based on serology in slaughter heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Gradassi, Matteo; Caminiti, Antonino; Galletti, Giorgio; Santi, Annalisa; Paternoster, Giulia; Tamba, Marco; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Tagliabue, Silvia; Alborali, Giovanni Loris; Trevisani, Marcello

    2015-08-01

    The key component of most European pig Salmonella control programmes is the classification of herds according to seroprevalence at slaughter. The objectives of this study were to estimate the true Salmonella seroprevalence, and investigate the association between the true status of infection and serology in slaughter heavy pigs. Blood of 3340 pigs was collected and tested with ELISA. From 385 pigs, also lymph nodes and cecal content were collected for bacteriology. Analysis was performed in a Bayesian framework. Results showed that a large proportion of pigs was serologically positive (herd seroprevalence 93% and within-herd seroprevalence higher than 81% in half of herds at cut-off 10 OD%). The association between the true status of infection and serology was not significant, and therefore the classification of heavy pig herds according to seroprevalence at slaughter would not be suitable to reduce the risk of introducing Salmonella into the food chain. PMID:26267106

  17. 100-kHz 22-fs Ti:sapphire regenerative amplification laser with programmable spectral control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Hwang Woon; Nam, Chang Hee; Lee, Seong Ku

    2016-05-01

    An ultrashort, high-power Ti:sapphire laser operating at 100 kHz was developed. A regenerative amplifier with a cryogenically cooled Ti:sapphire crystal and a grism compressor were incorporated in the laser. For achieving a wide bandwidth of 78 nm, a programmable spectral control filter was applied to the regenerative amplifier to compensate for the gain narrowing effect. An output power of 1.4 GW with near Fourier-transform-limited pulse duration of 22 fs was achieved after minimizing a spectral phase error with the grism compressor, and the measured beam quality factor ( M 2) was less than 1.2. This high-quality laser will facilitate applications requiring high-repetition rate, ultrashort, high-power laser pulses.

  18. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Pittenger, L.C.; McDonald, J.S.; Cramer, P.G.; Herget, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed.

  19. Study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of a tailored energy balance programme for recent retirees

    PubMed Central

    Werkman, Andrea; Schuit, Albertine J; Kwak, Lydia; Kremers, Stef PJ; Visscher, Tommy LS; Kok, Frans J; Schouten, Evert G

    2006-01-01

    Background People in transitional life stages, such as occupational retirement, are likely to gain weight and accumulate abdominal fat mass caused by changes in physical activity and diet. Hence, retirees are an important target group for weight gain prevention programmes, as described in the present paper. Methods/Design A systematic and stepwise approach (Intervention Mapping) is used to develop a low-intensity energy balance intervention programme for recent retirees. This one-year, low-intensity multifaceted programme aims to prevent accumulation of abdominal fat mass and general weight gain by increasing awareness of energy balance and influencing related behaviours of participants' preference. These behaviours are physical activity, fibre intake, portion size and fat consumption. The effectiveness of the intervention programme is tested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. Measurements of anthropometry, physical activity, energy intake, and related psychosocial determinants are performed at baseline and repeated at 6 months for intermediate effect, at 12 months to evaluate short-term intervention effects and at 24 months to test the sustainability of the effects. Discussion This intervention programme is unique in its focus on retirees and energy balance. It aims at increasing awareness and takes into account personal preferences of the users by offering several options for behaviour change. Moreover, the intervention programme is evaluated at short-term and long-term and includes consecutive outcome measures (determinants, behaviour and body composition). PMID:17147832

  20. D0 General Support: The Use of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCS) at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Hance, R.; /Fermilab

    2000-05-05

    With the exception of control of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ventilation fans, and their shutdown in the case of smoke in the ducts, all implementations of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) in Dzero have been made within the fundamental premise that no uncertified PLC apparatus shall be entrusted with the safety of equipment or personnel. Thus although PLCs are used to control and monitor all manner of intricate equipment, simple hardware interlocks and relief devices provide basic protection against component failure, control failure, or inappropriate control operation. Nevertheless, this report includes two observations as follows: (1) It may be prudent to reconfigure the link between the Pyrotronics system and the HVAC system such that the Pyrotronics system provides interlocks to the ventilation fans instead of control inputs to the uncertified HVAC PLCs. Although the Pyrotronics system is certified and maintained to life safety standards, the HVAC system is not. A hardware or software failure of the HVAC system probably should not be allowed to result in the situation where the ventilation fans in a smoke filled duct continue to operate. Dan Markley is investigating this matter. (2) It may also be prudent to examine the network security of those systems connected to the Fermilab WAN (HVAC, Cryo, and Solenoid Controls). Even though the impact of a successful hack might only be to operations, it might nevertheless be disruptive and could be expensive. The risks should perhaps be analyzed. One of the most attractive features of these systems, from a user's viewpoint, is their unlimited networking. The unlimited networking that makes the systems so convenient to legitimate access also makes them vulnerable to illegitimate access.

  1. Research of vibration controlling based on programmable logic controller for electrostatic precipitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zisheng; Li, Yanhu; Li, Jiaojiao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Qing

    2013-03-01

    In order to improve the reliability, stability and automation of electrostatic precipitator, circuits of vibration motor for ESP and vibration control ladder diagram program are investigated using Schneider PLC with high performance and programming software of Twidosoft. Operational results show that after adopting PLC, vibration motor can run automatically; compared with traditional control system of vibration based on single-chip microcomputer, it has higher reliability, better stability and higher dust removal rate, when dust emission concentrations <= 50 mg m-3, providing a new method for vibration controlling of ESP.

  2. Fully programmable two-dimensional pulse shaper for broadband line-by-line amplitude and phase control.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Andrew J; Torres-Company, Victor; Supradeepa, V R; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2013-11-18

    We introduce a fully programmable two-dimensional (2D) pulse shaper, able to simultaneously control the amplitude and phase of very fine spectral components over a broad bandwidth. This is achieved by aligning two types of spectral dispersers in a cross dispersion setup: a virtually imaged phased array for accessing fine resolution and a transmission grating for achieving broad bandwidth. We take advantage of the resultant 2D dispersion profile as well as introduce programmability by adding a 2D liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator at the masking plane. Our shaper has a resolution of ~3 GHz operating over the entire 'C' band of >5.8 THz. Experimental evidence is provided that highlights the full programmability, fine spectral control, and broad bandwidth operation (limited currently by the bandwidth of the input light). We also show line-by-line manipulation of record 836 comb lines over the C-band. PMID:24514316

  3. HIV/AIDS in the shadows of reproductive health interventions.

    PubMed

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2003-11-01

    In December 1999, the Tanzanian president declared HIV/AIDS a national disaster. By the time the National Policy on HIV/AIDS was released in 2001, an estimated 750,000 women of reproductive age were infected. Yet in spite of the impact of HIV on reproductive health, AIDS and reproductive health programmes are still thought of and implemented through separate channels, to the detriment of both. However, although AIDS remains in the shadows of reproductive health interventions, the lack of AIDS talk does not lessen the impact of the disease on people's lives. During the course of my participant observations in maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) clinics collected during 25 months of fieldwork in 10 clinics in Morogoro, Ruvuma and Kilimanjaro Regions, I rarely heard about AIDS. This article attempts to analyse why. Historically competing bureaucracies in MCH/FP and gender and development are not easily unified with a vertical HIV/AIDS control programme under the umbrella of "reproductive health". HIV/AIDS cannot merely be inserted into existing family planning programmes, re-named "reproductive health" programmes. As the AIDS epidemic is transformed through new technologies, reproductive health policy and priorities will be called into question and force us to look at the state of the African health care system, networks of care-giving, and how individuals and communities fail when there is no socio-economic safety net.

  4. Qualitative Contributions to a Randomized Controlled Trial Addressing HIV/AIDS-Stigma in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Specialized training for healthcare professionals (HCP) in order to reduce HIV/AIDS related stigma must be part of a public health model for HIV/AIDS. Tested interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS related stigma among HCP have been mostly absent from these efforts. A qualitative approach was used to assess stigma reduction within a traditional randomized controlled design in order to better understand how our current stigma intervention worked and was understood by 2nd year medical students. After conducting a quantitative follow up survey one-year post intervention we conducted 20 in-depth qualitative interviews with a subsample of our intervention group participants as part of the overall evaluation process. Once the interviews were finished, we transcribed them and used NVivo (v.8) to organized the qualitative data. In the process of analyzing the qualitative data we identified core intervention areas participants described as useful for their training and development: (1) acquiring more HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, (2) increased skills for management of high stigma situations, and (3) the ability to identify socio-structural factors that foster HIV infection among clients. The gathered information is important in order to have a deep understanding of how attitudinal change happens as part of our intervention strategies. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Stigma, Randomized Controlled Trial, Qualitative Evaluation, Medical Students, Puerto Rico PMID:26855975

  5. The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme and the Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme on soil-transmitted helminthiasis in schoolchildren in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Massa, Khalid; Magnussen, Pascal; Sheshe, Amir; Ntakamulenga, Robert; Ndawi, Benedict; Olsen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (LFEP) and the National Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme (NSSCP) on soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) was evaluated. In September 2004, before mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP in October, the prevalence and intensity of STH were recorded in 228 pupils in one primary school. After 8 months, all available pupils were re-examined, and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm had decreased from 0.9 to 0.7% (P=0.84), from 4.8 to 0.7% (P=0.004) and from 45.6 to 11.9% (P<0.001), respectively. Overall, 81.2% of the schoolchildren stated that they were treated by the LFEP in October 2004. After the 8 months follow-up, pupils were treated with praziquantel and albendazole by the present project (substitute for the NSSCP). After another 4 months (at 12 months follow-up), the prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced to 4.8% (P=0.003), while the prevalence of T. trichiura was reduced to 0.3% (P=0.54) and the prevalence of A. lumbricoides remained unchanged. Mass co-administration of ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP had a significant effect on STH, which was further amplified by treatment with praziquantel and albendazole 4 months later.

  6. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. 68.415 Section 68.415 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK...

  7. Path-programmable water droplet manipulations on an adhesion controlled superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Jaehong; Seung Lee, Jung; Kwon, Hyukho; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-07-01

    Here, we developed a novel and facile method to control the local water adhesion force of a thin and stretchable superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro-pillar arrays that allows the individual manipulation of droplet motions including moving, merging and mixing. When a vacuum pressure was applied below the PDMS substrate, a local dimple structure was formed and the water adhesion force of structure was significantly changed owing to the dynamically varied pillar density. With the help of the lowered water adhesion force and the slope angle of the formed dimple structure, the motion of individual water droplets could be precisely controlled, which facilitated the creation of a droplet-based microfluidic platform capable of a programmable manipulation of droplets. We showed that the platform could be used in newer and emerging microfluidic operations such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with extremely high sensing capability (10-15 M) and in vitro small interfering RNA transfection with enhanced transfection efficiency of ~80%.

  8. Path-programmable water droplet manipulations on an adhesion controlled superhydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Jaehong; Seung Lee, Jung; Kwon, Hyukho; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-01-01

    Here, we developed a novel and facile method to control the local water adhesion force of a thin and stretchable superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro-pillar arrays that allows the individual manipulation of droplet motions including moving, merging and mixing. When a vacuum pressure was applied below the PDMS substrate, a local dimple structure was formed and the water adhesion force of structure was significantly changed owing to the dynamically varied pillar density. With the help of the lowered water adhesion force and the slope angle of the formed dimple structure, the motion of individual water droplets could be precisely controlled, which facilitated the creation of a droplet-based microfluidic platform capable of a programmable manipulation of droplets. We showed that the platform could be used in newer and emerging microfluidic operations such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with extremely high sensing capability (10(-15) M) and in vitro small interfering RNA transfection with enhanced transfection efficiency of ~80%. PMID:26202206

  9. Path-programmable water droplet manipulations on an adhesion controlled superhydrophobic surface

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Jaehong; Seung Lee, Jung; Kwon, Hyukho; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-01-01

    Here, we developed a novel and facile method to control the local water adhesion force of a thin and stretchable superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro-pillar arrays that allows the individual manipulation of droplet motions including moving, merging and mixing. When a vacuum pressure was applied below the PDMS substrate, a local dimple structure was formed and the water adhesion force of structure was significantly changed owing to the dynamically varied pillar density. With the help of the lowered water adhesion force and the slope angle of the formed dimple structure, the motion of individual water droplets could be precisely controlled, which facilitated the creation of a droplet-based microfluidic platform capable of a programmable manipulation of droplets. We showed that the platform could be used in newer and emerging microfluidic operations such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with extremely high sensing capability (10−15 M) and in vitro small interfering RNA transfection with enhanced transfection efficiency of ~80%. PMID:26202206

  10. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001) increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001) and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001) were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases). Conclusions

  11. Computer aided design of digital controller for radial active magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Zhong; Shen, Zupei; Zhang, Zuming; Zhao, Hongbin

    1992-01-01

    A five degree of freedom Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system is developed which is controlled by digital controllers. The model of the radial AMB system is linearized and the state equation is derived. Based on the state variables feedback theory, digital controllers are designed. The performance of the controllers are evaluated according to experimental results. The Computer Aided Design (CAD) method is used to design controllers for magnetic bearings. The controllers are implemented with a digital signal processing (DSP) system. The control algorithms are realized with real-time programs. It is very easy to change the controller by changing or modifying the programs. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of the controlled magnetic system, a special experiment was carried out. Also, the online Recursive Least Squares (RLS) parameter identification method is studied. It can be realized with the digital controllers. Online parameter identification is essential for the realization of an adaptive controller.

  12. Computer aided design of digital controller for radial active magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhong; Shen, Zupei; Zhang, Zuming; Zhao, Hongbin

    1992-05-01

    A five degree of freedom Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system is developed which is controlled by digital controllers. The model of the radial AMB system is linearized and the state equation is derived. Based on the state variables feedback theory, digital controllers are designed. The performance of the controllers are evaluated according to experimental results. The Computer Aided Design (CAD) method is used to design controllers for magnetic bearings. The controllers are implemented with a digital signal processing (DSP) system. The control algorithms are realized with real-time programs. It is very easy to change the controller by changing or modifying the programs. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of the controlled magnetic system, a special experiment was carried out. Also, the online Recursive Least Squares (RLS) parameter identification method is studied. It can be realized with the digital controllers. Online parameter identification is essential for the realization of an adaptive controller.

  13. Costs Analysis of a Population Level Rabies Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

  14. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme. PMID:24587471

  15. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  16. Feasibility study of an integrated stroke self-management programme: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Fiona; Gage, Heather; Drummond, Avril; Bhalla, Ajay; Grant, Robert; Lennon, Sheila; McKevitt, Christopher; Riazi, Afsane; Liston, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test the feasibility of conducting a controlled trial into the effectiveness of a self-management programme integrated into stroke rehabilitation. Design A feasibility cluster-randomised design was utilised with stroke rehabilitation teams as units of randomisation. Setting Community-based stroke rehabilitation teams in London. Participants 78 patients with a diagnosis of stroke requiring community based rehabilitation. Intervention The intervention consisted of an individualised approach to self-management based on self-efficacy. Clinicians were trained to integrate defined self-management principles into scheduled rehabilitation sessions, supported by a patient-held workbook. Main outcomes measures Patient measures of quality of life, mood, self-efficacy and functional capacity, and health and social care utilisation, were carried out by blinded assessors at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Fidelity and acceptability of the delivery were evaluated by observation and interviews. Results 4 community stroke rehabilitation teams were recruited, and received a total of 317 stroke referrals over 14 months. Of these, 138 met trial eligibility criteria and 78 participants were finally recruited (56.5%). Demographic and baseline outcome measures were similar between intervention and control arms, with the exception of age. All outcome measures were feasible to use and clinical data at 12 weeks were completed for 66/78 participants (85%; 95% CI 75% to 92%). There was no significant difference in any of the outcomes between the arms of the trial, but measures of functional capacity and self-efficacy showed responsiveness to the intervention. Observation and interview data confirmed acceptability and fidelity of delivery according to predetermined criteria. Costs varied by site. Conclusions It was feasible to integrate a stroke self-management programme into community rehabilitation, using key principles. Some data were lost to follow-up, but overall

  17. Effectiveness of brief suicide management training programme for medical residents in Japan: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Kato, T A; Sato, R; Fujisawa, D; Aoyama-Uehara, K; Hashimoto, N; Yonemoto, N; Fukasawa, M; Otsuka, K

    2014-06-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief suicide management training programme for Japanese medical residents compared with the usual lecture on suicidality. Methods. In this multi-center, clustered randomized controlled trial, the intervention group attended a structured suicide management programme and the control group, the usual lecture on depression and suicidality. The primary outcome was the difference in residents' cumulative competency score to manage suicidal persons from baseline (T0) to 1 month after the intervention (T2), determined using the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-1) score, at individual level. Results. Analysis of 114 residents (intervention group n = 65, control group n = 49) assigned to two clusters in each group revealed no change in SIRI-1 score from T0 to T2 or immediately after the intervention (T1) between the two groups. As a secondary analysis, discrepancy in judgement between the participants and Japanese suicidologists was examined immediately after the intervention in the adjusted model, with a mean difference in score of 9.98 (95% confidence interval: 4.39-15.56; p = 0.001). Conclusions. The structured programme was not proven to improve competency in suicide management when measured by the SIRI-1 score. Further elaboration of the programme and valid measurement of its outcome would be needed to show the program's effectiveness.

  18. Anthrax control and research, with special reference to national programme development in Africa: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of anthrax in both animal and human populations has been increasing in Africa. It was therefore appropriate for this WHO meeting to be convened in an endemic area of the Western Province of Zambia in 1992. The participants reviewed anthrax epidemiology and control in some African countries, elaborated national anthrax control and research programmes in Africa, discussed international cooperation and work plans, and elaborated recommendations for anthrax control in Africa. The discussions centred on anthrax surveillance and reporting systems, diagnosis, vaccine production and immunization, disinfection and decontamination, carcass disposal, treatment of human cases, health systems, as well as intersectorial cooperation between public health services, veterinary services and other services such as wildlife conservation, so that national control programmes could take full account of the conditions prevailing in epidemic situations in Africa. The recommendations are applicable in other regions where anthrax poses similar problems in public, animal and environmental health. PMID:8131249

  19. Image Processing and control of a programmable spatial light modulator for optic damage protection

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A; Leach, R; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Matone, J; Heebner, J

    2010-12-06

    The heart of the National Ignition Facility is a megajoule-class laser system consisting of 192 beams used to drive inertial confinement fusion reactions. A recently installed system of programmable, liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulators adds the capability of arbitrarily shaping the spatial beam profiles in order to enhance operational flexibility. Its primary intended use is for introducing 'blocker' obscurations shadowing isolated flaws on downstream optical elements that would otherwise be damaged by high fluence laser illumination. Because an improperly shaped blocker pattern can lead to equipment damage, both the position and shape of the obscurations must be carefully verified prior to high-fluence operations. An automatic alignment algorithm is used to perform detection and estimation of the imposed blocker centroid positions compared to their intended locations. Furthermore, in order to minimize the spatially-varying nonlinear response of the device, a calibration of the local magnification is performed at multiple sub-image locations. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing of this device that helps to enhance the safety and longevity of the overall system.

  20. Human behavioural research applied to the leprosy control programme of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C

    1986-09-01

    In 1984, in Sarawak, there were a total of 1,099 recorded cases of leprosy for a population of 1.3 million. However, for each case recorded, it is estimated that two others remain undiagnosed as a consequence of the stigmatization associated with leprosy. For the five year period, 1979-1983, an average of 29 new cases were detected each year of which 8.6 (30%) were deformed due to the late stages at which it was being reported. To increase the case-finding rate, human behavioural research was applied to the leprosy control programme so as to develop culture-specific health education packages aimed at self diagnosis and self referral in order to detect the large pool of undiagnosed cases hidden behind the veil of aversion, fear and ignorance. This was achieved through anthropological studies to identify how the various major ethnic groups perceived leprosy and their attitudes towards leprosy. Taking into account these findings, health education packages aimed at adults as well as children were developed for the Chinese as well as the non-Chinese, and consisted of newspaper articles, cartoon tape-slides, cartoon story books and posters.

  1. An analysis of the impact of the Schistosomiasis Control Programme in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ronaldo Santos do; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Lima, David Duart; Engels, Dirk

    2006-09-01

    The impact of the Schistosomiasis Control Programme (PCE) in Brazil was analyzed, covering the period 1976 to 2003, using the following indicators: percentage of Schistosoma mansoni carriers detected among the population examined in the coproscopic surveys (PPS): mortality rate for schistosomiasis, per 100,000 inhabitants (TME): hospitalization rate for schistosomiasis, per 100,000 inhabitants (TIE): average age of deaths caused by schistosomiasis (IMOE). There was a 38.5% reduction in the PPS after the introduction of the PCE, attributed to the treatment of carriers. Even in hyper-endemic municipalities, such as Conde and Cuitegí, in the state of Paraíba, the PPS fell more than 50% after the first year of treatment. The parasitic burden of the carriers also decreased in the two municipalities. The TME was reduced by 63.4% and the TIE by 77.3%. The mortality rate was highest among the 50-and-above age group. The country's IMOE rose 32.3%. The IMOE was seen to be much lower in the state of Minas Gerais, where the PCE was only initiated in 1983, with very limited coverage. PMID:17308751

  2. Advanced control of MST's poloidal field with a programmable power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B. E.; Holly, D. J.; McCollam, K. J.; Morin, J. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Squitieri, A.; Anderson, J. K.; Seltzman, A. H.

    2015-11-01

    One thrust of the MST program is to advance inductive control for the development of both the RFP's fusion potential and the predictive capability of fusion science. This entails programmable power supplies (PPS's) for the Bt and Bp circuits. A Bt PPS is in place, and a Bp PPS is being designed. Together, these supplies will provide inductive capability rivaling that of any fusion device in the world. To better inform the design of the Bp PPS, and to demonstrate some of the new capabilities that will be provided, the existing Bt PPS has been connected to MST's Bp circuit. While limited to lower voltage and current than the planned Bp PPS, this has already more than quadrupled the Ip flattop duration. It has also allowed access to very low Ip, down to 20 kA, substantially increasing MST's range of Lundquist number, important for the validation of MHD computational models. Low Ip has also allowed electron energization by high-harmonic EBW. At higher Ip, work has begun on self-similar ramp-down of Ip, a potential route to improved confinement. Work supported by U.S.D.O.E.

  3. Programmable control of bacterial gene expression with the combined CRISPR and antisense RNA system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Je; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Leong, Matthew C; Moon, Tae Seok

    2016-03-18

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to implement diverse cellular functions by predictably controlling gene expression. Though research has focused more on protein regulators than RNA regulators, recent advances in our understanding of RNA folding and functions have motivated the use of RNA regulators. RNA regulators provide an advantage because they are easier to design and engineer than protein regulators, potentially have a lower burden on the cell and are highly orthogonal. Here, we combine the CRISPR system from Streptococcus pyogenes and synthetic antisense RNAs (asRNAs) in Escherichia coli strains to repress or derepress a target gene in a programmable manner. Specifically, we demonstrate for the first time that the gene target repressed by the CRISPR system can be derepressed by expressing an asRNA that sequesters a small guide RNA (sgRNA). Furthermore, we demonstrate that tunable levels of derepression can be achieved (up to 95%) by designing asRNAs that target different regions of a sgRNA and by altering the hybridization free energy of the sgRNA-asRNA complex. This new system, which we call the combined CRISPR and asRNA system, can be used to reversibly repress or derepress multiple target genes simultaneously, allowing for rational reprogramming of cellular functions.

  4. Programmable control of bacterial gene expression with the combined CRISPR and antisense RNA system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Je; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Leong, Matthew C.; Moon, Tae Seok

    2016-01-01

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to implement diverse cellular functions by predictably controlling gene expression. Though research has focused more on protein regulators than RNA regulators, recent advances in our understanding of RNA folding and functions have motivated the use of RNA regulators. RNA regulators provide an advantage because they are easier to design and engineer than protein regulators, potentially have a lower burden on the cell and are highly orthogonal. Here, we combine the CRISPR system from Streptococcus pyogenes and synthetic antisense RNAs (asRNAs) in Escherichia coli strains to repress or derepress a target gene in a programmable manner. Specifically, we demonstrate for the first time that the gene target repressed by the CRISPR system can be derepressed by expressing an asRNA that sequesters a small guide RNA (sgRNA). Furthermore, we demonstrate that tunable levels of derepression can be achieved (up to 95%) by designing asRNAs that target different regions of a sgRNA and by altering the hybridization free energy of the sgRNA–asRNA complex. This new system, which we call the combined CRISPR and asRNA system, can be used to reversibly repress or derepress multiple target genes simultaneously, allowing for rational reprogramming of cellular functions. PMID:26837577

  5. AIDS as a social phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bennett, F J

    1987-01-01

    AIDS as a new lethal and at present incurable sexually transmitted disease is already having remarkable social repercussions not yet fully explicit and hence it can be termed a social phenomenon. Political, behavioural, economic and legal reactions and social responses such as stigmatization, changes in the sick role and the growth of voluntary organizations and international collaboration are described. Communication, education and information aspects of AIDS are considered using material from the press and it is clear that a massive educational approach to modify behaviour must be the basis for a control programme. PMID:3317877

  6. A qualitative study on a 30-year trend of tobacco use and tobacco control programmes in Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Gh; Ahmady, A Ebn; Lando, H A; Chamyani, F; Masjedi, M; Shadmehr, M B; Fadaizadeh, L

    2016-08-18

    We conducted in-depth interviews with key tobacco control policy-makers to explore their views and opinions of trends in tobacco use and the effectiveness of tobacco control programmes over the past 3 decades. A qualitative interview study was conducted in 2014 using a grounded theory approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 86 key tobacco control policy-makers and data collection was based on principles of saturation. The core code "tobacco consumption and its control programme" was extracted and its related themes were listed. After review and classification by an expert panel, 9 categorized codes emerged. The final 31 codes were ordered according to their conceptual differentiations. Overall, tobacco consumption was constant over the past 3 decades; however it was increasing in females and young people and decreasing in older people; hookah consumption was increasing. A positive outcome is that tobacco use is now viewed negatively in the Islamic Republic of Iran, largely due to tobacco control programmes but the current situation is still not ideal and a comprehensive tobacco control law is needed.

  7. A qualitative study on a 30-year trend of tobacco use and tobacco control programmes in Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Gh; Ahmady, A Ebn; Lando, H A; Chamyani, F; Masjedi, M; Shadmehr, M B; Fadaizadeh, L

    2016-05-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with key tobacco control policy-makers to explore their views and opinions of trends in tobacco use and the effectiveness of tobacco control programmes over the past 3 decades. A qualitative interview study was conducted in 2014 using a grounded theory approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 86 key tobacco control policy-makers and data collection was based on principles of saturation. The core code "tobacco consumption and its control programme" was extracted and its related themes were listed. After review and classification by an expert panel, 9 categorized codes emerged. The final 31 codes were ordered according to their conceptual differentiations. Overall, tobacco consumption was constant over the past 3 decades; however it was increasing in females and young people and decreasing in older people; hookah consumption was increasing. A positive outcome is that tobacco use is now viewed negatively in the Islamic Republic of Iran, largely due to tobacco control programmes but the current situation is still not ideal and a comprehensive tobacco control law is needed. PMID:27553400

  8. Bangkok 2004. Drug control, human rights, and harm reduction in the age of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard

    2004-12-01

    In many countries, HIV prevalence among people who use illicit drugs is high. Yet many governments resist implementing effective HIV prevention measures, and drug users often lack access to care, treatment, and support, including for HIV/AIDS. Growing evidence indicates the dominant prohibitionist approach to illicit drugs is ineffective--and even counterproductive, blocking or undermining measures shown to reduce harms to drug users and to communities affected by open drug scenes. The growing debate over global drug control policy could shift us collectively away from the current, failed prescriptions to a more rational, pragmatic, and health-promoting framework of harm reduction. This article by Richard Elliott is an abridged version of a paper prepared for "Human Rights at the Margins: HIV/AIDS, Prisoners, Drug Users and the Law," a satellite meeting held in Bangkok on 9 July 2004, and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit (India). The article briefly outlines the impact of these two different policy approaches, examines international law on drug control, discusses how harm reduction reflects a human rights-based approach to drugs, and assesses some strategies for reforming global policy on illicit drugs. PMID:15812929

  9. The need for artificial intelligence as an aid in controlling a manufacturing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyand, J.

    AI applications to industrial production and planning are discussed and illustrated with diagrams and drawings. Applications examined include flexible automation of manufacturing processes (robots with open manual control, robots programmable to meet product specifications, self-regulated robots, and robots capable of learning), flexible fault detection and diagnostics, production control, and overall planning and management (product strategies, marketing, determination of development capacity, site selection, project organization, and technology investment strategies). For the case of robots, problems in the design and operation of a state-of-the-art machine-tool cell (for hole boring, milling, and joining) are analyzed in detail.

  10. Entomological aspects of the first five years of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J F; Davies, J B; Le Berre, R

    1979-09-01

    The history and structure of the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin are described. An outline of the vector control operations is given, and the techniques and organisation of the entomological evaluation network are described in detail. During the course of the evaluation and related studies undertaken between November 1974 and October 1978 almost 1.2 million S. damnosum females have been taken in over 52,000 man days of catching, and 674,000 flies were dissected. An assessment based on this effort using Annual Biting Rates and Annual Transmission Potentials shows that the transmission of O. volvulus has been reduced to below a defined maximum permissible level over most of the central part of the Programme Area. The difficulties encountered in the remainder, and at certain problem sites are outlined and relevant data given. The benefits to be expected from extending the area further southwards and the possibilities of later reductions in control activity are discussed.

  11. An evidence-based shared decision making programme on the prevention of myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes: protocol of a randomised-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of patient involvement in decision making has been suggested as one reason for limited treatment success. Concepts such as shared decision making may contribute to high quality healthcare by supporting patients to make informed decisions together with their physicians. A multi-component shared decision making programme on the prevention of heart attack in type 2 diabetes has been developed. It aims at improving the quality of decision-making by providing evidence-based patient information, enhancing patients’ knowledge, and supporting them to actively participate in decision-making. In this study the efficacy of the programme is evaluated in the setting of a diabetes clinic. Methods/Design A single blinded randomised-controlled trial is conducted to compare the shared decision making programme with a control-intervention. The intervention consists of an evidence-based patient decision aid on the prevention of myocardial infarction and a corresponding counselling module provided by diabetes educators. Similar in duration and structure, the control-intervention targets nutrition, sports, and stress coping. A total of 154 patients between 40 and 69 years of age with type 2 diabetes and no previous diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or stroke are enrolled and allocated either to the intervention or the control-intervention. Primary outcome measure is the patients’ knowledge on benefits and harms of heart attack prevention captured by a standardised knowledge test. Key secondary outcome measure is the achievement of treatment goals prioritised by the individual patient. Treatment goals refer to statin taking, HbA1c-, blood pressure levels and smoking status. Outcomes are assessed directly after the counselling and at 6 months follow-up. Analyses will be carried out on intention-to-treat basis. Concurrent qualitative methods are used to explore intervention fidelity and to gain insight into implementation processes. Discussion Interventions to

  12. Effect of the HamSprint Drills training programme on lower limb neuromuscular control in Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Matthew L; Adams, Roger D; Maher, Chris G; Misson, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the HamSprint Drills training programme and conventional football practice warm-up on lower limb neuromuscular control. The purpose-built active movement extent discrimination apparatus was used to assess lower limb neuromuscular control in 29 footballers from one professional Australian Football League club. Without vision of the contact point, participants performed 40 backward swing movement trials with each leg and made a judgment of the magnitude of each movement. Scores representing the ability to discriminate between different movement extents were calculated as the area under the player's receiver operating characteristic curve, constructed using non-parametric signal detection theory methods. Participants were randomized to either an intervention or control group that performed different procedures in the warm-up prior to football practice sessions over a 6-week period, and then were re-tested. The intervention group performed the HamSprint programme-drills specific to the improvement of running technique, co-ordination and hamstring function. The control group performed their usual warm-up of stretching, running, and increasingly intense football drills. Backward leg swing extent discrimination was significantly better in players following the 6-week HamSprint programme when compared to discrimination scores of players who performed their usual practice warm-up only. Significant improvement was observed in lower limb neuromuscular control in movements similar to the late-swing early stance phase of running. The HamSprint programme can therefore improve control in a specific aspect of sensorimotor system performance, and this may be useful particularly in athletes who have lower function levels or those deemed at risk of hamstring injury.

  13. Programmable Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

    2011-01-01

    A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

  14. Use of computer aided drafting for analysis and control of posture in manual work.

    PubMed

    Ulin, S S; Armstrong, T J; Radwin, R G

    1990-06-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) in conjunction with digitised anthropometric manikins can be used for analysis and control of stressful work postures, one of the most frequently cited occupational risk factors of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. This paper describes the use of macros for manipulating manikins and workstation components and for designing the workplace. AutoCAD, a popular computer aided design software package, was used to demonstrate the feasibility of these concepts. Specifically, macros are used for drawing work equipment using parametric designs, manipulating manikins and analysing jobs. In comparing the macros to the use of primitive CAD commands, the macros not only decrease the amount of time needed to create workstation components, but they also make the task easier for the user and decrease the risk of errors. Despite the limitation of anthropometric data and manikins, CAD is an effective method for identifying postural stresses and redesigning the workstation to control the identified stresses. PMID:15676770

  15. Disruptive technology for vector control: the Innovative Vector Control Consortium and the US Military join forces to explore transformative insecticide application technology for mosquito control programmes.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jennifer; Macdonald, Michael; Malone, David; Hamon, Nicholas; Richardson, Jason H

    2015-09-26

    Malaria vector control technology has remained largely static for decades and there is a pressing need for innovative control tools and methodology to radically improve the quality and efficiency of current vector control practices. This report summarizes a workshop jointly organized by the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) and the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB) focused on public health pesticide application technology. Three main topics were discussed: the limitations with current tools and techniques used for indoor residual spraying (IRS), technology innovation to improve efficacy of IRS programmes, and truly disruptive application technology beyond IRS. The group identified several opportunities to improve application technology to include: insuring all IRS programmes are using constant flow valves and erosion resistant tips; introducing compression sprayer improvements that help minimize pesticide waste and human error; and moving beyond IRS by embracing the potential for new larval source management techniques and next generation technology such as unmanned "smart" spray systems. The meeting served to lay the foundation for broader collaboration between the IVCC and AFPMB and partners in industry, the World Health Organization, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others.

  16. Disruptive technology for vector control: the Innovative Vector Control Consortium and the US Military join forces to explore transformative insecticide application technology for mosquito control programmes.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jennifer; Macdonald, Michael; Malone, David; Hamon, Nicholas; Richardson, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Malaria vector control technology has remained largely static for decades and there is a pressing need for innovative control tools and methodology to radically improve the quality and efficiency of current vector control practices. This report summarizes a workshop jointly organized by the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) and the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB) focused on public health pesticide application technology. Three main topics were discussed: the limitations with current tools and techniques used for indoor residual spraying (IRS), technology innovation to improve efficacy of IRS programmes, and truly disruptive application technology beyond IRS. The group identified several opportunities to improve application technology to include: insuring all IRS programmes are using constant flow valves and erosion resistant tips; introducing compression sprayer improvements that help minimize pesticide waste and human error; and moving beyond IRS by embracing the potential for new larval source management techniques and next generation technology such as unmanned "smart" spray systems. The meeting served to lay the foundation for broader collaboration between the IVCC and AFPMB and partners in industry, the World Health Organization, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others. PMID:26409879

  17. Evaluating the potential impact of enhancing HIV treatment and tuberculosis control programmes on the burden of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Menzies, Nicolas A.; Pretorius, Carel; Stover, John; Salomon, Joshua A.; Cohen, Ted

    2015-01-01

    HIV has fuelled increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Better control of TB in this region may be achieved directly through TB programme improvements and indirectly through expanded use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among those with HIV. We used a mathematical model of TB and HIV in South Africa to examine the potential epidemiological impact in scenarios involving improvements in three dimensions of TB programmes: coverage, diagnosis and treatment effectiveness, as well as expanded ART use through broadened eligibility. We projected the effect of alternative scenarios on TB prevalence, incidence and TB-related mortality over 20 years. Of the three dimensions of TB programme improvement, expanding coverage would produce the greatest reduction in TB burden. Compared with current performance, combined TB programme improvements were projected to decrease TB incidence by 30% over 5 years and 46% over 20 years, and decrease TB-related mortality by 45% over 5 years and 69% over 20 years. Expanded ART eligibility was projected to decrease TB incidence by 22% over 5 years and 45% over 20 years, and TB-related mortality by 22% over 5 years and 50% over 20 years. We found that over a 20-year horizon, TB-specific and HIV-specific programme changes contribute equally to incidence reductions, whereas the TB-specific changes produce a majority of the mortality benefits. An aggressive expansion of ART alongside traditional TB-specific control measures has the potential to greatly reduce TB burden, with the different elements of a combined approach having a synergistic effect in reducing long-term TB incidence and mortality. PMID:25878131

  18. Effects of infectious young stock on results of certification, surveillance and control programmes for paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Weber, M F; Groenendaal, H

    2012-01-27

    In many epidemiological models for paratuberculosis, it is assumed that infected young stock (<2 years of age) do not shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) before adulthood. If this assumption were true, the effective separation of young stock from adult cattle (≥ 2 years) would largely prevent postnatal infections, provided that uninfected adult cattle are highly resistant to infection. However, this assumption is in contrast with observed faecal shedding of MAP in young stock. Consequently, this assumption may have resulted in an underestimation of the effects of MAP transmission in herds participating in certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effects of transmission of MAP amongst young stock on key output parameters of certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis in simulated closed dairy herds. Closed Dutch dairy herds participating in a paratuberculosis programme were simulated with a stochastic model, JohneSSim. Various test schemes, preventive management measures, distributions of age at onset of faecal shedding and rates of effective contacts between young stock were simulated. The results indicate that transmission of MAP amongst young stock has no relevant effects on the animal-level prevalence and milk quality of herds that are certified in a paratuberculosis programme. However, transmission of MAP amongst young stock increased the economic losses due to paratuberculosis and costs of participation in a programme. Moreover, it substantially decreased the beneficial effect of the separation of young stock from adult cattle on the probability of being certified. However, even in the presence of transmission of MAP amongst young stock, preventive management measures to separate young stock from adult cattle remain important.

  19. Evaluating the potential impact of enhancing HIV treatment and tuberculosis control programmes on the burden of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Menzies, Nicolas A; Pretorius, Carel; Stover, John; Salomon, Joshua A; Cohen, Ted

    2015-05-01

    HIV has fuelled increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Better control of TB in this region may be achieved directly through TB programme improvements and indirectly through expanded use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among those with HIV. We used a mathematical model of TB and HIV in South Africa to examine the potential epidemiological impact in scenarios involving improvements in three dimensions of TB programmes: coverage, diagnosis and treatment effectiveness, as well as expanded ART use through broadened eligibility. We projected the effect of alternative scenarios on TB prevalence, incidence and TB-related mortality over 20 years. Of the three dimensions of TB programme improvement, expanding coverage would produce the greatest reduction in TB burden. Compared with current performance, combined TB programme improvements were projected to decrease TB incidence by 30% over 5 years and 46% over 20 years, and decrease TB-related mortality by 45% over 5 years and 69% over 20 years. Expanded ART eligibility was projected to decrease TB incidence by 22% over 5 years and 45% over 20 years, and TB-related mortality by 22% over 5 years and 50% over 20 years. We found that over a 20-year horizon, TB-specific and HIV-specific programme changes contribute equally to incidence reductions, whereas the TB-specific changes produce a majority of the mortality benefits. An aggressive expansion of ART alongside traditional TB-specific control measures has the potential to greatly reduce TB burden, with the different elements of a combined approach having a synergistic effect in reducing long-term TB incidence and mortality.

  20. Anopheline Larval Habitats Seasonality and Species Distribution: A Prerequisite for Effective Targeted Larval Habitats Control Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Zhou, Guofa; Munga, Stephen; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Atieli, Harrysone E.; Nyindo, Mramba; Githeko, Andrew K.; Yan, Guiyun

    2012-01-01

    programme should be targeted with larval habitats succession information when larval habitats are fewer and manageable. Crop cycles and distance from habitats to household should be considered as effective information in planning larval control. PMID:23272215

  1. The effects of a three-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in elderly institutionalized women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Molloy, D W; Richardson, L D; Crilly, R G

    1988-09-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a 3-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in a population of very elderly institutionalized women. Baseline neuropsychological testing was performed, and following 3 months of exercise or control intervention, subjects were retested 3-7 days after the completion of the study period. Apart from the Word Fluency Test, there was no significant improvement in any of the neuropsychological test scores. This study may not have shown any significant improvement in neuropsychological function because our exercise programme was too light to improve aerobic fitness, or because neuropsychological tests were repeated 3-7 days after exercise was completed and any acute effects of exercise may have disappeared by that time.

  2. Bayesian estimation of prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy herds enrolled in a voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Messam, Locksley L McV; Good, Margaret; Mullowney, Peter; Strain, Sam; Green, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some evidence exists to suggest a possible zoonotic link and a national voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme was initiated by Animal Health Ireland in 2013. The objective of this study was to estimate herd-level true prevalence (HTP) and animal-level true prevalence (ATP) of paratuberculosis in Irish herds enrolled in the national voluntary JD control programme during 2013-14. Two datasets were used in this study. The first dataset had been collected in Ireland during 2005 (5822 animals from 119 herds), and was used to construct model priors. Model priors were updated with a primary (2013-14) dataset which included test records from 99,101 animals in 1039 dairy herds and was generated as part of the national voluntary JD control programme. The posterior estimate of HTP from the final Bayesian model was 0.23-0.34 with a 95% probability. Across all herds, the median ATP was found to be 0.032 (0.009, 0.145). This study represents the first use of Bayesian methodology to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in Irish dairy herds. The HTP estimate was higher than previous Irish estimates but still lower than estimates from other major dairy producing countries. PMID:27237395

  3. Description of extended pre-harvest pig Salmonella surveillance-and-control programme and its estimated effect on food safety related to pork.

    PubMed

    Alban, L; Barfod, K; Petersen, J V; Dahl, J; Ajufo, J C; Sandø, G; Krog, H H; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.

  4. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. Objective To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Methods Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Results Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). Conclusions These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. PMID:26399611

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Schistosomiasis among Children in Yemen: Implications for an Effective Control Programme

    PubMed Central

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen. Methods/Findings Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤10 years (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001), low household monthly income (P = 0.003), using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003), living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006) and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002) were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children. Conclusions/Significance This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused

  6. Uptake of Mass Drug Administration Programme for Schistosomiasis Control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bagonza, James; Kiracho, Elizabeth Ekirapa; Yeka, Adoke; Elliott, Alison M.; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA) programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda. Methods In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012) MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers. Results Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615), 95% confidence interval (CI) 40.8–48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6%) reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22–2.81) and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67–9.65). Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands. Conclusions Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education

  7. Multidimensional complexities of filariasis control in an era of large-scale mass drug administration programmes: a can of worms.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H; Hopkins, Adrian; Bradley, Mark H; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of control and elimination programmes by mass drug administration (MDA) targeting onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades has resulted in significantly reduced prevalence and intensity of infection, with some areas interrupting transmission. However, given that these infections are often co-endemic and the drugs (either ivermectin alone or combined with albendazole) also impact on soil transmitted helminths (STH), the importance of this, in terms of reaching the global goals has not been assessed. The additional problem posed by Loa loa, where ivermectin cannot be safely administered due to the risk of serious adverse events compounds this situation and has left populations drug naïve and an alternative strategy to eliminate LF is yet to be initiated at scale. Here, we present a series of operational research questions, which must be addressed if the effectiveness of integrated control of filarial and helminth infections is to be understood for the endgame. This is particularly important in the diverse and dynamic epidemiological landscape, which has emerged as a result of the long-term large-scale mass drug administration (or not). There is a need for a more holistic approach to address these questions. Different programmes should examine this increased complexity, given that MDA has multiple impacts, drugs are given over different periods, and programmes have different individual targets. PMID:25128408

  8. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Brett R; Farrelly, Matthew C; Mann, Nathan H

    2006-01-01

    Background Retail stores are the primary medium for marketing cigarettes to smokers in the US. The prevalence and characteristics of cigarette retail advertising and promotions have been described by several investigators. Less is known about the proportion of cigarette sales occurring as part of a retail promotion and about the effects of tobacco control policies on cigarette promotions. Objective To estimate the effect of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), state tobacco control programme funding and cigarette taxes on retail promotions for cigarettes in supermarkets in the US. Outcome measures Proportion of cigarette sales occurring under a retail promotion and the value of multipack promotions (eg, buy one pack, get one pack free) and cents‐off promotions, measured using scanner data in supermarkets from 50 retail market areas from 1994 to 2004. Results Promoted cigarette sales have increased significantly since the MSA (p<0.01), and are higher in market areas with high tobacco control programme funding (p<0.01) and high cigarette tax (p<0.01). The value of a multipack promotion is higher since the MSA (p<0.01) and in market areas with high cigarette tax (p<0.01). The value of a cents‐off promotion is negatively related to the MSA (p<0.01), with mixed results for tobacco control programme funding (p<0.05), and is unassociated with tax. Conclusions Higher promoted cigarette sales and increased promotional values in market areas with strong tobacco control policies, compared with market areas with weaker tobacco control policies, may partially offset the decline in smoking achieved in those areas. PMID:17130375

  9. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the community and registered with a general practice in Dunedin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of falls and injuries related to falls and time between falls during one year of follow up; changes in muscle strength and balance measures after six months. RESULTS: After one year there were 152 falls in the control group and 88 falls in the exercise group. The mean (SD) rate of falls was lower in the exercise than the control group (0.87 (1.29) v 1.34 (1.93) falls per year respectively; difference 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.90). The relative hazard for the first four falls in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.68 (0.52 to 0.90). The relative hazard for a first fall with injury in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.61 (0.39 to 0.97). After six months, balance had improved in the exercise group (difference between groups in change in balance score 0.43 (0.21 to 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: An individual programme of strength and balance retraining exercises improved physical function and was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women 80 years and older. PMID:9366737

  10. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Blevins, Meridith; Wester, C William; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Ekouevi, Didier K; Egger, Matthias; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine C; Nash, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20), Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7), North America (n=7), Central Africa (n=12), East Africa (n=51), Southern Africa (n=16) and West Africa (n=15). We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr): 33–100%) and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%). Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB) screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%), combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) (94%) and other prevention and clinical management services (97%) – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46%) of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI), especially those in the President's Emergency Plan

  11. An Estimation of Mortality Risks among People Living with HIV in Karnataka State, India: Learnings from an Intensive HIV/AIDS Care and Support Programme

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Isac, Shajy; Washington, Reynold; Halli, Shiva S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Indian context, limited attempts have been made to estimate the mortality risks among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We estimated the rates of mortality among PLHIV covered under an integrated HIV-prevention cum care and support programme implemented in Karnataka state, India, and attempted to identify the key programme components associated with the higher likelihood of their survival. Methods Retrospective programme data of 55,801 PLHIV registered with the Samastha programme implemented in Karnataka state during 2006–11 was used. Kaplan-Meier survival methods were used to estimate the ten years expected survival probabilities and Cox-proportional hazard model was used to examine the factors associated with risk of mortality among PLHIV. We also calculated mortality rates (per 1000 person-year) across selected demographic and clinical parameters. Results Of the total PLHIV registered with the programme, about nine percent died within the 5-years of programme period with an overall death rate of 38 per 1000 person-years. The mortality rate was higher among males, aged 18 and above, among illiterates, and those residing in rural areas. While the presence of co-infections such as Tuberculosis leads to higher mortality rate, adherence to ART was significantly associated with reduction in overall death rate. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that increase in CD4 cell counts and exposure to intensive care and support programme for at least two years can bring significant reduction in risk of death among PLHIV [(hazard ratio: 0.234; CI: 0.211–0.260) & (hazard ratio: 0.062; CI: 0.054–0.071), respectively] even after adjusting the effect of other socio-demographic, economic and health related confounders. Conclusion Study confirms that while residing in rural areas and presence of co-infection significantly increases the mortality risk among PLHIV, adherence to ART and improvement in CD4 counts led to significant reduction in their mortality risk

  12. The Battle Over Control: A Discourse Analysis of HIV/AIDS Caregiving in South Africa, Past and Present.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Vania

    2016-05-01

    In this discourse analytic article, I discuss the shifting challenges of HIV/AIDS caregiving, as highlighted in previous research, as well as the similarities between past and present challenges as illustrated by the discourses of HIV/AIDS caregivers at a nonprofit organization in South Africa. Using data from interviews with staff members and volunteers, I illustrate how both past and contemporary challenges in HIV/AIDS caregiving relate to an inability to exercise control. Participants' discourses revealed a contrast whereby, on one hand, they conveyed a sense of being in control over HIV, while, contradictorily, their accounts contained instances of lack or loss of control. I discuss the implications of barriers to control in HIV/AIDS caregiving and the role of communication and interaction research. I conclude by endorsing ongoing, regular assessments of the needs of those undertaking such work in order to identify their evolving needs in light of evolving challenges.

  13. Integration of health systems and priority health interventions: a case study of the integration of HIV and TB control programmes into the general health system in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Conseil, Alexandra; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    This case study on Vietnam aims to generate empirical evidence on the relative merits of integration of two priority health interventions, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB), into six functions of the wider health system: stewardship and governance, service delivery, demand generation, monitoring and evaluation, planning, and financing. Selective documentary reviews and 25 qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted in early 2009 in Hanoi, Hai Duong province, Chih Linh district and Hoang Tien commune with informants from international, national and sub-national agencies steering or managing the HIV/AIDS and TB programmes and from health facilities providing HIV/AIDS and TB services. Data collected were collated and evaluated against 25 elements of integration. Each element of integration was ultimately classified as being 'fully/predominantly integrated', 'partially integrated', 'not or predominantly not integrated'. The results showed that none of the six programme functions was fully integrated into the general health care system as a whole. They were established either in parallel, notably at higher administrative levels, or were partially integrated. The study findings also revealed that little integration across all functional levels has occurred between the two programmes. Generally international agencies and sub-national domestic stakeholders supported more integration between vertical programmes (HIV and TB) and the general health systems, while national bodies responsible for HIV and TB favoured reinforcing a more vertical and thus less integrated approach. In the absence of shared assumptions and goals, this polarization of views may result in sub-optimal effectiveness and efficiency of each of the disease programmes as well as of HIV/TB interventions.

  14. Integration of health systems and priority health interventions: a case study of the integration of HIV and TB control programmes into the general health system in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Conseil, Alexandra; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    This case study on Vietnam aims to generate empirical evidence on the relative merits of integration of two priority health interventions, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB), into six functions of the wider health system: stewardship and governance, service delivery, demand generation, monitoring and evaluation, planning, and financing. Selective documentary reviews and 25 qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted in early 2009 in Hanoi, Hai Duong province, Chih Linh district and Hoang Tien commune with informants from international, national and sub-national agencies steering or managing the HIV/AIDS and TB programmes and from health facilities providing HIV/AIDS and TB services. Data collected were collated and evaluated against 25 elements of integration. Each element of integration was ultimately classified as being 'fully/predominantly integrated', 'partially integrated', 'not or predominantly not integrated'. The results showed that none of the six programme functions was fully integrated into the general health care system as a whole. They were established either in parallel, notably at higher administrative levels, or were partially integrated. The study findings also revealed that little integration across all functional levels has occurred between the two programmes. Generally international agencies and sub-national domestic stakeholders supported more integration between vertical programmes (HIV and TB) and the general health systems, while national bodies responsible for HIV and TB favoured reinforcing a more vertical and thus less integrated approach. In the absence of shared assumptions and goals, this polarization of views may result in sub-optimal effectiveness and efficiency of each of the disease programmes as well as of HIV/TB interventions. PMID:20966106

  15. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-Up Programme in Male Youth Football: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi B A; Akinbo, Sunday R A; Tella, Bosede A; Olawale, Olajide A

    2014-05-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a structured warm-up programme specially designed to prevent injuries among football players from age 14 years and above. However, studies to prove its efficacy are generally few and it is yet to be tested in male youth footballers and among African players. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ programme in reducing the risk of injuries among male youth football players of the Lagos Junior League. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. All the 20 teams (414 players aged 14 -19 years) in the Premier League division were block-randomised into either an intervention (INT) or a control (CON) group. The INT group performed the FIFA 11+ exercises as warm-up during training sessions and the CON group performed usual warm-up. Participating teams were prospectively followed through an entire league season of 6 months in which they were visited every week to assess injured players for time-loss injuries in both groups. The primary outcomes were any injury to the players, injuries by type of exposure and injuries specific to the lower extremities. The secondary outcomes were injuries reported by body location, aetiology, mechanism and severity. In total, 130 injuries were recorded affecting 104 (25%) of the 416 players. Team and player compliance with the INT was 60% and 74% respectively. Based on the primary outcome measures of the study, the FIFA 11+ programme significantly reduced the overall rate of injury in the INT group by 41% [RR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40 - 0.86; p = 0.006)] and all lower extremity injuries by 48% [RR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.34 - 0.82; p = 0.004)]. However, the rate of injury reduction based on secondary outcomes mostly did not reach the level of statistical significance. The FIFA 11+ programme is effective in reducing the rates of injuries in male youth football players. Key pointsThe FIFA 11+ has only been tested in randomised controlled trials conducted on female youth football players; this study

  16. Health protection: communicable disease, public health and infection control educational programmes--a case study from the UK.

    PubMed

    El-Ansari, W; Privett, S

    2005-04-01

    The health protection (HP) landscape is changing. Issues related to infectious diseases in the context of global health are receiving the attention of world leaders and policy makers. In the UK, the national health policies resonate with such transformations, presenting a range of opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include the formation of a new national organisation dedicated to protecting the people's health and reducing the impact of infectious disease, the Health Protection Agency. The opportunities also include the opening of non-medical specialists's pathways in public health. The challenges represent the limited number of centres offering infection control education; the hospital focus and bias of the courses; new, resurgent and emerging infections; globalisation and travel; bacterial resistance; vaccine safety and coverage; bioterrorism; global response capacity; and visa restrictions. Within this context, this paper presents a case study of a HP educational programme at a British university in the south of England. It outlines the course design and philosophy, participants, recruitment, aims, descriptions and learning outcomes. A range of teething problems associated with the initiation and running of such programmes is considered. These include aspects related to the university, features associated with the modules, characteristics of the students, and other interconnected larger scale international issues. Some suggestions for the way forward are presented. Collectively, attention to the suggested measures can ensure that the processes that teaching programmes embrace to refine their content and delivery will equip tomorrow's professionals with the requisite HP knowledge and skills. PMID:15733695

  17. Health protection: communicable disease, public health and infection control educational programmes--a case study from the UK.

    PubMed

    El-Ansari, W; Privett, S

    2005-04-01

    The health protection (HP) landscape is changing. Issues related to infectious diseases in the context of global health are receiving the attention of world leaders and policy makers. In the UK, the national health policies resonate with such transformations, presenting a range of opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include the formation of a new national organisation dedicated to protecting the people's health and reducing the impact of infectious disease, the Health Protection Agency. The opportunities also include the opening of non-medical specialists's pathways in public health. The challenges represent the limited number of centres offering infection control education; the hospital focus and bias of the courses; new, resurgent and emerging infections; globalisation and travel; bacterial resistance; vaccine safety and coverage; bioterrorism; global response capacity; and visa restrictions. Within this context, this paper presents a case study of a HP educational programme at a British university in the south of England. It outlines the course design and philosophy, participants, recruitment, aims, descriptions and learning outcomes. A range of teething problems associated with the initiation and running of such programmes is considered. These include aspects related to the university, features associated with the modules, characteristics of the students, and other interconnected larger scale international issues. Some suggestions for the way forward are presented. Collectively, attention to the suggested measures can ensure that the processes that teaching programmes embrace to refine their content and delivery will equip tomorrow's professionals with the requisite HP knowledge and skills.

  18. Robot Arm Control and Having Meal Aid System with Eye Based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    Robot arm control and having meal aid system with eye based HCI is proposed. The proposed system allows disabled person to select desirable food from the meal tray by their eyes only. Robot arm which is used for retrieving the desirable food is controlled by human eye. At the tip of the robot arm, tiny camera is equipped. Disabled person wear a glass of which a single Head Mount Display: HMD and tiny camera is mounted so that disabled person can take a look at the desired food and retrieve it by looking at the food displayed onto HMD. Experimental results show that disabled person can retrieve the desired food successfully. It also is confirmed that robot arm control by eye based HCI is much faster than that by hands.

  19. Stochastic control of light UAV at landing with the aid of bearing-only observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris

    2015-12-01

    This work considers the tracking of the UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle) at landing on unprepared field. Despite the advantages in UAV guidance the autonomous landing remains to be one of most serious problems. The principal difficulties are the absence of the precise UAV position measurements with respect to the landing field and the action of external atmospheric perturbations (turbulence and wind). So the control problem for UAV landing is the nonlinear stochastic one with incomplete information. The aim of the article is the development of stochastic control algorithms based on pseudomeasurement Kalman filter in the problem of the UAV autonomous landing with the aid of ground-based optical/radio radars in the case of strong wind and large initial error of the UAV entrance into the area covered by radars. The novelty of the article is the joint control-observation algorithm based on unbiased pseudomeasurement Kalman filter which provides the quadratic characteristics of the estimation errors. The later property is highly important for the UAV control based on the data fusion from INS (inertial navigation system) and the bearing observations obtained from external terrain based locators. The principal difficulty in the UAV landing control is the absence of the direct control tools at the terrain end, so the possible control can be based on the angular-range data obtained by terrain locators which must be transmitted from terrain location station to the UAV control unit. Thus the stochastic approach looks very effective in this challenging problem of the UAV landing.

  20. UN/Thai programme for drug abuse control in Thailand-A report on phase I:February 1972-June 1979.

    PubMed

    Williams, I M

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the principal achievements of the UN/Thai programme for drug abuse control which was carried out during the years 1972-1979. The programme was of a pilot nature and covered five selected key villages and 25 satellite villages in the north of Thailand. The major components of the programme were crop replacement and community development, treatment and rehabilitation, and drug information and education. The Royal Thai Government has accepted the achievements of this project as models for greatly expanded programmes for the eradication of the opium poppy cultivation. Two key villages-Ban Mae Tho and Hui Tund Jaw which were included in a pilot programme have provided to be opium free.

  1. System design specification for rotary mode core sample trucks No. 2, 3, and 4 programmable logic controller

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, J.L.; Akers, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The system this document describes controls several functions of the Core Sample Truck(s) used to obtain nuclear waste samples from various underground storage tanks at Hanford. The system will monitor the sampling process and provide alarms and other feedback to insure the sampling process is performed within the prescribed operating envelope. The intended audience for this document is anyone associated with rotary or push mode core sampling. This document describes the Alarm and Control logic installed on Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) {number_sign}2, 3, and 4. It is intended to define the particular requirements of the RMCST alarm and control operation (not defined elsewhere) sufficiently for detailed design to implement on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

  2. Consultation on the Monitoring and Evaluation of AIDS Education/Health Promotion Programmes (Copenhagen, Denmark, May 2-4, 1990). Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    Thirteen participants from 11 countries, including experts in public health, health education, social sciences, epidemiology, planning, policy-making, and program management, took part in a consultation on the monitoring and evaluation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education and health promotion programs in Copenhagen. A…

  3. Time interval since last test in a breast cancer screening programme: a case-control study in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D; Rosselli del Turco, M; Buiatti, E; Ciatto, S; Crocetti, E; Paci, E

    1989-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a population based screening programme for breast cancer. DESIGN: This was a case-control study of women dying of breast cancer between 1977 and 1987 who had been invited to take part in a screening programme. SETTING: Community based study of women aged between 40 and 70 years (total population about 35,000 at 1981 census), living in 23 small towns near Florence, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: 103 cases were identified from death certification, and 515 living controls (five per case) selected for year of birth and town of residence. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Screening history was obtained from computer archive. Sociodemographic information was obtained from town registry offices and directly from relatives of the deceased and from the controls by postal questionnaire, and if necessary telephone or personal interview. Analysis was carried out on two age groups--40-49 years and 50+ years at diagnosis--and considered the number of screening tests and the time interval since the last test, separately and together. In the older age group, women with at least one screening test in the previous 2 1/2 years showed a 50% reduction in risk (odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.95). If they had also had another previous negative screen the risk was reduced to one third (odds ratio 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.85). There was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of screens in older women. No clear evidence of a similar protective effect was shown for women in the 40-49 year age group. CONCLUSIONS: A significant protective effect of the screening programme is evident in older women but not in younger ones. The data do not allow an assessment of optimal screening interval because of the small number of previously screened cases. PMID:2607303

  4. Entomological aspects of the first five years of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J F; Davies, J B; Le Berre, R

    1979-09-01

    The history and structure of the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin are described. An outline of the vector control operations is given, and the techniques and organisation of the entomological evaluation network are described in detail. During the course of the evaluation and related studies undertaken between November 1974 and October 1978 almost 1.2 million S. damnosum females have been taken in over 52,000 man days of catching, and 674,000 flies were dissected. An assessment based on this effort using Annual Biting Rates and Annual Transmission Potentials shows that the transmission of O. volvulus has been reduced to below a defined maximum permissible level over most of the central part of the Programme Area. The difficulties encountered in the remainder, and at certain problem sites are outlined and relevant data given. The benefits to be expected from extending the area further southwards and the possibilities of later reductions in control activity are discussed. PMID:543001

  5. Validation of space/ground antenna control algorithms using a computer-aided design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1995-01-01

    The validation of the algorithms for controlling the space-to-ground antenna subsystem for Space Station Alpha is an important step in assuring reliable communications. These algorithms have been developed and tested using a simulation environment based on a computer-aided design tool that can provide a time-based execution framework with variable environmental parameters. Our work this summer has involved the exploration of this environment and the documentation of the procedures used to validate these algorithms. We have installed a variety of tools in a laboratory of the Tracking and Communications division for reproducing the simulation experiments carried out on these algorithms to verify that they do meet their requirements for controlling the antenna systems. In this report, we describe the processes used in these simulations and our work in validating the tests used.

  6. Epidemiological Features and Effectiveness of Schistosomiasis Control Programme in Lake and Marshland Region in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-Q; Sun, C-S; Wang, M; Lin, D-D; Zhou, X-N; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of neglected tropical diseases in the world. The People's Republic of China has made great achievements in schistosomiasis control through integrated interventions. Although the morbidity and mortality have been reduced to the lowest level in all three endemic regions, namely lake and marshland regions, hilly and mountainous regions and plains with waterway networks regions, the endemic status in lake and marshland region is still that of implementing the interventions in the higher endemicity areas towards elimination of schistosomiasis transmission. This review explores and analyses the endemic characteristics, control measures and its effectiveness in the course of schistosomiasis control programme, in order to provide more theoretical information and experiences for development of appropriate strategies leading to schistosomiasis elimination in the next stage in the country. PMID:27137442

  7. A cluster-randomised controlled trial of a physical activity and nutrition programme in retirement villages: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Anne-Marie; Jancey, Jonine; Lee, Andy H; Kerr, Deborah A; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S; Howat, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity levels of Australia's ageing population are declining and coincidentally rates of overweight and obesity are increasing. Adequate levels of physical activity and a healthy diet are recognised as important lifestyle factors for the maintenance of a healthy weight and prevention of chronic diseases. Retirement village (RV) residents rarely engage in physical activity and nutrition programmes offered, with poor attendance and low use of existing facilities such as on-site fitness centres and classes and nutrition seminars. The RV provides a unique setting to access and engage with this older target group, to test the effectiveness of strategies to increase levels of physical activity, improve nutrition and maintain a healthy weight. Method and analysis This cluster-randomised controlled trial will evaluate a physical activity, nutrition and healthy weight management intervention for insufficiently active (‘not achieving 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week’) adults aged 60–75 residing in RV's. A total of 400 participants will be recruited from 20 randomly selected RV's in Perth, Western Australia. Villages will be assigned to either the intervention group (n=10) or the control group (n=10) each containing 200 participants. The Retirement Village Physical Activity and Nutrition for Seniors (RVPANS) programme is a home-based physical activity and nutrition programme that includes educational resources, along with facilitators who will motivate and guide the participants during the 6-month intervention. Descriptive statistics and mixed regression models will be performed to assess the intervention effects. This trial will evaluate an intervention for the modification of health risk factors in the RV setting. Such research conducted in RV's has been limited. Ethics and dissemination Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR128/2012). Dissemination of the study results will occur

  8. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  9. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 p< 0.024) . In the cohort in HAART, both the mean of BMI value (initial value: 20.7 ± 3.9; final value: 21.9 ± 3.3 p< 0.001) and of haemoglobin (initial value: 9.9 ± 2.2; final value: 10.8 ± 1.7 p< 0.001) showed a higher significant increase. The increase in BMI was statistically associated with the DDS in HAART patients. In conclusion nutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement

  10. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fillinger, Ulrike; Kannady, Khadija; William, George; Vanek, Michael J; Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Geissbühler, Yvonne; Chaki, Prosper P; Govella, Nico J; Mathenge, Evan M; Singer, Burton H; Mshinda, Hassan; Lindsay, Steven W; Tanner, Marcel; Mtasiwa, Deo; de Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

    2008-01-01

    Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs). New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04). Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience. PMID:18218148

  11. Contribution of medical colleges to tuberculosis control in India under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP): Lessons learnt & challenges ahead

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Mohan, Alladi; Chauhan, L.S.; Narain, J.P.; Kumar, P.; Behera, D.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Medical college faculty, who are academicians are seldom directly involved in the implementation of national public health programmes. More than a decade ago for the first time in the global history of tuberculosis (TB) control, medical colleges of India were involved in the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) of Government of India (GOI). This report documents the unique and extraordinary course of events that led to the involvement of medical colleges in the RNTCP of GOI. It also reports the contributions made by the medical colleges to TB control in India. For more than a decade, medical colleges have been providing diagnostic services (Designated Microscopy Centres), treatment [Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) Centres] referral for treatment, recording and reporting data, carrying out advocacy for RNTCP and conducting operational research relevant to RNTCP. Medical colleges are contributing to diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-infection and development of laboratory infrastructure for early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant and/or extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) and DOTS-Plus sites for treatment of MDR-TB cases. Overall, at a national level, medical colleges have contributed to 25 per cent of TB suspects referred for diagnosis; 23 per cent of ‘new smear-positives’ diagnosed; 7 per cent of DOT provision within medical college; and 86 per cent treatment success rate among new smear-positive patients. As the Programme widens its scope, future challenges include sustenance of this contribution and facilitating universal access to quality TB care; greater involvement in operational research relevant to the Programme needs; and better co-ordination mechanisms between district, state, zonal and national level to encourage their involvement. PMID:23563371

  12. Effectiveness of quality-control aids in verifying K-9-team explosive detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallowell, Susan F.; Fischer, Douglas S.; Brasher, Jeffrey D.; Malone, Robert L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Rae, Cathy

    1997-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and supporting agencies conducted a developmental test and evaluation (DTE) to determine if quality control aids (QCAs) could be developed that would provide effective surrogates to actual explosives used for training and testing K-9 explosives detection teams. Non-detonable surrogates are required to alleviate logistics and contamination issues with explosives used sa training aids. Comparative K-9 team detection performance for explosives used as training aids and QCAs configurations of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCA configuration of each explosive type were evaluated to determine the optimal configuration for the QCAs. The configurations were a paper patch impregnated with a solution of the explosive, a cloth pouch filed with small amounts of solid explosive, and the non-hazardous explosive for security training and testing material. The DTE was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, where the K-9 teams undergo initial training. Six FAA certified operational teams participated. All explosives and QCAs were presented to the K-9 teams using a 10 scent box protocol. The results show that K-9 team as are more sensitive to explosives than the candidate QCAs. More importantly, it was discovered that the explosives at Lackland AFB are cross-contaminated, meaning that explosives possessed volatile artifacts from other explosives. There are two potential hypotheses explaining why the dogs did not detect the QCAs. First, the cross-contamination of Lackland training explosives may mean that K-9 teams are only trained to detect the explosives with the most volatile chemical signatures. Alternatively, the QCA configurations may have been below the trained detection threshold of the K-9s. It is recommended that K-9 teams train on uncontaminated odors from properly designed QCAs to ensure that dogs respond to the appropriate explosive components, and not some

  13. An evaluation of the early effects of a combination antiretroviral therapy programme on the management of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mosam, A; Uldrick, T S; Shaik, F; Carrara, H; Aboobaker, J; Coovadia, H

    2011-11-01

    Roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in South Africa should impact on AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Government provision began in 2003, with 23% coverage for World Health Organization (WHO) stage IV AIDS in 2006. To assess the effect of cART availability on KS management, we evaluated records from 701 KS patients seen at a tertiary oncology centre in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, from 1995 to 2006. Associations between cART use and measures of KS care were evaluated. cART availability was 0% prior to 2001, 9.6% (2001-2003) and 44% (2004-2006). Documentation of HIV status increased incrementally from 65% to 92%. cART was associated with chemotherapy administration: 56% on cART versus 17% not on cART (P < 0.001); and less loss to follow-up, 13% on cART versus 38% not on cART (P < 0.001). cART availability improves the care of AIDS-associated KS. Further increases in cART availability for this population are needed in South Africa. PMID:22096054

  14. Mental health first aid training in a workplace setting: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN13249129

    PubMed Central

    Kitchener, Betty A; Jorm, Anthony F

    2004-01-01

    Background The Mental Health First Aid training course was favorably evaluated in an uncontrolled trial in 2002 showing improvements in participants' mental health literacy, including knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence and help provided to others. This article reports the first randomized controlled trial of this course. Methods Data are reported on 301 participants randomized to either participate immediately in a course or to be wait-listed for 5 months before undertaking the training. The participants were employees in two large government departments in Canberra, Australia, where the courses were conducted during participants' work time. Data were analyzed according to an intention-to-treat approach. Results The trial found a number of benefits from this training course, including greater confidence in providing help to others, greater likelihood of advising people to seek professional help, improved concordance with health professionals about treatments, and decreased stigmatizing attitudes. An additional unexpected but exciting finding was an improvement in the mental health of the participants themselves. Conclusions The Mental Health First Aid training has shown itself to be not only an effective way to improve participants' mental health literacy but also to improve their own mental health. It is a course that has high applicability across the community. PMID:15310395

  15. Reducing prospective memory error and costs in simulated air traffic control: External aids, extending practice, and removing perceived memory requirements.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Chapman, Melissa; Smith, Rebekah E

    2016-09-01

    In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts. For the PM task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting aircraft. In Experiment 1, when no aids were provided, PM errors and costs were not reduced by practice. When aids were provided, costs observed early in practice were eliminated with practice, but residual PM errors remained. Experiment 2 provided more limited practice with aids, but instructions that did not frame the PM task as a "memory" task led to high PM accuracy without costs. Attention-allocation policies that participants set based on expected PM demands were modified as individuals were increasingly exposed to reliable aids, or were given instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. These findings have implications for the design of aids for individuals who monitor multi-item dynamic displays. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608067

  16. APOC's strategy of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) and its potential for providing additional health services to the poorest populations. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control.

    PubMed

    Homeida, M; Braide, E; Elhassan, E; Amazigo, U V; Liese, B; Benton, B; Noma, M; Etya'alé, D; Dadzie, K Y; Kale, O O; Sékétéli, A

    2002-03-01

    Since its inauguration in 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has made significant progress towards achieving its main objective: to establish sustainable community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in onchocerciasis-endemic areas outside of the remit of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP). In the year 2000, the programme, in partnership with governments, non-governmental organizations and the endemic communities themselves, succeeded in treating 20,298,138 individuals in 49,654 communities in 63 projects in 14 countries. Besides the distribution of ivermectin, the programme has strengthened primary healthcare (PHC) through capacity-building, mobilization of resources and empowerment of communities. The community-directed-treatment approach is a model that can be adopted in developing other community-based health programmes. The approach has also made it possible to bring to the poor some measure of intervention in some other healthcare programmes, such as those for malaria control, eye care, maternal and child health, nutrition and immunization. CDTI presents, at all stages of its implementation, a unique window of opportunity for promoting the functional integration of healthcare activities. For this to be done successfully and in a co-ordinated manner, adequate funding of CDTI within PHC is as important as an effective sensitization of the relevant policy-makers, healthworkers and communities on the value of integration (accompanied by appropriate training at all levels). Evaluation of the experiences in integration of health services, particularly at community level, is crucial to the success of the integration.

  17. A field programmable gate array unit for the diagnosis and control of neoclassical tearing modes on MAST

    SciTech Connect

    O'Gorman, T.; Gibson, K. J.; Snape, J. A.; Naylor, G.; Huang, B.; McArdle, G. J.; Scannell, R.; Shibaev, S.; Thomas-Davies, N.

    2012-10-15

    A real-time system has been developed to trigger both the MAST Thomson scattering (TS) system and the plasma control system on the phase and amplitude of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), extending the capabilities of the original system. This triggering system determines the phase and amplitude of a given NTM using magnetic coils at different toroidal locations. Real-time processing of the raw magnetic data occurs on a low cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) based unit which permits triggering of the TS lasers on specific amplitudes and phases of NTM evolution. The MAST plasma control system can receive a separate trigger from the FPGA unit that initiates a vertical shift of the MAST magnetic axis. Such shifts have fully removed m/n= 2/1 NTMs instabilities on a number of MAST discharges.

  18. Using a Programmable JVS for evaluation of Zener voltage standards stability and secondary uncertainty under controlled temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Marcelo R.; Landim, Regis P.

    2016-07-01

    A study was carried out with two 732B model Zener-diode based electronic voltage standards, in order to analyze the influence of external temperature variation in their outputs. The temperature was controlled and the external variations were monitored. Inmetro Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard (PJVS) and Secondary systems were used for this purpose. Studies have shown that, despite the internal temperature control, there is a strong correlation between the external temperature and the internal thermistor value, for both Zeners. Inmetro Zener calibration uncertainty budget was revisited and the achieved uncertainties are ±0.09 μV (at 1.018 V) and ±0.4 μV (at 10 V), k=2.

  19. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a universal parenting skills programme in deprived communities: multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Simkiss, D E; Snooks, H A; Stallard, N; Kimani, P K; Sewell, B; Fitzsimmons, D; Anthony, R; Winstanley, S; Wilson, L; Phillips, C J; Stewart-Brown, S

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost utility of a universally provided early years parenting programme. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting Early years centres in four deprived areas of South Wales. Participants Families with children aged between 2 and 4 years. 286 families were recruited and randomly allocated to the intervention or waiting list control. Intervention The Family Links Nurturing Programme (FLNP), a 10-week course with weekly 2 h facilitated group sessions. Main outcome measures Negative and supportive parenting, child and parental well-being and costs assessed before the intervention, following the course (3 months) and at 9 months using standardised measures. Results There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between trial arms at 3 or 9 months. With ‘+’ indicating improvement, difference in change in negative parenting score at 9 months was +0.90 (95%CI −1.90 to 3.69); in supportive parenting, +0.17 (95%CI −0.61 to 0.94); and 12 of the 17 secondary outcomes showed a non-significant positive effect in the FLNP arm. Based on changes in parental well-being (SF-12), the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was estimated to be £34 913 (range 21 485–46 578) over 5 years and £18 954 (range 11 664–25 287) over 10 years. Probability of cost per QALY gained below £30 000 was 47% at 5 years and 57% at 10 years. Attendance was low: 34% of intervention families attended no sessions (n=48); only 47% completed the course (n=68). Also, 19% of control families attended a parenting programme before 9-month follow-up. Conclusions Our trial has not found evidence of clinical or cost utility for the FLNP in a universal setting. However, low levels of exposure and contamination mean that uncertainty remains. Trial registration The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13919732. PMID:23906953

  20. Intelligent tutoring and aiding in satellite ground control. Ph.D. Thesis - Georgia Inst. of Tech., 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Rose W.; Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    In supervisory control systems such as satellite ground control, there is a need for human-centered automation where the focus is to understand and enhance the human-system interaction experience in the complex task environment. Operator support in the form of off-line intelligent tutoring and on-line intelligent aiding is one approach towards this effort. The tutor/aid paradigm is proposed here as a design approach that integrates the two aspects of operator support in one system for technically oriented adults in complex domains. This paper also presents GT-VITA, a proof-of-concept graphical, interactive, intelligent tutoring system that is a first attempt to illustrate the tutoring aspect of the tutor/aid paradigm in the domain of satellite ground control. Evaluation on GT-VITA is conducted with NASA personnel with very positive results. GT-VITA is presented being fielded as it is at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  1. Adaptive Instrument Module: Space Instrument Controller "Brain" through Programmable Logic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darrin, Ann Garrison; Conde, Richard; Chern, Bobbie; Luers, Phil; Jurczyk, Steve; Mills, Carl; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Adaptive Instrument Module (AIM) will be the first true demonstration of reconfigurable computing with field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in space, enabling the 'brain' of the system to evolve or adapt to changing requirements. In partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Satellite Systems (CRC-SS), APL has built the flight version to be flown on the Australian university-class satellite FEDSAT. The AIM provides satellites the flexibility to adapt to changing mission requirements by reconfiguring standardized processing hardware rather than incurring the large costs associated with new builds. This ability to reconfigure the processing in response to changing mission needs leads to true evolveable computing, wherein the instrument 'brain' can learn from new science data in order to perform state-of-the-art data processing. The development of the AIM is significant in its enormous potential to reduce total life-cycle costs for future space exploration missions. The advent of RAM-based FPGAs whose configuration can be changed at any time has enabled the development of the AIM for processing tasks that could not be performed in software. The use of the AIM enables reconfiguration of the FPGA circuitry while the spacecraft is in flight, with many accompanying advantages. The AIM demonstrates the practicalities of using reconfigurable computing hardware devices by conducting a series of designed experiments. These include the demonstration of implementing data compression, data filtering, and communication message processing and inter-experiment data computation. The second generation is the Adaptive Processing Template (ADAPT) which is further described in this paper. The next step forward is to make the hardware itself adaptable and the ADAPT pursues this challenge by developing a reconfigurable module that will be capable of functioning efficiently in various applications. ADAPT will take advantage of

  2. ‘Low-hanging fruit’: Counting and accounting for children in PEPFAR-funded HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lindsey J.

    2014-01-01

    The article traces the social life of a policy that aimed to define and circumscribe the ambiguous and contested category of the ‘orphaned and vulnerable children’ (OVC) in South Africa at the height of the ‘emergency response’ to HIV/AIDS. Drawing on several months of institutional ethnographic research conducted over the course of five years with South African organisations receiving funding from the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to provide services to ‘OVC’, the project interrogates the influence of governmental forms of counting and accounting on health policy and practice in South Africa. Focusing on the experiences of one organisation, the article describes a process of policy ‘translation’ typified by a series of disconnects between the intentions of a policy and the exigencies of implementation, structured by the ambiguous and flexible nature of the category of the ‘orphaned and vulnerable child’. In this context, the article argues, the uncertainty produced by the implementation of the guidelines was not simply an artifact of a poorly designed policy, but rather signals an underlying epistemological tension in the practice of ‘global health’, in which quantitative metrics designed for monitoring and evaluation are often incapable of approximating the complexities of everyday life. PMID:24498970

  3. Lymphoedema: Pathophysiology and management in resource-poor settings - relevance for lymphatic filariasis control programmes

    PubMed Central

    Vaqas, Babar; Ryan, Terence J

    2003-01-01

    Low cost reduction of morbidity in lymphoedema is an essential goal in the management of lymphatic filariasis. This review emphasises the role of movement and elevation, and refers to the literature on the effects of these on the venous and lymphatic system. The patient with lymphoedema becomes increasingly immobile and the affected limb is often in a permanently dependent position causing venous hypertension and resultant overloading of the failing lymphatics. The evidence that breathing exercises are important for reducing venous hypertension and inducing lymphatic flow is discussed. The contribution of a damaged epidermis to lymphatic failure is emphasised. Loss of barrier function encourages penetration of bacteria and stimulates repair mechanisms that generate cytokines, which, in turn lead to inflammation. Management programmes that improve the health of the epidermis play a part in reducing lymphatic load. In taking morbidity management of lymphoedema into the general health services there are benefits in promoting skin hygiene and self-help regimes that can ameliorate many diseases along with lymphoedema. PMID:12685942

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs

  5. Use of online safety decision aid by abused women: effect on decisional conflict in randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eden, Karen B.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Messing, Jill T.; Bloom, Tina L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Gielen, Andrea C.; Clough, Amber S.; Barnes-Hoyt, Jamie S.; Glass, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An Internet safety decision aid was developed to help abused women understand their risk for repeat and near-lethal intimate partner violence, clarify priorities related to safety, and develop an action plan customized to these priorities. Purpose The overall purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a safety decision aid compared with usual safety planning (control) delivered through a secure website, using a multi-state randomized controlled trial design. The paper evaluated the effectiveness of the safety decision aid in reducing decisional conflict after a single use by abused women. Design Randomized controlled trial referred to as IRIS, Internet Resource for Intervention and Safety Participants Abused women who spoke English (N = 708) were enrolled in a four-state, randomized controlled trial. Intervention and Control The intervention was an interactive safety decision aid with personalized safety plan; the control condition was usual safety planning resources. Both were delivered to participants through the secure study website. Main Outcome Measures This paper compared women’s decisional conflict about safety: total decisional conflict and the four subscales of this measure (feeling: uninformed, uncertain, unclear about safety priorities; and sensing lack of support) between intervention/control conditions. Data were collected 3/2011–5/2013 and analyzed 1/2014–3/2014. Results Immediately following the first use of the interactive safety decision aid, intervention women had significantly lower total decisional conflict than control women, controlling for baseline value of decisional conflict (p=0.002, effect size=.12). After controlling for baseline values, the safety decision aid group had significantly greater reduction in feeling uncertain (p=0.006, effect size=.07), and in feeling unsupported (p=0.008, effect size=.07) about safety than the usual safety planning group. Conclusions Abused women randomized to the safety

  6. Gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples to prevent postnatal common mental disorders among primiparous women: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach; Lorgelly, Paula; Amir, Lisa H; Proimos, Jenny; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana; Cann, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Interventions to prevent postpartum common mental disorders (PCMD) among unselected populations of women have had limited success. The aim was to determine whether What Were We Thinking (WWWT) a gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples and babies can prevent PCMD among primiparous women 6 months postpartum. Design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Setting 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres (MCHCs) from 6 Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia were allocated randomly to usual care (24) or usual care plus WWWT (24). Participants English-speaking primiparous women receiving primary care at trial MCHCs were recruited to the intervention (204) and control (196) conditions. Of these, 187 (91.7%) and 177 (90.3%) provided complete data. Intervention WWWT is a manualised programme comprising primary care from a trained nurse, print materials and a face-to-face seminar. Main outcome measures Data sources were standardised and study-specific measures collected in blinded computer-assisted telephone interviews at 6 and 26 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome was PCMD assessed by Composite International Diagnostic Interviews and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder modules. Results In intention-to-treat analyses the adjusted OR (AOR) of PCMD in the intervention compared to the usual care group was 0.78 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.63, ns), but mild to moderate anxiety symptoms (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.97) and poor self-rated health (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.97) were significantly lower. In a per protocol analysis, comparing the full (three component) intervention and usual care groups, the AOR of PCMD was 0.36, (95% CI 0.14 to 0.95). The WWWT seminar was appraised as salient, comprehensible and useful by >85% participants. No harms were detected. Conclusions WWWT is readily integrated into primary care, enables inclusion of fathers and addresses modifiable risks for PCMD directly. The full

  7. Keeping a tight grip on the reins: donor control over aid coordination and management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Buse, K

    1999-09-01

    A long-standing consensus that aid coordination should be owned by recipient authorities has been eclipsed by accord on the desirability of recipient management of aid along-side domestic resources. Nonetheless, in many low and lower-middle income countries, donors remain remarkably uncoordinated; where attempts at coordination are made, they are often donor-driven, and only a small proportion of aid is directly managed by recipients. This paper draws on evidence from an in-depth review of aid to the health sector in Bangladesh to analyze the systems by which external resources are managed. Based on interviews with key stakeholders, a questionnaire survey and analysis of documentary sources, the factors constraining the government from assuming a more active role in aid management are explored. The results suggest that donor perceptions of weak government capacity, inadequate accountability and compromised integrity only partially account for the propensity for donor leadership. Equally important is the consideration that aid coordination has a markedly political dimension. Stakeholders are well aware of the power, influence and leverage which aid coordination confers, an awareness which colours the desire of some stakeholders to lead aid coordination processes, and conditions the extent and manner by which others wish to be involved. It is argued that recipient management of external aid is dependent on major changes in the attitudes and behaviours of recipients and donors alike.

  8. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENACE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  9. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENANCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  10. Synchronized operation by field programmable gate array based signal controller for the Thomson scattering diagnostic system in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W. R.; Park, M. K.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, K. H.

    2012-09-15

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic system is successfully installed in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) facility. We got the electron temperature and electron density data for the first time in 2011, 4th campaign using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based signal control board. It operates as a signal generator, a detector, a controller, and a time measuring device. This board produces two configurable trigger pulses to operate Nd:YAG laser system and receives a laser beam detection signal from a photodiode detector. It allows a trigger pulse to be delivered to a time delay module to make a scattered signal measurement, measuring an asynchronous time value between the KSTAR timing board and the laser system injection signal. All functions are controlled by the embedded processor running on operating system within a single FPGA. It provides Ethernet communication interface and is configured with standard middleware to integrate with KSTAR. This controller has operated for two experimental campaigns including commissioning and performed the reconfiguration of logic designs to accommodate varying experimental situation without hardware rebuilding.

  11. RoCoMAR: Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-01-01

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay. PMID:23881134

  12. RoCoMAR: robots' controllable mobility aided routing and relay architecture for mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Le, Duc Van; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-07-05

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  13. Precision Optical Gauging With Image Sensing Camera And Programmable Microprocessor Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, , Perry; Mauritz, Karl

    1980-08-01

    An effective approach to the design of a line scan camera controller is covered in this paper. Primary features of the controller, other than the microprocessor operation, which are covered, include camera data compression and presentation to the microprocessor, mathematical capability for efficient mensuration, real-time capability for machine and process interface, and steps to make the hardware more versatile in order to complement the flexibility of software. A detailed example is given in the application of the controller to the production sizing and grading of spherical bearing rollers under the dual constraints of high thruput (2400 rollers/hour) and high accuracy (50 microinches).

  14. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  15. A Family History of Psychopathology Modifies the Decrement in Cognitive Control among Patients with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lance O.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HIV/AIDS on cognitive control and to determine if the effect is modified by familial risk for either alcohol or mood disorders. Sixty HIV-1 seropositive and 75 seronegative volunteers were assigned to four subgroups defined by the crossing of a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the…

  16. Effects of a Web-Based Decision Aid Regarding Diagnostic Self-Testing. A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickenroth, Martine H. P.; Grispen, J. E. J.; de Vries, N. K.; Dinant, G. J.; Ronda, G.; van der Weijden, T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are many diagnostic self-tests on body materials available to consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an online decision aid on diagnostic self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes on knowledge among consumers with an intention to take these tests. A randomized controlled trial was designed. A total of 1259…

  17. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In…

  18. Toward Active-Matrix Lab-On-A-Chip: Programmable Electrofluidic control Enaled by Arrayed Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Joo Hyon; Noh, Jiyong; Kreit, Eric; Heikenfeld, Jason; Rack, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Agile micro- and nano-fluidic control is critical to numerous life science and chemical science synthesis as well as kinetic and thermodynamic studies. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of thin film transistor arrays as an active matrix addressing method to control an electrofluidic array. Because the active matrix method minimizes the number of control lines necessary (m + n lines for the m x n element array), the active matrix addressing method integrated with an electrofluidic platform can be a significant breakthrough for complex electrofluidic arrays (increased size or resolution) with enhanced function, agility and programmability. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor active layer is used because of its high mobility of 1-15 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, low-temperature processing and transparency for potential spectroscopy and imaging. Several electrofluidic functionalities are demonstrated using a simple 2 x 5 electrode array connected to a 2 x 5 IGZO thin film transistor array with the semiconductor channel width of 50 {mu}m and mobility of 6.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Additionally, using the TFT device characteristics, active matrix addressing schemes are discussed as the geometry of the electrode array can be tailored to act as a storage capacitor element. Finally, requisite material and device parameters are discussed in context with a VGA scale active matrix addressed electrofluidic platform.

  19. Implementation and quantitative evaluation of chronic disease self-management programme in Shanghai, China: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dongbo; Fu, Hua; McGowan, Patrick; Shen, Yi-e; Zhu, Lizhen; Yang, Huiqin; Mao, Jianguo; Zhu, Shitai; Ding, Yongming; Wei, Zhihua

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Shanghai Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up compared patients who received treatment with those who did not receive treatment (waiting-list controls) in five urban communities in Shanghai, China. Participants in the treatment group received education from a lay-led CDSMP course and one copy of a help book immediately; those in the control group received the same education and book six months later. FINDINGS: In total, 954 volunteer patients with a medical record that confirmed a diagnosis of hypertension, heart disease, chronic lung disease, arthritis, stroke, or diabetes who lived in communities were assigned randomly to treatment (n = 526) and control (n = 428) groups. Overall, 430 (81.7%) and 349 (81.5%) patients in the treatment and control groups completed the six-month study. Patients who received treatment had significant improvements in weekly minutes of aerobic exercise, practice of cognitive symptom management, self-efficacy to manage own symptoms, and self-efficacy to manage own disease in general compared with controls. They also had significant improvements in eight indices of health status and, on average, fewer hospitalizations. CONCLUSION: When implemented in Shanghai, the CDSMP was acceptable culturally to Chinese patients. The programme improved participants' health behaviour, self-efficacy, and health status and reduced the number of hospitalizations six months after the course. The locally based delivery model was integrated into the routine of community government organizations and community health services. Chinese lay leaders taught the CDSMP courses as successfully as professionals. PMID:12764513

  20. Applications of Spatial Technology in Schistosomiasis Control Programme in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-Y; He, J; Yang, K; Liang, S

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, as the important parasitic disease, has caused serious threats to human health globally. The People's Republic of China has acquired significant achievements based on large-scale interventions and innovational technology. The spatial technology was introduced in 1980s and widely used in the study and control of schistosomiasis in The People's Republic of China. This chapter reviews the progress and application of spatial technology in schistosomiasis control by analysing the spatiotemporal pattern of and the impact of ecological changes on schistosomiasis transmission, which have provided the information to design and select the control strategy, and assisted the establishment of the monitoring and early warning system in The People's Republic of China, especially in the marshland and mountainous regions. PMID:27137446

  1. Top-down causation by information control: from a philosophical problem to a scientific research programme.

    PubMed

    Auletta, G; Ellis, G F R; Jaeger, L

    2008-10-01

    It has been claimed that different types of causes must be considered in biological systems, including top-down as well as same-level and bottom-up causation, thus enabling the top levels to be causally efficacious in their own right. To clarify this issue, the important distinctions between information and signs are introduced here and the concepts of information control and functional equivalence classes in those systems are rigorously defined and used to characterize when top-down causation by feedback control happens, in a way that is testable. The causally significant elements we consider are equivalence classes of lower level processes, realized in biological systems through different operations having the same outcome within the context of information control and networks. PMID:18319208

  2. Top-down causation by information control: from a philosophical problem to a scientific research programme.

    PubMed

    Auletta, G; Ellis, G F R; Jaeger, L

    2008-10-01

    It has been claimed that different types of causes must be considered in biological systems, including top-down as well as same-level and bottom-up causation, thus enabling the top levels to be causally efficacious in their own right. To clarify this issue, the important distinctions between information and signs are introduced here and the concepts of information control and functional equivalence classes in those systems are rigorously defined and used to characterize when top-down causation by feedback control happens, in a way that is testable. The causally significant elements we consider are equivalence classes of lower level processes, realized in biological systems through different operations having the same outcome within the context of information control and networks.

  3. Applications of Spatial Technology in Schistosomiasis Control Programme in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-Y; He, J; Yang, K; Liang, S

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, as the important parasitic disease, has caused serious threats to human health globally. The People's Republic of China has acquired significant achievements based on large-scale interventions and innovational technology. The spatial technology was introduced in 1980s and widely used in the study and control of schistosomiasis in The People's Republic of China. This chapter reviews the progress and application of spatial technology in schistosomiasis control by analysing the spatiotemporal pattern of and the impact of ecological changes on schistosomiasis transmission, which have provided the information to design and select the control strategy, and assisted the establishment of the monitoring and early warning system in The People's Republic of China, especially in the marshland and mountainous regions.

  4. Top-down causation by information control: from a philosophical problem to a scientific research programme

    PubMed Central

    Auletta, G; Ellis, G.F.R; Jaeger, L

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that different types of causes must be considered in biological systems, including top-down as well as same-level and bottom-up causation, thus enabling the top levels to be causally efficacious in their own right. To clarify this issue, the important distinctions between information and signs are introduced here and the concepts of information control and functional equivalence classes in those systems are rigorously defined and used to characterize when top-down causation by feedback control happens, in a way that is testable. The causally significant elements we consider are equivalence classes of lower level processes, realized in biological systems through different operations having the same outcome within the context of information control and networks. PMID:18319208

  5. A Multifactorial Weight Reduction Programme for Children with Overweight and Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Willeboordse, Maartje; van de Kant, Kim D. G.; Tan, Frans E. S.; Mulkens, Sandra; Schellings, Julia; Crijns, Yvonne; van der Ploeg, Liesbeth; van Schayck, Constant P.; Dompeling, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that obesity is related to asthma development and severity. However, it is largely unknown whether weight reduction can influence asthma management, especially in children. Objective To determine the effects of a multifactorial weight reduction intervention on asthma management in overweight/obese children with (a high risk of developing) asthma. Methods An 18-month weight-reduction randomized controlled trial was conducted in 87 children with overweight/obesity and asthma. Every six months, measurements of anthropometry, lung function, lifestyle parameters and inflammatory markers were assessed. Analyses were performed with linear mixed models for longitudinal analyses. Results After 18 months, the body mass index-standard deviation score decreased by -0.14±0.29 points (p<0.01) in the intervention group and -0.12±0.34 points (p<0.01) in the control group. This change over time did not differ between groups (p>0.05). Asthma features (including asthma control and asthma-related quality of life) and lung function indices (static and dynamic) improved significantly over time in both groups. The FVC% predicted improved over time by 10.1 ± 8.7% in the intervention group (p<0.001), which was significantly greater than the 6.1 ± 8.4% in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions & clinical relevance Clinically relevant improvements in body weight, lung function and asthma features were found in both the intervention and control group, although some effects were more pronounced in the intervention group (FVC, asthma control, and quality of life). This implies that a weight reduction intervention could be clinically beneficial for children with asthma. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00998413 PMID:27294869

  6. Risk Perception of HIV/AIDS and Low Self-Control Trait: Explaining Preventative Behaviors Among Iranian University Students

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Safooreh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Fathi, Behrouz; Shirzadi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of developed countries there are progressive trend about HIV/AIDS and its’ aspects of transmission in the low socio-economic societies. The aim of this was to explain the youth's behavior in adopting HIV/AIDS related preventive behaviors in a sample of Iranian university students by emphasizing on fear appeals approaches alongside examining the role of self-control trait for explaining adoption on danger or fear control processes based on Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Methods: A sample of 156 randomly selected university students in Jolfa, Iran was recruited in a predictive cross-sectional study by application of a researcher-designed questionnaire through self-report data collection manner. Sexual high risk behaviors, the EPPM variables, self-control trait, and general self-efficacy were measured as theoretical framework. Results: Findings indicated that 31.3% of participants were in the fear control process versus 68.7% in danger control about HIV/AIDS and also the presence of multi-sex partners and amphetamine consumption amongst the participants. Low self-control trait and low perceived susceptibility significantly were related to having a history of multi-sex partners while high level of self-efficacy significantly increased the probability of condom use. Conclusion: Findings of the study were indicative of the protective role of high level of self-control, perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy factors on youth's high-risk behaviors and their preventative skills as well. PMID:26573026

  7. Anaemia and zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy in paediatric antiretroviral programmes in the IeDEA Paediatric West African Database to evaluate AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Lorna A; Dicko, Fatoumata; Kouéta, Fla; Malateste, Karen; Gueye, Ramatoulaye D; Aka, Edmond; Eboua, Tanoh K; Azondékon, Alain; Okomo, Uduok; Touré, Pety; Ekouévi, Didier; Leroy, Valeriane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing zidovudine (ZDV) recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines. We estimated the risk of severe anaemia after initiation of a ZDV-containing regimen in HIV-infected children included in the IeDEA West African database. Methods Standardized collection of data from HIV-infected children (positive PCR<18 months or positive serology ≥18 months) followed up in HIV programmes was included in the regional IeDEA West Africa collaboration. Ten clinical centres from seven countries contributed (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal) to this collection. Inclusion criteria were age <16 years and starting ART. We explored the data quality of haemoglobin documentation over time and the incidence and predictors of severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dL) per 100 child-years of follow-up over the duration of first-line antiretroviral therapy. Results As of December 2009, among the 2933 children included in the collaboration, 45% were girls, median age was five years; median CD4 cell percentage was 13%; median weight-for-age z-score was −2.7; and 1772 (60.4%) had a first-line ZDV-containing regimen. At baseline, 70% of the children with a first-line ZDV-containing regimen had a haemoglobin measure available versus 76% in those not on ZDV (p≤0.01): the prevalence of severe anaemia was 3.0% (n=38) in the ZDV group versus 10.2% (n=89) in those without (p<0. 01). Over the first-line follow-up, 58.9% of the children had ≥1 measure of haemoglobin available in those exposed to ZDV versus 60.4% of those not (p=0.45). Severe anaemia occurred in 92 children with an incidence of 2.47 per 100 child-years of follow-up in those on a ZDV-containing regimen versus 4.25 in those not (p≤0.01). Adjusted for age at ART initiation and first-line regimen, a weight-for-age z-score ≤−3 was a strong predictor associated with a 5.59 times risk of severe

  8. Community and Control. Course HP03a: Part Time BA Degree Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia). School of Humanities.

    This course, one of 16 sequential courses comprising phase one of a part-time Bachelor of Arts degree program in Australian Studies, surveys different forms of community, ranging from closely knit, cohesive groups to institutionalized groups, their characteristic forms of social control, and their methods of social organization. The concept of…

  9. CNC Turning Center Operations and Prove Out. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-334.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronski, Steven D.

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to instruct the student in the recommended procedures used when setting up tooling and verifying part programs for a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 discusses course content and reviews and demonstrates set-up procedures…

  10. CNC Turning Center Advanced Operations. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-332.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronski, Steven D.; Tatum, Kenneth

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to introduce the student to the operations and functions of a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 presents course expectations and syllabus, covers safety precautions, and describes the CNC turning center components, CNC…

  11. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  12. An economic evaluation of the national schistosomiasis control programme in China from 1992 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ming-Gang; Wang, Tian-Ping; Guo, Jia-Gang; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Qing-Wu; Zheng, Jiang; Chen, Xian-Yi

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project, by far the largest effort in China for schistosomiasis control since control activities were initiated in the mid 1950s, was carried out for a 9-year period commencing in 1992 in the 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum remained endemic when the project started. To evaluate its impact, a retrospective economic evaluation was done in 2001. Six representative counties, i.e. Huarong in Hunan province, Qianjiang in Hubei province, Yugan in Jiangxi province, Tongling in Anhui province, Xichang in Sichuan province and Dali in Yunnan province, were selected for the study. The total financial input in these counties from 1992 to 2000 was RMB Yuan 90.334 million with the World Bank loan accounting for 40.9%. Control efforts resulted in reduction of human prevalence rates in the six counties from 0.7-9.0% in 1992 to 0.1-2.7% in 2000. With regard to S. japonicum infection in bovines, a high reduction was observed in Qianjiang, and smaller decreases were noted in four counties, while there was an increase in Dali. In general, the areas infested by the intermediate host snail fluctuated around the initial level. The net benefit-cost ratio was 6.20, which means that this project gained US$ 6.20 for every dollar spent. The correlation coefficients of the net benefit-cost ratio to the human and bovine infection rates at the beginning of the project were 0.55 and 0.66, respectively. It is conceivable that further progress in schistosomiasis control is an important feature for sustained growth of the local economy, particularly in areas where control of the disease has been most challenging.

  13. An economic evaluation of the national schistosomiasis control programme in China from 1992 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ming-Gang; Wang, Tian-Ping; Guo, Jia-Gang; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Qing-Wu; Zheng, Jiang; Chen, Xian-Yi

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project, by far the largest effort in China for schistosomiasis control since control activities were initiated in the mid 1950s, was carried out for a 9-year period commencing in 1992 in the 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum remained endemic when the project started. To evaluate its impact, a retrospective economic evaluation was done in 2001. Six representative counties, i.e. Huarong in Hunan province, Qianjiang in Hubei province, Yugan in Jiangxi province, Tongling in Anhui province, Xichang in Sichuan province and Dali in Yunnan province, were selected for the study. The total financial input in these counties from 1992 to 2000 was RMB Yuan 90.334 million with the World Bank loan accounting for 40.9%. Control efforts resulted in reduction of human prevalence rates in the six counties from 0.7-9.0% in 1992 to 0.1-2.7% in 2000. With regard to S. japonicum infection in bovines, a high reduction was observed in Qianjiang, and smaller decreases were noted in four counties, while there was an increase in Dali. In general, the areas infested by the intermediate host snail fluctuated around the initial level. The net benefit-cost ratio was 6.20, which means that this project gained US$ 6.20 for every dollar spent. The correlation coefficients of the net benefit-cost ratio to the human and bovine infection rates at the beginning of the project were 0.55 and 0.66, respectively. It is conceivable that further progress in schistosomiasis control is an important feature for sustained growth of the local economy, particularly in areas where control of the disease has been most challenging. PMID:16154104

  14. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  15. Relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS and birth control.

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Although prior research shows that substantial proportions of African Americans hold conspiracy beliefs, little is known about the subgroups of African Americans most likely to endorse such beliefs. We examined the relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to their conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS and birth control. Anonymous telephone surveys were conducted with a targeted random-digit-dial sample of 500 African Americans (15-44 years) in the contiguous United States. Respondents reported agreement with statements capturing beliefs in HIV/AIDS conspiracies (one scale) and birth control conspiracies (two scales). Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, employment, income, number of people income supports, number of living children, marital/cohabitation status, religiosity and black identity. Multivariate analyses indicated that stronger HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs were significantly associated with male gender, black identity and lower income. Male gender and lower education were significantly related to black genocide conspiracy beliefs, and male gender and high religiosity were significantly related to contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs. The set of sociodemographic characteristics explained a moderately small amount of the variance in conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS (R2 range=0.07-0.12) and birth control (R2 range=0.05-0.09). Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not isolated to specific segments of the African-American population. PMID:16895286

  16. Programmable gradational micropatterning of functional materials using maskless lithography controlling absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yushin; Lee, Howon; Park, Tae-Joon; Kim, Sungsik; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2015-01-01

    The demand for patterning functional materials precisely on surfaces of stimuli-responsive devices has increased in many research fields. In situ polymerization technology is one of the most convenient ways to place the functional materials on a desired location with micron-scale accuracy. To fabricate stimuli-responsive surfaces, controlling concentration of the functional material is much as important as micropatterning them. However, patterning and controlling concentration of the functional materials simultaneously requires an additional process, such as preparing multiple co-flow microfluidic structures and numbers of solutions with various concentrations. Despite applying these processes, fabricating heterogeneous patterns in large scale (millimeter scale) is still impossible. In this study, we propose an advanced in situ polymerization technique to pattern the surface in micron scale in a concentration-controlled manner. Because the concentration of the functional materials is manipulated by self-assembly on the surface, a complex pattern could be easily fabricated without any additional procedure. The complex pattern is pre-designed with absorption amount of the functional material, which is pre-determined by the duration of UV exposure. We show that the resolution reaches up to 2.5 μm and demonstrate mm-scale objects, maintaining the same resolution. We also fabricated Multi-bit barcoded micro particles verify the flexibility of our system. PMID:26490360

  17. Final-Approach Spacing Aids (FASA) evaluation for terminal-area, time-based air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Capron, William R.; Lohr, Gary W.; Crawford, Daniel J.; Tang, Dershuen A.; Rodgers, William G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A jointly funded (NASA/FAA) real-time simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to gather comparative performance data among three candidate final-approach spacing aid (FASA) display formats. Several objective measures of controller performance and their display eye-scan behavior as well as subjective workload and rating questionnaires were used. For each of two representative pattern-speed procedures (a 170-knot procedure and a 210-knot procedure with speed control aiding), data were gathered, via twelve FAA controllers, using four final-controller display format conditions (manual/ARTS 3, graphic marker, DICE countdown, and centerline slot marker). Measured runway separations were more precise with both the graphic marker and DICE countdown formats than with the centerline slot marker and both (graphic and DICE) improved precision relative to the manual/ARTS 3 format. For three separate rating criteria, the subject controllers ranked the FASA formats in the same order: graphic marker, DICE countdown, and centerline slot marker. The increased precision measured with the 210-knot pattern-speed procedure may indicate the potential for the application of speed-control aiding where higher pattern speeds are practical after the base-to-final turn. Also presented are key FASA issues, a rationale for the formats selected for testing, and their description.

  18. Combining principles of Cognitive Load Theory and diagnostic error analysis for designing job aids: Effects on motivation and diagnostic performance in a process control task.

    PubMed

    Kluge, Annette; Grauel, Britta; Burkolter, Dina

    2013-03-01

    Two studies are presented in which the design of a procedural aid and the impact of an additional decision aid for process control were assessed. In Study 1, a procedural aid was developed that avoids imposing unnecessary extraneous cognitive load on novices when controlling a complex technical system. This newly designed procedural aid positively affected germane load, attention, satisfaction, motivation, knowledge acquisition and diagnostic speed for novel faults. In Study 2, the effect of a decision aid for use before the procedural aid was investigated, which was developed based on an analysis of diagnostic errors committed in Study 1. Results showed that novices were able to diagnose both novel faults and practised faults, and were even faster at diagnosing novel faults. This research contributes to the question of how to optimally support novices in dealing with technical faults in process control.

  19. The Effects of a Volunteer Mentoring Programme on Reading Outcomes among Eight- to Nine-Year-Old Children: A Follow up Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sarah; Connolly, Paul; Maguire, Lisa K

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a randomized controlled trial evaluation of the effects of a revised version of the volunteer mentoring programme, "Time to Read." Participating children received two 30-minute mentoring sessions per week from volunteer mentors who carried out paired reading activities with the children. The current trial…

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Comparing Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the experimental Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment to the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition (NDP3; Williams & Stephens, 2004), used widely in clinical practice in Australia and the United Kingdom. Both programs aim to improve speech motor planning/programming for children…

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of a Long-Term Internet-Delivered Worksite Health Promotion Programme on Physical Activity and Nutrition: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Bredt, Folef J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a long-term workplace health promotion programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition. In total, 924 participants enrolled in a 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial, with departments (n = 74) within companies (n = 6) as the unit of randomization. The intervention was compared with a…

  2. The impact of Australia's measles control programme over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Gidding, H F

    2005-02-01

    We reviewed measles surveillance data for 1993-2002 to determine the impact of Australia's measles control initiatives. The introduction of a second dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine for 10- to 16-year-olds in 1993 was followed by marked reductions in measles notifications and hospitalizations, especially in the targeted age group. Further rate reductions were achieved following the Measles Control Campaign (MCC) in 1998, which involved a catch-up campaign for primary-school-aged children and lowering the age for the second dose of MMR vaccine to 4 years. Since the MCC, outbreaks have continued to occur, but most had a source case who was infected overseas, which suggests that indigenous transmission has been interrupted. In addition, a greater proportion of cases have been in adults although infants aged < 5 years still had the highest rates. In conclusion, Australia is making good progress towards measles elimination. However, as in other countries, this progress can be sustained only by maintaining high vaccination coverage with the routine childhood vaccination schedule.

  3. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems. Mission control programmer for unmanned missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    An unmanned test flight program required to evaluate the command module heat shield and the structural integrity of the command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle is described. The mission control programer was developed to provide the unmanned interface between the guidance and navigation computer and the other spacecraft systems for mission event sequencing and real-time ground control during missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6. The development of this unmanned programer is traced from the initial concept through the flight test phase. Detailed discussions of hardware development problems are given with the resulting solutions. The mission control programer functioned correctly without any flight anomalies for all missions. The Apollo 4 mission control programer was reused for the Apollo 6 flight, thus being one of the first subsystems to be reflown on an Apollo space flight.

  4. Self help programme for anxiety in general practice: controlled trial of an anxiety management booklet.

    PubMed Central

    Sorby, N G; Reavley, W; Huber, J W

    1991-01-01

    Behavioural methods of treating anxiety have been shown to be highly effective but are not widely available in general practice where most people suffering from anxiety are treated. This study reports a development in service delivery which is simple, inexpensive and does not make great time demands on general practitioners or require them to extend their training and expertise. The study shows that for patients suffering from panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder the use of an anxiety management booklet in addition to their usual treatment from their general practitioner produces clinically and statistically significant improvements. Of particular importance is the speed of response to the booklet. Within the first two weeks those patients who received the booklet were significantly less anxious than the controls. The booklet was acceptable to patients and recommendations are made about how to incorporate it into clinical practice. PMID:1777297

  5. A thin film active-lens with translational control for dynamically programmable optical zoom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sungryul; Park, Suntak; Park, Bongje; Nam, Saekwang; Park, Seung Koo; Kyung, Ki-Uk

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate a thin film active-lens for rapidly and dynamically controllable optical zoom. The active-lens is composed of a convex hemispherical polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lens structure working as an aperture and a dielectric elastomer (DE) membrane actuator, which is a combination of a thin DE layer made with PDMS and a compliant electrode pattern using silver-nanowires. The active-lens is capable of dynamically changing focal point of the soft aperture as high as 18.4% through its translational movement in vertical direction responding to electrically induced bulged-up deformation of the DE membrane actuator. Under operation with various sinusoidal voltage signals, the movement responses are fairly consistent with those estimated from numerical simulation. The responses are not only fast, fairly reversible, and highly durable during continuous cyclic operations, but also large enough to impart dynamic focus tunability for optical zoom in microscopic imaging devices with a light-weight and ultra-slim configuration.

  6. A Public Policy Approach to Local Models of HIV/AIDS Control in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Andreia; Costa-Couto, Maria-Helena; Thoenig, Jean-Claude; Fleury, Sonia; de Camargo, Kenneth; Larouzé, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated involvement and cooperation patterns of local Brazilian AIDS program actors and the consequences of these patterns for program implementation and sustainability. Methods. We performed a public policy analysis (documentary analysis, direct observation, semistructured interviews of health service and nongovernmental organization [NGO] actors) in 5 towns in 2 states, São Paulo and Pará. Results. Patterns suggested 3 models. In model 1, local government, NGOs, and primary health care services were involved in AIDS programs with satisfactory response to new epidemiological trends but a risk that HIV/AIDS would become low priority. In model 2, mainly because of NGO activism, HIV/AIDS remained an exceptional issue, with limited responses to new epidemiological trends and program sustainability undermined by political instability. In model 3, involvement of public agencies and NGOs was limited, with inadequate response to epidemiological trends and poor mobilization threatening program sustainability. Conclusions. Within a common national AIDS policy framework, the degree of involvement and cooperation between public and NGO actors deeply impacts population coverage and program sustainability. Specific processes are required to maintain actor mobilization without isolating AIDS programs. PMID:19372523

  7. Defaulting patterns in a provincial leprosy control programme in Northern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, S; Ready, N

    2001-06-01

    Cohort-based multidrug therapy (MDT) completion rates are used to assess adherence to MDT. However this measure gives no information about when during the treatment period defaulting occurs. Two districts in Cabo Delgado province in Northern Mozambique were selected for evaluation of multibacillary patient defaulter data between 1993 and 1997 to examine when patients default during the treatment penod. In all, 548 (59.2%) of 926 MB patients completed treatment and 378 (40.8%) defaulted between 1993 to 1997. The percentage of defaulters fell steadily from 59.8% in 1993 to 23.2% in 1997. Of the 378 defaulters 57.7% defaulted treatment within 6 months and 83.1% within 1 year of starting treatment. It was observed that patients tend to default early rather than late in the treatment period and that this pattern is maintained over time despite a fall in defaulter rates. Patients established early into a treatment routine were more likely to complete treatment. A comprehensive effort to improve and maintain leprosy control services will probably influence adherence more than any single, specific strategy. Shortening MDT treatment from 2 years to 1 year is unlikely to affect the defaulter rate.

  8. Reduction of trachoma in a sub-Saharan village in absence of a disease control programme.

    PubMed

    Dolin, P J; Faal, H; Johnson, G J; Minassian, D; Sowa, S; Day, S; Ajewole, J; Mohamed, A A; Foster, A

    1997-05-24

    Trachoma, an eye infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is a leading cause of blindness in developing countries. Risk factors include lack of facial cleanliness, poor access to water supplies, lack of latrines, and a large number of flies. Its prevalence is disproportionately high among women and children in poor rural communities. To assess trends in the prevalence of active inflammatory trachoma in Marakissa, a typical small rural village in the Gambia divided into family compounds, the results of eye examinations conducted in 1959, 1987, and 1996 were compared. Among children under 10 years of age, the prevalence of active trachoma infection dropped from 65.7 cases per 100 in 1959 to 2.4 per 100 in 1996. Declines were also recorded among children 10-19 years old (from 52.5 to 1.4/100) and among those 20 years and older (from 36.7 to 0 cases/100). This dramatic fall, which occurred without any specific trachoma control programs in the area, is presumed attributable to both improvements in socioeconomic standards and the training of village health workers and traditional birth attendants in eye care.

  9. A water pumping control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless modules for industrial plants--an experimental setup.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Ramazan; Cetinceviz, Yucel

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a water pumping control system that is designed for production plants and implemented in an experimental setup in a laboratory. These plants contain harsh environments in which chemicals, vibrations or moving parts exist that could potentially damage the cabling or wires that are part of the control system. Furthermore, the data has to be transferred over paths that are accessible to the public. The control systems that it uses are a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless local area network (IWLAN) technologies. It is implemented by a PLC, an communication processor (CP), two IWLAN modules, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the water pump and sensors. Our system communication is based on an Industrial Ethernet and uses the standard Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol for parameterisation, configuration and diagnostics. The main function of the PLC is to send a digital signal to the water pump to turn it on or off, based on the tank level, using a pressure transmitter and inputs from limit switches that indicate the level of the water in the tank. This paper aims to provide a convenient solution in process plants where cabling is not possible. It also has lower installation and maintenance cost, provides reliable operation, and robust and flexible construction, suitable for industrial applications. PMID:21126739

  10. A water pumping control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless modules for industrial plants--an experimental setup.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Ramazan; Cetinceviz, Yucel

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a water pumping control system that is designed for production plants and implemented in an experimental setup in a laboratory. These plants contain harsh environments in which chemicals, vibrations or moving parts exist that could potentially damage the cabling or wires that are part of the control system. Furthermore, the data has to be transferred over paths that are accessible to the public. The control systems that it uses are a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless local area network (IWLAN) technologies. It is implemented by a PLC, an communication processor (CP), two IWLAN modules, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the water pump and sensors. Our system communication is based on an Industrial Ethernet and uses the standard Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol for parameterisation, configuration and diagnostics. The main function of the PLC is to send a digital signal to the water pump to turn it on or off, based on the tank level, using a pressure transmitter and inputs from limit switches that indicate the level of the water in the tank. This paper aims to provide a convenient solution in process plants where cabling is not possible. It also has lower installation and maintenance cost, provides reliable operation, and robust and flexible construction, suitable for industrial applications.

  11. Effect of an individually tailored one-year energy balance programme on body weight, body composition and lifestyle in recent retirees: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity warrants preventive actions, particularly among people in transitional stages associated with lifestyle changes, such as occupational retirement. The purpose is to investigate the effect of a one year low-intensity computer-tailored energy balance programme among recent retirees on waist circumference, body weight and body composition, blood pressure, physical activity and dietary intake. Methods A randomised controlled trial was conducted among recent retirees (N = 413; mean age 59.5 years). Outcome measures were assessed using anthropometry, bio-impedance, blood pressure measurement and questionnaires. Results Waist circumference, body weight and blood pressure decreased significantly in men of the intervention and control group, but no significant between-group-differences were observed at 12 or at 24-months follow-up. A significant effect of the programme was only observed on waist circumference (-1.56 cm (95%CI: -2.91 to -0.21)) at 12 month follow up among men with low education (n = 85). Physical activity and dietary behaviours improved in both the intervention and control group during the intervention period. Although, these behaviours changed more favourably in the intervention group, these between-group-differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions The multifaceted computer-tailored programme for recent retirees did not appear to be effective. Apparently the transition to occupational retirement and/or participation in the study had a greater impact than the intervention programme. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00122213. PMID:20205704

  12. COMPUTER PROGRAMMER APTITUDE BATTERY, MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PALORMO, JEAN M.

    DEVELOPED TO AID MANAGERS OF DATA-PROCESSING CENTERS AND PERSONNEL DIRECTORS IN SCREENING PERSONS WITH APTITUDES FOR COMPUTER PROGRAMING, THE COMPUTER PROGRAMMER APTITUDE BATTERY (CPAB) INCLUDES DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF TEST ADMINISTRATION, INTERPRETATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION. FIVE SEPARATELY TIMED TESTS (VERBAL MEANING,…

  13. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    PubMed

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-01-01

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  14. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    PubMed

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-01-01

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  15. The distribution of the simulium damnosum complex in West Africa with particular reference to the onchocerciasis control programme area.

    PubMed

    Vajime, C; Quillévéré, D

    1978-12-01

    A chromosomal identification of the Stimulium damnosum complex larvae collected from areas within and outside the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) area revealed six species of the complex. Five of these (S. sirbanum, S. damnosum s.s., S. soubrense, S. yahense, S. squamosum) were observed within and south of the OCP area. S. sanctipauli was found exclusively outside the OCP zone. S. sirbanum: Predominated in the Sudan Savanna, spread into the Guinea and transition zones but was almost absent in the forest region. S. damnosum s.s.: Abundant in the Guinea Savanna; was well represented in the Sudan Savanna while smaller populations penetrated the forest region. S. sanctipauli: Identified almost exclusively from the forest zone; a few savanna foci were found on the upper course of the Sassandra R. in the Ivory Coast and on the Volta R. within the coastal savanna strip in Ghana. S. soubrense: Recorded from the forest, transition and Guinea Savanna zones; northern limits were established at the Léraba Bridge on the Upper Volta/Ivory Coast border. S. yahense: Predominantely distributed along creeks and small rivers in the forest region; a few records within the Guinea Savanna were found on the upper reaches of the Sassandra valley. S. squamosum: Observed in small rivers in the forest zone; extensively colonised heavily shaded or forested areas within the Guinea Savanna but in the Sudan Savanna only two records were observed near Bobo-Dioulasso in Upper Volta. PMID:741507

  16. The distribution of the simulium damnosum complex in West Africa with particular reference to the onchocerciasis control programme area.

    PubMed

    Vajime, C; Quillévéré, D

    1978-12-01

    A chromosomal identification of the Stimulium damnosum complex larvae collected from areas within and outside the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) area revealed six species of the complex. Five of these (S. sirbanum, S. damnosum s.s., S. soubrense, S. yahense, S. squamosum) were observed within and south of the OCP area. S. sanctipauli was found exclusively outside the OCP zone. S. sirbanum: Predominated in the Sudan Savanna, spread into the Guinea and transition zones but was almost absent in the forest region. S. damnosum s.s.: Abundant in the Guinea Savanna; was well represented in the Sudan Savanna while smaller populations penetrated the forest region. S. sanctipauli: Identified almost exclusively from the forest zone; a few savanna foci were found on the upper course of the Sassandra R. in the Ivory Coast and on the Volta R. within the coastal savanna strip in Ghana. S. soubrense: Recorded from the forest, transition and Guinea Savanna zones; northern limits were established at the Léraba Bridge on the Upper Volta/Ivory Coast border. S. yahense: Predominantely distributed along creeks and small rivers in the forest region; a few records within the Guinea Savanna were found on the upper reaches of the Sassandra valley. S. squamosum: Observed in small rivers in the forest zone; extensively colonised heavily shaded or forested areas within the Guinea Savanna but in the Sudan Savanna only two records were observed near Bobo-Dioulasso in Upper Volta.

  17. Understanding Heterogeneity in the Impact of National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Programmes: Evidence from School-Based Deworming in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Birgit; Mwandawiro, Charles S.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Okoyo, Collins; Cano, Jorge; Mwanje, Mariam T.; Sultani, Hadley; Alusala, Dorcas; Turner, Hugo C.; Teti, Caroline; Garn, Josh; Freeman, Matthew C.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Roy M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) treatment programmes occurs in varied environmental, social and economic contexts. Programme impact will be influenced by factors that affect the reduction in the prevalence and intensity of infections following treatment, as well as the subsequent rate of reinfection. To better understand the heterogeneity of programme impact and its underlying reasons, we investigated the influence of contextual factors on reduction in STH infection as part of the national school based deworming (SBD) programme in Kenya. Materials and Methods Data on the prevalence and intensity of infection were collected within the monitoring and evaluation component of the SBD programme at baseline and after delivery of two annual treatment rounds in 153 schools in western Kenya. Using a framework that considers STH epidemiology and transmission dynamics, capacity to deliver treatment, operational feasibility and financial capacity, data were assembled at both school and district (county) levels. Geographic heterogeneity of programme impact was assessed by descriptive and spatial analyses. Factors associated with absolute reductions of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection prevalence and intensity were identified using mixed effects linear regression modelling adjusting for baseline infection levels. Principal Findings The reduction in prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides and hookworms varied significantly by county and within counties by school. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with programme impact showed that absolute A. lumbricoides reductions varied by environmental conditions and access to improved sanitation at schools or within the community. Larger reduction in prevalence and intensity of hookworms were found in schools located within areas with higher community level access to improved sanitation and within counties with higher economic and health service delivery indicator scores. Conclusions

  18. Political will, traditional leaders and the fight against HIV/AIDS: a South African case study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    "Political will" and leadership are increasingly considered key contextual influences on the outcomes of HIV/AIDS programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Such debates tend to focus on the role of national leadership in shaping responses to the epidemic, with little attention to local leaders. Yet many of the settings in which HIV/AIDS flourishes are geographically distant from the reach of national leadership and policies. Furthermore, local leaders often play a key role in shaping how national policies and decisions are interpreted and implemented in local areas. Against this background, we present a case study of the impact of the leadership style of a traditional Chief on a community-based AIDS programme in a South African rural community, which sought to build community-level "AIDS competence", using the "empowerment via participation" approach. The case study involved 134 interviews and 57 focus groups conducted over three years. Thematic content analysis revealed a number of direct and indirect ways in which his leadership style impacted on project outcomes. Despite his strong support for the programme, the Chief's "traditional" attitudes towards women and youth, his celebration of polygamy, and his authoritarian governance style undermined the project's "empowerment via participation" agenda - especially the programme's attempts to reduce AIDS stigma, to build female and youth capacity to control their sexual health, and to encourage men to take responsibility for their role in tackling AIDS.

  19. Institutional evolution of a community-based programme for malaria control through larval source management in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. Case description The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. Discussion and evaluation The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. Conclusions The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam’s City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes. PMID

  20. A nation in pain: why the HIV/AIDS epidemic is out of control in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, A

    2000-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people living with HIV and the number who have died of AIDS-related diseases in Zimbabwe since the early 1990s. This increase has caused shock waves and panic in Zimbabwe and in the entire southern African region. Understanding the factors that have given rise to and sustained patterns of sexual behavior that allow HIV to be transmitted easily and quickly among the general populace is of paramount importance if HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns are to be better formulated and to be effective in this part of sub-Saharan Africa. This article makes a contribution to those studies that seek to examine socioeconomic, cultural, political, and psychological factors determining high-risk sexual behaviors leading to heterosexual HIV infection in the African context. The author contends that the focus of HIV/AIDS prevention programs should be on a myriad of socioeconomic, cultural, political, and behavioral factors instead of just on women and prostitutes--groups that have the least negotiating power within the context of sex and reproduction in a patriarchal society such as Zimbabwe. The author also points out many important areas that have been omitted in the study of HIV transmission and AIDS in Africa.

  1. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  2. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  3. A review of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's response to the HIV/AIDS crisis among Blacks in the United States, 1981-2009.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Jones, Rhondette L; Wolitski, Richard J; Cleveland, Janet C; Dean, Hazel D; Fenton, Kevin A

    2009-10-01

    Among US racial/ethnic groups, Blacks are at the highest risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has launched the Heightened National Response to Address the HIV/AIDS Crisis Among African Americans, which seeks to engage public and nonpublic partners in a synergistic effort to prevent HIV among Blacks. The CDC also recently launched Act Against AIDS, a campaign to refocus attention on the domestic HIV/AIDS crisis. Although the CDC's efforts to combat HIV/AIDS among Blacks have achieved some success, more must be done to address this crisis. New initiatives include President Obama's goal of developing a National HIV/AIDS Strategy to reduce HIV incidence, decrease HIV-related health disparities, and increase access to care, especially among Blacks and other disproportionately affected populations.

  4. Effectiveness of the palliative care ‘Availability, Current issues and Anticipation’ (ACA) communication training programme for general practitioners on patient outcomes: A controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Blankenstein, Annette H; Schweitzer, Bart PM; Knol, Dirk L; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Aaronson, Neil K; Deliens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although communicating effectively with patients receiving palliative care can be difficult, it may contribute to maintaining or enhancing patients’ quality of life. Little is known about the effect of training general practitioners in palliative care–specific communication. We hypothesized that palliative care patients of general practitioners exposed to the ‘Availability, Current issues and Anticipation’ communication training programme would report better outcomes than patients of control general practitioners. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation training programme for general practitioners on patient-reported outcomes. Design: In a controlled trial, general practitioners followed the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation programme or were part of the control group. Patients receiving palliative care of participating general practitioners completed the Palliative Care Outcome Scale, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative, the Rest & Peace Scale, the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–III and the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation Scale, at baseline and 12 months follow-up. We analysed differences between groups using linear mixed models. Trial registration: ISRCTN56722368. Setting/participants: General practitioners who attended a 2-year Palliative Care Training Course in the Netherlands. Results: Questionnaire data were available for 145 patients (89 in intervention and 56 in control group). We found no significant differences over time between the intervention and control groups in any of the five outcome measures. Ceiling effects were observed for the Rest & Peace Scale, Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–III and Availability, Current issues and Anticipation Scale. Conclusion: General practitioner participation in the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation training programme did not have

  5. Protocol for the evaluation of a pay for performance programme in Pwani region in Tanzania: A controlled before and after study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of supply-side incentives to increase health service utilisation and enhance service quality is gaining momentum in many low- and middle-income countries. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the impact of such schemes, their cost-effectiveness, and the process of implementation and potential unintended consequences in these settings. A pay for performance (P4P) programme was introduced in Pwani region of Tanzania in 2011. Methods/design An evaluation of the programme will be carried out to inform a potential national rollout. A controlled before and after study will examine the effect of the P4P programme on quality, coverage, and cost of targeted maternal and newborn healthcare services and selected non-targeted services at facilities in Tanzania. Data will be collected from a survey of 75 facilities, 750 patients exiting consultations, over 75 health workers, and 1,500 households of women who delivered in the previous year, in all seven intervention districts. Data will be collected from the same number of respondents in four control districts. A process evaluation will examine: whether the P4P programme was implemented as planned; stakeholder response to the programme and its acceptability; and implementation bottlenecks and facilitating factors. Three rounds of process data collection will be conducted including a review of available P4P documents, individual interviews and focus group discussions with key informants working at facility and district level in five of the intervention districts, and at the regional and national levels. An economic evaluation will measure the cost-effectiveness of P4P relative to current practice from a societal perspective. Discussion This evaluation will contribute robust evidence on the impact and cost-effectiveness of P4P in a low income setting, as well as generate a better understanding of the feasibility of integrating complex intervention packages like P4P within health systems in resource poor

  6. A programmable synthetic lineage-control network that differentiates human IPSCs into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pratik; Heng, Boon Chin; Bai, Peng; Folcher, Marc; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology has advanced the design of standardized transcription control devices that programme cellular behaviour. By coupling synthetic signalling cascade- and transcription factor-based gene switches with reverse and differential sensitivity to the licensed food additive vanillic acid, we designed a synthetic lineage-control network combining vanillic acid-triggered mutually exclusive expression switches for the transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3; OFF-ON-OFF) and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1; ON-OFF-ON) with the concomitant induction of MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A; OFF-ON). This designer network consisting of different network topologies orchestrating the timely control of transgenic and genomic Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA variants is able to programme human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells, whose glucose-stimulated insulin-release dynamics are comparable to human pancreatic islets. Synthetic lineage-control networks may provide the missing link to genetically programme somatic cells into autologous cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine. PMID:27063289

  7. A programmable synthetic lineage-control network that differentiates human IPSCs into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pratik; Heng, Boon Chin; Bai, Peng; Folcher, Marc; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology has advanced the design of standardized transcription control devices that programme cellular behaviour. By coupling synthetic signalling cascade- and transcription factor-based gene switches with reverse and differential sensitivity to the licensed food additive vanillic acid, we designed a synthetic lineage-control network combining vanillic acid-triggered mutually exclusive expression switches for the transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3; OFF-ON-OFF) and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1; ON-OFF-ON) with the concomitant induction of MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A; OFF-ON). This designer network consisting of different network topologies orchestrating the timely control of transgenic and genomic Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA variants is able to programme human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells, whose glucose-stimulated insulin-release dynamics are comparable to human pancreatic islets. Synthetic lineage-control networks may provide the missing link to genetically programme somatic cells into autologous cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine. PMID:27063289

  8. Effectiveness of a Peer Support Programme versus Usual Care in Disease Management of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 regarding Improvement of Metabolic Control: A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Tim; Keller, Sophie; Winkler, Henrike; Weitgasser, Raimund; Sönnichsen, Andreas C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Testing the effectiveness of peer support additionally to a disease management programme (DMP) for type 2 diabetes patients. Methods. Unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving 49 general practices, province of Salzburg, Austria. All patients enrolled in the DMP were eligible, n = 337 participated (intervention: 148 in 19 clusters; control: 189 in 20 clusters). The peer support intervention ran over 24 months and consisted of peer supporter recruitment and training, and group meetings weekly for physical exercise and monthly for discussion of diabetes related topics. Results. At two-year follow-up, adjusted analysis revealed a nonsignificant difference in HbA1c change of 0.14% (21.97 mmol/mol) in favour of the intervention (95% CI −0.08 to 0.36%, p = 0.22). Baseline values were 7.02 ± 1.25% in the intervention and 7.08 ± 1.25 in the control group. None of the secondary outcome measures showed significant differences except for improved quality of life (EQ-5D-VAS) in controls (4.3 points on a scale of 100; 95% CI 0.08 to 8.53, p = 0.046) compared to the intervention group. Conclusion. Our peer support intervention as an additional DMP component showed no significant effect on HbA1c and secondary outcome measures. Further RTCs with a longer follow-up are needed to reveal whether peer support will have clinically relevant effects. Trial Registration. This trial has been registered with Current Controlled Trials Ltd. (ISRCTN10291077). PMID:26858958

  9. Promoting cancer prevention and control in community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations: are they ready?

    PubMed

    Guidry, John A; Lubetkin, Erica; Corner, Geoffrey; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Kornegay, Mark; Burkhalter, Jack E

    2014-02-01

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) serving persons living with HIV or AIDS face the challenge of an aging population with more chronic diseases. This study assessed cancer programming needs of AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut by conducting a community needs assessment. Sixty (58%) of 103 organizations completed the survey. ASOs conduct activities most related to early steps along the cancer care continuum, but they also express great interest in expanding cancer-focused programming into new areas. ASOs have resources or capacities in assisting HIV+ clients with mental health or substance abuse problems, but there exists a need for funding in undertaking or expanding cancer-focused programs. ASOs are receptive to collaborating with researchers on disseminating cancer prevention and control knowledge in their settings. Community-academic research partnerships enable resonant training and technical assistance methods to be explored that will enhance the abilities of ASOs to bring cancer-related programming to their clients.

  10. Governing AIDS through aid to civil society: Global solutions meet local problems in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Follér, Maj-Lis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The main questions the paper aims to answer are: Who is setting the agenda? What power mechanisms are in place to fulfil planned projects and programmes? Are there any forms of resistance from civil society AIDS-organisations in the face of the donor interventions? The actions will be analysed through the lens of governmentality theory. The study concluded that donors have the power to set the agenda through predetermined programmes and using various technologies. Their strongest weapons are audit mechanisms such as the result based management model used as a control mechanism, and there is still a long way to go to achieve a situation with multiple forms of local resistance to the conditions set by economically powerful donors. The standardisation imposed through clustering donors into like-minded groups and other constellations gives them power to govern the politics of AIDS.

  11. Predicting Success in a Master of Information Science Degree Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbonlaho, Rosemary O.; Offor, Uzoamaka J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an insight into factors that can help predict the success of students admitted to a Master of information science (MInfSc) programme and aid admission committees in selecting candidates that are most likely to succeed in a graduate programme of information science, using the MInfSc programme at the Africa Regional Centre for…

  12. Robust computer-aided synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems with varying plant dynamics via AUTOCON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefkowitz, C. P.; Tekawy, J. A.; Pujara, P. K.; Safonov, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    AUTOCON is an automated computer-aided design tool for the synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems based upon user-defined control parameter optimization. Violations in stability and performance requirements are computed from constraints on Single Input/Single Output (SISO) open- and closed-loop transfer function frequency responses, and from constraints on the singular-value frequency responses of Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) transfer functions, for all critical plant variations. Optimum nonlinear programming algorithms are used in the search for local constrained solutions in which violations in stability and performance are caused either to vanish or be minimized for a proper selection of the control parameters. Classical control system stability and performance design can, in this way, be combined with modern multivariable robustness methods to offer general frequency response loop-shaping via a computer-aided design tool. Complete Nichols, Nyquist, Bode, singular-value Bode magnitude and transient response plots are produced, including user-defined boundary responses. AUTOCON is used to synthesize and optimize the lateral/directional flight control system for a typical high-performance aircraft.

  13. Using Computer-Aided Instruction to Support the Systematic Practice of Phonological Skills in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a randomised control trial investigating the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) for practising phonological awareness skills with beginning readers. Two intervention groups followed the same phonological awareness programme: one group undertook practice exercises using a computer and the other group undertook…

  14. Preventing substance misuse: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 UK (SFP 10–14 UK)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevention of alcohol, drug and tobacco misuse by young people is a key public health priority. There is a need to develop the evidence base through rigorous evaluations of innovative approaches to substance misuse prevention. The Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 is a universal family-based alcohol, drugs and tobacco prevention programme, which has achieved promising results in US trials, and which now requires cross-cultural assessment. This paper therefore describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial of the UK version of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 (SFP 10–14 UK). Methods/Design The trial comprises a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled effectiveness trial with families as the unit of randomisation, with embedded process and economic evaluations. Participating families will be randomised to one of two treatment groups - usual care with full access to existing services (control group), or usual care plus SFP 10–14 UK (intervention group). The trial has two primary outcomes - the number of occasions that young people report having drunk alcohol in the last 30 days, and drunkenness during the last 30 days, both dichotomised as ‘never’ and ‘1-2 times or more’. The main follow-up is at 2 years past baseline, and short-term and intermediate outcomes are also measured at 9 and 15 months. Discussion The results from this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an innovative universal family-based substance misuse prevention programme in a UK context. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63550893. PMID:24438460

  15. GT-MSOCC - A domain for research on human-computer interaction and decision aiding in supervisory control systems. [Georgia Tech - Multisatellite Operations Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    The Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center (GT-MSOCC), a real-time interactive simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system for unmanned earth-orbiting satellites, is described. The GT-MSOCC program for investigating a range of modeling, decision aiding, and workstation design issues related to the human-computer interaction is discussed. A GT-MSOCC operator function model is described in which operator actions, both cognitive and manual, are represented as the lowest level discrete control network nodes, and operator action nodes are linked to information needs or system reconfiguration commands.

  16. The effects of a mindfulness-based lifestyle programme for adults with Parkinson’s disease: protocol for a mixed methods, randomised two-group control study

    PubMed Central

    Advocat, Jenny; Russell, Grant; Enticott, Joanne; Hassed, Craig; Hester, Jennifer; Vandenberg, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in developed countries. There is an increasing interest in the use of mindfulness-related interventions in the management of patients with a chronic disease. In addition, interventions that promote personal control, stress-management and other lifestyle factors, such as diet and exercise, assist in reducing disability and improving quality of life in people with chronic illnesses. There has been little research in this area for people with PD. Methods A prospective mixed-method randomised clinical trial involving community living adults with PD aged <76 years and with moderate disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2) PD. Participants will be randomised into the ESSENCE 6-week programme or a matched wait list control group. ESSENCE is a multifaceted, healthy lifestyle and mindfulness programme designed to improve quality of life. We aim to determine whether participation in a mindfulness and lifestyle programme could improve PD-related function and explore self-management related experiences and changing attitudes towards self-management. The outcome measures will include 5 self-administered questionnaires: PD function and well-being questionnaire (PDQ39), Health Behaviours, Mental health, Multidimensional locus of control, and Freiburg mindfulness inventory. An embedded qualitative protocol will include in-depth interviews with 12 participants before and after participation in the 6-week programme and a researcher will observe the programme and take notes. Analysis Repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) will examine the outcome measures for any significant effects from the group allocation, age, sex, adherence score and attendance. Qualitative data will be analysed thematically. We will outline the benefits of, and barriers to, the uptake of the intervention. Ethics This protocol has received ethics approval from the Monash University Human Research Ethics

  17. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis—a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme

    PubMed Central

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. Subjects: 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Methods: Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). Results: In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Conclusion: Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group. PMID:14644853

  18. A Randomised Controlled Trial of PEGASUS, a Psychoeducational Programme for Young People with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Kate; Murin, Marianna; Baykaner, Ozlem; Roughan, Laura; Livermore-Hardy, Vaan; Skuse, David; Mandy, Will

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoeducation is an essential component of postdiagnostic care for people with ASD (autism spectrum disorder), but there is currently no evidence base for clinical practice. We designed, manualised and evaluated PEGASUS (psychoeducation group for autism spectrum understanding and support), a group psychoeducational programme aiming…

  19. Teaching Emotion Recognition Skills to Young Children with Autism: A Randomised Controlled Trial of an Emotion Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Beth T.; Gray, Kylie M.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with autism have difficulties in emotion recognition and a number of interventions have been designed to target these problems. However, few emotion training interventions have been trialled with young children with autism and co-morbid ID. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emotion training programme for a group…

  20. Optimal Control of Hepatitis C Antiviral Treatment Programme Delivery for Prevention amongst a Population of Injecting Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Peter; Vassall, Anna; Hickman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In most developed countries, HCV is primarily transmitted by injecting drug users (IDUs). HCV antiviral treatment is effective, and deemed cost-effective for those with no re-infection risk. However, few active IDUs are currently treated. Previous modelling studies have shown antiviral treatment for active IDUs could reduce HCV prevalence, and there is emerging interest in developing targeted IDU treatment programmes. However, the optimal timing and scale-up of treatment is unknown, given the real-world constraints commonly existing for health programmes. We explore how the optimal programme is affected by a variety of policy objectives, budget constraints, and prevalence settings. We develop a model of HCV transmission and treatment amongst active IDUs, determine the optimal treatment programme strategy over 10 years for two baseline chronic HCV prevalence scenarios (30% and 45%), a range of maximum annual budgets (50,000–300,000 per 1,000 IDUs), and a variety of objectives: minimising health service costs and health utility losses; minimising prevalence at 10 years; minimising health service costs and health utility losses with a final time prevalence target; minimising health service costs with a final time prevalence target but neglecting health utility losses. The largest programme allowed for a given budget is the programme which minimises both prevalence at 10 years, and HCV health utility loss and heath service costs, with higher budgets resulting in greater cost-effectiveness (measured by cost per QALY gained compared to no treatment). However, if the objective is to achieve a 20% relative prevalence reduction at 10 years, while minimising both health service costs and losses in health utility, the optimal treatment strategy is an immediate expansion of coverage over 5–8 years, and is less cost-effective. By contrast, if the objective is only to minimise costs to the health service while attaining the 20% prevalence reduction, the programme is deferred

  1. Programmable telemetry test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadiana, J. M.

    A portable programmable telemetry test system was designed to test shipboard telemetry systems used for evaluating performance of missile systems in the surface missile fleet. The test system accurately simulates any missile in the current Navy inventory, and provides test and calibration signals to verify telemetry systems. The total test system weighs just over 15 lbs and occupies less than 1 cubic foot. Internal batteries allow testing or calibration of RF front ends out on weather decks. The modulation section consists of an FM/PAM/PCM simulator and simple control circuitry, and is programmable via an Intel 2715 EPROM, the frame format memory. A second EPROM provides a wave-form library.

  2. Community perceptions on malaria and care-seeking practices in endemic Indian settings: policy implications for the malaria control programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of India’s National Malaria Programme witnessed a paradigm shift recently from health facility to community-based approaches. The current thrust is on diagnosing and treating malaria by community health workers and prevention through free provision of long-lasting insecticidal nets. However, appropriate community awareness and practice are inevitable for the effectiveness of such efforts. In this context, the study assessed community perceptions and practice on malaria and similar febrile illnesses. This evidence base is intended to direct the roll-out of the new strategies and improve community acceptance and utilization of services. Methods A qualitative study involving 26 focus group discussions and 40 key informant interviews was conducted in two districts of Odisha State in India. The key points of discussion were centred on community perceptions and practice regarding malaria prevention and treatment. Thematic analysis of data was performed. Results The 272 respondents consisted of 50% females, three-quarter scheduled tribe community and 30% students. A half of them were literates. Malaria was reported to be the most common disease in their settings with multiple modes of transmission by the FGD participants. Adoption of prevention methods was seasonal with perceived mosquito density. The reported use of bed nets was low and the utilization was determined by seasonality, affordability, intoxication and alternate uses of nets. Although respondents were aware of malaria-related symptoms, care-seeking from traditional healers and unqualified providers was prevalent. The respondents expressed lack of trust in the community health workers due to frequent drug stock-outs. The major determinants of health care seeking were socio-cultural beliefs, age, gender, faith in the service provider, proximity, poverty, and perceived effectiveness of available services. Conclusion Apart from the socio-cultural and behavioural factors, the availability of

  3. Effects of the Positive Action programme on problem behaviours in elementary school students: a matched-pair randomised control trial in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Washburn, Isaac; DuBois, David L; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; Brechling, Vanessa; Day, Joseph; Beets, Michael W; Acock, Alan C; Berbaum, Michael; Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian R

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the effects of the Positive Action (PA) programme in Chicago Public Schools on problem behaviours among a cohort of elementary school students from grade three through grade five. Using a matched-pair, randomised control design with 14 elementary schools, approximately 510 fifth-graders self-reported lifetime substance use, serious violence-related behaviour, and current bullying and disruptive behaviours. Three-level (i.e. students nested within schools within school pairs) overdispersed Poisson models were used to examine programme effects on the number of items endorsed for each of the four outcomes. Findings indicated that students in the intervention endorsed 31% fewer substance use behaviours (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.69), 37% fewer violence-related behaviours (IRR = 0.63) and 41% fewer bullying behaviours (IRR = 0.59), respectively, compared to students in the control schools. Reduction in reported disruptive behaviours was of a similar magnitude (27%, IRR = 0.73), but was not statistically significant. These results replicate findings of an earlier randomised trial of the PA programme and extend evidence of its effectiveness to youth attending large urban school systems.

  4. Design and fabrication of a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction based nonvolatile programmable switch achieving 40% less area using shared-control transistor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, D.; Natsui, M.; Mochizuki, A.; Miura, S.; Honjo, H.; Kinoshita, K.; Fukami, S.; Sato, H.; Ikeda, S.; Endoh, T.; Ohno, H.; Hanyu, T.

    2014-05-01

    A compact nonvolatile programmable switch (NVPS) using 90 nm CMOS technology together with perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) devices is fabricated for zero-standby-power field-programmable gate array. Because routing information does not change once it is programmed into an NVPS, high-speed read and write accesses are not required and a write-control transistor can be shared among all the NVPSs, which greatly simplifies structure of the NVPS. In fact, the effective area of the proposed NVPS is reduced by 40% compared to that of a conventional MTJ-based NVPS. The instant on/off behavior without external nonvolatile memory access is also demonstrated using the fabricated test chip.

  5. Effect of intensive handwashing in the prevention of diarrhoeal illness among patients with AIDS: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Huang, David B; Zhou, Jing

    2007-05-01

    Patients with AIDS frequently develop diarrhoeal illness. In this randomized, controlled study, 260 patients were screened for those who had not had diarrhoea in the preceding 3 months and who had received a stable highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen for at least 6 weeks prior to the study enrollment. A total of 148 patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled: 75 patients were randomly assigned to an intensive handwashing intervention (i.e. handwashing after defecation, after cleaning infants who had defecated, before preparing food, before eating, and before and after sex) and 73 patients were randomly assigned to the control group. Patients in both groups were called weekly by telephone to determine compliance with handwashing and to determine the number of diarrhoeal episodes for the preceding week. Patients were observed for 1 year. Patients assigned to the intensive handwashing intervention group washed their hands more frequently compared with the control group (seven vs four times a day, respectively; P <0.05) and developed fewer episodes of diarrhoeal illness (1.24+/-0.9 vs 2.92+/-0.6 new episodes of diarrhoea, respectively; P <0.001) during the 1 year observation. The most common pathogens identified in both groups in patients who developed diarrhoeal illness were Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica and Shigella flexneri. These data suggest that intensive handwashing reduces diarrhoeal illness in patients with AIDS.

  6. Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; McLennan, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Victor; Vandal, Alain C; Hamlin, Michael; Simmons, David; Graham, David

    2014-01-28

    Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI - 5·8, - 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI - 4·3, - 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous Māori and non-Māori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23867069

  7. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Warakamin, Busaba; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    As part of a series of case studies on the interactions between programmes supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and health systems, we assessed the extent of integration of national HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria programmes with the general health system, the integration of the Global Fund-portfolios within the national disease programmes, and system-wide effects on the health system in Thailand. The study relied on a literature review and 34 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. In Thailand, the HIV, TB and malaria programmes' structures and functions are well established in the general health care system, with the Department for Disease Control and the Ministry of Public Health's network of health providers at sub-national levels as the main responsible organizations for stewardship and governance, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation, planning, and to some extent, demand generation. Civil society groups are active in certain areas, particularly in demand generation for HIV/AIDS. Overall, the Global Fund-supported programmes were almost fully integrated and coordinated with the general health system. The extent of integration varied across disease portfolios because of different number of actors and the nature of programme activities. There were also specific requirements by Global Fund that limit integration for some health system functions namely financing and monitoring and evaluation. From the view of stakeholders in Thailand, the Global Fund has contributed significantly to the three diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS. Financial support from the early Global Fund rounds was particularly helpful to the disease programmes during the time of major structural change in the MoPH. It also promoted collaborative networks of stakeholders, especially civil societies. However, the impacts on the overall health system, which is relatively well developed, are seen as

  8. What is the magnitude of blood pressure response to a programme of moderate intensity exercise? Randomised controlled trial among sedentary adults with unmedicated hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, A R; Moore, L A; McKenna, J; Riddoch, C J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend regular, moderate intensity aerobic exercise such as brisk walking as a means of blood pressure reduction. However, there is a lack of consistent evidence regarding the magnitude of blood pressure response to such a prescription. In particular, no well designed studies have investigated the efficacy of a programme of exercise meeting current guidelines. AIM: To investigate the effect of a six-week programme of moderate intensity exercise on daytime ambulatory blood pressure (10.00 am to 10.00 pm) among unmedicated, sedentary adults aged 25 years to 63 years with office blood pressure of 150 mmHg to 180 mmHg systolic and/or 91 mmHg to 110 mmHg diastolic. METHOD: Randomised controlled trial of participants carrying out 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (brisk walking or equivalent) five days per week for six weeks compared with controls who maintained existing levels of physical activity. RESULTS: Compliance with the exercise programme was high. The reduction in mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure between baseline and six-week follow-up was greater in the intervention group than in the control group for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, this net hypotensive effect was not statistically significant (systolic = -3.4 mmHg, 95% CI = -7.4 to 0.6; diastolic = -2.8 mmHg, 95% CI = -5.8 to 0.2). Adjusting for baseline differences in mean ambulatory blood pressure in an analysis of covariance led to a reduction in the estimated magnitude of the effect (systolic = -1.9 mmHg, 95% CI = -5.4 to 1.7, P = 0.31; diastolic = -2.2 mmHg, 95% CI = -4.9 to 0.5, P = 0.11). CONCLUSION: Despite high compliance with the exercise programme, the magnitude of the hypotensive effect of moderate intensity exercise was not as great as that found in studies of higher intensity exercise among hypertensives. Expectations of general practitioners and patients that a programme of moderate intensity

  9. Environmental protection during animal disease eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, H A

    1991-09-01

    This paper identifies animal disease eradication (ADE) programme activities which may have a negative impact on the environment. It suggests ways to lessen the impact of such activities without compromising the programme objectives. Reducing losses from livestock and poultry diseases with prevention, control and eradication programmes produces a net positive impact on the environment. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be integrated into the planning of any ADE programme. Decision-makers should give due consideration to the environmental effects of ADE programme activities, together with cost, personnel needs and other, more traditional, management concerns. A better environment will be a supplemental benefit from ADE programmes.

  10. Environmental protection during animal disease eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, H A

    1991-09-01

    This paper identifies animal disease eradication (ADE) programme activities which may have a negative impact on the environment. It suggests ways to lessen the impact of such activities without compromising the programme objectives. Reducing losses from livestock and poultry diseases with prevention, control and eradication programmes produces a net positive impact on the environment. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be integrated into the planning of any ADE programme. Decision-makers should give due consideration to the environmental effects of ADE programme activities, together with cost, personnel needs and other, more traditional, management concerns. A better environment will be a supplemental benefit from ADE programmes. PMID:1782433

  11. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  12. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to investigate if a community based strength training programme improves work task performance in young adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle strength is important for young people with Down syndrome as they make the transition to adulthood, because their workplace activities typically emphasise physical rather than cognitive skills. Muscle strength is reduced up to 50% in people with Down syndrome compared to their peers without disability. Progressive resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance in people with Down syndrome. However, there is no evidence on whether it has an effect on work task performance or physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate if a student-led community-based progressive resistance training programme can improve these outcomes in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Methods A randomised controlled trial will compare progressive resistance training with a control group undertaking a social programme. Seventy adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome aged 14-22 years and mild to moderate intellectual disability will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a concealed method. The intervention group will complete a 10-week, twice a week, student-led progressive resistance training programme at a local community gymnasium. The student mentors will be undergraduate physiotherapy students. The control group will complete an arts/social programme with a student mentor once a week for 90 minutes also for 10 weeks to control for the social aspect of the intervention. Work task performance (box stacking, pail carry), muscle strength (1 repetition maximum for chest and leg press) and physical activity (frequency, duration, intensity over 7-days) will be assessed at baseline (Week 0), following the intervention (Week 11), and at 3 months post intervention (Week 24) by an assessor blind to group allocation. Data will be analysed using ANCOVA with baseline measures as covariates. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on the effects of progressive

  13. Incidences of cross-generation sexual activities in Nigeria: implications for HIV/AIDS control.

    PubMed

    Adegbenro, Caleb A; Fabiyi, Amos K; Esimai, Olapeju A; Aluko, M O A

    2010-01-01

    A national baseline survey of mass media in Nigeria was carried out for 4 weeks in the month of July 2009. The objective was to design an intervention strategy to increase the knowledge of the country's population on the risk-factors associated with the practice of cross-generational sex (CGS) as well as changing perception toward the practice. The survey showed that the practice of CGS is now on the increase and that young girls are the victims. The major reason given by the older perpetrators of CGS was the advice by a native doctor to go and have sex with a young girl as a cure for HIV/AIDS and other STIs. There is an urgent need to carry out an intervention program in order to arrest the alarming rate of CGS in Nigeria. PMID:21840816

  14. Sociopolitical determinants of an AIDS prevention program: multiple actors and vertical relationships of control and influence.

    PubMed

    Laperrière, Hélène; Zúñiga, Ricardo

    2006-05-01

    In every country, health and prevention "come down" from the authorities responsible for this mission by way of planners, local authorities, and peer educators until it reaches the target population. International and national systems function on the premise of a top-down transmission, with little room for integrating local information that might provide a better understanding of the implementation process. This analysis is based on an empirical evaluative research of HIV/AIDS prevention projects with sex workers in a remote area of northern Brazil. It illustrates how nursing sociopolitical analysis can reveal how political interests can have perverse effects by contaminating the group's internal relations and with established partnerships, thereby weakening the impact of prevention programs. These effects can seriously affect community relations and social practices, far beyond the technical division of work and political hierarchies in the sociosanitary network. PMID:16864636

  15. AESOP: A computer-aided design program for linear multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtinen, B.; Geyser, L. C.

    1982-01-01

    An interactive computer program (AESOP) which solves quadratic optimal control and is discussed. The program can also be used to perform system analysis calculations such as transient and frequency responses, controllability, observability, etc., in support of the control and filter design computations.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Clinical Decision Aid to Improve Access to Kidney Transplantation: iChoose Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, Rachel E.; Basu, Mohua; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla D.; Wolf, Michael; Ladner, Daniela; Friedewald, John J.; Chiles, Mariana; Russell, Allison; McPherson, Laura; Gander, Jennifer; Pastan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease, as it substantially increases a patient's survival and is cost saving compared to a lifetime of dialysis. However, transplantation is not universally chosen by patients with renal failure, and limited knowledge about the survival benefit of transplantation vs. dialysis may play a role. We created a mobile application clinical decision aid called iChoose Kidney to improve access to individualized prognosis information comparing dialysis and transplantation outcomes. We describe the iChoose Kidney study, a randomized controlled trial designed to test the clinical efficacy of a mobile health decision aid among end-stage renal disease patients referred for kidney transplantation at three large, diverse transplant centers across the U.S. Approximately 450 patients will be randomized to receive either: (1) standard of care or “usual” transplantation education, or (2) standard of care plus iChoose Kidney. The primary outcome is change in knowledge about the survival benefit of kidney transplantation vs. dialysis from baseline to immediate follow-up; secondary outcomes include change in treatment preferences, improved decisional conflict, and increased access to kidney transplantation. Analyses are also planned to examine effectiveness across subgroups of race, socioeconomic status, health literacy and health numeracy. Engaging patients in health care choices can increase patient empowerment and improve knowledge and understanding of treatment choices. If the effectiveness of iChoose Kidney has a greater impact on patients with low health literacy, lower socioeconomic status, and minority race, this decision aid could help reduce disparities in access to kidney transplantation. PMID:27610423

  17. Educational psychology in medical learning: a randomised controlled trial of two aide memoires for the recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, E; Voisey, S; Hughes, S; Higgins, B; McQuillan, P

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Although mnemonics are commonly used in medical education there are few data on their effectiveness. A RCT was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a new aide memoire, "EMD-aide", would be superior to the conventional "4Hs+4Ts" mnemonic in facilitating recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation (EMD) among house officers. Method: "EMD-aide", organises causes of EMD by frequency of occurrence and ease of reversibility: four groups organised by shape, colour, position, numbering, clockwise sequence, and use of arrows. Eight hospitals were randomised in a controlled trial and 149 house officers were then recruited by telephone. Baseline ability to recall causes of EMD was recorded at one minute and overall. House officers were then sent a copy of either "4Hs+4Ts" or "EMD-aide" according to randomisation group. Recall ability was retested at one month. Results: 68 of 80 and 51 of 69 house officers completed the study in the "4Hs+4Ts" and "EMD-aide" groups respectively (NS) with similar baseline recall. After intervention median number of recalled causes was greater in the "EMD-aide" group, eight compared with seven at one minute (p = 0.034) and eight compared with seven overall, p = 0.067. Recall of all eight causes was more common in "EMD-aide" group, 54% compared with 35%, p = 0.054, and these house officers spent longer examining their aide memoire, p<0.001. Conclusions: "EMD-aide" may be superior to "4Hs+4Ts" in facilitating the recall of the causes of electromechanical dissociation. Educational psychology of medical learning and the use of aide memoires in general are worthy of further study. PMID:15208230

  18. Control methods for aiding a pilot during STOL engine failure transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. R.; Debra, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate autopilot control laws that control the engine failure transient sink rates by demonstrating the engineering application of modern state variable control theory were defined. The results of approximate modal analysis were compared to those derived from full state analyses provided from computer design solutions. The aircraft was described, and a state variable model of its longitudinal dynamic motion due to engine and control variations was defined. The classical fast and slow modes were assumed to be sufficiently different to define reduced order approximations of the aircraft motion amendable to hand analysis control definition methods. The original state equations of motion were also applied to a large scale state variable control design program, in particular OPTSYS. The resulting control laws were compared with respect to their relative responses, ease of application, and meeting the desired performance objectives.

  19. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997–2017). Methods A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. Results While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government’s priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non

  20. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.

  1. GD-aided IOL (input-output linearisation) controller for handling affine-form nonlinear system with loose condition on relative degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunong; Chen, Dechao; Jin, Long; Zhang, Yinyan; Yin, Yonghua

    2016-04-01

    Input-output linearisation (IOL) may encounter a singularity problem when applied to the tracking control of affine-form nonlinear system (AFNS), which may not have a well-defined relative degree. The singularity problem has occurred in the area of control for decades. In this paper, we incorporate the gradient dynamics (GD) into IOL, which leads to the GD-aided IOL method to solve the singularity problem, with the proposition of the loose condition on relative degree. Moreover, detailed theoretical analyses on tracking-error bound and convergence performance of the corresponding GD-aided IOL controller are presented. Simulations and comparisons substantiate that the proposed GD-aided IOL method is capable of completing the tracking-control task and conquering the singularity encountered in the AFNS.

  2. An exoskeleton using controlled energy storage and release to aid ankle propulsion.

    PubMed

    Wiggin, M Bruce; Sawicki, Gregory S; Collins, Steven H

    2011-01-01

    Symmetric ankle propulsion is the cornerstone of efficient human walking. The ankle plantar flexors provide the majority of the mechanical work for the step-to-step transition and much of this work is delivered via elastic recoil from the Achilles' tendon - making it highly efficient. Even though the plantar flexors play a central role in propulsion, body-weight support and swing initiation during walking, very few assistive devices have focused on aiding ankle plantarflexion. Our goal was to develop a portable ankle exoskeleton taking inspiration from the passive elastic mechanisms at play in the human triceps surae-Achilles' tendon complex during walking. The challenge was to use parallel springs to provide ankle joint mechanical assistance during stance phase but allow free ankle rotation during swing phase. To do this we developed a novel `smart-clutch' that can engage and disengage a parallel spring based only on ankle kinematic state. The system is purely passive - containing no motors, electronics or external power supply. This `energy-neutral' ankle exoskeleton could be used to restore symmetry and reduce metabolic energy expenditure of walking in populations with weak ankle plantar flexors (e.g. stroke, spinal cord injury, normal aging).

  3. Quality control of food products purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil, from 1985 to 1988.

    PubMed

    Guerra, N B; Pires, E M; Martins, G de C; Lima Filho, J B; Guerra, G N; Borges, L B; Tavares, M O; Cavalcante, M L; de Melo Filho, A B; de Oliveira, A R

    1992-12-01

    The effectiveness of the Quality Control System (QCS) implemented by the Fundação de Assistência ao Escolar (FAE) for quality control of food products from different types and origins purchased by the National School-Feeding Programme (NSFP) in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, was evaluated. Physicochemical, microbiological, microscopical and organopetical analyses were performed in 4,860 food samples and the main causes of alterations were detected. Perishability was the characteristic used for distribution of food items into 3 main groups: A, B, and C. In accordance with 972 Quality Certificates between 1985 and 1988, 31.89 of the samples were rejected. The main reasons for rejection were innacuracies of net weight and drained weight and high moisture contents. Group B presented the smallest number of altered samples (27%); for Groups A and C these values were 33% and 44%, respectively. Our data lead to the conclusion that the QCS implemented by FAE is of paramount importance for an adequate quality control of foods provided to beneficiaries and for a good cost effectiveness of the school-feeding programme. PMID:1342181

  4. Working memory training for adult hearing aid users: study protocol for a double-blind randomized active controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One in ten people aged between 55 to 74 years have a significant hearing impairment in their better hearing ear (as defined by audiometric hearing thresholds). However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the challenges faced by older listeners cannot be explained by the audiogram alone. The ability for people with hearing loss to use cognition to support speech perception allows for compensation of the degraded auditory input. This in turn offers promise for new cognitive-based rehabilitative interventions. Working memory is known to be highly associated with language comprehension and recent evidence has shown significant generalization of learning from trained working memory tasks to improvements in sentence-repetition skills of children with severe to profound hearing loss. This evidence offers support for further investigation into the potential benefits of working memory training to improve speech perception abilities in other hearing impaired populations. Methods/Design This is a double-blind randomized active controlled trial aiming to assess whether a program of working memory training results in improvements in untrained measures of cognition, speech perception and self-reported hearing abilities in adult hearing aid users (aged 50 to 74 years) with mild-to-moderate hearing loss, compared with an active control group who receive a placebo version of the working memory training program. Discussion The present study aims to generate high-quality preliminary evidence for the efficacy of working memory training for adults with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss who are existing hearing aid users. This trial addresses a number of gaps in the published literature assessing training interventions for people with hearing loss, and in the general literature surrounding working memory training, such as the inclusion of an active control group, participant and tester blinding, and increased transparency in reporting. Trial registration

  5. A combined nuclear and nucleolar localization motif in activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) controls immunoglobulin class switching.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Ericsson, Ida; Torseth, Kathrin; Methot, Stephen P; Sundheim, Ottar; Liabakk, Nina B; Slupphaug, Geir; Di Noia, Javier M; Krokan, Hans E; Kavli, Bodil

    2013-01-23

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a DNA mutator enzyme essential for adaptive immunity. AID initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination (CSR) by deaminating cytosine to uracil in specific immunoglobulin (Ig) gene regions. However, other loci, including cancer-related genes, are also targeted. Thus, tight regulation of AID is crucial to balance immunity versus disease such as cancer. AID is regulated by several mechanisms including nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Here we have studied nuclear import kinetics and subnuclear trafficking of AID in live cells and characterized in detail its nuclear localization signal. Importantly, we find that the nuclear localization signal motif also directs AID to nucleoli where it colocalizes with its interaction partner, catenin-β-like 1 (CTNNBL1), and physically associates with nucleolin and nucleophosmin. Moreover, we demonstrate that release of AID from nucleoli is dependent on its C-terminal motif. Finally, we find that CSR efficiency correlates strongly with the arithmetic product of AID nuclear import rate and DNA deamination activity. Our findings suggest that directional nucleolar transit is important for the physiological function of AID and demonstrate that nuclear/nucleolar import and DNA cytosine deamination together define the biological activity of AID. This is the first study on subnuclear trafficking of AID and demonstrates a new level in its complex regulation. In addition, our results resolve the problem related to dissociation of deamination activity and CSR activity of AID mutants.

  6. Effectiveness of a programme of exercise on physical function in survivors of critical illness following discharge from the ICU: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (REVIVE)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Following discharge home from the ICU, patients often suffer from reduced physical function, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and social functioning. There is usually no support to address these longer term problems, and there has been limited research carried out into interventions which could improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a 6-week programme of exercise on physical function in patients discharged from hospital following critical illness compared to standard care. Methods/Design The study design is a multicentre prospective phase II, allocation-concealed, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial. Participants randomised to the intervention group will complete three exercise sessions per week (two sessions of supervised exercise and one unsupervised session) for 6 weeks. Supervised sessions will take place in a hospital gymnasium or, if this is not possible, in the participants home and the unsupervised session will take place at home. Blinded outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline after hospital discharge, following the exercise intervention, and at 6 months following baseline assessment (or equivalent time points for the standard care group). The primary outcome measure is physical function as measured by the physical functioning subscale of the Short-Form-36 health survey following the exercise programme. Secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life, exercise capacity, anxiety and depression, self efficacy to exercise and healthcare resource use. In addition, semi-structured interviews will be conducted to explore participants’ perceptions of the exercise programme, and the feasibility (safety, practicality and acceptability) of providing the exercise programme will be assessed. A within-trial cost-utility analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared to standard care will also be conducted

  7. Development of Electronic Load Controllers for Free-Piston Stirling Convertors Aided by Stirling Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor: the Stirling cycle engine, heat source, linear alternator, controller, and load. So far, it has been used in evaluating the performance of electronic controller designs. Three different controller design concepts were simulated using the model: 1) Controllers with parasitic direct current loading. 2) Controllers with parasitic alternating current loading. 3) Controllers that maintain a reference current. The free-piston Stirling convertor is an electromechanical device that operates at resonance. It is the function of the electronic load controller to ensure that the electrical load seen by the machine is always great enough to keep the amplitude of the piston and alternator oscillation at the rated value. This is done by regulating the load on the output bus. The controller monitors the instantaneous voltage, regulating it by switching loads called parasitic loads onto the bus whenever the bus voltage is too high and removing them whenever the voltage is too low. In the first type of controller, the monitor-ing and switching are done on the direct-current (dc) bus. In the second type, the alternating current bus is used. The model allows designers to test a controller concept before investing time in hardware. The simulation code used to develop the model also offers detailed models of digital and analog electronic components so that the resulting designs are realistic enough to translate directly into hardware circuits.

  8. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  9. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Z; Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  10. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  11. The ‘Eigenständig werden’ prevention trial: a cluster randomised controlled study on a school-based life skills programme to prevent substance use onset

    PubMed Central

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Maruska, Karin; Isensee, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate ‘Eigenständig werden 5+6’ (‘Becoming Independent 5+6’), a school-based curriculum for grades 5 and 6 developed on the basis of evidence-based criteria for effective drug prevention curricula in schools. Evaluation of the programme includes efficacy, feasibility and practicability in daily school routine. Methods and results The intervention ‘Eigenständig werden 5+6’ consists of 14 teaching units evenly distributed over grades 5 and 6 which are interactively delivered, and a parent component. Programme effects are studied in a four wave cluster randomised controlled trial with two arms, an intervention and a control group. Self-completed questionnaires from students and teachers are collected by trained research staff. 45 schools, 172 classes and 3444 students with a mean age of 10.37 years (SD=0.59) and 47.9% girls from four federal states in Germany were assessed at baseline. 1685 students in 81 classes were assigned to intervention classes, 1759 students in 91 classes to the control arm. No differences between conditions were found for age, gender, immigration background, socioeconomic status, substance use or life skills at baseline. Exceptions were higher self-efficacy (t(3438)=2.34, p=0.02, d=0.08) and empathy (t(3302)=2.4, p=0.02, d=0.09) in the control group, whereas class climate seemed better in the intervention group (t(3037)=2.01, p=0.05, d=0.07), but effect sizes state marginal differences. Conclusion Baseline data suggest that the initial conditions are favourable for testing programme efficacy since distribution of baseline levels of the outcomes did not differ in the intervention and control groups, except for negligible differences between self-efficacy and empathy, which were higher in the control group, and class climate, which was higher in the intervention group. Trial registration number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN99442407. PMID:22080541

  12. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  13. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  14. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  15. Design and experimental analysis of an advanced static VAR compensator with computer aided control.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Erdal; Bayındır, Ramazan; Köse, Ali

    2016-09-01

    This study presents integration of a real-time energy monitoring and control system with an advanced reactive power compensation unit based on fixed capacitor-thyristor controlled reactor (FC-TCR). Firing angles of the thyristors located in the FC-TCR are controlled by a microcontroller in order to keep the power factor within the limits. Electrical parameters of the system are measured by specially designed circuits and simultaneously transferred to the computer via a data acquisition board. Thus, real time data of the system can be observed through a visual user interface. The data obtained is not only analyzed for control process, but also regularly saved into a database. The system has been tested in laboratory conditions under different load characteristics and experimental results verified that the system successfully and accurately achieves compensation process against the all operational conditions.

  16. Effectiveness of a Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) Programme among Obese Adults in Workplace: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azmi Mohamed, Mohd Nahar; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    Background There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme. Methods We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) (intervention)(n = 97) or dietary counseling (comparison)(n = 97). The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle. Results The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation) age of 40.5 (9.3) years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45). At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts. Conclusion The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving

  17. Effects of Computer-Aided Interlimb Force Coupling Training on Paretic Hand and Arm Motor Control following Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chueh-Ho; Chou, Li-Wei; Luo, Hong-Ji; Tsai, Po-Yi; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the training effects of interlimb force coupling training on paretic upper extremity outcomes in patients with chronic stroke and analyzed the relationship between motor recovery of the paretic hand, arm and functional performances on paretic upper limb. Design A randomized controlled trial with outcome assessment at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention. Setting Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University. Participants Thirty-three subjects with chronic stroke were recruited and randomly assigned to training (n = 16) and control groups (n = 17). Interventions The computer-aided interlimb force coupling training task with visual feedback included different grip force generation methods on both hands. Main Outcome Measures The Barthel Index (BI), the upper extremity motor control Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE), the Motor Assessment Score (MAS), and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). All assessments were executed by a blinded evaluator, and data management and statistical analysis were also conducted by a blinded researcher. Results The training group demonstrated greater improvement on the FMA-UE (p<.001), WMFT (p<.001), MAS (p = .004) and BI (p = .037) than the control group after 4 weeks of intervention. In addition, a moderate correlation was found between the improvement of scores for hand scales of the FMA and other portions of the FMA UE (r = .528, p = .018) or MAS (r = .596, p = .015) in the training group. Conclusion Computer-aided interlimb force coupling training improves the motor recovery of a paretic hand, and facilitates motor control and enhances functional performance in the paretic upper extremity of people with chronic stroke. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02247674. PMID:26193492

  18. A training programme involving automatic self-transcending meditation in late-life depression: preliminary analysis of an ongoing randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Amanda; Burhan, Amer M.; Ionson, Emily; Hirjee, Hussein; Maldeniya, Pramudith; Wetmore, Stephen; Newman, Ronnie I.

    2016-01-01

    Late-life depression affects 2–6% of seniors aged 60 years and above. Patients are increasingly embracing non-pharmacological therapies, many of which have not been scientifically evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate a category of meditation, automatic self-transcending meditation (ASTM), in alleviating symptoms of depression when augmenting treatment as usual (NCT02149810). The preliminary results of an ongoing single-blind randomised controlled trial comparing a training programme involving ASTM with a wait-list control indicate that a 12-week ASTM programme may lead to significantly greater reductions in depression and anxiety severity. As such, ASTM may be an effective adjunctive therapy in the treatment of late-life depression. Declaration of interest R.I.N. is Director of Research and Health Promotion for the Art of Living Foundation, Canada and supervised the staff providing ASTM training. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703774

  19. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; de Wit, G Ardine; Inklaar, Han; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Backx, Frank J G

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Approximately 16% of all sports injuries in the Netherlands are caused by outdoor soccer. A cluster-randomised controlled trial has been designed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme (‘The11’) for male amateur soccer players. The injury prevention programme The11, developed with the support of the World Football Association FIFA, aims to reduce the impact of intrinsic injury risk factors in soccer. Methods Teams playing at first-class amateur level in two districts in the Netherlands are participating in the study. Teams in the intervention group were instructed to apply The11 during each practice session throughout the 2009–10 season. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. All soccer-related injuries and related costs for each team were systematically reported online by a member of the medical staff. Player exposure to practice sessions and matches was reported weekly by the coaches. Also the use of The11 during the season after the intervention season will be monitored. Discussion Our hypothesis is that integrating the The11 exercises in the warm-up for each practice session is effective in terms of injury incidence, injury severity, healthcare use, and its associated costs and/or absenteeism. Prevention of soccer injuries is expected to be beneficial to adult soccer players, soccer clubs, the Royal Dutch Football Association (KNVB), health insurance companies and society. PMID:21177664

  20. Randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss programmes in the UK: initial findings from the BBC “diet trials”

    PubMed Central

    Truby, Helen; Baic, Sue; deLooy, Anne; Fox, Kenneth R; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Logan, Catherine M; Macdonald, Ian A; Morgan, Linda M; Taylor, Moira A; Millward, D Joe

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of four commercial weight loss diets available to adults in the United Kingdom. Design Six month multicentre randomised unblinded controlled trial. Setting Community based sample of otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults. Interventions Dr Atkins' new diet revolution, Slim-Fast plan, Weight Watchers pure points programme, and Rosemary Conley's eat yourself slim diet and fitness plan. Main outcome measures Weight and body fat changes over six months. Results All diets resulted in significant loss of body fat and weight over six months. Groups did not differ significantly but loss of body fat and weight was greater in all groups compared with the control group. In an intention to treat analysis, average weight loss was 5.9 kg and average fat loss was 4.4 kg over six months. The Atkins diet resulted in significantly higher weight loss during the first four weeks, but by the end was no more or less effective than the other diets. Conclusions Clinically useful weight loss and fat loss can be achieved in adults who are motivated to follow commercial diets for a substantial period. Given the limited resources for weight management in the NHS, healthcare practitioners should discuss with their patients programmes known to be effective. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00327821. PMID:16720619

  1. Differences in results of breast cancer curative treatment between urban/rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship of Poland before introduction of the National Cancer Control Programme.

    PubMed

    Maślach, Dominik; Krzyżak, Michalina; Szpak, Andrzej; Owoc, Alfred; Gębska-Kuczerowska, Anita; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in the results of the curative treatment received by women with breast cancer in urban and rural area in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002 before the introduction of the National Cancer Control Programme. The analysis was based on 449 women with breast cancer, who received curative treatment in years 2001-2002. Relative 5-year survival rates as function of age and stage among urban and rural women population were calculated. The results showed that survival rates in Podlaskie Voivodship among curatively treated women with breast cancer were 81.9% but they differed between urban and rural areas. Patients living in rural areas had much lower survivals than those living in urban areas at local and regional stage of disease. In all age groups considered in the study survivals in rural areas were lower than in urban ones in which survivals were higher in 55-64 age group. These results indicated the necessity intervention in order to increase the access to the health care system and effectiveness of early detection and also improved treatment standards for more disadvantaged rural areas. These results should be also considered in monitoring of the National Cancer Control Programme introduction in Poland in 2006.

  2. Bedding control on landslides: a methodological approach for computer-aided mapping analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelle, G.; Revellino, P.; Donnarumma, A.; Guadagno, F. M.

    2011-05-01

    Litho-structural control on the spatial and temporal evolution of landslides is one of the major typical aspects on slopes constituted of structurally complex sequences. Mainly focused on instabilities of the earth flow type, a semi-quantitative analysis has been developed with the purpose of identifying and characterizing litho-structural control exerted by bedding on slopes and its effects on landsliding. In quantitative terms, a technique for azimuth data interpolation, Non-continuous Azimuth Distribution Methodological Approach (NADIA), is presented by means of a GIS software application. In addition, processed by NADIA, two indexes have been determined: (i) Δ, aimed at defining the relationship between the orientation of geological bedding planes and slope aspect, and (ii) C, which recognizes localized slope sectors in which the stony component of structurally complex formations is abundant and therefore operates an evolutive control of landslide masses. Furthermore, some Litho-Structural Models (LSMs) of slopes are proposed aiming at characterizing recurrent forms of structural control in the source, channel and deposition areas of gravitational movements. In order to elaborate evolutive models controlling landslide scenarios, LSMs were qualitatively related and compared with Δ and C quantitative indexes. The methodological procedure has been applied to a lithostructurally complex area of Southern Italy where data about azimuth measurements and landslide mapping were known. It was found that the proposed methodology enables the recognition of typical control conditions on landslides in relation to the LSMs. Different control patterns on landslide shape and on style and distribution of the activity resulted for each LSM. This provides the possibility for first-order identification to be made of the spatial evolution of landslide bodies.

  3. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a specialist and a generic parenting programme for the treatment of preschool ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is a home-delivered, evidence-based parenting programme to target symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. It has been adapted for use with ‘hard-to-reach’ or ‘difficult-to-treat’ children. This trial will compare the adapted-NFPP with a generic parenting group-based programme, Incredible Years (IY), which has been recommended for children with preschool-type ADHD symptoms. Methods/design This multicentre randomized controlled trial comprises three arms: adapted-NFPP, IY and treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 329 parents of preschool-aged children with a research diagnosis of ADHD enriched for hard-to-reach and potentially treatment-resistant children will be allocated to the arms in the ratio 3:3:1. Participants in the adapted-NFPP and IY arms receive an induction visit followed by 12 weekly parenting sessions of 1½ hours (adapted-NFPP) or 2½ hours (IY) over 2.5 years. Adapted-NFPP will be delivered as a one-to-one home-based intervention; IY, as a group-based intervention. TAU participants are offered a parenting programme at the end of the study. The primary objective is to test whether the adapted-NFPP produces beneficial effects in terms of core ADHD symptoms. Secondary objectives include examination of the treatment impact on secondary outcomes, a study of cost-effectiveness and examination of the mediating role of treatment-induced changes in parenting behaviour and neuropsychological function. The primary outcome is change in ADHD symptoms, as measured by the parent-completed version of the SNAP-IV questionnaire, adjusted for pretreatment SNAP-IV score. Secondary outcome measures are: a validated index of behaviour during child’s solo play; teacher-reported SNAP-IV (ADHD scale); teacher and parent SNAP-IV (ODD) Scale; Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory - Oppositional Defiant Disorder scale; Revised Client Service Receipt Inventory - Health

  4. ‘Klar bleiben’: a school-based alcohol prevention programme for German adolescents—study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Samuel; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a noticeable increase in hazardous alcohol use during adolescence, which is significantly associated with adverse consequences. In Germany, up to 30% of adolescents report regular heavy episodic drinking. However, only a few German prevention programmes target adolescents of legal drinking age (16 years and above); thus, this trial aims to develop, implement and evaluate ‘Klar bleiben’ (‘Stay clearheaded’), a school-based prevention programme for grade 10 students. Methods and analysis ‘Klar bleiben’ consists of a class commitment to drink responsibly and refrain from hazardous consumption patterns for 9 weeks. The commitment is accompanied by educational lessons on alcohol-related cognitions and consequences. It will be evaluated in a sample of approximately 3000 students (150 classes) from two German federal states (Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony) via a two-armed cluster randomised controlled trial with baseline and postassessment 6 months apart. The intervention group (75 classes) will participate in ‘Klar bleiben’, whereas the control group (75 classes) will receive education as usual. ‘Klar bleiben’ addresses classes, individuals, teachers and parents. It is based on a social norms approach and aims to reduce hazardous drinking and drinking-related consequences in adolescents. Secondary outcomes include general drinking behaviour, use of other substances, alcohol-related cognitions and social factors. Covariates include sociodemographic characteristics, environmental and individual (vulnerability) factors. Ethics and dissemination ‘Klar bleiben’ provides a multicomponent school-based programme that bridges a gap in alcohol prevention. Similar class-level and social norms-based prevention programmes have already been proven to be successful for other substances among adolescents. Thus, dissemination to other federal states as well as longer term follow-up testing of the robustness of effects is to be

  5. Vision-aided Monitoring and Control of Thermal Spray, Spray Forming, and Welding Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agapakis, John E.; Bolstad, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Vision is one of the most powerful forms of non-contact sensing for monitoring and control of manufacturing processes. However, processes involving an arc plasma or flame such as welding or thermal spraying pose particularly challenging problems to conventional vision sensing and processing techniques. The arc or plasma is not typically limited to a single spectral region and thus cannot be easily filtered out optically. This paper presents an innovative vision sensing system that uses intense stroboscopic illumination to overpower the arc light and produce a video image that is free of arc light or glare and dedicated image processing and analysis schemes that can enhance the video images or extract features of interest and produce quantitative process measures which can be used for process monitoring and control. Results of two SBIR programs sponsored by NASA and DOE and focusing on the application of this innovative vision sensing and processing technology to thermal spraying and welding process monitoring and control are discussed.

  6. Remote-controlled bent sub aids directional drilling by allowing bend-angle change

    SciTech Connect

    Bardin, C.A.

    1989-01-30

    A remotely controlled bent sub has proved its usefulness and efficiency in drilling extended buildups (including drilling out cement and vertical trajectories) as well as in correction runs. The bent sub, T3000 Telepilote, was developed jointly by IFP (Institut Francais du Petrole) and SMFI (Societe Materiel de Forage International). The advantages of this tool range from the bend angles that can be remotely controlled from the surface and by the remote-control system itself. This system is compatible with all equipment in the drillstring, and in particular with MWD tools (positive mud pulse, negative mud pulse, etc.). One main advantage is that the zero position (straight configuration) of the bent sub allows continuous drilling without tripping in between drilling out cement and the vertical section, if any, and drilling the kickoff and buildup.

  7. The application of variable universe fuzzy PID controller in computer-aided alignment of lithography projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei; Zheng, Meng; Li, Yanqiu

    2013-12-01

    A variable universe fuzzy PID algorithm is designed to control the misalignment of the lithography projection optics to meet the requirement of high image quality. This paper first simulates the alignment of Schwarzschild objective designed by us. Secondly, the variable universe fuzzy PID control is introduced to feed back the misalignment of Schwarzschild objective to the control system to drive the stage which holds the objective. So the position can be adjusted automatically. This feedback scheme can adjust the variables' universe self-adaptively by using fuzzy rules so that the concrete function and parameters of the contraction-expansion factor are not necessary. Finally, the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulations. The results show that, variable universe fuzzy PID method exhibits better performance in both improving response speed and decreasing overshoot compared to conventional PID and fuzzy PID control methods. In addition, the interference signal can be effectively restrained. It is concluded that this method can improve the dynamic and static properties of system and meet the requirement of fast response.

  8. Sericea lespdeza as an aid in the control of Emeria spp. in lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of feeding sericea lespedeza leaf meal [SL, Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)] on control of coccidiosis in lambs. In Exp. 1, naturally infected lambs (n = 76) were weaned (102.7 ± 1.4 d of age) in May (spring) and randomly assigned to ...

  9. Immune responses during spontaneous control of HIV and AIDS: what is the hope for a cure?

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Cirion, A.; Jacquelin, B.; Barré-Sinoussi, F.; Müller-Trutwin, M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV research has made rapid progress and led to remarkable achievements in recent decades, the most important of which are combination antiretroviral therapies (cART). However, in the absence of a vaccine, the pandemic continues, and additional strategies are needed. The ‘towards an HIV cure’ initiative aims to eradicate HIV or at least bring about a lasting remission of infection during which the host can control viral replication in the absence of cART. Cases of spontaneous and treatment-induced control of infection offer substantial hope. Here, we describe the scientific knowledge that is lacking, and the priorities that have been established for research into a cure. We discuss in detail the immunological lessons that can be learned by studying natural human and animal models of protection and spontaneous control of viraemia or of disease progression. In particular, we describe the insights we have gained into the immune mechanisms of virus control, the impact of early virus–host interactions and why chronic inflammation, a hallmark of HIV infection, is an obstacle to a cure. Finally, we enumerate current interventions aimed towards improving the host immune response. PMID:24821922

  10. Modified optimal control pilot model for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development of a modified optimal control pilot model based upon the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison. This model is input compatible with the OCM and retains other key aspects of the OCM, such as a linear quadratic solution for the pilot gains with inclusion of control rate in the cost function, a Kalman estimator, and the ability to account for attention allocation and perception threshold effects. An algorithm designed for each implementation in current dynamic systems analysis and design software is presented. Example results based upon the analysis of a tracking task using three basic dynamic systems are compared with measured results and with similar analyses performed with the OCM and two previously proposed simplified optimal pilot models. The pilot frequency responses and error statistics obtained with this modified optimal control model are shown to compare more favorably to the measured experimental results than the other previously proposed simplified models evaluated.

  11. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  12. KSHV MicroRNA Sequence Analysis and KS Risk in an European AIDS-KS Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Vickie; Martró, Elisa; Labo, Nazzarena; Ray, Alex; Wang, Dian; Mbisa, Georginia; Bagni, Rachel K.; Volfovsky, Natalia; Casabona, Jordi; Whitby, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Background We recently identified polymorphisms in KSHV encoded microRNA (miRNA) sequences from clinical subjects. Here, we examine whether any of these may contribute to KS risk in a European AIDS-KS case control study. Methods KSHV viral load in peripheral blood was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Samples that had detectable viral loads were used to amplify the 2.8 kbp microRNA encoding region plus a 646 bp fragment of the K12/T0.7 gene. Additionally, we characterized an 840 bp fragment of the K1 gene to determine KSHV subtypes. Results KSHV viral DNA was detected in PBMC of 49.6% cases and 6.8% controls and viral loads tended to be higher in cases. Sequences from the miRNA encoding regions were conserved overall but distinct polymorphisms were detected some of which occurred in pri-miRNAs, pre-miRNAs or mature miRNAs. Conclusions Patients with Kaposi’s sarcoma were more likely to have detectable viral loads than controls without disease. Despite high conservation in KSHV miRNA encoded sequences, polymorphisms were observed including some that have been previously reported. Some polymorphisms could affect mature miRNA processing and appear to be associated with KS risk. PMID:20715927

  13. Sensory control of normal movement and of movement aided by neural prostheses.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    Signals from sensory receptors in muscles and skin enter the central nervous system (CNS), where they contribute to kinaesthesia and the generation of motor commands. Many lines of evidence indicate that sensory input from skin receptors, muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs play the predominant role in this regard. Yet in spite of over 100 years of research on this topic, some quite fundamental questions remain unresolved. How does the CNS choose to use the ability to control muscle spindle sensitivity during voluntary movements? Do spinal reflexes contribute usefully to load compensation, given that the feedback gain must be quite low to avoid instability? To what extent do signals from skin stretch receptors contribute? This article provides a brief review of various theories, past and present, that address these questions. To what extent has the knowledge gained resulted in clinical applications? Muscles paralyzed as a result of spinal cord injury or stroke can be activated by electrical stimulation delivered by neuroprostheses. In practice, at most two or three sensors can be deployed on the human body, providing only a small fraction of the information supplied by the tens of thousands of sensory receptors in animals. Most of the neuroprostheses developed so far do not provide continuous feedback control. Instead, they switch from one state to another when signals from their one or two sensors meet pre-set thresholds (finite state control). The inherent springiness of electrically activated muscle provides a crucial form of feedback control that helps smooth the resulting movements. In spite of the dissimilarities, parallels can be found between feedback control in neuroprostheses and in animals and this can provide surprising insights in both directions. PMID:26047134

  14. The Effectiveness of a Bioactive Food Compound in the Lipid Control of Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ferreira, Rosângela; de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Rita; Jardim Cury Pontes, Elenir Rose; Aragão do Nascimento, Valter; Aiko Hiane, Priscila

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC) containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART. All patients received dietary guidelines; however, sixty-one consumed BFC while fifty-one did not (NO BFC). Biochemical examinations and socio-demographic and clinical profiles were evaluated. As result, in patients using hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs, there was 28.6% decrease in triglyceride levels (p < 0.001) in the NO BFC group, and 18.3% reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.001) in the BFC group. In patients who did not use hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs in the NO BFC group, there was 30.6% increase in triglycerides, 11.3% total cholesterol and 15.3% LDL-C levels (p < 0.001) while for the BFC group there was 4.5% reduction in total cholesterol (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study evidenced that the dietary intervention containing BFC positively affected in lipid control, since these HIV/AIDS patients using HAART are more vulnerable to lipid disorders. PMID:27740592

  15. A programmable artificial retina

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, T.M. ); Zavidovique, B.Y. . Electrical Engineering Dept. Perception System Lab., Arcueil ); Devos, F.J. . Dept. of Integrated Circuits and Systems)

    1993-07-01

    An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm[sup 2] CMOS 2-[mu]m circuit are presented.

  16. Optically programmable excitonic traps

    PubMed Central

    Alloing, Mathieu; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Dubin, François

    2013-01-01

    With atomic systems, optically programmed trapping potentials have led to remarkable progress in quantum optics and quantum information science. Programmable trapping potentials could have a similar impact on studies of semiconductor quasi-particles, particularly excitons. However, engineering such potentials inside a semiconductor heterostructure remains an outstanding challenge and optical techniques have not yet achieved a high degree of control. Here, we synthesize optically programmable trapping potentials for indirect excitons of bilayer heterostructures. Our approach relies on the injection and spatial patterning of charges trapped in a field-effect device. We thereby imprint in-situ and on-demand electrostatic traps into which we optically inject cold and dense ensembles of excitons. This technique creates new opportunities to improve state-of-the-art technologies for the study of collective quantum behavior of excitons and also for the functionalisation of emerging exciton-based opto-electronic circuits. PMID:23546532

  17. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  18. Domestic Rodent Control Training Manual: A Training Aid for the Rodent Control Category for Certification of Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, William R., Jr.; And Others

    This training manual, designed for training applicants who wish to obtain certification in pesticide application relative to rodent control, covers the following topics: economic factors, public health factors, biological characteristics of domestic rodents, rat and mouse signs, trapping, repellents, poisons, baits, poisoned water, dumps, sewers,…

  19. Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Interactive Videodisc Decision Aid for Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Matthew W; Deber, Raisa B; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary A; Gladstone, Peter; Cusimano, RJ; O'rourke, Keith; Tomlinson, George; Detsky, Allan S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of the Ischemic Heart Disease Shared Decision-Making Program (IHD SDP) an interactive videodisc designed to assist patients in the decision-making process involving treatment choices for ischemic heart disease, on patient decision-making. DESIGN Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING The Toronto Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS Two hundred forty ambulatory patients with ischemic heart disease amenable to elective revascularization and ongoing medical therapy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The primary outcome was patient satisfaction with the decision-making process. This was measured using the 12-item Decision-Making Process Questionnaire that was developed and validated in a randomized trial of the benign prostatic hyperplasia SDP. Secondary outcomes included patient knowledge (measured using 20 questions about knowledge deemed necessary for an informed treatment decision), treatment decision, patient-angiographer agreement on decision, and general health scores. Outcomes were measured at the time of treatment decision and/or at 6 months follow-up. Shared decision-making program scores were similar for the intervention and control group (71% and 70%, respectively; 95% confidence interval [CI] for 1% difference, −3% to 7%). The intervention group had higher knowledge scores (75% vs 62%; 95% CI for 13% difference, 8% to 18%). The intervention group chose to pursue revascularization less often (58% vs 75% for the controls; 95% CI for 17% difference, 4% to 31%). At 6 months, 52% of the intervention group and 66% of the controls had undergone revascularization (95% CI for 14% difference, 0% to 28%). General health and angina scores were not different between the groups at 6 months. Exposure to the IHD SDP resulted in more patient-angiographer disagreement about treatment decisions. CONCLUSIONS There was no significant difference in satisfaction with decision-making process scores between the IHD

  20. A new injury prevention programme for children's football--FIFA 11+ Kids--can improve motor performance: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rössler, R; Donath, L; Bizzini, M; Faude, O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a newly developed injury prevention programme for children's football ("FIFA 11+ Kids") on motor performance in 7-12-year-old children. We stratified 12 football teams (under-9/-11/-13 age categories) into intervention (INT, N = 56 players) and control groups (CON, N = 67). INT conducted the 15-min warm-up programme "FIFA 11+ Kids" twice a week for 10 weeks. CON followed a standard warm-up (sham treatment). Pre- and post-tests were conducted using: single leg stance; Y-balance test; drop and countermovement jump; standing long jump; 20-m sprint; agility run; slalom dribble; and wall volley test. We used magnitude-based inferences and linear mixed-effects models to analyse performance test results. We observed likely beneficial effects favouring INT in Y-balance (right leg; +3.2%; standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.34; P = 0.58) and agility run (+3.6%; SMD = 0.45; P = 0.008). Possibly beneficial effects were found in Y-balance, drop jump reactive strength index, drop jump height, countermovement jump, standing long jump, slalom dribble and wall volley test. At least possibly beneficial improvements in favour of "FIFA 11+ Kids" were observed in nearly all parameters. Most effects were small, but slight improvements in motor performance may potentially contribute to a reduction of injury risk. PMID:26508531

  1. A new injury prevention programme for children's football--FIFA 11+ Kids--can improve motor performance: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rössler, R; Donath, L; Bizzini, M; Faude, O

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a newly developed injury prevention programme for children's football ("FIFA 11+ Kids") on motor performance in 7-12-year-old children. We stratified 12 football teams (under-9/-11/-13 age categories) into intervention (INT, N = 56 players) and control groups (CON, N = 67). INT conducted the 15-min warm-up programme "FIFA 11+ Kids" twice a week for 10 weeks. CON followed a standard warm-up (sham treatment). Pre- and post-tests were conducted using: single leg stance; Y-balance test; drop and countermovement jump; standing long jump; 20-m sprint; agility run; slalom dribble; and wall volley test. We used magnitude-based inferences and linear mixed-effects models to analyse performance test results. We observed likely beneficial effects favouring INT in Y-balance (right leg; +3.2%; standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.34; P = 0.58) and agility run (+3.6%; SMD = 0.45; P = 0.008). Possibly beneficial effects were found in Y-balance, drop jump reactive strength index, drop jump height, countermovement jump, standing long jump, slalom dribble and wall volley test. At least possibly beneficial improvements in favour of "FIFA 11+ Kids" were observed in nearly all parameters. Most effects were small, but slight improvements in motor performance may potentially contribute to a reduction of injury risk.

  2. Study protocol: Randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of an educational programme on Alzheimer’s disease patients’ quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Therapeutic education is expanding in the management of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. Several studies have revealed a positive impact of therapeutic educational programmes on the caregiver’s burden and/or quality of life. However, to date, no study has evaluated its impact on the quality of life of the AD patient. Methods The THERAD study (THerapeutic Education in Alzheimer’s Disease) is a 12-month randomised controlled trial that started in January 2013. This paper describes the study protocol. THERAD plans to enroll 170 dyads (AD patient and caregiver) on the basis of the following criteria: patient at a mild to moderately severe stage of AD, living at home, receiving support from a family caregiver. The main outcome is the patient’s quality of life assessed by the Logsdon QoL-AD scale at 2 months, reported by the caregiver. The study is being led by geriatricians trained in therapeutic education at Toulouse University Hospital in France. To date, 107 caregiver/patient dyads have been recruited. Conclusion This is the first trial designed to assess the specific impact of a therapeutic educational programme on the AD patient’s quality of life. The final results will be available in 2015. Trial registration [ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01796314] Registered 19 February 2013 PMID:25478028

  3. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  4. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  5. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  6. How bioethics principles can aid design of electronic health records to accommodate patient granular control.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Eric M; Schwartz, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Ethics should guide the design of electronic health records (EHR), and recognized principles of bioethics can play an important role. This approach was recently adopted by a team of informaticists who are designing and testing a system where patients exert granular control over who views their personal health information. While this method of building ethics in from the start of the design process has significant benefits, questions remain about how useful the application of bioethics principles can be in this process, especially when principles conflict. For instance, while the ethical principle of respect for autonomy supports a robust system of granular control, the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence counsel restraint due to the danger of patients being harmed by restrictions on provider access to data. Conflict between principles has long been recognized by ethicists and has even motivated attacks on approaches that state and apply principles. In this paper, we show how using ethical principles can help in the design of EHRs by first explaining how ethical principles can and should be used generally, and then by discussing how attention to details in specific cases can show that the tension between principles is not as bad as it initially appeared. We conclude by suggesting ways in which the application of these (and other) principles can add value to the ongoing discussion of patient involvement in their health care. This is a new approach to linking principles to informatics design that we expect will stimulate further interest.

  7. Introduction: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Epi-Aids--a fond recollection.

    PubMed

    Koplan, Jeffrey P; Foege, William H

    2011-12-01

    The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) has served the United States and the world for >58 years by being an extraordinary apprenticeship in the fundamentals of practical field epidemiology: a training program, a professional entry point, the basis for lifelong careers, and a closely supervised and mentored opportunity for research, analysis, and community service. Epidemic-assistance investigations, a key element of the EIS experience, are the written summaries of each field investigation undertaken by the EIS officer. The resulting reports enter the record of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provide scientific feedback to the state and locality where the epidemic or health problem occurred, and often form the basis for a subsequent manuscript to be submitted to a peer-reviewed medical journal. The EIS Program was created in 1951 to be a defense against potential bioterrorism, serve the immediate needs for field investigation, and provide for future workforce demands by combining epidemiology and laboratory science. During the past 60 years, CDC and public health practitioners have broadened their areas of responsibility by adding programs in reproductive health, environmental health, chronic diseases, nutrition, injury control and prevention, and noncommunicable disease risk factors. Epidemic-assistance investigations have evolved similarly. The papers in this Journal supplement reflect the evolution of public health responsibilities and the growth and development of CDC. They are a testimony to the value of clear, concise information and analysis, communicated to those who need to know as a public health and societal good.

  8. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In this study, domain ontology about the field of lead-lag compensator design has been built and used for automatic exercise generation, graphical user interface population and interaction with the user at any level of detail, including explanations about why things occur. An application called Onto-CELE (ontology-based control engineering learning environment) uses the ontology for implementing a learning environment that can be used for self and lifelong learning purposes. The experience has shown that the use of knowledge models as the basis for educational software applications is capable of showing students the whole complexity of the analysis and design processes at any level of detail. A practical experience with postgraduate students has shown the mentioned benefits and possibilities of the approach.

  9. Assessment of telemetry and fluidic control system used in the Medstream programmable infusion system: an in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bork, Toralf; Crivelli, Rocco; Tardy, Yanik; Burger, Juergen

    2014-10-01

    The MedStream Programmable Infusion Pump, an intrathecal pump indicated for the treatment of chronic intractable pain and severe spasticity (CE-mark) or severe spasticity (US), has a highly accurate medication delivery (within 10% of the programmed flow rate) and is certified for use in 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging systems (conditional). Performance of the telemetric link between external control-unit and implanted pump was assessed in sheep (in vivo) up to 26 weeks, resulting in 1040 communication sessions. The telemetric communication envelope (communication distance and maximum antenna tilt angles) and communication duration were characterized in an in vitro test. Capacitance measurements of the piezoelectric actuator of the valve, valve flow rates, and leak rates were measured in an in vitro cyclic accelerated aging test to assess reliability of the valve over 6,200 k cycles. The pump was well tolerated in vivo; all communication sessions between control-unit and pump were successful (P = 6.889 × 10(-14)). Mean communication distance between pump and control-unit was 3.8 cm, with the maximum antenna tilt angles being 40° (θy) and 50° (θx) for all test cases; the maximum communication duration was 5.5 s. Capacitance measurements, flow rates, and leak rates were within ±10 % range up to 6,200 k cycles corresponding to approximately 10 times the valve cycles over the specified service life of the pump (8 years), except for one flow-rate value, which can be explained by the measurement setup. These results demonstrate the reliability of the telemetry link and piezoelectric valve system of the MedStream Programmable Infusion Pump. PMID:24993145

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of personal resilience and enrichment programme (PREP) for HIV prevention among female sex workers: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are often considered as the vector, if not reservoir, of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Building upon the existing evidence on the role of psychological health in sexual health, the aim of this protocol is to describe a trial investigating the effectiveness of the Personal Resilience and Enrichment Programme (PREP), a resilience-promoting intervention that targets at psychological well-being i.e. self-esteem, self-efficacy and coping, to facilitate adaptation and ultimately safe sexual practices among FSWs, which could be an innovative strategy in controlling the spread of these infections. Methods A total of 132 FSWs will be recruited and randomly assigned to either the intervention or usual care (control) groups in a multi-centred randomised controlled trial. Based on the resilience framework, this intervention is comprised of six weekly sessions focused on the awareness, expression and management of emotions, identifying roles and personal strengths, and effective problem-solving skills. Complex intervention assessment on both intervention process and effectiveness will be adopted when the primary outcome reduction of sexual risk behaviour and other psychological outcomes include their perceived stress, self-esteem, self-efficacy, coping overall resilience, and psychological distress will be measured at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month post-intervention and differences assessed by ANOVA. The relationship of resilience factors, psychological health and HIV preventive behaviours will be evaluated using structural equation modelling. Discussion It is anticipated that this study will increase our understanding of the relationships between individual resilience attributes, positive adaptation, psychological health and sexual health practices. If successful, this programme will provide an innovative direction for HIV prevention by applying the personal resilience factors to promote both psychological well

  11. Controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic: current status and global challenges

    PubMed Central

    Demberg, Thorsten; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the current status of the global HIV pandemic and strategies to bring it under control. It updates numerous preventive approaches including behavioral interventions, male circumcision (MC), pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PREP and PEP), vaccines, and microbicides. The manuscript summarizes current anti-retroviral treatment options, their impact in the western world, and difficulties faced by emerging and resource-limited nations in providing and maintaining appropriate treatment regimens. Current clinical and pre-clinical approaches toward a cure for HIV are described, including new drug compounds that target viral reservoirs and gene therapy approaches aimed at altering susceptibility to HIV infection. Recent progress in vaccine development is summarized, including novel approaches and new discoveries. PMID:22912636

  12. [Confidentiality in HIV-infection/AIDS--a comment on the Communicable Disease Control Act].

    PubMed

    Frich, J C

    1995-05-10

    The new Communicable Diseases Control Act has come into force in Norway. It makes it compulsory for a physician to warn a third party if it is obvious that a HIV-positive patient, with a high degree of certainty, puts the third party at risk of being infected with HIV. Some philosophers characterize medical confidentiality as an intransigent and absolute obligation, others as a prima facie duty. This article supports the latter view, but the author still argues that strict conditions have to be fulfilled before a physician should consider breaking medical confidentiality: The doctor must try repeatedly to gain the consent or co-operation of the patient involved. Possible negative long-term consequences for the preventive HIV-work support strict medical confidentiality.

  13. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group.

    PubMed

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-03-15

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p < 0.0001) and medium household income (RR = 1.05; [95%IC: 1.01-1.09]; p = 0.0074) were independently associated with attendance for screening. This large-scale study demonstrates that the decision aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated.

  14. Computer Aided Biomanufacturing of Mechanically Robust Pure Collagen Meshes with Controlled Macroporosity

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Anowarul; Chapin, Katherine; Younesi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    Reconciliation of high strength and high porosity in pure collagen based structures is a major barrier in collagen’s use in load-bearing applications. The current study developed a CAD/CAM based electrocompaction method to manufacture highly porous patterned scaffolds using pure collagen. Utilization of computerized scaffold design and fabrication allows the integration of mesh-scaffolds with controlled pore size, shape and spacing. Mechanical properties of fabricated collagen meshes were investigated as a function of number of patterned layers, and with different pore geometries. The tensile stiffness, tensile strength and modulus ranges from 10-50 N/cm, 1-6 MPa and 5-40 MPa respectively for all the scaffold groups. These results are within the range of practical usability of different tissue engineering application such as tendon, hernia, stress urinary incontinence or thoracic wall reconstruction. Moreover, 3-fold increase in the layer number resulted in more than 5-fold increases in failure load, toughness and stiffness which suggests that by changing the number of layers and shape of the structure, mechanical properties can be modulated for the aforementioned tissue engineering application. These patterned scaffolds offer a porosity ranging from 0.8-1.5 mm in size, a range that is commensurate with pore sizes of repair meshes in the market. The connected macroporosity of the scaffolds facilitated cell-seeding such that cells populated the entire scaffold at the time of seeding. After 3 days of culture, cell nuclei became elongated. These results indicate that the patterned electrochemical deposition method in this study was able to develop mechanically robust, highly porous collagen scaffolds with controlled porosity which not only tries to solve one of the major tissue engineering problems in a fundamental level but also has a significant potential to be used in different tissue engineering applications. PMID:26200002

  15. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  16. Programmable scan/read circuitry for charge coupled device imaging detectors. [spcecraft attitude control and star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Smilowitz, K.

    1984-01-01

    A circuit for scanning and outputting the induced charges in a solid state charge coupled device (CCD) image detector is disclosed in an image detection system for use in a spacecraft attitude control system. The image detection system includes timing control circuitry for selectively controlling the output of the CCD detector so that video outputs are provided only with respect to induced charges corresponding to predetermined sensing element lines of the CCD detector. The timing control circuit and the analog to digital converter are controlled by a programmed microprocessor which defines the video outputs to be converted and further controls the timing control circuit so that no video outputs are provided during the delay associated with analog to digital conversion.

  17. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  18. Passive Active Conservation Evaluator. PACE programmer's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The program features, programming conventions, and algorithms of the PACE comuter program are described. This manual is intended to aid programmers in installing and modifying the program. Written descriptions of program routines, a listing of the program and is data base, a section on programming conventions, an explanation of the algorithms within the program, and advice on installation of PACE are included.

  19. Fighting HIV/AIDS: is success possible?

    PubMed Central

    Okware, S.; Opio, A.; Musinguzi, J.; Waibale, P.

    2001-01-01

    The fight against HIV/AIDS poses enormous challenges worldwide, generating fears that success may be too difficult or even impossible to attain. Uganda has demonstrated that an early, consistent and multisectoral control strategy can reduce both the prevalence and the incidence of HIV infection. From only two AIDS cases in 1982, the epidemic in Uganda grew to a cumulative 2 million HIV infections by the end of 2000. The AIDS Control Programme established in 1987 in the Ministry of Health mounted a national response that expanded over time to reach other relevant sectors under the coordinating role of the Uganda AIDS Commission. The national response was to bring in new policies, expanded partnerships, increased institutional capacity for care and research, public health education for behaviour change, strengthened sexually transmitted disease (STD) management, improved blood transfusion services, care and support services for persons with HIV/AIDS, and a surveillance system to monitor the epidemic. After a decade of fighting on these fronts, Uganda became, in October 1996, the first African nation to report declining trends in HIV infection. Further decline in prevalence has since been noted. The Medical Research Council (UK) and the Uganda Virus Research Institute have demonstrated declining HIV incidence rates in the general population in the Kyamulibwa in Masaka Districts. Repeat knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practice studies have shown positive changes in the priority prevention indicators. The data suggest that a comprehensive national response supported by strong political commitment may be responsible for the observed decline. Other countries in sub-Saharan Africa can achieve similar results by these means. Since success is possible, anything less is unacceptable. PMID:11799443

  20. Longitudinal Effects of Coping on Outcome in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Ghebremichael, Musie; Zhang, Heping; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…

  1. Communication, Control, and Computer Access for Disabled and Elderly Individuals. ResourceBook 1: Communication Aids. Rehab/Education Technology ResourceBook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Sara A., Ed.; Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Ed.

    One of a series of three resource guides concerned with communication, control, and computer access for disabled and elderly individuals, the directory focuses on communication aids. The book's six chapters each cover products with the same primary function. Cross reference indexes allow access to listings of products by function, input/output…

  2. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: transmission, virology and therapeutic targeting to aid in outbreak control

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Batool, Maria; Shah, Masaud; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes high fever, cough, acute respiratory tract infection and multiorgan dysfunction that may eventually lead to the death of the infected individuals. MERS-CoV is thought to be transmitted to humans through dromedary camels. The occurrence of the virus was first reported in the Middle East and it subsequently spread to several parts of the world. Since 2012, about 1368 infections, including ~487 deaths, have been reported worldwide. Notably, the recent human-to-human ‘superspreading' of MERS-CoV in hospitals in South Korea has raised a major global health concern. The fatality rate in MERS-CoV infection is four times higher compared with that of the closely related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Currently, no drug has been clinically approved to control MERS-CoV infection. In this study, we highlight the potential drug targets that can be used to develop anti-MERS-CoV therapeutics. PMID:26315600

  3. En route position and time control of aircraft using Kalman filtering of radio aid data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Christensen, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    Fixed-time-of-arrival (FTA) guidance and navigation is investigated as a possible technique capable of operation within much more stringent en route separation standards and offering significant advantages in safety, higher traffic densities, and improved scheduling reliability, both en route and in the terminal areas. This study investigated the application of FTA guidance previously used in spacecraft guidance. These FTA guidance techniques have been modified and are employed to compute the velocity corrections necessary to return an aircraft to a specified great-circle reference path in order to exercise en route time and position control throughout the entire flight. The necessary position and velocity estimates to accomplish this task are provided by Kalman filtering of data from Loran-C, VORTAC/TACAN, Doppler radar, radio or barometric altitude,and altitude rate. The guidance and navigation system was evaluated using a digital simulation of the cruise phase of supersonic and subsonic flights between San Francisco and New York City, and between New York City and London.

  4. Laser printing hierarchical structures with the aid of controlled capillary-driven self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanlei; Lao, Zhaoxin; Cumming, Benjamin P.; Wu, Dong; Li, Jiawen; Liang, Haiyi; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Capillary force is often regarded as detrimental because it may cause undesired distortion or even destruction to micro/nanostructures during a fabrication process, and thus many efforts have been made to eliminate its negative effects. From a different perspective, capillary force can be artfully used to construct specific complex architectures. Here, we propose a laser printing capillary-assisted self-assembly strategy for fabricating regular periodic structures. Microscale pillars are first produced by localized femtosecond laser polymerization and are subsequently assembled into periodic hierarchical architectures with the assistance of controlled capillary forces in an evaporating liquid. Spatial arrangements, pillar heights, and evaporation processes are readily tuned to achieve designable ordered assemblies with various geometries. Reversibility of the assembly is also revealed by breaking the balance between the intermolecular force and the elastic standing force. We further demonstrate the functionality of the hierarchical structures as a nontrivial tool for the selective trapping and releasing of microparticles, opening up a potential for the development of in situ transportation systems for microobjects. PMID:26038541

  5. A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area.

    PubMed

    Remme, J; Ba, O; Dadzie, K Y; Karam, M

    1986-01-01

    A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis. PMID:3492300

  6. A force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis and its applications in the epidemiological evaluation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area.

    PubMed

    Remme, J; Ba, O; Dadzie, K Y; Karam, M

    1986-01-01

    A simple force-of-infection model for onchocerciasis has been developed for a study of the age-specific epidemiological trends during a period of vector control in the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River basin area (OCP). The most important factors included in the model are the longevity of an infection, the aspect of super-infection, age-specific exposure, and the intensity of transmission during the pre-control period. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate statistics for the epidemiological evaluation in the OCP. There was generally good agreement between the epidemiological trends, predicted by the model, and the observed trends in the prevalence and mean load of microfilariae in skin snips taken from a cohort population from 23 villages in an area with 8 years of successful vector control in the OCP. It is concluded that the epidemiological trends during the control period are not uniform but depend on the initial age and the initial endemicity level of the population. The epidemiological indices for cohorts of children, born before the start of control, will not show a decrease during the first 8 years of interruption of transmission. The prevalence is too insensitive to be useful for the evaluation in hyperendemic villages during most of the control period. The most sensitive and meaningful statistic for a comparative analysis and for the assessment of epidemiological changes is the geometric mean microfilarial load in a cohort of adults. This index, which is called the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL), is now routinely used in the OCP. The new analytical methodology has enabled a much better appreciation of the significant epidemiological impact of 8 years of vector control in the OCP. Several related aspects of the pre- and post-control dynamics of onchocerciasis infection are also discussed and priorities are formulated for further work on applied modelling of onchocerciasis.

  7. Integration of comprehensive women’s health programmes into health systems: cervical cancer prevention, care and control in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Ngabo, Fidele; Mugeni, Cathy; Gatera, Maurice; Nutt, Cameron T; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Although it is highly preventable and treatable, cervical cancer is the most common and most deadly cancer among women in Rwanda. Approach By mobilizing a diverse coalition of partnerships, Rwanda became the first country in Africa to develop and implement a national strategic plan for cervical cancer prevention, screening and treatment. Local setting Rwanda – a small, landlocked nation in East Africa with a population of 10.4 million – is well positioned to tackle a number of “high-burden” noncommunicable diseases. The country’s integrated response to infectious diseases has resulted in steep declines in premature mortality over the past decade. Relevant changes In 2011–2012, Rwanda vaccinated 227 246 girls with all three doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Among eligible girls, three-dose coverage rates of 93.2% and 96.6% were achieved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The country has also initiated nationwide screening and treatment programmes that are based on visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid, testing for HPV DNA, cryotherapy, the loop electrosurgical excision procedure and various advanced treatment options. Lessons learnt Low-income countries should begin to address cervical cancer by integrating prevention, screening and treatment into routine women’s health services. This requires political will, cross-sectoral collaboration and planning, innovative partnerships and robust monitoring and evaluation. With external support and adequate planning, high nationwide coverage rates for HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer can be achieved within a few years. PMID:24101786

  8. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node. PMID:22163602

  9. Programmable Nanoscaffolds That Control Ligand Display to a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor in Membranes To Allow Dissection of Multivalent Effects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A programmable ligand display system can be used to dissect the multivalent effects of ligand binding to a membrane receptor. An antagonist of the A2A adenosine receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor that is a drug target for neurodegenerative conditions, was displayed in 35 different multivalent configurations, and binding to A2A was determined. A theoretical model based on statistical mechanics was developed to interpret the binding data, suggesting the importance of receptor dimers. Using this model, extended multivalent arrangements of ligands were constructed with progressive improvements in binding to A2A. The results highlight the ability to use a highly controllable multivalent approach to determine optimal ligand valency and spacing that can be subsequently optimized for binding to a membrane receptor. Models explaining the multivalent binding data are also presented. PMID:25116377

  10. Programmable nanoscaffolds that control ligand display to a G-protein-coupled receptor in membranes to allow dissection of multivalent effects.

    PubMed

    Dix, Andrew V; Moss, Steven M; Phan, Khai; Hoppe, Travis; Paoletta, Silvia; Kozma, Eszter; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Durell, Stewart R; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Appella, Daniel H

    2014-09-01

    A programmable ligand display system can be used to dissect the multivalent effects of ligand binding to a membrane receptor. An antagonist of the A2A adenosine receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor that is a drug target for neurodegenerative conditions, was displayed in 35 different multivalent configurations, and binding to A2A was determined. A theoretical model based on statistical mechanics was developed to interpret the binding data, suggesting the importance of receptor dimers. Using this model, extended multivalent arrangements of ligands were constructed with progressive improvements in binding to A2A. The results highlight the ability to use a highly controllable multivalent approach to determine optimal ligand valency and spacing that can be subsequently optimized for binding to a membrane receptor. Models explaining the multivalent binding data are also presented.

  11. Discussions with adults and youth to inform the development of a community-based tobacco control programme

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Dhavan, Poonam; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Juneja, Neeru S.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2013-01-01

    Project Advancing Cessation of Tobacco in Vulnerable Indian Tobacco Consuming Youth (ACTIVITY) is a community-based group randomized intervention trial focused on disadvantaged youth (aged 10–19 years) residing in 14 low-income communities (slums and resettlement colonies) in Delhi, India. This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted to inform the development and test the appropriateness of Project ACTIVITY’s intervention model. The findings of the FGDs facilitated the understanding of factors contributing to increased tobacco uptake and cessation (both smoking and smokeless tobacco) among youth in this setting. Twenty-two FGDs were conducted with youth (10–19 years) and adults in two urban slums in Delhi. Key findings revealed: (i) youth and adults had limited knowledge about long-term health consequences of tobacco use; (ii) socio-environmental determinants and peer pressure were important variables influencing initiation of tobacco use; (iii) lack of motivation, support and sufficient skills hinder tobacco cessation and (iv) active involvement of community, family, religious leaders, local policy makers and health professionals is important in creating and reinforcing tobacco-free norms. The results of these FGDs aided in finalizing the intervention model for Project ACTIVITY and guided its intervention development. PMID:22824533

  12. Tuberculosis situation among tribal population of Car Nicobar, India, 15 years after intensive tuberculosis control project and implementation of a national tuberculosis programme.

    PubMed Central

    Murhekar, M. V.; Kolappan, C.; Gopi, P. G.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Sehgal, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the tuberculosis (TB) situation in the tribal community of Car Nicobar island 15 years after the national TB programme was implemented in this area after an intensive phase of TB control in 1986. METHODS: The entire population of Car Nicobar was enumerated through a house-to-house survey. Children aged <14 years were tuberculin tested and read for reaction sizes. Individuals aged >15 years were asked about the presence of chest symptoms (cough, chest pain, and unexplained fever for two weeks or longer and haemoptysis), and sputum samples were collected from patients with chest symptoms. Sputum samples were examined for presence of acid-fast bacilli. FINDINGS: Among the 4,543 children enumerated, 4,351 (95.8%) were tuberculin tested and read. Of the 981 children without bacille Calmette-Guerin scars, 161 (16.4%) were infected with TB. A total of 77 cases who were smear-positive for TB were detected from among 10,570 people aged >15 years; the observed smear-positive case prevalence was 728.5 per 100,000. The standardized prevalence of TB infection, annual risk of TB infection, and prevalence of cases smear-positive for TB were 17.0%, 2.5%, and 735.3 per 100,000, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of TB infection and smear-positive cases of TB increased significantly between 1986 and 2002. Such escalation took place despite the implementation of the national TB programme on this island, which was preceded by a set of special anti-TB measures that resulted in sputum conversion in a substantially large proportion of the smear-positive cases prevalent in the community. The most likely reason for the increase seems to be the absence of a district TB programme with enough efficiency to sustain the gains made from the one-time initial phase of special anti-TB measures. High risk of transmission of TB infection currently observed on this island calls for a drastic and sustained improvement in TB control measures. PMID:15640919

  13. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  14. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  15. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  16. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  17. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and nucleoside analogue therapy in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Brites, C; Gilbert, M J; Pedral-Sampaio, D; Bahia, F; Pedroso, C; Alcantara, A P; Sasaki, M D; Matos, J; Renjifo, B; Essex, M; Whitmore, J B; Agosti, J M; Badaro, R

    2000-11-01

    Preliminary preclinical and clinical data suggest that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may decrease viral replication. Therefore, 105 individuals with AIDS who were receiving nucleoside analogue therapy were enrolled in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study and were randomized to receive either 125 microgram/m(2) of yeast-derived, GM-CSF (sargramostim) or placebo subcutaneously twice weekly for 6 months. Subjects were evaluated for toxicity and disease progression. A significant decrease in mean virus load (VL) was observed for the GM-CSF treatment group at 6 months (-0.07 log(10) vs. -0.60 log(10); P=.02). More subjects achieved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-RNA levels <500 copies/mL at >/=2 evaluations (2% on placebo vs. 11% on GM-CSF; P=.04). Genotypic analysis of 46 subjects demonstrated a lower frequency of zidovudine-resistant mutations among those receiving GM-CSF (80% vs. 50%; P=.04). No difference was observed in the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) through 6 months or survival, despite a higher risk for OI among GM-CSF recipients. GM-CSF reduced VL and limited the evolution of zidovudine-resistant genotypes, potentially providing adjunctive therapy in HIV disease.

  18. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Rodrick M; Fullilove, Mindy T; Fullilove, Robert E; Wallace, Deborah N

    2007-02-26

    We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking--essentially an institutional collective consciousness--while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience--dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

  19. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: Understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Rodrick M; Fullilove, Mindy T; Fullilove, Robert E; Wallace, Deborah N

    2007-01-01

    We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking – essentially an institutional collective consciousness – while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience – dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States. PMID:17324268

  20. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  1. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  2. An approach to decision aid of boreal forest fire control using both of ground observation and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakau, K.; Fukuda, M.; Hayasaka, H.; Kimura, K.; Kushida, K.; Matsuura, N.

    2004-12-01

    Burned area of boreal forest fires is increasing in these decades. Two thirds of forest fires are judged as man-made in Siberia. On the other hand, for boreal forest fire emits global warming gas due to combustion and to change of land coverage, forest fire may accelerate global warming. In 2003 summer, 17million hectares are burned in Siberia and CO2 emission is estimated as 3 hundred million tons. Thus, it is important to control forest fire. Toward this aim, we collected data of boreal forest fire in Alaska and east Siberia in summer fire seasons for two years. Data were acquired from each of ground observation, observation from aircraft and remotely sensed fire detection in June and July. Remotely detected fire using some algorisms were compared with observed data to evaluate the accuracy and earliness of automatic detection. Study areas are Alaska and East Siberia in this year and squares of 1000km centered on Yakutsk, Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk for each in 2003. Daily NOAA and MODIS satellite images are corrected and used for fire detection. 750 ground observation reports are corrected from Russian agency including location, weather and fire front size and severity. 178 reports are corrected from JAL aircraft flying across Siberia including location and time. Comparison between ground truth data and satellite images was done for validation of automatic forest fire detection. Almost all location of ground and aircraft observation data of forest fires as large as 1 hectare were automatically detected at almost same time using satellite images where whether permitting. We are developing connection of fire detection algorithm and fire expansion simulation model to forecast the possible burned area. On the basis of fire expansion forecast, risk analysis of possible fire expansion for decision aid of fire-fighting activities will be analyzed.@@On the basis of these analyses, we will discuss some possible utilizations of remotely sensed forest fire to control them.

  3. The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.

    PubMed

    Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A

    1982-01-01

    The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as

  4. A Randomised Control Trial of the Impact of a Computer-Based Activity Programme upon the Fitness of Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Kathleen; Place, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The poor levels of fitness in children with autism are prompting concern for the children's future health. This study looked to assess if a computer-based activity programme could improve fitness levels (as reflected in cardiopulmonary function) of these children, and achieve a reduction in their body mass index. In a randomised controlled trial, 50 children with autism (of which 33 were under the age of 11 years and 39 were boys) were allocated to an intervention group which encouraged them to use the Nintendo Wii and the software package "Mario and Sonics at the Olympics" in addition to their routine physical education classes. 50 children with autism (34 under the age of 11 years and 40 being boys) acted as controls. At the end of one year, analysis of the changes in scores using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the Eurofit fitness tests showed that the intervention group had made statistically significant improvement on all tests other than flexibility. These improvements were also significantly better than controls. This type of intervention appears to be an effective addition to standard fitness training in order to help children with autism improve their fitness levels. PMID:25400946

  5. Studies on the reinvasion of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin by Simulium damnosum s.I. with emphasis on the south-western areas.

    PubMed

    Garms, R; Walsh, J F; Davies, J B

    1979-09-01

    The aerial larvicidng operation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme of the World Health Organization which began in February 1975 resulted in a sharp reduction in Simulium damnosum numbers. However, at the onset of the rainy season the fly population increased in certain areas. Detailed surveys both on the ground and by helicopter did not reveal any significant failures of treatments that could account for the fly densities observed, and it was concluded that the flies must originate from sources outside the controlled zone. This reinvasion proved to be an annual occurrence which has been studied in detail between 1975 and 1978 in the south-western parts of the control zone. The methods used included full day catches by vector collectors carried out every day throughout the season, cytotaxonomic determination of larvae, detailed morphological examination of reared and biting adults and treatment of suspected source rivers with insecticide. The results indicate that the invasion takes place in a SW-NE direction across country for distances of 300 km or more along the track of the monsoon winds. It involves mainly the savanna cytospecies S. damnosum s. str. and S. sirbanum. The invading populations are composed of older parous flies, many of which carry infective 3rd stage larvae indistinguishable from those of Onchocerca volvulus. These females tend to bite close to the rivers and do not disperse as far as normal populations with a higher proportion of younger flies. PMID:575581

  6. Studies on the reinvasion of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin by Simulium damnosum s.I. with emphasis on the south-western areas.

    PubMed

    Garms, R; Walsh, J F; Davies, J B

    1979-09-01

    The aerial larvicidng operation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme of the World Health Organization which began in February 1975 resulted in a sharp reduction in Simulium damnosum numbers. However, at the onset of the rainy season the fly population increased in certain areas. Detailed surveys both on the ground and by helicopter did not reveal any significant failures of treatments that could account for the fly densities observed, and it was concluded that the flies must originate from sources outside the controlled zone. This reinvasion proved to be an annual occurrence which has been studied in detail between 1975 and 1978 in the south-western parts of the control zone. The methods used included full day catches by vector collectors carried out every day throughout the season, cytotaxonomic determination of larvae, detailed morphological examination of reared and biting adults and treatment of suspected source rivers with insecticide. The results indicate that the invasion takes place in a SW-NE direction across country for distances of 300 km or more along the track of the monsoon winds. It involves mainly the savanna cytospecies S. damnosum s. str. and S. sirbanum. The invading populations are composed of older parous flies, many of which carry infective 3rd stage larvae indistinguishable from those of Onchocerca volvulus. These females tend to bite close to the rivers and do not disperse as far as normal populations with a higher proportion of younger flies.

  7. A Randomised Control Trial of the Impact of a Computer-Based Activity Programme upon the Fitness of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The poor levels of fitness in children with autism are prompting concern for the children's future health. This study looked to assess if a computer-based activity programme could improve fitness levels (as reflected in cardiopulmonary function) of these children, and achieve a reduction in their body mass index. In a randomised controlled trial, 50 children with autism (of which 33 were under the age of 11 years and 39 were boys) were allocated to an intervention group which encouraged them to use the Nintendo Wii and the software package “Mario and Sonics at the Olympics” in addition to their routine physical education classes. 50 children with autism (34 under the age of 11 years and 40 being boys) acted as controls. At the end of one year, analysis of the changes in scores using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the Eurofit fitness tests showed that the intervention group had made statistically significant improvement on all tests other than flexibility. These improvements were also significantly better than controls. This type of intervention appears to be an effective addition to standard fitness training in order to help children with autism improve their fitness levels. PMID:25400946

  8. Community-based physical activity and nutrition programme for adults with metabolic syndrome in Vietnam: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van Dinh; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; James, Anthony P; Howat, Peter; Thi Phuong Mai, Le

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. In Vietnam, more than one-quarter of its population aged 50–65 have MetS. This cluster-randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase levels of physical activity and improve dietary behaviours among Vietnamese adults aged 50–65 years with MetS. Method and analysis This 6-month community-based intervention includes a range of strategies to improve physical activity and nutrition for adults with MetS in Hanam, a province located in northern Vietnam. 600 participants will be recruited from 6 communes with 100 participants per commune. The 6 selected communes will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group (m=3; n=300) or a control group (m=3; n=300). The intervention comprises booklets, education sessions, resistance bands and attending local walking groups that provide information and encourage participants to improve their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours during the 6-month period. The control group participants will receive standard and 1-time advice. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical concept underpinning this study. Measurements will be taken at baseline and postintervention to evaluate programme effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR139/2014). The results of the study will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000811606. PMID:27256094

  9. Scaling up impact of malaria control programmes: a tale of events in Sub-Saharan Africa and People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review aims at providing synthetic information with scientific evidence on the trends in the malaria events from 1960 to 2011, with the hope that it will help policy makers to take informed decisions on public health issues and intervention designs on malaria control towards elimination in both Sub-Sahara Africa and in the People’s Republic of China by highlighting the achievements, progress and challenges in research on moving malaria from epidemic status towards elimination. Our findings showed that since 1960, malaria control programmes in most countries have been disjointed and not harmonized. Interestingly, during the last decade, the causal factors of the unprecedented and substantial decline in malaria morbidity and mortality rates in most vulnerable groups in these endemic areas are multifaceted, including not only the spread of malaria and its related effects but also political and financial willingness, commitment and funding by governments and international donors. The benefits of scaling up the impact of malaria coverage interventions, improvement of health system approaches and sustained commitment of stakeholders are highlighted, although considerable efforts are still necessary in Sub-Sahara Africa. Furthermore, novel integrated control strategies aiming at moving malaria from epidemic status to control towards elimination, require solid research priorities both for sustainability of the most efficient existing tools and intervention coverage, and in gaining more insights in the understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, vector dynamics, and socioeconomic aspects of the disease. In conclusion, political commitment and financial investment of stakeholders in sustaining the scaling up impact of malaria control interventions, networking between African and Chinese scientists, and their Western partners are urgently needed in upholding the recent gains, and in translating lessons learnt from the Chinese malaria control achievements and

  10. Home-based exercise and support programme for people with dementia and their caregivers: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dementia affects the mood of people with dementia but also of their caregivers. In the coming years, the number of people with dementia will increase worldwide and most of them will continue to live in the community as long as possible. Home-based psychosocial interventions reducing the depressive symptoms of both people with dementia and their caregivers in their own home are highly needed. Methods/Design This manuscript describes the design of a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) of the effects of a home-based exercise and support programme for people with dementia and their caregivers. The aim is to randomly assign 156 dyads (caregiver and dementia diagnosed person) to an intervention group or a comparison group. The experimental group receives a home programme in which exercise and support for the people with dementia and their caregivers are combined and integrated. The comparison group receives a minimal intervention. Primary outcomes are physical health (people with dementia) and mood (people with dementia and caregivers). In addition, to get more insight in the working components of the intervention and the impact of the intervention on the relationship of the dyads a qualitative sub-study is carried out. Discussion This study aims to contribute to an evidence-based treatment to reduce depressive symptoms among people with dementia and their caregivers independently living in the community. Trial Registration The study has been registered at the Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR), which is connected to the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the WHO. Trial number: NTR1802. PMID:22117691

  11. The development and demonstration of hybrid programmable attitude control electronics. [with adaptable analog/digital design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. S.; Kopf, E. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    HYPACE provides an adaptable, analog/digital design approach that permits preflight and in-flight accommodation of mission changes, component performance variations, spacecraft changes, etc., through programing. This enabled broad multimission flexibility of application in a cost-effective manner. The HYPACE design, which was demonstrated in breadboard form on a single-axis gas-bearing spacecraft simulation, uses a single control channel to perform the attitude control functions sequentially, thus significantly reducing the number of component parts over hard-wired designs. The success of this effort resulted in the concept being selected for the Mariner/Jupiter/Saturn 1977 spacecraft application.

  12. A low-power high-performance configurable auto-gain control loop for a digital hearing aid SoC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chengying, Chen; Hainan, Liu; Yong, Hei; Jun, Fan; Xiaoyu, Hu

    2013-10-01

    A low-power, configurable auto-gain control loop for a digital hearing aid system on a chip (SoC) is presented. By adopting a mixed-signal feedback control structure and peak detection and judgment, it can work in automatic gain or variable gain control modes through a digital signal processing unit. A noise-reduction and dynamic range (DR) improvement technique is also used to ensure the DR of the circuit in a low-voltage supply. The circuit is implemented in an SMIC 0.13 μm 1P8M CMOS process. The measurement results show that in a 1 V power supply, 1.6 kHz input frequency and 200 mVp—p, the SFDR is 74.3 dB, the THD is 66.1 dB, and the total power is 89 μW, meeting the application requirements of hearing aid SoCs.

  13. Pakistan launches media blitz on AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lynn, W

    1994-01-01

    In March 1994, the National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme in Pakistan launched its media campaign. Staffers have had to work within Islamic principles to inform the public about the risk of HIV infection and to encourage the public to adopt behavior to prevent its transmission. The media messages are not sexually explicit. They call for Pakistanis to call a hotline for or to ask medical professionals about more detailed information on AIDS. The hotline number is memorable (123). The 2 hotlines in Islamabad receive 250-300 calls/day. These hotlines deliver a recorded message with information on the significance of condoms in AIDS prevention and allows callers an opportunity to leave a telephone number or address if they want information. Staff advise callers who are concerned that they may be infected with HIV to obtain a test at 1 of 30 sites and to attend the National Institute for Health in Islamabad for more testing and counseling if the first test is positive. The hotline system will soon expand to all other major Pakistani cities. The program receives 300-400 letters/week asking for specific information. The program had workshops for journalists as its first wave of increasing AIDS awareness. The journalists followed with thoughtful articles on AIDS. Program staff spent much energy to obtain support from Islamic leaders. More media professionals have joined efforts to disseminate information through various media forums to encourage people to seek treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. The program's goal is a 55% increase in the number of people who can name at least 2 correct ways to prevent HIV transmission and an increase in condom use from 1% to 70%. The program eventually would like to increase outreach efforts by working with nongovernmental organizations and by developing videos and short stories.

  14. Students' Emotions for Achievement and Technology Use in Synchronous Hybrid Graduate Programmes: A Control-Value Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Nikolaus T.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous hybrid delivery (simultaneously teaching on-campus and online students using web conferencing) is becoming more common; however, little is known about how students experience emotions in this learning environment. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of emotions, the dual purpose of this study was first to compare synchronous…

  15. Projections of HIV infections and AIDS cases to the year 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, J.; Sato, P. A.; Mann, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    After the recognition of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the early 1980s, uncertainty about the present and future dimensions of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection led to the development of many models to estimate current and future numbers of HIV infections and AIDS cases. The Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an AIDS projection model which relies on available HIV seroprevalence data and on the annual rate of progression from HIV infection to AIDS for use in areas where reporting of AIDS cases is incomplete, and where scant data are available to quantify biological and human behavioural variables. Virtually all models, including the WHO model, have projected large increases in the number of AIDS cases by the early 1990s. Such short-term projections are considered relatively reliable since most of the new AIDS cases will develop in persons already infected with HIV. Longer-term prediction (10 years or longer) is less reliable because HIV prevalence and future trends are determined by many variables, most of which are still not well understood. WHO has now applied the Delphi method to project HIV prevalence from the year 1988 to mid-2000. This method attempts to improve the quality of the judgements and estimates for relatively uncertain issues by the systematic use of knowledgeable "experts". The mean value of the Delphi projections for HIV prevalence in the year 2000 is between 3 and 4 times the 1988 base estimate of 5.1 million; these projections have been used to obtain annual estimates of adult AIDS cases up to the year 2000. Coordinated HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes are considered by the Delphi participants to be potentially capable of preventing almost half of the new HIV infections that would otherwise occur between 1988 and the year 2000. However, more than half of the approximately 5 million AIDS cases which are projected for the next decade will occur despite the most

  16. Impact of a short home-based yoga programme on blood pressure in patients with hypertension: a randomized controlled trial in primary care.

    PubMed

    Wolff, M; Rogers, K; Erdal, B; Chalmers, J P; Sundquist, K; Midlöv, P

    2016-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate yoga's impact on blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QOL) and on stress, depression and anxiety in patients with hypertension in a primary care setting. We conducted a multi-centre randomized controlled trial with follow-up after 12-week intervention completion. Adult primary care patients diagnosed with hypertension were randomly allocated to yoga or usual care. The intervention group performed a short home-based Kundalini yoga programme 15 min twice-daily during the 12-week intervention period. At baseline and follow-up, the participants underwent standardized BP measurements and completed questionnaires on QOL, stress, anxiety and depression. Data obtained from 191 patients (mean age 64.7 years, s.d. 8.4) allocated to yoga intervention (n=96) and control group (n=95), with a total proportion of 52% women, showed a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP for both groups (-3.8/-1.7 mm Hg for yoga and -4.5/-3.0 mm Hg for control groups, respectively). However, the BP reduction for the yoga group was not significantly different from control. There were small but significant improvements for the yoga group in some of the QOL and depression measures (P<0.05, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HADS-D) compared with control. The findings of our study, which is the largest study from an OECD country (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) to date, do not support the suggestion from previous smaller studies that yoga lowers the BP. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings. However, the yoga patients had other health benefits. PMID:26791478

  17. Five-year results of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial of posterior computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Passia, N; Stampf, S; Strub, J R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical outcome of shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic full-coverage crowns on premolars and molars in comparison with conventional gold crowns over a 5-year period. Two hundred and twenty-three patients were included and randomly divided into two treatment groups. One hundred and twenty-three patients were restored with 123 ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns, and 100 patients received 100 gold crowns, which served as the control. All crowns were conventionally cemented with glass-ionomer cement. After an observation period of 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months, the survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns was 98·3%, 92·0%, 84·7%, 79% and 73·2% and for the gold crowns, 99%, 97·9%, 95·7%, 94·6% and 92·3%, respectively. The difference between the test and control group was statistically significant (P = 0·0027). The gold crowns showed a better marginal integrity with less marginal discoloration than the ceramic crowns. The most common failure in the ceramic crown group was fracture of the crown. The 60-month results of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial suggest that the use of these shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns in posterior tooth restorations cannot be recommended.

  18. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  19. A One Health Framework for the Evaluation of Rabies Control Programmes: A Case Study from Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Häsler, Barbara; Hiby, Elly; Gilbert, Will; Obeyesekere, Nalinika; Bennani, Houda; Rushton, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its application to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine approaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary approach for effective and efficient management. Methodology/Principal Findings A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is applied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 (“baseline scenario”) and the new comprehensive intervention measures (“intervention”) for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method approach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation) and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate. Conclusions The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders and allow

  20. Rapid mapping of schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases in the context of integrated control programmes in Africa

    PubMed Central

    BROOKER, S.; KABATEREINE, N. B.; GYAPONG, J. O.; STOTHARD, J. R.; UTZINGER, J.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY There is growing interest and commitment to the control of schistosomiasis and other so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Resources for control are inevitably limited, necessitating assessment methods that can rapidly and accurately identify and map high-risk communities so that interventions can be targeted in a spatially-explicit and cost-effective manner. Here, we review progress made with (i) mapping schistosomiasis across Africa using available epidemiological data and more recently, climate-based risk prediction; (ii) the development and use of morbidity questionnaires for rapid identification of high-risk communities of urinary schistosomiasis; and (iii) innovative sampling-based approaches for intestinal schistosomiasis, using the lot quality assurance sampling technique. Experiences are also presented for the rapid mapping of other NTDs, including onchocerciasis, loiasis and lymphatic filariasis. Future directions for an integrated rapid mapping approach targeting multiple NTDs simultaneously are outlined, including potential challenges in developing an integrated survey tool. The lessons from the mapping of human helminth infections may also be relevant for the rapid mapping of malaria as its control efforts are intensified. PMID:19450373

  1. Effects of an exercise programme on self-esteem, self-concept and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Aida M; De Paz, José A; Márquez, Sara

    2012-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of an exercise trial on self-esteem, self-concept and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia and to evaluate whether improvements in psychological distress were related to changes in physical functioning. Twenty-eight women with a primary diagnosis of fibromyalgia were randomized to a usual care control group or to a 12-week supervised training programme consisting of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic, strengthening and flexibility exercises. Outcomes were physical functioning (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), lower-body strength and flexibility) and psychological functioning (SF-36, Rosenberg self-esteem scale and Erdmann self-concept scale). Outcomes were measured at study entry and at the end of the intervention. Compared to the control group, statistically significant improvements in self-esteem, self-concept, FIQ, physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, vitality, role emotional, social functioning, mental health, isometric strength, muscular endurance and flexibility were evident in the exercise group at the end of treatment. Self-esteem and self-concept scores were correlated positively with role emotional, mental health and the mental component summary of SF-36 and were negatively correlated to FIQ scores. No significant correlation existed between self-esteem or self-concept and isometric strength, muscular endurance or flexibility. Our results highlight the need for a broader array of physical and mental outcomes and the importance of examining patient's perceptions in future research therapies. PMID:21442171

  2. Effects of an exercise programme on self-esteem, self-concept and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Aida M; De Paz, José A; Márquez, Sara

    2012-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of an exercise trial on self-esteem, self-concept and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia and to evaluate whether improvements in psychological distress were related to changes in physical functioning. Twenty-eight women with a primary diagnosis of fibromyalgia were randomized to a usual care control group or to a 12-week supervised training programme consisting of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic, strengthening and flexibility exercises. Outcomes were physical functioning (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), lower-body strength and flexibility) and psychological functioning (SF-36, Rosenberg self-esteem scale and Erdmann self-concept scale). Outcomes were measured at study entry and at the end of the intervention. Compared to the control group, statistically significant improvements in self-esteem, self-concept, FIQ, physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, vitality, role emotional, social functioning, mental health, isometric strength, muscular endurance and flexibility were evident in the exercise group at the end of treatment. Self-esteem and self-concept scores were correlated positively with role emotional, mental health and the mental component summary of SF-36 and were negatively correlated to FIQ scores. No significant correlation existed between self-esteem or self-concept and isometric strength, muscular endurance or flexibility. Our results highlight the need for a broader array of physical and mental outcomes and the importance of examining patient's perceptions in future research therapies.

  3. Evaluating the Implementation of a School-Based Emotional Well-Being Programme: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Zippy's Friends for Children in Disadvantaged Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Aleisha M.; Bunting, Brendan; Barry, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are recognized as one of the most important settings for promoting social and emotional well-being among children and adolescents. This clustered randomized controlled trial evaluated Zippy's Friends, an international school-based emotional well-being programme, with 766 children from designated disadvantaged schools. The purpose of…

  4. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  5. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  6. A controlled clinical pilot trial to study the effectiveness of ice as a supplement to the exercise programme for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Manias, P; Stasinopoulos, D

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of ice as a supplement to an exercise programme has been recommended for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET). No studies have examined its effectiveness. Objectives To investigate whether an exercise programme supplemented with ice is more successful than the exercise programme alone in treating patients with LET. Methods Patients with unilateral LET for at least four weeks were included in this pilot study. They were sequentially allocated to receive five times a week for four weeks either an exercise programme with ice or the exercise programme alone. The exercise programme consisted of slow progressive eccentric exercises of wrist extensors and static stretching of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. In the exercise programme/ice group, the ice was applied after the exercise programme for 10 minutes in the form of an ice bag to the facet of the lateral epicondyle. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of treatment, and three months after the end of treatment. Outcome measures used were the pain visual analogue scale and the dropout rate. Results Forty patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment there was a decline in visual analogue scale of about 7 units in both groups compared with baseline (p<0.0005, paired t test). There were no significant differences in the magnitude of reduction between the groups at the end of treatment and at the three month follow up (p<0.0005, independent t test). There were no dropouts. Conclusions An exercise programme consisting of eccentric and static stretching exercises had reduced the pain in patients with LET at the end of the treatment and at the follow up whether or not ice was included. Further research to establish the relative, absolute, and cost effectiveness as well as the mechanism of action of the exercise programme is needed. PMID:16371498

  7. AIDS and public health.

    PubMed

    Moskop, J C

    1988-01-01

    After briefly stating the significance of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for public health, this paper considers programs or proposals to control the spread of AIDS in the following eight general areas: (a) education; (b) distribution of sterile needles; (c) screening and treatment of blood, blood products, and other tissues; (d) voluntary and mandatory screening of persons for evidence of infection; (e) reporting; (f) contact tracing; (g) isolation and other restrictions on freedom of movement or association; and (h) physical marking of persons with AIDS. Significant moral issues within each of these areas are discussed, and the overall justifiability of various proposals is examined.

  8. The Role of Personalised Choice in Decision Support: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Decision Aid for Prostate Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Salkeld, Glenn; Cunich, Michelle; Dowie, Jack; Howard, Kirsten; Patel, Manish I.; Mann, Graham; Lipworth, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Importance Decision support tools can assist people to apply population-based evidence on benefits and harms to individual health decisions. A key question is whether “personalising” choice within decisions aids leads to better decision quality. Objective To assess the effect of personalising the content of a decision aid for prostate cancer screening using the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Australia. Participants 1,970 men aged 40–69 years were approached to participate in the trial. Intervention 1,447 men were randomly allocated to either a standard decision aid with a fixed set of five attributes or a personalised decision aid with choice over the inclusion of up to 10 attributes. Outcome Measures To determine whether there was a difference between the two groups in terms of: 1) the emergent opinion (generated by the decision aid) to have a PSA test or not; 2) self-rated decision quality after completing the online decision aid; 3) their intention to undergo screening in the next 12 months. We also wanted to determine whether men in the personalised choice group made use of the extra decision attributes. Results 5% of men in the fixed attribute group scored ‘Have a PSA test’ as the opinion generated by the aid, as compared to 62% of men in the personalised choice group (χ2 = 569.38, 2df, p< 0001). Those men who used the personalised decision aid had slightly higher decision quality (t = 2.157, df = 1444, p = 0.031). The men in the personalised choice group made extensive use of the additional decision attributes. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of their stated intention to undergo screening in the next 12 months. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that personalised decision support systems could be an important development in shared decision-making and patient-centered care. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN

  9. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA) with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Discussion Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149 PMID:22216905

  10. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America.Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme.The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010.

  11. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  12. Evaluation of a Programmable Voltage-Controlled MEMS Oscillator, Type SiT3701, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductor chips based on MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, such as sensors, transducers, and actuators, are becoming widely used in today s electronics due to their high performance, low power consumption, tolerance to shock and vibration, and immunity to electro-static discharge. In addition, the MEMS fabrication process allows for the miniaturization of individual chips as well as the integration of various electronic circuits into one module, such as system-on-a-chip. These measures would simplify overall system design, reduce parts count and interface, improve reliability, and reduce cost; and they would meet requirements of systems destined for use in space exploration missions. In this work, the performance of a recently-developed MEMS voltage-controlled oscillator was evaluated under a wide temperature range. Operation of this new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) device was also assessed under thermal cycling to address some operational conditions of the space environment

  13. [Evaluation in school anti-tobacco programmes].

    PubMed

    Szymborski, J; Berkowska, M; Sito, A; Malkowska, A

    2000-01-01

    The National Research Institute of Mother and Child (NRIMC) school anti-tobacco programmes are presented. They are discussed with reference to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines and other effective school programmes to prevent tobacco use among children and young people. The general objectives of the programmes at different educational levels and the elaborated strategic recommendations are presented. The own conceptualised evaluation model of school anti-tobacco programmes is analysed, including process and outcome evaluation. The presented model clarifies concepts and procedures of planning the design and evaluation of the programme in its different stages. In our opinion, the NRIMC evaluation model can be applied in other heath promotion programmes.

  14. Implementation of PFC (Predictive Functional Control) in a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) for a HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutz, M.; Richalet, J.; Mocha, K.; Haber, R.

    2014-12-01

    HVAC systems of industrial buildings consume a lot of energy. Therefore it is important to know the performance of these systems and strategies to optimize the hardware and the control. Tackling the temperature control of the HVAC system promises quick savings by tuning the control within specified tolerance limits, which mostly can be done by low investment. This paper mainly deals with the implementation strategy of a new controller in a PLC using the predictive functional control for temperature control. The different stages of the implementation from the simulation over the SCL code till to the real-time operation are presented. A bumpless switch between the PI(D) and the PFC control was realized, as well.

  15. Effects of strengthening and stretching exercise programmes on kinematics and kinetics of running in older adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Reginaldo K; Stefanyshyn, Darren J; Stirling, Lisa; Ferber, Reed

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strengthening and stretching exercises on running kinematics and kinetics in older runners. One hundred and five runners (55-75 years) were randomly assigned to either a strengthening (n = 36), flexibility (n = 34) or control (n = 35) group. Running kinematics and kinetics were obtained using an eight-camera system and an instrumented treadmill before and after the eight-week exercise protocol. Measures of strength and flexibility were also obtained using a dynamometer and inclinometer/goniometer. A time effect was observed for the excursion angles of the ankle sagittal (P = 0.004, d = 0.17) and thorax/pelvis transverse (P < 0.001, d = 0.20) plane. Similarly, a time effect was observed for knee transverse plane impulse (P = 0.013, d = 0.26) and ground reaction force propulsion (P = 0.042, d = -0.15). A time effect for hip adduction (P = 0.006, d = 0.69), ankle dorsiflexion (P = 0.002, d = 0.47) and hip internal rotation (P = 0.048, d = 0.30) flexibility, and hip extensor (P = 0.001, d = -0.48) and ankle plantar flexor (P = 0.01, d = 0.39) strength were also observed. However, these changes were irrespective of exercise group. The results of the present study indicate that an eight-week stretching or strengthening protocol, compared to controls, was not effective in altering age-related running biomechanics despite changes in ankle and trunk kinematics, knee kinetics and ground reaction forces along with alterations in muscle strength and flexibility were observed over time. PMID:26805699

  16. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  17. Considerations in developing an integrated pest management programme for control of sea lice on farmed salmon in Pacific Canada.

    PubMed

    Brooks, K M

    2009-01-01

    In the development of integrated pest management (IPM) plans for the control of sea lice there are some components that are common to many areas. However, effective plans must be tailored to regionally varying environmental and biological factors affecting the severity of sea lice infections. This paper describes factors that would be involved in the development of an IPM plan for sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity and currents affect the production, dispersion and competence of larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), as they develop to the infective copepodid stage. This information can be coupled with oceanographic conditions in the Broughton Archipelago and emerging computer models to define zones of infection where infections of new hosts are most likely. Salinity and temperature depend, in part, on river discharge in estuarine systems. River discharge depends on precipitation, snow pack and ambient temperatures, which can be monitored to help forecast the intensity of sea lice infections associated with both farmed and wild hosts. One of the goals of IPM planning is to reduce reliance on pesticides to avoid development of resistance in targeted parasites and to minimize environmental residues. Recommendations for developing an IPM plan specific to the Broughton Archipelago are provided along with a discussion of the additional information needed to refine IPM plans in this and other areas.

  18. A Pilot Study on the Development of Remote Quality Control of Digital Mammography Systems in the NHS Breast Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Looney, P; Halling-Brown, M D; Oduko, J M; Young, K C

    2015-10-01

    In the UK, physicists and radiographers perform routine quality control (QC) of digital mammography equipment at daily, weekly and monthly intervals. The tests performed and tolerances are specified by standard protocols. The manual nature of many of the tests introduces variability due to the positioning of regions of interest (ROIs) and can be time consuming. The tools on workstations provided by manufacturers limit the range of analysis that radiographers can perform and do not allow for a standard set of tools and analysis because they are specific to a given manufacturer. Automated software provides a means of reducing the variability in the analysis and also provides the possibility of additional, more complex analysis than is currently performed on the daily, weekly and monthly checks by radiographers. To this end, a set of tools has been developed to analyse the routine images taken by radiographers. As well as automatically reproducing the usual measurements by radiographers more complex analysis is provided. A QC image collection system has been developed which automatically routes QC data from a clinical site to a centralised server for analysis. A Web-based interface has been created that allows the users to view the performance of the mammographic equipment. The pilot system obtained over 3000 QC images from seven X-ray units at a single screening centre over 2 years. The results show that these tools and methods of analysis can highlight changes in a detector over time that may otherwise go unnoticed with the conventional analysis.

  19. Perceptions, health care seeking behaviour and implementation of a tuberculosis control programme in Lambaréné, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, A. L.; Janssen, S.; Huson, M. A. M.; Bikene, G.; Bélard, S.; Gerrets, R. P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Setting: Lambaréné, Gabon. Objectives: To describe patient perceptions of tuberculosis (TB) and to determine factors that influence health care seeking behaviour to gain insight into the management of multidrug-resistant TB. Design: Participant observation, in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 TB patients, 36 relatives, 11 health care providers and 18 traditional/spiritual healers. Recruitment of patients was linked to the PanEpi study and took place at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital, the General Hospital and the TB-HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) clinic. Results: Patients generally described TB as a natural and/or magical disease. The majority of the patients combined treatment at the hospital with (herbal) self-treatment and traditional/spiritual healing. Despite the free availability of anti-tuberculosis treatment in principle, patient adherence was problematic, hindering effective TB control. Most patients delayed or defaulted from treatment due to financial constraints, stigmatisation, ignorance about treatment, change of health care service or use of non-prescribed antibiotics. The situation was occasionally complicated by drug stockouts. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to bridge the gap between patients and the hospital by avoiding drug shortages, intensifying culturally sensitive TB health education, embedding TB care into the cultural context and enhancing cooperation between hospitals, patients, traditional healers and communities. PMID:26393056

  20. Programs To Aid FORTRAN Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragosta, Arthur E.

    1987-01-01

    Program-development time decreased while program quality increased. FORTRAN Programming Tools are series of programming tools used to support development and maintenance of FORTRAN 77 source codes. Included are debugging aid, central-processing-unit time-monitoring program, source-code maintenance aids, print utilities, and library of useful, well-documented programs. Tools assist in reducing development time and encouraging high-quality programming. Although intended primarily for FORTRAN programmers, some tools used on data files and other programming languages. Written in FORTRAN 77.